OE?A?INUeEEE IAOEIAEE A?A??I?*IEE OeAIO?

IIAEOAAA

Ieueaa Ieaenaiae??aia

OAeE 614.2:911.3:613

A?A??I?*IA IAA?OIOOAAIIss CAOIAe?A

UIAeI CIEAEAIIss NIA?OIINO? IANAEAIIss

A AEIEIAI-NIOe?AEUeIEO OIIAAO AeIIAANO

14.02.01 – a?a??ia

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.
I. Ai?ueeiai I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia(y Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee : aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaa?eia Aieiaeeie?
?aaiiae/, Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC Oe?a?ie,
caa. eaoaae?ith.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaeaoi?eia Aiae??e Aiae??eiae/, AeI
IAe? iaaeeei-aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai Aeiiaano oa aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?,
i. Aeiiaoeuee IIC Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?, caa. a?aeae?eii.

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Iaai?ia Aioii?ia Iaenei?aia,
Oe?a?inueeee ?inoeooo a?iiaaenueeiai caei?ia’y IIC Oe?a?ie, cano.
aee?aeoi?a, caa. eaai?aoi???th.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Oa?e?anueeee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?a a?a??ie oa aeieia?? ?2, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 25 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 1000 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.604.01 Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiaiai a?a??i?/iiai oeaio?o (253660, i. Ee?a-94, aoe. Iiioae?aiei,
50)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiaiai a?a??i?/iiai oeaio?o (i. Ee?a, aoe. Iiioae?aiei, 50)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 19 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Naeaciueia A.TH.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Aiane?aeie ia?aoe?iiaeueiiai ? iaeiio?ieueiaaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie (a oiio /ene? a
Aeiiaan?) ana /?oe?oa aeiaeueiaothoueny iciaee aeieia?/ii? eaoano?ioe.
Oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie iia??oaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio aenooiathoue o?i?/ia,
o?ce/ia oa ?aae?iaeoeaia caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y, iiaa?oiaaeo
oa i?aecaiieo aiae, iiaeeo?eaoe?y a?oioo, aiane?aeie a??nueeeo ?ic?iaie
? iaaei?aaaeaieo iae?i?aoeaieo ?ia?o, caa?oaeiaiiy ??oio?a i?ia?aeueieie
aeia?eaaie oa ianoeoeeaeaie oiui. Oe? /eiieee, o naith /a?ao,
aeoea?cothoue ?icaeoie iani?eyoeeaeo i?e?iaeieo i?ioean?a (cnoae,
i?aeoiieaiiy, caniethaai?noue ??oio?a, oiui), oo?oaeiththoue
aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo eiiiiiaio?a ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a a i?iieneiaino?
oa n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, cia/ii cieaeothoue ?o iiaeeeaino? ye
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a. Ana oea a?aeaeaa?oueny ia nioe?aeueieo oa
aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioeanao, o oiio /ene? e ia noai? caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy
(I.I. Caoa?/aiei, A.E. Aii/a?oe, I.O. Eioaeaa, 1993).

Ciiith aeieia?/ii? e?ece iiaeia aaaaeaoe oa?eoi??th Aeiiaano.
Aeiaaio?eaaea ?ioaineaia ii?aeiaiiy aoaeaaeiaoaaiiy c ?iaioith
i?aei?e?inoa iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiiieaeno, iaooio?i??, iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy –
ana oea i?ecaaei aei iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiiai a Oe?a?i? caa?oaeiaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua oa iaoai?/iiai e o?i?/iiai ii?ooaiiy a?oioo.
Iniaeeai aino?i noi?oue i?iaeaia ao?aoe i?iaeoeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caiaeue ca ?aooiie ?icoe?aiiy i?iieneiaeo cii.
Cia/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y ianaeaieo ioieo?a, ye? a a?eueoino? ? i?iieneiaeie
oeaio?aie, i?eaaea aei ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy n?eueainioa?aeue o
i?iieneiaeo ciiao. Oe? caie? a?aecia/athoueny aenieei ??aiai
aeaa?aaeaoe?? (o?i?/ia caa?oaeiaiiy, ao?aoa aoiono, oiui) (A.
Aa?aiianueeee, E. Ie?iaeaiei, A. Oaa/aiei, 1995).

Iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeaaaeeea?oee aeaiaio
aeia?iaooo ethaeeie, a caaeiaieaiith iio?aae a /enoiio iia?o??, aiae?,
oi?ioeo nai?oa?ieo oiiaao aeeooy i?eaea?oueny oaea ae aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy,
ye caaeiaieaiith an?o iniiaieo iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo iio?aa
ianaeaiiy. Oiio, i?e aea/aii? ca’yce?a i?ae noaiii iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ? caei?ia’yi ianaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeii? caaa?ooaaoeny
ia o?eueee iaoeiaeie, aea ? i?aeoe/ieie aeniiaeaie ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie
(A.TH. Aacoaeay, 1989; A.A. ?aae/, 1990; Ae.Ae. Ca?aeii, 1991; O.O.
Aeaooia, E.A. ss?oeeei, 1993; M. Saxema, I. Siddigui, 1989).

No/ani? caeiiii??iino? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ?o a?aei?iiino?
a?ae aiaeia?a aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i a?aeia?aaeathoue eiiieaen
aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ? iaaee/ieo i?iaeai, i?eoaiaiieo
Oe?a?i? ia o?eueee nueiaiaei?, a i?ioyaii aeinoaoiuei aeiaaiai ia??iaeo.
Na?oiaa iaoea aaea ae?eoea aei iaeiinoaeii? aeoiee a?aeiinii oiai, ui
na?aaeiy i/?eoaaia o?eaae?noue aeeooy eiiieaenii ? aeinoaoiuei oi/ii
oa?aeoa?eco? oiiae ? ??aaiue aeeooy a ?aa?ii? (TH.I. Eiia?ia, 1980; A.A.
Ca?oaei, 1986; E.A. Oea/aiei, 1993; A.E. *aaai 1993).

Iei? ca ?aooiie i?e?iaeii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy oaeaeeeie oaiiaie
nei?i/o?oueny na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue aeeooy a Oe?a?i? e iniaeeai
ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaeeaa? a oiiaao Aeiiaano. I?aeaeuaia nia?oi?noue
aeoeaii ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia na?aaei?, iieiaea ? aeeoy/a ianaeaiiy. A
ie?aieo a?eiaeo a?oiao a aeaye? ia??iaee /ano nia?oi?noue i?eeia? ?ene
ai?aeai??, ia?aaeuoth/e e?eoa??e aeie?aiiy (50 aeiaaee?a ia 1000
ianaeaiiy) ? aeinyaath/e 80-100 aeiaaee?a ia 1000 ianaeaiiy. ssaeua
iaaei??ii? nia?oiino? oa?aeoa?ia aeey ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi, iaeiae,
iaea?eueo neeueii aiii aeyaey?oueny na?aae ianaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiiai
a?eo. Iiae?aiee oa?aeoa? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ii?ooo? i?ioean
ii?iaeueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ? iia?iaeo? ?nioaaiith iiioeyoe??. A oie aea
/an eeth/ia? caeiiii??iino? ? aeaoa?i?iaioe, ui aecia/eee ? noi?ioaaee
iaaei??io nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy, ia a?aeii?, ui ?iaeoue iaiiaeeeaei
i?eeiyooy oa?i?iiaeo ? no?aoaa?/ieo caoiae?a, caeaoieo onoiooe yaeua
iaaei??ii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy, cieceoe /anoioo ia?aae/anii? nia?oiino?
? a?aeiiaeoe ii?iaeueiee ??aaiue a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy (A.E. Aaa?eia,
I.I. A?aaiye, 1998).

Oiio, ana a?eueo aeooaeueiei noa? ieoaiiy i?i aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy oa ?? aeaoa?i?iaio, uiaei ?ic?iaee caoiae?a
ii?iae?caoe?? ?? ??aiy, aeeiai?ee ? no?oeoo?e, a oaeiae i?e?iaeiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy oa i?e?inoo iiioeyoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.
Ai?ueeiai ia eaoaae?? nioe?aeueii? iaaeeoeeie ? i?aai?caoe?? ioi?iie
caei?ia’y a ?aieao IAe? «Aea/aiiy no/anieo caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy
iieieia?/ii? caoai?thaaiino? ianaeaiiy a nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ieo oiiaao
Aeiiaano» (? Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0197V002115, oa?i?ie aeeiiaiiy 1997–1999
?iee).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? anoaiiaeaiiy
no/anieo caeiiii??iinoae, aeaoa?i?iaio, eeth/iaeo oaeoi??a ?eceeo ?
?ic?iaea caoiae?a cieaeaiiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaeeaa? a oiiaao
Aeiiaano.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe caeiiii??iino? /anoioe, no?oeoo?e, o?iii — ? a?eiai-noaoaai?
aeeiai?ee nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy.

2. Aea/eoe caeaaei?noue nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae
oa?eoi??aeueii-iinaethaaeueieo, (aaee/eia i?noa, i?noea i?iaeeaaiiy,
i?e?iaeii-aeieia?/ia na?aaeiaeua), nioe?aeueieo ? aeiiii?/ieo (ye?noue
aeeooy) oaeoi??a.

3. Aea/eoe caeaaei?noue nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae oaoiiaaiiino?
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, ??aiy caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y, ieoii? aiaee ?
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy enaiia?ioeeaie ??ciiiai?oiiai oa?aeoa?o.

4. Anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae ??aiy caa?oaeiaiiy
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua ?aae?iioee?aeaie.

5. Anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae aeaeo ? yeino?
iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

6. Cae?enieoe i?iaiic aeeiai?ee ? ??aiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a oiiaao
Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio.

7. Iaa?oiooaaoe ? noi?ioethaaoe i?eioeeie ? caoiaee cieaeaiiy nia?oiino?
ianaeaiiy a no/anieo nioe?aeueieo ? aeieia?/ieo oiiaao Aeiiaano.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe:

– anoaiiaeai? no/ani? caeiiii??iino? nia?oiino?, yaeua e ??aaiue
iaaei??ii? nia?oiino? oa ia?aae/anii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy;

– aia?oa aeyaeai? eeth/ia? oaeoi?e ?eceeo, ui oi?iothoue iaaei??io oa
ia?aae/anio nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy a oiiaao Aeiiaano, ?ice?eoee iaoai?ci
ciaioaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo iiioeyoe?e;

– anoaiiaeaii a?eia? ia??iaee aenieiai ?eceeo nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy;

– aia?oa io?eiai? i?iaiinoe/i? iieacieee nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy Aeiiaano
ia iaeaooi? aeanyoee?ooy;

– ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie cieaeaiiy nia?oiino? oa iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaaei??ii?
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy, ii?iae?caoe?? ? i?aeo?eiaiiy ia aoaeoeaiiio ??ai?
i?e?iaeiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy;

– iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? i?eioeeie aoi?eiii? ? o?aoeiii? i?io?eaeoeee
oai?ia, ui ? iniiaieie i?e/eiaie ia?aae/anii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? e?eoa???, iaoiaee
ioe?iee ? i?iaiico nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi caeiiii??iinoae
aieeao nioe?aeueieo ? aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia oi?ioaaiiy ??aiy ?
no?oeoo?e nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Iaa?oioiaaia nenoaia caoiae?a cieaeaiiy
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ia iniia? i?eioeei?a aoi?eiii? ? o?aoeiii?
i?io?eaeoeee. ?ic?iaeaia iaoeiaa eiioeaioe?y onoiaiiy yaeu iaaei??ii?
nia?oiino?, cieaeaiiy /anoioe ia?aae/anii? nia?oiino? ? ii?iae?caoe??
a?aeoai?aiiy iiioeyoe?? a oiiaao Aeiiaano.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? i?e neeaaeaii?
«Eiiieaeniiai ieaio i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo,
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo ? nai?oa?ii-i?ioeai?aeai?/ieo caoiae?a
oi?aae?iiy ioi?iiith caei?ia’y Aeiiaoeueeiai iaeaniiai aeeiiaa/iai
eii?oaoo ia 1998-2000 ?iee» a ?aieao I?ia?aie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? ia 1998-2000 ?iee (caoaa?aeaeaia nan??th
Aeiiaoeueei? iaeanii? ?aaee ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a, iinoaiiaa ?36 a?ae
21.11.1997 ?.), i?aeaioiaoe? iaeaco ? 92 a?ae 6.05.1996 ?. Aeiiaoeueeiai
iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy ioi?iie caei?ia’y «I?i aaeineiiaeaiiy ?iaioe c
oi?ioaaiiy caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy iaoe??io?a a
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaaeao iaeano?».

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a ianooiieo iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo
«E?eoa???, iieacieee ? ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a ia?aeiii?,
aoi?eiii? ? o?aoeiii? i?io?eaeoeee oai?ia na?aae ianaeaiiy» (1997),
«Iaaee/ia ioe?iea ? ei?aeoe?y niiniao aeeooy ethaeeie (oi?ioaaiiy CNAE)»
(1997).

Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caeeaae?a Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? o aeaeyae?
iaia’yceiaiai a?aeiiaiiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo a ?aeiiaaeanoeaioiee ia??iae
(e?aoi?noue iiaoi?ieo caoai?thaaiue cieceeany ia 24,3%); a/aniiai
iaia’yceiaiai ui??/iiai naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiai ? i?ioe?aoeeaeeaiiai
e?eoaaiiy o?ii?/ieo oai?eo (i?ia?anoaaiiy o?ii?/ieo caoai?thaaiue
cieceeiny ia 87,5–98,6% aeiaaee?a); iaa/aiiy oai?eo naiieoi?thaaiith
a?ia?oii?/ieo e?ec?a (/anoioa oyaeeeo ?inoeueo?a cieceeany ia 50,1% a
?aioiaa nia?oi?noue ia 14,8%).

Aeaniee aianie iiooeoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aeeiiaia a?a??i?/ia ioe?iea yeino?
ia’?eo?a iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, aeyaeai? iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy ??aiy, aeeiai?ee ? no?oeoo?e nia?oiino?
ianaeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaith caa?oaeiaiiy ia’?eo?a i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a, cae?eniaiee
iiioeyoe?eiee aeeiai?/iee i?iaiic ??aiy oa aeeiai?ee nia?oiino?
ianaeaiiy Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?, ?ic?iaeai? caoiaee uiaei cieaeaiiy
ia?aae/anii? nia?oiino?. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoaii iniaeno?
?aea? ? i?aeoe/i? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? aeai?,
io?eiai? a oiae? aeeiiaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe, aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?ioan?eii?
iaoieia?? ? ?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie» (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1994 ?.),
«Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ee?i?/ii?, aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? i?io?eaeoe/ii?
iaaeeoeeie» (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1995 ?.), «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ioi?iie
caei?ia’y ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo ? i?aee?oe?a» (i. Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.).

I?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? ia eaoaae?aeuei?e ia?aae? eaoaae?e
nioe?aeueii? iaaeeoeeie oa IIC Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I. Ai?ueeiai (1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a 12
ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao, a oiio /ene? a 4 aeo?iaeueieo noaoooyo ? a 6
noaoooyo a ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee ia 174
noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
aiae?oe/iiai iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, ?icae?eo iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue, 9
?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/ii? /anoeie oa aeniiae?a.
?ethno?aoe?e – 16 ? 61 oaaeeoey. A?ae?ia?ao?y aeeth/a? 125 a?o/eciyieo ?
?iicaiieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Caniae ? ianya aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy aea/aeany ca
noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie oa
iaoa??aeai noaeiai-iaaee/ieo onoaiia Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?. Iniiaith
a?aeiiinoae i?i nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy aoee «E?ea?nueea na?aeioeoai i?i
nia?oue» (iae?eiaa oi?ia ?106/i), «Oaeueaeoa?nea aeia?aeea i?i nia?oue»
(iae?eiaa oi?ia ?106-1/i), «Na?aeioeoai, i?i ia?eiaoaeueio nia?oue»
(iae?eiaa oi?ia ?106-2/i), a oaeiae uii?ny/i? ? ??/i? ca?oe Aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a noaoenoeee Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? (ca?oi? oi?ie 3, 4a, 4a, 4a, 5,
5a).

Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aiaiianoe/i? iaoiaee, caniae aenia?oieo ioe?iie,
iai?aaeaieo ?ioa?a’th ?iaee/?a, aiae?c eiai?o, ai?aeai?ieia?/i? caniae
aea/aiiy i?e/ei nia?o? ? oaeoi??a, ui ia ia? aieeaathoue (?ecee nia?o?
ca oaeoi?aie). Aeey aea/aiiy ciiaeueieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy oa iaoai?ci?a, ui ?? coiiaeththoue oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaany iaoo?iee ii??aiyeueiee aenia?eiaio. Nia?oi?noue
ianaeaiiy aea/aeanue o 14 a?eiaeo a?oiao ianaeaiiy: 10-14, 15-19, 20-24,
25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75
? a?eueoa ?ie?a. Anueiai aoei aea/aii a?ey 58000 aeiaaee?a nia?o? (30000
i?nueeiai ? 28000 n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy). Eiaeiee aeiaaeie aiae?coaaany
ca ianooiieie ia?aiao?aie: noaoue, a?e, i?ioan?y, nioe?aeueia a?oia,
i?noea i?iaeeaaiiy, i?ioan?eiee noaoon, i?e/eia nia?o?. Aeeaiei
i?iaiae?ciaaii a?ey 4000 aeiaaee?a nia?o? c aea/aiiyi nioe?aeueiiai ?
i?ioan?eiiai noaoono, ?noi??? oai?iae, ci?noo iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy,
caaacia/aiiy e?ea?nueeeie caniaaie oa noaio aeieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua ca
i?noeai iino?eiiai i?iaeeaaiiy. Caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
aecia/aeiny a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o??, ieoi?e aiae?, oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoao.
Aeai? aoee io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue ? eaai?aoi?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeae?e?a nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo noaioe?e, a oaeiae
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueii? neoaeae Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?. Anueiai
i?iaiae?ciaaii a?ey 10000 eaai?aoi?ieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
iia?o?y, a?ey 2000 i?ia ieoii? aiaee, 500 aiae?c?a i?iaeoeo?a
oa?/oaaiiy.

?aae?aoe?eia ianoaiiaea a Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? ioe?ithaaeany ca
iaeiie/aiiyi ?aae?iioee?ae?a (oeac?th-137, no?iioe?th-90) a ia’?eoao
aeieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua (a?oio, aiaea, aeiii? a?aeeeaaee, aoiinoa?i?
iiaaee, iia?o?y) ? a oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoao, aeaioiaeaieo c i?noeaai?
ne?iaeie (iiei/i?, i’yni?, oe?aiaoei/i?, ea?oiiey, iai/?). Ai?no
?aae?iioee?ae?a aecia/aany aaianiaeo?iiao?e/iei ? ?aae?io?i?/iei
iaoiaeaie. Aeey aiae?co a?aeeny aeai? a?aeae?eo ?aae?aoe?eii? a?a??ie
Aeiiaoeueei? iaeNAN (ca ia??iae c 1986 aei 1995 ?ieo) ? ca?oe
A?oai?anueei? aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueii? aeniaaeeoe?? ia’?aeiaiiy
«Aeiiaanaaieia?y» i?i i?iaaaeai? a?ae?iaaio?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a
1988-1990 ?ieao «Eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?aa?iiaeueieo oaoiiaaiieo
iiaeeo?eaoe?e a?ae?iaaio?i?/ieo oiia Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?». Ianya
ioiieaiiy neeaa 19 i?no ? 14 n?euenueeeo ?aeii?a.

An? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeeyaaee noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? ca
caaaeueiiaeciaieie iaoiaeaie. I?e oeueiio aeai? nia?oiino? ia?iaeyeeny c
io?eiaiiyi a?aeiinieo ? na?aaei?o aaee/ei c ianooiiith ioe?ieith
a??ia?aeiino? iieaciee?a /a?ac e?eoa??e a??ia?aeiino? Nouethaeaioa (t).
E??i oeueiai oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoiaee aiaaoioaeoi?iiai
ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co ? iaoaiaoe/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a oiiaao Aeiiaano.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy a oiiaao
Aeiiaano ia? noeeuei?noue a inoaii? 30 ?ie?a aei oaeaeeiai c?inoaiiy.
Iniaeeai aeoeaia ?? c?inoaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney 1990 ?ieo, eiee ca
5 ?ie?a aiia ca?eueoeeany a 1,5 ?ace ? neeaea 16,5 aeiaaee?a ia 1000
ianaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio a na?aaeei? 60-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy, nia?oi?noue
aoea iaei??th c iaea?eueo iecueeeo o na?o? (6,0-7,0 aeiaaee?a ia 1000
/ieia?e). Nia?oi?noue i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy i?ioyaii on?o ?ie?a aoea
ieae/ith, i?ae n?euenueeiai, iaeiae a inoaii? ?iee oey ??cieoey ia?
oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy.

Nia?oi?noue /ieia?/iai ianaeaiiy caaaeaee aeua, i?ae ae?ii/iai a
na?aaeiueiio ia 13-14%. Noaa?eueii aeoaea iecuee? iieacieee nia?oiino?
aae aei 50–55 ?ie?a oa?aeoa?i? aeey ae?ii/iai ? aei 30–34 ?ie?a aeey
/ieia?/iai ianaeaiiy. E?eoe/ieie aeey aeeooy a?eiaeie ia??iaeaie ?
15–19, 40–44, 55–59 ? 65 – 69 ?ie?a. ssaeua iaaei??ii? nia?oiino?
ianaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ia aeey /ieia?e?a i?ney 55 ?ie?a, a aeey ae?iie i?ney
65 ?ie?a.

Ca ?aiaiaith iine?aeiai?noth i?e/ei, no?oeoo?a nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy
Aeiiaano iiaoi?th? eeane/io noaio, oa?aeoa?io aeey no/anii?
oeea?e?caoe??, eiee nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy ia 80% aecia/a?oueny o?ueiia
i?e/eiaie – oai?iaaie nenoaie e?iaiia?ao, iiaiooai?aiiyie ,o?aaiaie oa
io?o?iiyie.

Nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy a ??cieo i?iieneiai-i?nueeeo ciiao. Ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui Aeiiaoeueea iaeanoue ye aaei?i?no?aoeaia iaeeieoey ca
iane/ai?noth ae?iaie/eie ia’?eoaie oa ?o iiooaeiinoyie, a oaeiae ca
?ioaineai?noth oaoiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue iiae?ey?oueny ia aeae?eueea
i?iieneiai-i?nueeeo cii. Iaea?eueo aenie? iieacieee nia?oiino?
oa?aeoa?i? aeey ianaeaiiy Ai?e?anueei-?iae??anueei? oa
A?oai?anueei-Neia’yinueei? i?iieneiai-i?nueeeo cii (11,1±0,4 – 11,2±0,3
aeiaaee?a ia 1000 ianaeaiiy), aeae?eueea iaio? – aeey
Aeiiaoeueei-Iae??anueei? oa E?aiaoi?nueei-Einoyioei?anueei? (10,45±0,4 –
10,8±0,4 aeiaaee?a ia 1000) cii, a iaeieae/? – aeey Ia??oiieuenueei?
(9,0±0,3 aeiaaee?a ia 1000) ciie. Aaaaoi??/ia o?iiiaeeiai?ea nia?oiino?
ianaeaiiy aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny ii i?iieneiai-i?nueeei ciiai ca ??aiai ia
3 oeie: iecueeee, na?aaei?e, iaeneiaeueiee. Caaaeueiith caeiiii??i?noth
aeeiai?ee nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a on?o i?iieneiai-i?nueeeo aaeiia?aoe?yo
? ?? iinooiiaa c?inoaiiy ii/eiath/e c 70-o ?ie?a ? ??ceee i?aeeii c
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy.

Eiaeia i?iieneiai-i?nueea aaeiia?aoe?y ia? na?e oaii i?e?inoo iieaciee?a
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy: iaeieae/ee a?i o Ia??oiieuenuee?e (3,3% aeiaaee?a
ia ??e), aeae?eueea aeuee – a Aeiiaoeueei-Iae??anuee?e ?
Ai?e?anueei-?iae??anuee?e (3,5-3,7% aeiaaee?a ia ??e), a iaeaeuee o
E?aiaoi?nueei-Einoyioei?anuee?e (4,0% ? a?eueo aeiaaee?a ia ??e) ciiao.

Aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? ??aaiue ? aeeiai?ea nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ??cieo
i?iieneiai-i?nueeeo cii coiiaeththoueny ?oi?ie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
oaoiiaaiii-ae?iaie/iai, nioe?aeueiiai, aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?
a?o?oaeoo?ii-aoae?aaeueiiai ii?yaeeo. Iniaeeai ?noioii aeaoa?i?io?oueny
i?ioean nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ??aiai ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e,
u?euei?noth caaoaeiae i?nueei? oa?eoi??? (a?eueoa 50%) ? caaaeueiei
enaiia?ioe/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi iinaeainueei? oa?eoi???.

Caeaaei?noue nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai
na?aaeiaeua. Aiae?c iieacaa, ui iia?o?yia na?aaeiaeua ?iaeono??aeueii
?icaeiaieo i?no Aeiiaano caa?oaeiaia caeaa?eueoiai n??/aieie niieoeaie,
ai?aeii, oaiieii, ieenii aoaeaoeth, ooi?enoei aiaeiai, aaaaoineeaaeiaei
ieeii, ieenaie acioo oa naeioeai. Oe? niieoee /ano?oa anueiai
ciaoiaeyoueny a iia?o?? a eiioeaio?aoe?? aeu?e ca AAeE a aeae?eueea
?ac?a. Aeyaeaiee aenieee ? na?aaei?e ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie i?ae
nia?oi?noth ianaeaiiy ? iayai?noth a iia?o?? oaeeo enaiia?ioee?a ye
naaea, ai?ae, n??/ai? niieoee, naeiaoeue, ieen aoaeaoeth, ooi?enoee
aiaeaiue, oaiie ? ieen acioo.

Aenie? eiao?oe??ioe aeaoa?i?iaoe?? a oi?ioaaii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy
i?eoaiaii? n??eiaiaeith (37,1%), ooi?enoiio aiaeith (30,3%), ieeno
aoaeaoeth (28,1%), aeaiieeno n??ee (26,6%), aaaaoineeaaeiaiio ieeo
(20,3%) ? aeaui iaioa oaiieo (19,6%) ? aeaiieeno acioo (18,7%).

Ianaeaiiy, ui o?eaaeee /an i?iaeeaaei a i?noao c aenieei noia?iei
caa?oaeiaiiyi iia?o?y o?i?/ieie enaiia?ioeeaie, ia? i?aeaeuai? iieacieee
caaaeueii? nia?oiino?.

Ia?aaaaeia iayai?noue a iia?o?? i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua a eiioeaio?aoe?yo,
ui ia?aaeuothoue AAeE, aeayeeo a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo enaiia?ioee?a oi?io?
i?aeaeuaio nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy a?ae ie?aieo aeae?a caoai?thaaiue: i?e
ieen? aoaeaoeth – a?ae oai?ia e?ia? ? e?iaioai?ieo i?aai?a; i?e n??/aieo
niieoeao – a?ae oai?ia ia?aiai? nenoaie, e?ia? ? e?iaioai?ieo i?aai?a;
i?e ooi?enoiio aiaei? – a?ae oai?ia o?aaeaiiy ? i?aai?a aeeoaiiy; i?e
oaiie? – a?ae oai?ia i?aai?a e?iaiia?ao; i?e aeaiieen? acioo – a?ae
oai?ia i?aai?a aeeoaiiy ? ia?aiai? nenoaie.

Caeaaei?noue nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae ye?niiai neeaaeo ieoii? aiaee.
Aoea anoaiiaeaia i?yia na?aaeiy ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae
iieacieeaie nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ? iayai?noth a ieoi?e aiae? oaeeo
enaiia?ioee?a ye i?o?aoe (R=0,5), oei?eaee (R=0,42), ooi?, ai?ae (R=0,35
– 0,39), i?o?eoe ? naeiaoeue (R=0,3 – 0,33). Neaaeee ei?aeyoe?eiee
ca’ycie ia? i?noea i?ae ai?noii a ieoi?e aiae? noeueoao?a ? iieacieeaie
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy.

Aeao?oeeo a ieoi?e aiae? oaeeo i?e?iaeaiaio?a ye iaai?e, eaeueoe?e,
cae?ci, ooi?, i?aeue ? oeeie iia’ycai? c i?aeaeuaiith nia?oi?noth
ianaeaiiy aeneiaeaiith (na?aaeiuei? neee) i?yiith ei?aeyoe?eiith
caeaaei?noth. ?io? i?e?iaeaiaioe (aethi?i?e, iie?aaeai) iathoue neaaeee
i?yiee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie c? nia?oi?noth ianaeaiiy.

Iniaeeai aeniea ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue ? i?ae iieacieeaie nia?oiino?
ianaeaiiy a?ae oai?ia na?oey ? aeao?oeeoii a ieoi?e aiae? eaeueoe?th
(R=0,75), iaai?th (R=0,55), iie?aaeaio (R=0,58), o?iio (R=0,51) ?
iecueeith caaaeueiith ?? aei?noe?noth (R=0,65), a oaeiae i?ae
iieacieeaie nia?oiino? a?ae oai?ia noaeei ? aeao?oeeoii a ieoi?e aiae?
iie?aaeaio (R=0,65) ? o?iio (R=0,61), i?ae iieacieeaie nia?oiino? a?ae
oai?ia ie?ie ? iaaeie?eii a ieoi?e aiae? ia?aaioeth (R=0,5) ? iaai?th
(R=0,4).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaaeie?e a ieoi?e aiae? oaeeo aeaiaio?a ye caaaeueia
aei?noe?noue, eaeueoe?e, iaai?e, cae?ci ? oei?eae iao??th aenooia? ye
oaeoi? ?eceeo aeey caei?ia’y ? aeeooy ethaeeie, iia’ycaiee c iieacieeaie
nia?oiino? iae?i?eiith caeaaei?noth. I?e oeueiio ianaeaiiy, ui iino?eii
aaeeaa? ieoio aiaeo c i?aeaeuaiith caaaeueiith aei?noe?noth, ca?eueoaiei
ai?noii eaeueoe?th, iaai?th ? cae?ca ia? a?eueo iecuee? iieacieee
caaaeueii? nia?oiino? ? cia/ii cieaeai? aaee/eie nia?oiino? a?ae oai?ia
i?aai?a e?iaiia?ao.

Ianaeaiiy, ui o?eaaei aeei?enoiao? ieoio aiaeo c ??cei cieaeaiei ai?noii
(a?eueo i?ae a 6 ?ac?a a?aeiinii ii?ie) NaCl a?ae??ciy?oueny
i?aeaeuaieie iieacieeaie caaaeueii? nia?oiino?. I?e oeueiio ianaeaiiy,
ui aaeeaa? ieoio aiaeo c? cieaeaiei, ia a?eueoa i?ae a 2 ?ace a?aeiinii
ii?ie, ai?noii NaCl, ia ia? i?aeaeuaieo iieaciee?a nia?oiino?.

Ioe?iea nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a. ?icaeyaeath/e cia/aiiy i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy caa?oaeiaieo
enaiia?ioeeaie a oi?ioaaii? i?aeaeuaii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy, ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny ianaeaiiyi
i?iieneiai ?icaeiaieo i?no Aeiiaano, iaea?eueo caa?oaeiai? i?o?aoaie
(a?ae 5% aei 42% aaeiaiai ianyao), aaaeeeie iaoaeaie ? ianoeoeeaeaie
(6-7% i?iaeoeo?a). I?ae iayai?noth a i?iaeoeoao oa?/oaaiiy enaiia?ioee?a
? iieacieeaie nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ? i?yiee iiceoeaiee ei?aeyoe?eiee
ca’ycie: iiceoeaii neaaeee c aaaeeeie iaoaeaie ? i?o?aoaie, iiceoeaii
na?aaei?e c ianoeoeeaeaie. Aeaoa?i?iaoe?eia cia/ei?noue a oi?ioaaii?
iieaciee?a nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny o ianoeoeeae?a ia ??ai?
6,58%, o i?o?ao?a – 3,5%, a o aaaeeeo iaoae?a – 1,1%.

Ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaeeaa? a i?noao, aea aeei?enoiaothoueny a aaeeeiio
ianyc? i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy caa?oaeiai? i?o?aoaie ? aaaeeeie iaoaeaie,
ia? a?eueo aenie? iieacieee nia?oiino?. Eiaei? 1,4% aaeiaiai ianyao
caa?oaeiaieo i?o?aoaie ? 0,63% caa?oaeiaieo aaaeeeie iaoaeaie i?iaeoeo?a
oa?/oaaiiy caeaoi? ca?eueooaaoe nia?oi?noue ia 0,1 aeiaaee?a ia 1000
ianaeaiiy.

Ioe?iea nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy i?e?iaeiiai
?aae?aoe?eiiai oiio ? caa?oaeiaiiy yeina?aaeiaeua ?aae?iioee?aeaie. A
na?aaeei? 80-o ?ie?a a Aeiiaan? noi?ioaaeany iani?eyoeeaa ?aae?aoe?eia
ianoaiiaea i?e?iaeii-aeieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua. Oey neooaoe?y aecia/aia
iniaeeainoyie aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/iiai neeaaeo a?oio?a, niaoeeo?/i?noth
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae ne?aeiaeie oaeoi?aie aaa??? ia
*i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN. Ana oea ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeoeaiiio
iaeiie/aii? ?aae?iioee?ae?a a a?oio?, a a iiaeaeueoiio ? a i?iaeoeoao
oa?/oaaiiy, aeaioiaeaieo c i?noeaai? ne?iaeie.

?aae?aoe?eiee oaeoi? aoa noeioeyoi?ii aeoeaiiai c?inoaiiy iieieia?/ii?
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy Aeiiaano. Iniaeeai oey nia?oi?noue
?iciianthaeeeanue na?aae ianaeaiiy oeo ianaeaieo i?noeue, aea a?aeaoeany
noiaoe?y ?aae?iioee?ae?a i?e?iaeiiai ? ooo/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Aei
na?aaeeie 90-o ?ie?a ?aae?aoe?eia ianoaiiaea a Aeiiaan? cia/ii
iie?aueeany, ui aeyaeeiny a noaa?e?caoe?? ? aeayeiio niaae? /anoioe
aeieeiaiiy iieieia?/ieo oai?ia ? iieinia?oiino? na?aae ianaeaiiy.

Ioe?iea nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
oaeoi??a. Aiae?c caaaeueiiai ??aiy aeeooy, ui ioe?ith?oueny ca
iiaeooiaei i?eaooeii, iieacaa, ui i?eaooie ia ??ai? 8 ? a?eueoa oiiaieo
iaeeieoeue a oeaeaeaiue ? i?i?iaeueiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith
aaee/eiith, yea no?eio? cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy nia?oiino?, a iiaeooiaee
i?eaooie iaioee 2 oiiaieo iaeeieoeue ia oeaeaeaiue aenooia? ye e?eoe/ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia iaaea, ieae/a yei? ii/eia?oueny aeoeaia
i?aeaeuaiiy /anoioe nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy, ui iaaoaa? yeino? i?ioeano
aeie?aiiy.

Ua iaei??th i?e/eiith i?aeaeuaiiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy noaei ??cea
cieaeaiiy caaaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiyi i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy.
Iaea?eueo nooo?ai i?e oeueiio no?aaeaea? ianaeaiiy, yeiio iaiao?aeii
niiaeeaaoe ae??oe/i? i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy.

Iaae?iiy ianya?a oaeaeei? ? iaa?aeeeaaeii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae,
nei?i/aiiy caaacia/aiino? ianaeaiiy caaaeueiith ?, iniaeeai,
niaoe?ae?ciaaiith noaoe?iia?iith aeiiiiiaith noaei ua iaei??th c
aecia/aeueieo i?e/ei i?ia?aneaiiai i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueii? oa ca ie?aieie
i?e/eiaie nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a ia?o?e iieiaei? 90-o ?ie?a.

Iniaeeai neeueii aoea aeaoa?i?iiaaia iaae?iiyi ianya?a niaoe?ae?ciaaii?
aeiiiiiae nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy a?ae oai?ia i?aai?a e?iaiia?ao ? i?e
iaa?aeeeaaeieo noaiao.

Aeyaeaia caeaaei?noue i?aeaeuaii? nia?oiino? a?ae ??ceiai iaae?iiy
niiaeea/eo iiaeeeainoae ianaeaiiy uiaei i?eaeaaiiy iaiao?aeiiai
ani?oeiaioo ? e?eueeino? e?ea?nueeeo cania?a.

I?iaiic nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a oiiaao Aeiiaano. C aeiiiiiaith
iaoaiaoe/ii? aeno?aiieyoe?? aoa cae?eniaiee i?iaiic nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy
ia iaeaooi? aeanyoe??//y a i?noao ? n?euenueeeo ?aeiiao Aeiiaoeueei?
iaeano?. Aiae?c io?eiaieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui a on?o i?noao
i?iaiico?oueny c?inoaiiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy c oaiiaie ca o?ueiia
??aiyie 1,1-1,4%, 2,8-4,3%, 4,3-6,8%. I?iaiico?oueny, ui iieaciee
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a i?noao neeaaea 21,7±0,3 aeiaaee?a ia 1000
ianaeaiiy.

Aeaui ?ioa neooaoe?y i?iaiico?oueny a n?euenueeeo ?aeiiao. Oae, a
E?aniieeiainueeiio ?aeii? i/?eo?oueny cieaeaiiy nia?oiino?, i?aeoe/ii ia
ci?ieoueny ?? ??aaiue a Iiaiacianueeiio, Aia?in??anueeiio ?aeiiao, a ??
c?inoaiiy a ?ioeo ?aeiiao aoaea a?aeaoaaoeny c a?eueo aenieeie oaiiaie
i?e?inoa, i?ae a i?noao (aei 1,4%, 2,8-4,3%, 4,3-6,8%, 7,1-8,0%).
Iieaciee nia?oiino? a n?euenueeeo ?aeiiao ca i?iaiicii neeaaea 22,4±0,4
aeiaaee?a ia 1000 ianaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a cieaeaiiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee noi?ioethaaoe caoiaee uiaei
cieaeaiiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy. Aoee iaa?oioiaai? i?eioeeie aoi?eiii? oa
o?aoeiii? i?io?eaeoeee o?ii?/ieo oai?ia. Aei i?eioeei?a aoi?eiii?
i?io?eaeoeee a?aeiinyoueny:

?ioaineaia e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c aino?eie caoai?thaaiiyie;

iaia’yceiaa ?ioaineaia a?aeiiaethaaeueia e?eoaaiiy oai?eo a ia??iae
?aeiiaaeanoeaioe?? i?ney ia?aianaieo aino?eo caoai?thaaiue;

ia?aaaaeaiiy iaoe??io?a, ui ia?aianee aino?? caoai?thaaiiy ia ??aaiue
ia?aeiii? i?io?eaeoeee oai?ia.

O?aoeiia i?io?eaeoeea ?aae?co?oueny ia iniia? ianooiieo i?eioeei?a:

iino?eia e?ea?nueea ? ooieoe?iiaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
o?ii?/ii oai?eie;

?ioaineaia i?ioe?aoeeaeeaia e?eoaaiiy o?ii?/ii oai?eo;

?aaoey?ia icaei?iaethaaeueia e?eoaaiiy o?ii?/ii oai?eo, ui i?aeaeuo?
?acenoaioi?noue ? caaaeueiee ??aaiue a?ieia?/ii? iaae?eiino? i?aai?cio
iaoe??io?a;

nai?/ania ? nenoaiaoe/ia (1–2 ?ace ia ??e) naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oia e?eoaaiiy
aai icaei?iaeaiiy o?ii?/ii oai?eo iaoe??io?a;

nai?/ania ?aaeeeaeueia (o??o?a?/ia) oa ?ioaineaia e?eoaaiiy aaaeeeo aai
i?ia?anoth/eo o?ii?/ieo caoai?thaaiue;

iaa/aiiy oai?eo o?ii?/ieie caoai?thaaiiyie caniaai naiieiio?ieth ca
noaiii o?ii?/iiai i?ioeano ? naiieoi?thaaiiy caaino?aiue o?ii?/ieo
caoai?thaaiue;

ia?aaaaeaiiy o?ii?/ieo oai?eo ia aaeaioiaaiee caei?iaee niin?a aeeooy.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeany iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaiith caoiae?a
i?io?eaeoeee ? e?eoaaiiy oai?ia, ui ? aaaeo/eie i?e/eiaie i?aeaeuaii?
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio aoee noi?ioeueiaai? oae? i?eioeeie:

aeoeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ianaeaiiy caei?iaiai
niiniao aeeooy (CNAE);

aaaaeaiiy oe?eueiaiai caaaeueiiai iii?oi?eiao caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy,
ii/eiath/e c 30-oe ??/iiai a?eo;

oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaaee/io i?aeoeeo no/anieo oaoiieia?e e?eoaaiiy
?oai?/ii? oai?iae na?oey, ?ioa?eoo i?iea?aeo oa neea?ico noaeei;

Iaaee/ii-nioe?aeuei? caoiaee aeieia?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee oai?ia ?ic?iaeai?
ia iniia? oaeeo i?eioeei?a:

noai?aiiy ?icaaeoaeaii? ia?aae? noaoe?iia?ieo iino?a aaoiiaoe/iiai oa
eaai?aoi?iiai eiio?ieth ca noaiii ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia an?e
oa?eoi??? Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio;

?ioaineo?eaoe?y ? i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? caiia?aeiiai nai?oa?iiai iaaeyaeo
ca i?iieneiaeie ? eiioiaeueieie ia’?eoaie;

icaei?iaeaiiy i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio.

AENIIAEE

1. Iaeieae/a nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy a oiiaao Aeiiaano iaea i?noea a
na?aaeei? 60-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy, eiee aiia aoea iaei??th c iaea?eueo
iecueeeo a na?o? ? ciaoiaeeeanue a iaaeao 6,5 aeiaaee?a ia 1000 /ieia?e,
ui iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye i?e?iaeiee iieaciee nia?oiino? ii?iaoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o. A inoaii? 30 ?ie?a nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
i?ia?aneaiei c?inoaiiyi. Iniaeeai aeoeaia ?? i?aeaeuaiiy
niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney 1990 ?ieo, eiee ca 5 ?ie?a aiia ca?eueoeeany
iaeaea a 1,5 ?ace.

2. Noaiaea?oi? iieacieee nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy Aeiiaano
aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy ethaeae: nia?oi?noue
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy caaaeaee aeua, i?ae i?nueeiai. A i?nuee?e
i?noeaaino? nia?oi?noue ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? aeoaea iecueeeo (aei 8
aeiaaee?a), iecueeeo (aei 9 aeiaaee?a) ? na?aaei?o (aei 13 aeiaaee?a), a
a n?euenuee?e – a iaaeao na?aaei?o (aei 15 aeiaaee?a) ? aeua na?aaei?o
(a?eueoa 15 aeiaaee?a ia 1000 /ieia?e) iieaciee?a.

3. Ui??/ia aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaeeaa? a
??cieo i?noao ? n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo ioieoao, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
caaaeueieie ? i?eaaoieie caeiiii??iinoyie. Caaaeueieie caeiiii??iinoyie
? – i?ia?aneaia c?inoaiiy nia?oiino?, aeo?ae iieaciee?a ia aenieee ?
aeoaea aenieee ??aaiue c ianooiiith noaa?e?caoe??th ?o ? oaiaeaioe??th
aei cieaeaiiy, a i?eaaoieie – iayai?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo
oa?eoi??aeueieo ??ai?a ? oaii?a iieaciee?a nia?oiino?. Iniiaieie
i?e/eiaie, ui aecia/athoue nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy ia ??ai? 80%,
aenooiathoue oai?iae nenoaie e?iaiia?ao, iiaiooai?aiiy ? o?aaie oa
io?o?iiy.

4. Nia?oi?noue /ieia?/iai ianaeaiiy Aeiiaano caaaeaee aeua, i?ae
ae?ii/iai. Noaa?eueii aeoaea iecuee? iieacieee nia?oiino? aae aei 50 –
55 ?ie?a oa?aeoa?i? aeey ae?ii/iai ? aei 30 – 34 ?ie?a aeey /ieia?/iai
ianaeaiiy. E?eoe/ieie aeey aeeooy a?eiaeie ia??iaeaie ? 15 – 19, 40 –
44, 55 – 59 ? 65 – 69 ?ie?a. A na?aaeiueiio aeey anueiai ianaeaiiy i?ney
60 – 65 ?ie?a a?aecia/a?oueny yaeua iaaei??ii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?ia aeey i?ioeano aeie?aiiy iiioeyoe??. I?e/iio aeey /ieia?e?a
aiii ii/eia?oueny i?ney 55 ?ie?a, a aeey ae?iie – i?ney 65 ?ie?a.

5. Aaaaoi??/ia o?iiiaeeiai?ea nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny
ii i?iieneiai-i?nueeei ciiai ca ??aiai ia 3 oeie: iecueeee, na?aaei?e,
iaeneiaeueiee. Eiaei?e i?iieneiai-i?nuee?e aaeiia?aoe?? aeanoeaee na?e
oaii i?e?inoo iieaciee?a nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy –aei 3,3% aeiaaee?a
(i?i?iaeueiee), 3,5-3,7% aeiaaee?a (na?aaei?e), 4,0% ? a?eueoa aeiaaee?a
ia ??e (iaeneiaeueiee). Iaea?eueo aenie? noaiaea?oi? iieacieee
nia?oiino? oa?aeoa?i? aeey ianaeaiiy Ai?e?anueei-?iae??anueei? ?
A?oai?anueei-Neia’yinueei? i?iieneiai-i?nueeeo cii (11,1±0,4 –11,2±0,3
aeiaaee?a ia 1000 ianaeaiiy), aeae?eueea iaio? – aeey
Aeiiaoeueei-Iae??anueei? oa E?aiaoi?nueei-Einoyioei?anueei? (10,45±0,4 –
10,8±0,4 aeiaaee?a ia 1000) cii, a iaeieae/? – aeey Ia??oiieuenei?
(9,0±0,3 aeiaaee?a ia 1000) ciie.

6. Ianaeaiiy, ui o?eaaeee /an i?iaeeaa? a i?noao c aenieith noia?iith
caa?oaeiai?noth iia?o?y o?i?/ieie enaiia?ioeeaie, ia? i?aeaeuai?
iieacieee caaaeueii? nia?oiino?. ?nio? aenieee ? na?aaei?e ei?aeyoe?eiee
ca’ycie i?ae nia?oi?noth ianaeaiiy ? iayai?noth a iia?o?? oaeeo
enaiia?ioee?a ye naaea, ai?ae, n??/ai? niieoee, naeiaoeue, ieen
aoaeaoeth, ooi?enoee aiaeaiue, oaiie ? ieen acioo.

Aenie? eiao?oe??ioe aeaoa?i?iaoe?? a oi?ioaaii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy
i?eoaiaii? n??eiaiaeith (37,1%), ooi?enoiio aiaeith (30,3%), ieeno
aoaeaoeth (28,1%), aeaiieeno n??ee (26,6%), aaaaoineeaaeiaiio ieeo
(20,3%) ? aeae?eueea iaioa oaiieo (19,6%) oa aeaiieeno acioo (18,7%).

7. Ia?aaaaeia iayai?noue o iia?o?? i?no a eiioeaio?aoe?yo, ui
ia?aaeuothoue AAeE, aeayeeo a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo enaiia?ioee?a oi?io?
i?aeaeuaio nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy a?ae ie?aieo aeae?a caoai?thaaiue: i?e
ieen? aoaeaoeth – a?ae oai?ia e?ia? ? e?iaioai?ieo i?aai?a; i?e n??/aieo
niieoeao – a?ae oai?ia ia?aiai? nenoaie, e?ia? ? e?iaioai?ieo i?aai?a;
i?e ooi?enoiio aiaei? – a?ae oai?ia o?aaeaiiy ? i?aai?a aeeoaiiy; i?e
oaiie? – a?ae oai?ia i?aai?a e?iaiia?ao; i?e aeaiieen? acioo – a?ae
oai?ia i?aai?a aeeoaiiy ? ia?aiai? nenoaie.

?nio? i?yia na?aaeiy ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae iieacieeaie
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ? iayai?noth a ieoi?e aiae? oaeeo enaiia?ioee?a ye
i?o?aoe (R=0,5), oei?eaee (R=0,42), ooi?, ai?ae (R=0,35 – 0,39), i?o?eoe
oa naeiaoeue (R=0,3 – 0,33) ? neaaeee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie c
noeueoaoaie.

8. Aeao?oeeo a ieoi?e aiae? oaeeo i?e?iaeaiaio?a ye iaai?e, eaeueoe?e,
cae?ci, ooi?, i?aeue ? oeeie iia’ycaiee c i?aeaeuaiith nia?oi?noth
ianaeaiiy cia/iith (na?aaeiuei? neee) i?yiith ei?aeyoe?eiith
caeaaei?noth. Iniaeeai aenieee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie ? i?ae iieacieeaie
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae oai?ia na?oey ? aeao?oeeoii a ieoi?e aiae?
eaeueoe?th (R=0,75), iaai?th (R=0,55), iie?aaeaio (R=0,58), o?iio
(R=0,51) ? iecueeith caaaeueiith ?? aei?noe?noth (R=0,65), a oaeiae i?ae
iieacieeaie nia?oiino? a?ae oai?ia noaeei ? aeao?oeeoii a ieoi?e aiae?
iie?aaeaio (R=0,65) ? o?iio (R=0,61), i?ae iieacieeaie nia?oiino? a?ae
oai?ia ie?ie ? iaaeie?eii a ieoi?e aiae? ia?aaioeth (R=0,5) oa iaai?th
(R=0,4). Ianaeaiiy, ui iino?eii aaeeaa? ieoio aiaeo c i?aeaeuaiith
caaaeueiith aei?noe?noth, ca?eueoaiei ai?noii eaeueoe?th, iaai?th ?
cae?ca ia? a?eueo iecuee? iieacieee caaaeueii? nia?oiino? ? nia?oiino?
a?ae oai?ia i?aai?a e?iaiia?ao.

9. I?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ianaeaiiyi i?iieneiai
?icaeiaieo i?no Aeiiaano, iaea?eueo caa?oaeiai? i?o?aoaie (a?ae 5% aei
42% aaeiaiai ianyao), aaaeeeie iaoaeaie ? ianoeoeeaeaie (6-7%
i?iaeoeo?a).

I?ae iayai?noth a i?iaeoeoao oa?/oaaiiy enaiia?ioee?a ? iieacieeaie
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ? i?yiee iiceoeaiee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie:
iiceoeaiee neaaeee – c aaaeeeie iaoaeaie ? i?o?aoaie, iiceoeaiee
na?aaei?e c ianoeoeeaeaie.

Aeaoa?i?iaoe?eia cia/ou?noue a oi?ioaaii? iieaciee?a nia?oiino?
ianaeaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny o ianoeoeeae?a ia ??ai? 6,58%, o i?o?ao?a –
3,5%, a o aaaeeeo iaoae?a – 1,1%.

I?nueea ianaeaiiy, ui nenoaiaoe/ii niiaeeaa? i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy,
caa?oaeiai? i?o?aoaie ? aaaeeeie iaoaeaie, ia? a?eueo aenie? iieacieee
nia?oiino?. Eiaei? 1,4% aaeiaiai ianyao caa?oaeiaieo i?o?aoaie ? 0,63% –
aaaeeeie iaoaeaie i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy caeaoi? ca?eueooaaoe nia?oi?noue
ia 0,1 aeiaaee?a ia 1000 ianaeaiiy.

10. A na?aaeei? 80-o ?ie?a a Aeiiaan? noi?ioaaeany iani?eyoeeaa
?aae?aoe?eia ianoaiiaea i?e?iaeii-aeieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua. Oey
neooaoe?y aecia/aia iniaeeainoyie aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/iiai neeaaeo
a?oio?a, niaoeeo?/i?noth i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae ne?aeiaeie
oaeoi?aie /i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa???. ?aae?aoe?eiee oaeoi? ? noeioeyoi?ii
aeoeaiiai c?inoaiiy iieieia?/ii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy Aeiiaano, ui
ca?eueoeeany aei 1995 ?ieo a 1,2 ?ace. Iniaeeai oey nia?oi?noue
?iciianthaeeeanue na?aae ianaeaiiy oeo oa?eoi??e, aea a?aeaoeany
noiaoe?y ?aae?iioee?ae?a i?e?iaeiiai ? ooo/iiai aeaea?ae.

11. Iaae?iiy ianya?a oaeaeei? ? iaa?aeeeaaeii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae,
nei?i/aiiy caaacia/aiino? ianaeaiiy caaaeueiith ? iniaeeai
niaoe?ae?ciaaiith noaoe?iia?iith aeiiiiiaith i?eaaei aei i?ia?aneaiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae oyaeeeo oai?ia i?aai?a e?iaiia?ao
a 1,4 ?ace, o?aaeaiiy a 1,7 ?ace ? aeeoaiiy a 2,4 ?ace.

??cea iaae?iiy iiaeooiaiai ?iaeeiiiai i?eaooeo ? niiaeea/eo iiaeeeainoae
ianaeaiiy uiaei i?eaeaaiiy e?ea?nueeeo cania?a c’yaeeiny iaei??th c
i?e/ei i?aeaeuaii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy.

12. A on?o i?noao ? a?eueoino? n?euenueeeo ?aeii?a Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?
i?iaiico?oueny c?inoaiiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy: a i?noao ia 8,0-45,0%, a
a naeao – ia 10-64%. Iieacieee nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaiicothoueny
a i?noao neeaaeooue 21,7±0,3 aeiaaee?a, a a n?euenueeeo ?aeiiao –
22,4±0,4 aeiaaee?a ia 1000 /ieia?e. Cieaeaiiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy aoaea
niinoa??aaoeny eeoa a ie?aieo n?euenueeeo ?aeiiao.

NIENIE INIIAIEO ?IA?O,

UI IIOAE?EIAAI? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Aaa?eia A.E., Iiauoaaa I.A., A?euaiei N.A., Eieouoaa E.A., Ieeieaaiei
A.A., Ia?aoeia I.I., Aaa?eiaa A.A., Eiaooieoeeee A.A. Nia?aiaiiua
caeiiiia?iinoe nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey, i?iaeeaathuaai a oneiaeyo Aeiiaanna
// A?oea eeeie/aneie e yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaaeeoeeiu. –1997. -O.6, ?1.
–N.109-112.

Aaa?eia A.E., Iiauoaaa I.A., A?euaiei N.A., Aoaaoaaa I.A., Eiaooieoeeee
A.A., Ia?aoeia I.I., Noaiaiiaa I.A., *a?aieia A.A. Ei??aeyoeeiiiue
aiaeec noaiaie cia/eiinoe enaiiaeioeeia, iae?i- e iee?iyeaiaioia
yeieiae/aneie n?aaeu a oi?ie?iaaiee iiauoaiiie nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey a
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Aaa?eia A.E., A?euaiei N.A., Iiauoaaa I.A., Noaiaiiaa I.A., Eieouoaa
E.A., Aonaaa A.A., Eiaooieoeeee A.A. ?aaeeaoeeiiiia ninoiyiea
yeieiae/aneie n?aaeu e aai ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee iieieiae/aneie
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A?euaiei N.A., Iaaeaaa A.I., Eieouoaa E.A., Aaa?eiaa A.A., Iiauoaaa I.A.
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iieieiae/aneoth caaieaaaaiinoue ianaeaiey // Na. iao/. o?. iieiaeuo
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Aaa?eia A.E., A?euaiei N.A., Ieeieaaiei A.A., Iiauoaaa I.A. Iniaaiiinoe
nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey, i?iaeeaathuaai a oneiaeyo Aeiiaanna // Aii?inu
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Aaa?eia A.E., A?euaiei N.A., Eieouoaa E.A., Noaiaiiaa I.A., Eiaooieoeeee
A.A., Ieeieaaiei A.A., Iiauoaaa I.A. Aeaeaie/aneay ioeaiea caa?yciaiey
aicaeooiiai aannaeia Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe e aai aeeyiea ia caaieaaaaiinoue
ianaeaiey // I?iaeaiu cae?aaiio?aiaiey e iooe aai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey.
–Aeiiaoee: III “Eaaaaeue”. –1997. –N. 64-66.

Iiauoaaa I.A. Iniaaiiinoe nia?oiinoe ioaeneiai ianaeaiey a oneiaeyo
Aeiiaanna. // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu eeeie/aneie, yenia?eiaioaeueiie e
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Iiauoaaa I.A. Caeiiiia?iinoe e iniaaiiinoe aeeiaieee no?oeoo?u
nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe // Oac. aeiee. iao/. eiio.
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Eieouoaa E.A., Ieeieaaiei A.A., Aoaaoaaa I.A., Iiauoaaa I.A.,
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ii?aaeaiiinoe iiae?inoeia-ioae/ei Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe // Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ioi?iie caei?ia’y ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo ? i?aee?oe?a. –Oa?e?a.
–1997. –N. 29-30.

Aaa?eia A.E., A?euaiei N.A., Eieouoaa E.A., Ieeieaaiei A.A., Aoaaoaaa
I.A., Iiauoaaa I.A., Eiaooieoeeee A.A., Aaa?eiaa A.A. E?eoa?ee,
iieacaoaee e ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ia? ia?ae/iie, aoi?e/iie e o?aoe/iie
i?ioeeaeoeee aieaciae n?aaee ianaeaiey / Iaoiae. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee.
–Aeiiaoee. –1997. -14 n.

Aaa?eia A.E., A?euaiei N.A., Ieeieaaiei A.A., Eieouoaa E.A., Aoaaoaaa
I.A., Eiaooieoeeee A.A., Aaa?eiaa A.A., Ia?aoeia I.I., Iiauoaaa I.A.
Iaaeeoeeineay ioeaiea e ei??aeoeey ia?aca aeecie /aeiaaea (oi?ie?iaaiea
CIAE) / Iaoiae. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. –Aeiiaoee. –1997. -10 n.

Iiaeoaaa I. I. A?a??i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a uiaei cieaeaiiy
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a aeieiai-nioe?aeueieo oiiaao Aeiiaano. -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.02.01. – a?a??ia. –Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiaee
a?a??i?/iee oeaio?, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy nia?oiino?
ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaeeaa? a oiiaao caa?oaeiaiiai aeieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua.
A ?iaio? iiaeaia eiiieaenia a?a??i?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eo?a
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Anoaiiaeaii, ui nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy a
cia/i?e i??? aeaoa?i?io?oueny ??aiai ai?noo enaiia?ioee?a a aeieia?/iiio
na?aaeiaeu?, a oaeiae oaeoi?aie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o.
Cae?eniaiee i?iaiic aeeiai?ee ? ??aiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy Aeiiaano ia
iaeaooi? aeanyoe??//y. Cai?iiiiiaai? iaaee/i? oa iaaeeei-aeieia?/i?
caoiaee uiaei cieaeaiiy nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy, aoaeoeai?noue yeeo
iaa?oioiaaia oai?aoe/ii oa i?aeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoe/ii. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue noaee iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee iaoeiai?
eiioeaioe?? ae?i?iaoe?? yaeua iaaei??ii? nia?oiino?, cieaeaiiy /anoioe
ia?aae/anii? nia?oiino? ? ii?iae?caoe?? a?aeoai?aiiy iiioeyoe?? a oiiaao
Aeiiaano.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nia?oi?noue, caeiiii??i?no?, i?iaiicoaaiiy,
i?io?eaeoeea, oaeoi?e ?eceeo.

Povysheva I.A. The hygienic substantiation of measures of a decrease of
death rate ecological-social conditions of Donbass. –Manuscript.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of medical
sciences on a speciality 14.02.01. — hygiene. –Ukrainian scientific
hygienic center, Kiev, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to analysis of legitimates of formation of
population‘s death rate living in conditions of contaminated ecological
environment. The author gives in his work the complex hygienic
characteristic of objects of an environment living conditions. As
established, that the death rate of the population is substantially
determined by a level of the contents xenobiotics in ecological
environment and also factors of social and economic nature. There is
carried out the forecast of dynamics and of death rate of the population
of Donbass. It’s offered the medical and ecological measures on a
decrease of death rate of the population, the efficiency of which is
justified theoretically and is affirmed practically. The main outcomes
of researches have formed the basis for developing of the scientific
concept of removal of a phenomenon of superdeath rate, decrease of
frequency of anticipatory death rate and normalization of reproduction
of a population in conditions of Donbass.

Keywords: death rate, legitimates, forecasting, preventive measures,
risk factors.

Iiauoaaa I.A. Aeaeaie/aneia iainiiaaiea ia? nieaeaiey nia?oiinoe
ianaeaiey a yeieiai-nioeeaeueiuo oneiaeyo Aeiiaanna. –?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.02.01. – aeaeaia. –Oe?aeineee iao/iue
aeaeaie/aneee oeaio?, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth caeiiiia?iinoae oi?ie?iaaiey
nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey, i?iaeeaathuaai a oneiaeyo caa?yciaiiie
yeieiae/aneie n?aaeu. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iineaaeiea 30 eao nia?oiinoue
ianaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?ia?anneaiui ?inoii. Iniaaiii aeoeaiia aa
iiauoaiea iaaethaeaaony iinea 1990 aiaea, eiaaea ca 5 eao iia
oaaee/eeanue ii/oe a 1,5 ?aca. Nia?oiinoue ioaeneiai ianaeaiey anaaaea
auoa, /ai aeaineiai. Noaaeeueii i/aiue ieceea iieacaoaee nia?oiinoe
aieioue aei 50 – 55 eao oa?aeoa?iu aeey aeaineiai e aei 30 – 34 eao aeey
ioaeneiai ianaeaiey. E?eoe/aneeie aeey aeecie aic?anoiuie ia?eiaeaie
yaeythony 15 – 19, 40 – 44, 55 – 59 e 65 – 69 eao. A n?aaeiai aeey anaai
ianaeaiey iinea 60 – 65 eao ioia/aaony yaeaiea naa?o nia?oiinoe
ianaeaiey oa?aeoa?iia aeey i?ioeanna auie?aiey iiioeyoeee. I?e/ai aeey
ioae/ei iii ia/eiaaony iinea 55 eao, a aeey aeaiuei iinea 65 eao.
Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie, ii?aaeaeythueie nia?oiinoue ianaeaiey ia o?iaia
80%, aunooiatho aieacie i?aaiia e?iaiia?auaiey, ceiea/anoaaiiua
iiaiia?aciaaiey e ian/anoiua neo/ae. A ?aaioa aeaia eiiieaeniay
aeaeaie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea iauaeoia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iaeoaiey.
Auyaeaii, /oi nia?oiinoue ianaeaiey a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
aeaoa?ieie?oaony o?iaiai niaea?aeaiey enaiiaeioeeia a yeieiae/aneie
n?aaea. Oae, nouanoaoao aunieay e n?aaeiyy ei??aeyoeeiiiay naycue
iaaeaeo nia?oiinoueth ianaeaiey e iaee/eai a aicaeooiie n?aaea oaeeo
enaiiaeioeeia eae naaea, aiieae, na?ienoua niaaeeiaiey, naeiaoe, ieenue
oaea?iaea, ooi?enoue aiaei?iae, oaiie e ieenue acioa. Nouanoaoao
n?aaeiyy i?yiay ei??aeyoeeiiiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie
nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey e iaee/eai a ieoueaaie aiaea oaeeo enaiiaeioeeia
eae ieo?aou (R=0,5), oei?eaeu (R=0,42), ooi?, aiieae (R=0,35 – 0,39),
ieo?eou e naeiaoe (R=0,3 – 0,33) e neaaay ei??aeyoeeiiiay naycue n
noeueoaoaie. Iaaeaeo iaee/eai a i?iaeoeoao ieoaiey enaiiaeioeeia e
iieacaoaeyie nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey eiaaony i?yiay iieiaeeoaeueiay
ei??aeyoeeiiiay naycue; iieiaeeoaeueiay neaaay n oyaeaeuie iaoaeeaie e
ieo?aoaie, iieiaeeoaeueiay n?aaeiyy n ianoeoeeaeaie. ?aaeeaoeeiiiue
oaeoi? yaeeny noeioeyoi?ii aeoeaiiai ?inoa iieieiae/aneie nia?oiinoe
ianaeaiey Aeiiaanna, eioi?ay oaaee/eeanue e 1995 aiaeo a 1,2 ?aca.

Aaaeoueie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie oaeoi?aie, niinianoaothueie
iiauoaieth nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey yaeythony: iaaeaiea iauaiia nei?ie e
iaioeiaeiie iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue, nie?auaiea iaania/aiiinoe ianaeaiey
iauae e iniaaiii niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie noaoeeiia?iie iiiiuueth, ?aceia
iaaeaiea iiaeooaaiai naiaeiiai aeioiaea e iio?aaeoaeueneeo aiciiaeiinoae
ianaeaiey ii i?eia?aoaieth eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

Inouanoaeai i?iaiic aeeiaieee e o?iaiy nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey Aeiiaanna ia
aeeaeaeoaa aeanyoeeaoea. Ai anao ai?iaeao e aieueoeinoaa naeueneeo
?aeiiia Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe i?iaiice?oaony ?ino nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey.
I?iaiice?oaiue iieacaoaeue nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey a ai?iaeao ninoaaeo
21,7±0,3 neo/aaa, a a naeueneeo ?aeiiao – 22,4±0,4 neo/aaa ia 1000
/aeiaae.

Iao/ii iainiiaaiu i?eioeeiu e ia?u aoi?e/iie e o?aoe/iie i?ioeeaeoeee
o?iie/aneeo aieaciae. Iniaia aieiaiea ia?auaii ia iainiiaaiea ia?
i?ioeeaeoeee e ea/aiey aieaciae, yaeythueony aaaeoueie i?e/eiaie
iiauoaiiie nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey, a /anoiinoe – aieaciae i?aaiia
e?iaiia?auaiey. Iaaeeei-yeieiae/aneea ia?u nieaeaiey nia?oiinoe
aeeth/atho aiaae?aiea nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu iiieoi?eiaa yeieiae/aneie
n?aaeu a ai?iaeneeo e naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoao, iniiaaiu ia
eiiiuethoa?ii-aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie eiaeeeaoeee e eiaeono?eaeueiie
oaoiieiaee ainnoaiiaeaiey, icaei?iaeaiey e io?aiu i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

I?aaeeiaeaiu iaaeeoeeineea e iaaeeei-yeieiae/aneea ia?u ii nieaeaieth
nia?oiinoe ianaeaiey, yooaeoeaiinoue eioi?uo iainiiaaia oai?aoe/anee e
iiaeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoe/anee. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee
iineoaeeee iniiaie aeey ?ac?aaioee iao/iie eiioeaioeee ono?aiaiey
yaeaiey naa?onia?oiinoe, nieaeaiey /anoiou i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie nia?oiinoe
e ii?iaeecaoeee aini?iecaiaenoaa iiioeyoeee a oneiaeyo Aeiiaanna.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nia?oiinoue, caeiiiia?iinoe, i?iaiice?iaaiea,
i?ioeeaeoeea, oaeoi?u ?enea.

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