2

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? I.I.AIAIIIEUeOess

Oea/aiei Na?oeaia Ieoaee?aia

OAeE 613.1:572.02:616.1

A?A??I?*IA IOe?IEA II?AeIAIIAI AIEEAO I?E?IAeIEO ? AIO?IIIAAIIEO
OAEOI??A IAAEIEEOIUeIAI NA?AAeIAEUA IA IA?AA?A OAI?IA NENOAIE E?IAIIA?AO

14.02.01 — A?a??ia, iaaee/i? iaoee

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai?
I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? AA?AeIA AANEEUe

AAA?EEIAE*, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
I.I.Aiai-

iieueoey, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith i?iiaaeaaoeee
a?a??ie, a?enueeiai? oa

?aae?aoe?eii? a?a??ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
EECIAOA A?EOI?

A?EAI?IAE*, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
I.I.Aiai-

iieueoey, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith oaeoeueoaonueei?
oa?ai?? ? 2

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? iaaee/iee iaoe, i?ioani?
OeEI??ssI A?EOI?

?AAIIAE*,Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? I.I.Aiai-

iieueoey, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith a?a??ie
oa?/oaaiiy

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? NI??IIAA
??EIA IAAE?AIA,

Oe?a?inueeee IAe? ea?ae?ieia?? ?iai?
I.Ae.No?aaeanea, ea??aiee

a?aeae?eaiiy iiioeyoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a caaaeueii? a?a??ie, i.Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 21 ” n?/iy 1999 ?. i 13-30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?-ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.003.01 i?e
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I.Aiaiiieueoey ca
aae?anith: 252057, i.Ee?a-57, i?. Ia?aiiae, 34, iaaeeei-i?io?eaeoe/iee
ei?ion Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aoaeeoi??y ? 2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I.Aiaiiieueoey ca aae?anith: 252057,
Ee?a-57, aoe. Ciieia?/ia,3.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 18 ” a?eaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I.ssai?ianueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie.

A no/anieo oiiaao cia/ii? ci?ie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, aiane?aeie
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, aeiaaeueieo aeieia?/ieo ci?i, ?inoo
oaii?a ? ineoiaiioe?eii? iane/aiino? aeeooy, ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ?
ci?i yeino? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? ineoiaiioe?eieo oaeoi??a, ye? ae?thoue ia
ethaeeio, ??cei c?inoa? aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue ii aecia/aiith
aieeao ia ethaenueeee i?aai?ci ??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua (A.E.Neaei?aiei, 1989, A.E.*acia, 1992).

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue aeey oai?eo
na?oeaai-noaeeiieie oai?iaaie (NNO), oiio ui aiae?c no?oeoo?e
caoai?thaaiino? ? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy ??cieo ?aa?ii?a na?oo na?ae/eoue
i?i oa, ui na?oeaai-noaeeii? caoai?thaaiiy (NNC) ? iaea?eueo iioe?aieie
oai?iaaie. Iai?ee-eaae, a?ae ?oai?/ii? oai?iae na?oey (?ON) no?aaeaea?
a?ae 4 aei 20 % aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy (A.A.Aia?ia, 1994; I.E.Eooae,
1994). Nia?oi?noue a?ae ?ON oa a?ia?oii?/ii? oai?iae (AO) neeaaea?
a?eueo ye 90% an?o aeiaaee?a nia?o? a?ae oai?ia i?aai?a e?iaiia?ao aai
a?ey 50% caaaeueii? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy (A.A.Yeueaa?ia, 1991).

Caaaeath/e ia iaaecae/aeii aaeeea nioe?aeueii-a?a??i?/ia cia/aiiy
oeuei-ai aeaeo iaoieia??, aeyaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy an?o oaeoi??a
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ye? aieeaathoue ia aeieeiaiiy oa ia?aa?a
caoai?thaaiue na?oey ? noaeei, ? aeooaeueiith iaoeiaith oa i?aeoe/iith
i?iaeaiith (?.A.Aaaeoeaaa, 1983; A.E.Neaei?aiei, 1987).

A e?oa?aoo?? ? aaeeea e?euee?noue ?ia?o, ye? i?enay/ai?
?cieueiaaiiio aieeao ia caei?ia’y ethaeeie aaaaoueio i?e?iaeieo ?
aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (I.TH.Iaeuaeia e
niaao., 1986; N.I.Nieieia, 1988; E.A.I?aineee, I.A.Oea?oen, 1989;
R.Geottrey, A.Leat, 1989). Aea ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui i? iaeei ?c
oaeoi??a — o?i?/iee, a?ieia?/iee aai o?ce/iee i?aeoe/ii ia yaey?oueny
?cieueiaaiei: an? aiie ae?thoue a eiiieaen? i?ae niaith, iaoa?iaoth/enue
ia oaeoi?e niaaeeia? oa nioe?aeuei?.

Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui a iao /an ua iaia? iaae?eieo e?euee?nieo
e?e-oa???a ioe?iee aca?iica’yceo i?ae ??aiyie caa?oaeiaiiy oa
iieacieeaie caoai?thaaiino?, iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiao?oueny cia/aiiy
o?eaaeino? ? ?aaeeio aieeao ?a/iaei, iniaeeai a ii?aeiaii? c
??ciiiai?oieie ee?iaoe/ieie ? iiaiaeieie oaeoi?aie, ye? ? ?aa?iiaeueiei
oiiii ? i?i aieea yeeo ia noai caei?ia’y ethaeeie ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?yaeo aaoi??a (A.E.*e-aeaaneee, 1976; ?.Ae.Aaaiae/ e
niaao., 1978; A.A.Aieoa, A.A.Aiaooeeee, 1980; A.?.?onaiia, 1982;
O.E.Aiae?iiiaa e niaao., 1982; A.A.Aa?aeia, 1983; A.A.Aa?aeia e
niaao., 1989; R.Vestetal., 1973; R.Ouffi, 1983).

Oiio anoaiiaeaiiy e?euee?nii? caeaaeiino? iieaciee?a caoai?thaaiino? ?
nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy a?ae nooiaiy caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y,
a?oioo oa aiaee a ii?aeiaii? c ee?iaoi-iiaiaeieie oiiaaie ? ?ic?iaea ia
oe?e iniia? iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy aieeao oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai
na?a-aeiaeua ia caei?ia’y ethaeeie ? iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei. Oea
aecia/eei aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? oaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii aeeiiaiiy aeiai?o
i?ae?yaeo oaie N237 ca ?iaeaenii IIC Oe?a?ie «?ic?iaea iaoiae?a aieeao
ia ethaeeio eiiieaeno oe?aeeeaeo oaeoi??a (?aae?iaeoeai? ?a/iaeie, nie?
aaae-eeo iaoae?a, io?ooio?i?eaoe oa ?io?)», iiia? ?a?no?aoe??
01920001515.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: a?a??i?/ia ioe?iea aieeao i?e?iaeieo oa
aio?iii-aaiieo oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia aeieeiaiiy,
ia?aa?a oa iane?aeee oai?ia nenoaie e?iaiia?ao (ONE) c ?ic?iaeith iniia
i?iaiico-aaiiy oa i?io?eaeoeee oeueiai aieeao aeey ioi?iie oa iie?ioaiiy
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. C a?a??i?/ieo iiceoe?e ioe?ieoe caeiiii??iino? i?inoi?iaiai ?
/ani-aiai ?iciiae?eo i?e?iaeieo (niiy/ia ? aaiiaai?oia aeoeai?noue,
ee?iaoi-iiaiaei? eiiiiiaioe) ? aio?iiiaaiieo (?aae?iioee?aee oa
naeiaoeue i?ney aaa??? ia *i?iiaeeuenuee?e aoiii?e aeaeo?inoaioe??
(*AAN), ianoeoeeaee oa ?io? ooo/i? caa?oaeithaa/?) oaeoi??a ia
oa?eoi??? Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

2. Anoaiiaeoe aeeiai?eo caaaeueii? oa ia?aeiii? caoai?thaaiino?,
o?-aaioii? caoai?thaaiino? oa nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy Ee?anueei? iaeano?
i?e ONE a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie ?aa?iiaie Oe?a?ie.

3. Iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/ieie, ea?oia?ao?/ieie ? ano?io?ce/ieie
iaoiaeaie anoaiiaeoe iayai?noue ? caeiiii??iino? aieeao i?e?iaeieo ?
aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua ia aeeiai?eo
caoai?th-aaiino? ? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy Ee?anueei? iaeano? i?e ONE.

4. Iaa?oiooaaoe, ?ic?iaeoe, ai?iaaaeeoe a i?aeoeeo A?ae?iiaoai-neoaeae
? onoaiia ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie iaoiaee iaaee/iiai i?iaiico-aaiiy
aieeao i?e?iaeieo ? aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia
aeeiai?eo ia?aa?ao na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiue (NNC).

5. Iaa?oiooaaoe, ?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe a i?aeoeeo onoaiia ioi?i-ie
caei?ia’y iaeanoae iaoiaeeee ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii? i?io?eaeoeee ONE a
oiiaao ii?aeiaiiai aieeao i?e?iaeieo ? aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy: aia?oa aeey ee?iaoi-aaia?ao?/ii? ciie
i?aii/? Oe?a?ie aeyaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aeeiai?ee aeieeiaiiy ?
ia?aa?ao NNC o ??ci? ia??iaee ?ieo, a ??ci? oace oeeeeo niiy/ii?
aeoeaiino? (NA), ia oii? ?ioaineaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua aio?iiiaaiieie caa?oaeithaa/aie (?aae?iioee?aeaie,
ianoeoeeaeaie, naei-oeai). Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii iiciaaia?ao?/ia
ea?oia?aooaaiiy Oe?a?ie ca aeaieie i?i caoai?thaai?noue ? nia?oi?noue
ianaeaiiy i?e ?ON, anoaiiaeai? ??ai? iioe?aiino? ?ON, noaiiea?ae??,
?ioa?eoo i?iea?aea (?I) na?aae ianaeaiiy e?a?ie.Aia?oa, c aeei?enoaiiyi
aaaaoioaeoi?iiai iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co, aea/aii ii?aeiaiee aieea
eiiieaeno ee?iaoi- iiaiaeioi?-ioth/eo oaeoi??a ? aio?iiiaaiieo
caa?oaeiaiue iia?o?y, aiaee ia aeeiai?eo caoai?thaaiino? ? nia?oiino?
i?e na?oeaai-noaeeii?e iaoieia?? ethaeeie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe
aein-e?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe aieea iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
eiie?ao-ieo ianaeaieo ioieo?a ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, anoaiiaethaaoe
cia/ei?noue oeo /e ?ioeo oaeoi??a a aaaaoioaeoi?iiio aieea?
iaaeieeoiueiai na?a-aeiaeua ia caei?ia’y ? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oe???
cia/eiino? ieaioaaoe icaei?ia/? caoiaee.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Ia iniia? aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeaioiaeai?,
caoaa?ae-aeai? IIC Oe?a?ie 3 iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??: «Ia?aeiia
i?io?eaeoeea na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiue ia Oe?a?i?»(1994),
«Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiai-aeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo
aei?ii?ithaaiue aeey i?io?eaeoe-ee nenoaie e?iaiia?ao» (1994) ?
«Aeni?ani? eaai?aoi?i? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy caa?oaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a, ?ineeiiino?, aiaee, a?oioo no?iioe??i-90, oeac??i-137+134.
Nai?oa?ia aenia?oeca» (1994). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? o
?iaio? A?ae?iiaooeaio?o Oe?a?ie, a iaaeaaia?/iiio i?ioean? ia
eaoaae?ao i?iiaaeaaoeee a?a??ie oa ?aae?aoe?eii? a?a??ie,
oaeoeueoaonueei? oa?ai?? N2 IIO, ia eaoaae?? caaaeueii? a?a??ie ?
iaaee/ii? aeieia?? Ee?anueeiai iaaee/iiai ?inoeoooo Oe?a?inueei?
anioe?aoe?? ia?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie.

Iniaenoee aianie iieyaa? o iiooeo, cae?aii? oa noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe?
ia?aeiieo iaoa??ae?a i?i noai caei?ia”y ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa Ee?anueei?
iaeano?. C iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy aeeiai?ee caaino?aiue ?ON naiino?eii aoei
ia?iaeaii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoa??aee neoaeae OIAe i.Ee?aa o aeaeyae?
i?ny/ieo noaoenoe/ieo ca?o?a. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia aieaoa aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
aieaoiiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoaicaeaaeiino? oai?eo ea?ae?ieia?/ii?
ee?i?ee, a oaeiae cae?eniaii aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa ?o
ioi?ieaiiy. I?iaaaeai? nenoaiaoecaoe?y oa aiae?c iaoa??ae?a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?e?iaei? oa aio?iiiaaii? oaeoi?e iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeaeo?iiii-ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee, ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae iaoaiaoe/iiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy aieeao i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a aeey i?io?eaeoeee NNC o
ianaeaiiy, aeania iien naii? ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? aeniiaee oa
i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aoee aena?oeai? ia OI oa
OIII i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo iieiaeeo a/aieo oa
niaoe?ae?no?a EI? (Ee?a, 1988, 1989); ia Iiaieaenuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeeyiea nieia/iie aeoeaiinoe, eeeiaoa,
iiaiaeu ia caei?iauea /aeiaaea e aii?inu iaoaii?ioeeaeoeee» (Eacaiue,
1988). Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeniiioaaeenue ia AAeIA Oe?a?ie, io?eiaia
na?aeioeoai o/anieea AAeIA 1988 ?ieo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 23 ?iaioe (a o./. 6
naiino?eii), na?aae ieo 4 aeo?iaeueieo noaoo?, o aeaeaiiyo
?aeiiaiaeiaaieo AAE Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, oa
iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe: aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, aiae?co ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo e?oa?aoo?e (182 a?o/eciyieo ? 38
?iicaiieo aeaea?ae), 3 aeiaeaoe?a. Iniiaiee oaeno aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeaiee ia 116 noi?. ? i?noeoue 30 oaaeeoeue oa 22 iaethiee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

I?ia?aia, iaoiaee ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo
caaaeaiue a?a??i?/iiai aea/aiiy aieeao i?e?iaeieo oa aio?iiiaaiieo
oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia aeieeiaiiy, ia?aa?a oa
iane?aeee ONE o ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?aa oa iaeano?, iaie aoee
aeei?enoai? c iaeiiai aieo iaoa??aee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue caeiiii??iino?
NA, aaiiaai?oii? aeoeaiino? (AIA), ee?iaoo ? iiaiaee ia oa?eoi???
e?a?ie oa aeieia?/iee noai iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ie?aieo
?aa?ii?a, c ae?oaiai aieo — aeai? i?i caaaeueio oa ia?aeiio
caoai?thaai?noue, aeeiai?eo caaino?aiue oa nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy i?e
?ON oa ?? oneeaaeiaiiyo. Iaoa??aee, ianya oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en. 1.

Aeniiaee i?i aeeiai?eo NA ca ia??iae c 1981 ii 1991 ??e, yeee
a?aeiia?aea? ae?oa?e iieiaei? XXI — ia?o?e iieiaei? XXII 11-??/ieo
oeeee?a NA, ?iaeee ia i?aenoaa? aeeiai?ee iniiaieo ?? iieaciee?a: 1)
a?aeiiniiai /enea niiy/ieo ieyi (/enea Aieueoa, W), 2) noia?ii? ieiu?
niiy/ieo ieyi (S), 3) ?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaiiy Niioey (F) ia /anoio? 3100
IAoe, 4) /enea oa iiooaeiino? o?iiinoa?ieo niaeao?a (ON). Caeaaei?noue
caaino?aiue ?ON a?ae 174 ON, 83 ca?a?no?iaaieo aaiiaai?oieo ao?
(AIA) ca aeai??/iee (1991-1992 ??.) ia??iae aea/aee iaoiaeii
iaeeaaeaieo aiio.

Iaaee/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y iiaiaee aecia/aeany i?ney ia?iaee oa aiae?co
uiaeiaiaeo 731 iaoaiea?o iiaiaeii? neooaoe?? o i. Ee?a? noi?nii c ath?i
iiaiaee A?ae?iiaooeaio?o ca 1991-1992 ?iee. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
iiaiaee a aa?aci?-ea?oi? 1994 ?ieo aoea aeei?enoaia iia?aoeaia
?ioi?iaoe?y Oe?a?inueeiai ath?i iiaiaee i?i uiaeaii? neiiioe/i?
neooaoe?? (aa?e/ia oaiaeaioe?y, oa?aeoa?enoeea iia?o?yieo ian,
aoiinoa?i? o?iioe ? o.i.).

Iaoa??aee ii caa?oaeiaith iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua 26 ?aeii?a
Ee?anueei? iaeano? c 1981 ii 1990 ??. aeeth/aee aaeeeo /enaeuei?noue
(19) aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a, ye? aoee aeei?enoai? a aiae?c? c iaoith
aeyaeaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy «/enoiai» aieeao iaeaieeaia?oeo
? iaaac-ia/ieo /eiiee?a. Aeey aea/aiiy ii?aeiaii? ae?? iiaiaee e
caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y ia ia?aa?a ?ON o ianaeaiiy i.Ee?aa
aeei?enoaee ?iaeaen «?». ??/i? noia?i? aea?aaeaioi? aeice ii?ii?iaiiy
ianaeaiiy Ee?anueei? iaeano? ?ic?aoiaai? ca?aeii aeieoiaioo
«Aeiceiao?e/aneay ianii?oecaoeey ianaeaiiuo ioieoia Oe?aeiu,
iiaeaa?aoeony ?aaeeiaeoea-iiio caa?yciaieth iinea *a?iiaueuenueeie
aaa?ee» (E., 1992).

Aeeiai?eo a?aaeaiino? ianaeaiiy oai?iaaie i?aai?a e?iaiia?ao ca
ia??iae c 1981-1995 ?iee aea/aee ia iniia? ia?aeiieo iaoa??ae?a i?i
caoai?thaai?noue oa nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy on?o iaeanoae Oe?a?ie,
?aeii?a Ee?anueei? iaeano? oa i.Ee?aa.

I?i ia?aa?a ?ON noaeeee ii aeeiai?oe? caaino?aiue oe??? oai?iae. Aeey
oeueiai aoee aeei?enoai? noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee neoaeae OIAe i.Ee?aa:
c 1981 ii 1990 ??e — i?ny/i? noaoenoe/i? ca?oe, a c 1.01.1991 ?. ii
31.12.1992 ?. oa ca ia??iae aa?acaiue-ea?oaiue 1994 ?ieo — uiaeaii?
eiio?ieuei? oaeiie ?a?no?aoe?? aeeeee?a c oeacaiei oi/iei ae?aaiicii
(?ioa?eo i?iea?aeo, noaiiea?ae?y, a?eoi?y).

Eiiieaenio ioe?ieo caoai?thaaiino?, nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith Iieyeiaa-Iaeeinueeiai, yea a?oioo?oueny ia
neaiaeueieo ioe?ieao a?aeoeeaiue oaeoe/ieo ??ai?a a?ae ?o na?aaei?o
cia/aiue. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeaa iiaeeea?noue ca?oioaaoe iaeano? oa
?aeiie ca 7-aaeueieie oeaeaie ??ai?a ?ON oa noai?eoe iiciaaia?ao?/io
ea?oo iioe?aiino? ?ON ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

I?e aea/aii? naciiiiai ?eoio caaino?aiue ?ON o ianaeaiiy i.Ee?aa
aeei?enoaee iaoiae aecia/aiiy ?iaeaen?a naciiieo eieeaaiue a?aeiioaiiyi
oaeoe/ieo aeaieo i?ny/ieo aaee/ei aei 12-i?ny/ieo eaioethaiaeo
na?aaei?o (E.N.Aonaaa, 1977; E.E.Ieeaa?a e niaao., 1986).

Aieea i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a (NA) iiaiaee oa aio?iiiaaiieo (o?i?/i?,
o?ce/i? caa?oaeithaa/?) ia ?icaeoie, ia?aa?a oa iane?aeee ?ON aea/aee ia
iniia? eiii’thoa?ii? ia?iaee aeaieo ?c canoinoaaiiyi aaaaoioaeoi?iiai
ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co, eiiiiiaioiiai, oaeoi?iiai
aeenia?-n?eiiai aiae?c?a (A.E.Aii/a?oe e niaao., 1989). Aoee aecia/ai?
na?aaei? aaee/eie, ?o iioeaee, a?aeoeeaiiy, eiao?oe??ioe: ia?ii?
ei?aeyoe??, ia?oe?aeueii?, iiiaeeiii? ei?aeyoe?? aaoa-eiao?oe??ioe
noaiaea?oeciaaieo ??aiyiue ?aa?an??, eiao?oe??ioe aa??aoe??, /anoeia? oa
caaaeuei? eiao?oe??ioe aeaoa?i?iaoe??. Ioe?ieo cia/eiino? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a cae?enithaaee ca e?eoa??yie O?oa?a, Nouethaeaioa
(A.I.Ia?eia, E.A.Iieyeia, 1974).

Aea/aiiy aieeao oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia ??aaiue
iioe?aiino? ?ON cae?enithaaee ca i?ia?aiith Multifac, ?ic?iaeaiith
eaoaae?ith nioe?aeueii? a?a??ie ? i?aai?caoe?? ioi?iie caei?ia’y IIO
?iai? I.I.Aiaiiieueoey. Aeey iaeneiaeueii? aeinoia??iino? e?euee?noue
iaeii/anii ssaeua,

ye?Oaeoi?e iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeuaAeeiai?ea na?oeaai-noaeeiieo
caoai?thaaiue o ianaeaiiyaeine?aeaeo-aaeenyi?e?iaei?
aio?iiiaaii?I?ia?aia

aeine?ae-aeaiiyniiy/ia

aeoeai?noueaaiiaai?o-ia aeoea-

i?noueee?iao ?

iiaiaeao?i?/i?o?ce/i?caaaeueia oa ia?aeiia
caoai?thaai?nouenia?o-i?noueo?aaio-ia cao-

ai?th-aai?noue iaoaica-eaaei?noue oai?eoIa”?eoe,

oa ia”?iiieacieee

NA (W,S,F)

144,5 oen.,

o?iiinoa-?i? niaeaoe

(174)aaiiaai?o-i? ao?? (83)iaoai?i-eia?/i? ea?oe iiaiaee (731)oe?aeeea?
aeeeaee, i?o?eoe, i?o?aoe, ianoeoee-aee (111 oen.aiae?-c?a),?-?i-

aeaen (720)??ai? ooio, AII (12000), aei-

ce ii?ii?-iaiiy (650 ian. ioieo)/enei on?o oai?eo, o o./. oia?oa
aeyaeaieo (14 iei. 468,0 oen.)/enei eaoaeue-ieo aeiaaee?a (2 iei. 21,9
oen.)aeeeeee OIAe c i?eaiaeo ?oai?/-ii? oai?iae na?oey (980,4
oen.)oai?? c ?oai?/-iith oai-?iaith na?oey (118)Aeaea?aea

aeine?ae-aeaiiyatheaoai?

“Nieia/-

iua aeai-

iua”, “Ein-ie/aneea aeaiiua”Aieiaia

ano?iii-i?/ia iana?aa-

oi??y AI

Oe?a?ieath?i iiaiaee A?ae?iiao-oeaio?o Oe?a?ieIaeania
nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?iea?/ia noaioe?y, A?ae?iiaooeaio? oa IIC Oe?a?ieoeaio?
iaaee/ii? noa-oenoeee IIC

Oe?a?ie, iaeania noaooi?aae?iiynoaioe?y oaeaeei?

iaaee/ii?

aeiiiiiaeaeai? ai-eaoiiai

iieoo-aaiiy oa niinoa?a-aeaiiyIaoiaee

aeine?ae-

aeaiiy?. Iaoaiaoeei noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee: aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee,
aaaaoioaeoi?iiai ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa-

?an?eiiai ? eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?c?a, aeenia?n?eiee aiae?c,
a??ia?aeiiniee aiae?c Aaeana, ?iaeaen?a

naciiieo eieeaaiue.

??. Ano?io?ce/iee iaoiae iaeeaaeaieo aiio.

???. Ea?oia?ao?/iiai aiae?co ?en. 1. Iaoa??aee, ianya oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiue.

17

a?aoiaaieo aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a ia?aaeuoaaea e?euee?noue cii
(?aeii?a) a?eueoa, ye o 5 ?ac?a (A.A.Aii/a?oe, TH.A.Ai?iiaiei,
I.E.Ia?oeaithe, 1989).

Aeey aea/aiiy /ooeeaino? oai?eo ?ON aei ee?iaoi-iiaiaeieo oiia a
?iaio? aoa aeei?enoaiee aieaoiee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey oeueiai
aoea neeaaeaia «Aieaoa iieooaaiiy oai?eo ?ON i?i aieea iiaiaee ia ?o
noai caei?ia’y». Aieaoa i?noeea 23 ieoaiiy c 62 aa??aioaie a?aeiia?aeae
ia ieo.

Aeai? on?o aoai?a aeine?aeaeaiy i?aeeyaaee iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/i?e
ia?iaoe? ia eiii’thoa?? ?AI oa c aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiaaieo
i?e?ieaeue-eoeyoi??a IE-61.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy.

Aia?oa aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ia i?ioyc? 10-??/iiai ia??iaeo iieacieee
caoai?thaaiino? ?ON oa ?? ee?i?/ieie oi?iaie ?I oa noaiiea?ae??th o
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie iaaieiii c?inoaee (oaae.1).

Cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a caaaeueii? caoai?thaaiino? ii??aiyii c
ia?aeiiith iiaeia iiynieoe ca?eueoaiiyi /enaeueiino? eiieiaaioo oai?eo
?ON.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeeiai?ea iioe?aiino? iniiaieo NNC na?aae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a 1981-1995
?iee (a % ii a?aeiioaiith aei ??aiy iioe?aiino? a 1981 ?ioe?, i?eeiyoiai
ca 100 %)

Iacaa oai-?iae

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995?ON109,2117,1127,9145,7157,2184,7201,3272,6294,4303,2327,8368,3392,6
411,6?I108,1114,9130,3135,5142,9150,1220,1218,1219,1223,2229,4234,1227,4
213,6Noaiiea?ae?y129,3156,8185,7215,2244,1280,4407,0463,8511,0588,7635,7
774,4840,3905,1

A Ee?anuee?e iaeano?, ia oa?eoi??? yei? noaeany aaa??y ia *AAN,
caoai?thaai?noue NNO ianaeaiiy oaae ia? oaiaeaioe?? ?inoo. Oae,
caaaeueia caoai?thaai?noue ?ON c?inea a 3 ?ace c 1981 ii 1990 ??e, a
ia?aeiia a 2,6 ?ace. I?e/iio caa?oa? oaaao ??cea c?inoaiiy
iieaciee?a a ?iee i?ney aaa??? (oaae.2). A 1,2 ?ace ca?eueoeany
oaii i?e?inoo iioe?aiino? ?ON, a caoai?thaaiino? iaeaea a 3 ?ace a
ia??iae 1986-1990 ?iee a?aeiinii ia??iaeo 1981-1985 ??. A oie aea /an
nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy Ee?anueei? iaeano? a?ae ?ON, ye ? a oe?eiio ii
Oe?a?i? ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy.

I?inoi?iaee aiae?c aeeiai?ee a?aaeaiino? ianaeaiiy anoaiiaea, ui
iaeaeu? ?aiaia? i?noey a oe?eiio na?aae 25 iaeanoae Oe?a?ie oa
i.Ee?aa iin?aeathoue A?iieoeueea (26), *a?i?aaoeueea (25),
Oiaeueieoeueea (24) iaeano?. Iaeieae/? ?aiae iaeaaeaoue i.Ee?ao,
Caii??cuee?e oa Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e iaeanoyi.

Oaaeeoey 2

Oaii i?e?inoo na?oeaai-noaeeiii? caoai?thaaiino? oa nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy
Ee?anueei? iaeano? ca ia??iaee 19981 — 1985 ??. oa 1986 — 1990 ??.

I i e a c i e e eOaii i?e?inoo a % ca ia??iae1981-1985 ??.1986-1990
??.Iioe?ai?noue ?ON52,783,3Iioe?ai?noue ?I12,485,9Iioe?ai?noue
noaiiea?ae??72,477,2Caoai?thaai?noue ?ON23,397,7Caoai?thaai?noue
?I12,138,0Caoai?thaai?noue noaiiea?ae??th9,540,1Nia?oi?noue a?ae
?ON14,7-26,3 Nia?oi?noue a?ae ?I177,325,3

Aeaui ?io? caeiiii??iino? iathoue iieacieee a?aaeaiino? ianaeaiiy ?I.
Oae, aiie iaeaeu? a Oa?e?anuee?e, E?einuee?e, Aeiiaoeuee?e,
Aei?i?iiao-

?ianuee?e iaeanoyo oa i.Ee?a?. Iecuee? — a ?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e,
?iaainuee?e, Oiaeueieoeuee?e iaeanoyo.

O Ee?anuee?e iaeano? aenie? ?aiaia? ??ai? iaeaaeaoue Iie?nueeiio (26),
?ieeoiyinueeiio (25) ?aeiiai, a oaeiae ?aaie?anueeiio, Iaea??anueeiio,
Aieiaea?nueeiio, Eaaa?eeoeueeiio. A ianooii? o?noue ?ie?a i?ney aaa???
iaeaeu? ?aiae iaee Iie?nueeee, ?aaie?anueeee ?aeiie, ye?
iino?aaeaeaee a?eueoa i?ae ?io? a ?acoeueoao? aaa??? ia aoiii?e
aeaeo?inoaioe??, a oaeiae ?ieeoiyinueeee. Iaeiaio? ?aiae aanue
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae iathoue Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeee,
Ai?eni?euenueeee, A?iaa?nueeee ?aeiie

A?aaeai?noue ianaeaiiy Ee?anueei? iaeano? ?I aoea iaeaeua a ?iee aei
aaa??? (1981-1985) a Iaoo?anueeiio, Iie?nueeiio, *i?iiaeeuenueeiio
?aei-iao, a i?ney aaa??? (1986 ?.) — a Iie?nueeiio, Eaaa?eeoeueeiio,
Aeoai?iae-nueeiio. Iecuee? iieacieee a Oa?auainueeiio, ?ieeoiyinueeiio
?aeiiao.

Oiaoi, caaaeath/e ia oa, ui iioe?ai?noue, caoai?thaai?noue oa
nia?o-i?noue a?ae ?ON oa ?I iaeaeua a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a a ?aeiiao oae
/e ?iaeoa iaaeeaeaieo aei i?noey aaa???, iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i aenieo
eiia??i?noue aieeao ia ?ON ?aae?aoe?eiiai oa no?aniaaiiiai oaeoi??a,
aieeao yeeo caciaei ianaeaiiy ?aeii?a Ee?anueei? iaeano?, ye?
iino?aaeaeaeeo a?ae *i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa???.

Oaeei /eiii, anoaiiaeaii, ui caoai?thaai?noue ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ?ON
ia? oaiaeaioe?th iaaieiiiai ?inoo ia i?ioyc? inoaii?o ?ie?a.

Aiae?c o?aaioii? caoai?thaaiino? ianaeaiiy i.Ee?aa aeicaieea
anoaiiaeoe, ui e?euee?noue aeeeee?a c i?eaiaeo ?ON neeaaea? a
na?aaeiueiio 9,13% an?o caa?oaiue ca OIAe c 1981 ii 1992 ??e, c
i?eaiaeo ?I — 0,5% an?o caa?oaiue. Caa?oa?i?noue ianaeaiiy ca OIAe
i?e ?ON oa ?I a inoaii? ?iee ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy. *ano?oa ca
oaeaeeith aeiiiiiaith caa?oathoueny e?oi? ethaee (88,3% ethaee noa?o?
50 ?ie?a). Oeae oaeo i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ? nioe?aeueiei neeaaeii oai?eo:
aeeeeeathoue iaoeio oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae c i?eaiaeo ?ON — ?ia?oieee 16%
a?ae on??? e?eueeino? aeiaaee?a, neoaeaiaoe? — 13%, iain?iia?e — 70%.
I?e ?ON /ano?oa caa?oathoueny ae?iee (57,7%), a io e?euee?noue aeeeee?a
a ca’yceo c ?I a?eueoa na?aae /ieia?e?a (62,9%). I?ioyaii oeaeiy
aeeeeee iinooiathoue ??aiii??ii. Ia i?ioyc? aeiae iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
aeeeee?a iaaeoiaeeoue a?aioe? oa aaeaiue a?ae 6 aei 17 aiaeei, iaeiaioa
aii/? a?ae 0 aei 5 aiaeei.

Iniaeeaino? naciiii? caoai?thaaiino? ?ON iieyaathoue o oiio, ui oaeaeeo
aeiiiiiao oai?? ?ON /ano?oa aeeeeeathoue o ia?oiio eaa?oae? ?ieo c
iaeneioiii o aa?aci? (116,9%), iiae?aia ea?oeia ? i?e ?I. Iaeiaioa /enei
aeeeee?a a e?oi? i?nyoe? (i?i?ioi o eeii? — 88,9%) oa a aa?ani?.

NA ia aieeaa? ia aeeiai?eo caoai?thaaiino? oa nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy i?e
ONE (r<0,300 i?e p>0,05). Hao ?acoeueoao iiaeia iiynieoe ae??th ?ioeo,
a?eueo iiooaeieo oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy.

Iaie onoaiiaeaii, ui a aei? ia?aae cae/aeieie oa «aaiaoaeoeaieie» ON
a?aei?/a?oueny iacia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy /enea oneeaaeiaiue ?ON a?aeiinii
na?aaeiueiai ??aiy ca 2 ?iee, a aeaiue ?a?no?aoe?? ON /anoioa ? ?ON ? ?I
caeeoa?oueny ia ??ai? na?aaeiueiai. A ianooii? aei? i?ney ?a?no?aoe??
cae/aeiiai niaeaoo e?euee?noue caaino?aiue ?ON c?inoa? a?ae 2,3 aei
7,7%, a ?I — 22,9% a?ae na?aaeiueiai ??aiy. A ia?o? aei? ?a?no?aoe??
«aaiaoaeoeaieo» ON oaae a?aei?/a?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy /anoioe caaino?aiue
(4-7% a?ae na?aaeiueiai ??aiy). Ia i?ioyc? 3-4-5 ae?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny cieaeaiiy /anoioe oneeaaeiaiue ?ON oa ?I aei
na?aaeiueiai ??aiy.

A aei? ia?aae AIA e?euee?noue caaino?aiue ?ON oa ?I caeeoa?oueny ia
??ai? na?aaeiueiai aai iaa?oue cieaeo?oueny. A aeaiue ?a?no?aoe?? AIA
a?aei?-/a?oueny i?aeeii /enea caaino?aiue ?ON (ia 3,7%) oa ?I (ia
5,2%), ?ai?a-caioaoeaia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy na?oeaai-noaeeiieo eaoano?io
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?e ?ON iaeio aeiao, i?e ?I — ia i?ioyc? aeaio ae?a
i?ney ?a?no?aoe?? AIA. Ioaea, ia iniia? aeuaneacaiiai, iiaeia aeae?eeoe
ia??iae iaea?eueo ia-ni?eyoeeaee aeey oai?eo ?ON. Oea iaeia-aea? aeiae
aei ii/aoeo ao?? aai ON ? aei 3-o ae?a i?ney. Oiaoi, aeei?enoiaoth/e
iia?aoeaiee i?iaiic oa oaeoe/i? aeai? i?i niiy/io oa aaiiaai?oio
aeoeai?noue, i?iaaaeaiiy oa?i?iiai? i?io?eaeoeee ne?ae ii/eiaoe ca 2
aeiae aei ii/aoeo ? i?iaiaeeoe ia i?ioyc? 3 ae?a i?ney ?a?no?aoe??
niaeao?a oa iaai?oieo ao?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee iai anoaiiaeoe, ui i?ae iiaiaeith ?
o?aaioiith caoai?thaai?noth ?nio? aeinoia??iee ca’ycie: i?yiee i?e
iani?eyoeeaeo oeiao iiaiaee ? cai?ioi?e i?e ni?eyoeeaeo (oaae.3).

Aeey ee?iaoi-aaia?ao?/ieo oiia i?aii/? Oe?a?ie, yea caciaea
iaene-iaeueiiai aieeao iane?aee?a aaa??? ia *AAN, iaie aia?oa aoea
noai?aia

Oaaeeoey 3

Ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c caa?oa?iino? ca oaeaeeith iaaee/iith

aeiiiiiaith a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiaiaeieo oiia (EIE, Ae, ?)

Oeie iiaiaee?ON?INi?eyoeeaa- 0,970- 0,83594,1769,66< 0,05< 0,05Iii??ia 0,8010,82464,0967,86< 0,05< 0,05Iani?eyoeeaa0,6440,81641,5366,60< 0,05< 0,05 a?a??i?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y iiaiaee ii a?aeiioaiith aei oai?eo ?ON oa ?I (?en.2). Ni?eyoeeaeie oeiaie iiaiaee aeey oai?eo ?ON, aeei?enoiaoth/e ca iniiao iaaee/io eeaneo?eaoe?th iiaiaee A.O.Ia/a?iai?, ? no?eea ?iaeeoa-?aioia oa iiaiaea "nianoe/iiai" oeio c ?iaeeoa?aioiei nooiaiai ae?aaeaiino? i?aeaeiaiai? i?ieeaino? iaoaiaeaiaio?a. Iiaiaea oaeiai oeio niinoa??aaeanue 17,5% aei?a ca 2 ?iee. An? ?io? oeie iiaiae c neaaeith ae?aaeai?noth ci?ie iaoaiaeaiaio?a, iiaiaeo iano?eeo, "nianoe/iiai" oa "a?iiene/iiai" oei?a c iii??iith ci?iith iaoaiaieaiaio?a, iano?eeo c ia?aoiaeii ?iaeeoa?aioii? a "nianoe/iee" oei c iii??iith oa ae?aaeaiith ci?iith iaoaiaeaiaio?a oa iiaiaeo "nianoe/iiai" oeio ?c iii??iith ae?aaeai?noth i?ieeaino? iaoaiaeaiaio?a iiaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe, ye iii??ii a?io?iii?. Oae? oeie iiaiae a?aei?/aeenue ia i?ioyc? 478 (65,4%) ae?a. An? ?io? oeie iiaiae ne?ae aaaaeaoe iani?eyoeeaeie. Oae? iiaiaee ca?a?no?iaai? ia i?ioy c? 125 (17,1%) ae?a. Iacaeaaeii a?ae oeio iiaiaee e?euee?noue caa?oaiue ca?eueoo?oueny i?iii?oe?eii nooiaith ae?aaeaiino? i?aeaeiaiai? i?ieeaino? iaoaiaeaiaio?a. Io?eiai? aeai? uiaei a?io?iiiino? iiaiaee ocaiaeaeothoueny c aeaieie A.A.Aa?aeiaa (1989), aea iii?oiith ??cieoeath ? a?eueoa e?euee?noue iani?eyoeeaeo oei?a iiaiaee, ui na?ae/eoue i?i c?inoaiiy iaoai/ooeeaino? oai?eo ?ON. Inoaii?, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeia iiynieoe iaaaoeaiei aieeaii i?e?iaeieo, aio?iiiaaiieo oa nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a, a oiio /ene? ae??th i?aeaeuaieo aeic ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aiane?aeie aaa??? ia *AAN. C iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy aieeao eiie?aoii? iiaiaei-aaio?ce/ii? ianoaiiaee ia ?icaeoie caaino?aiue ?ON iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c uiaeaiieo iiaiaeieo neooaoe?e a aa?aci?-ea?oi? 1994 ?ieo oa iieaciee?a caaino?aiue ?ON, ?I oa noaiiea?ae?? o ianaeaiiy i.Ee?aa ca oeae aea /an. A Iaaee/ia oa?aeoa?enoeeaNooi?iue ae?aaeaiino? i?aeaeiaiai? i?ieeaino? iaoaiaeaiaio?aiiaiaee?iaeeoa- ?aioiaNeaaea Iii??- iaAe?a- aeaia??cei ae?a- aeaia No?eea ?iaeeoa?aioia Iano?eea c ia?aoiaeii ?iaeeoa?aioii? a “nianoe/iee” oei “Nianoe/iiai” oeio Iano?eea “nianoe/iiai” oeio c aeaiaioaie a?iien?? “A?iiene/iiai” oeio Iano?eea “a?iiene/iiai” oeio c aeaiaioaie “nianoe/iiai” oeioIa?ao?ae iiaiaee “nianoe/iiai” oeio a no?eeo ?iaeeoa?aioio?en. 2. A?io?iii?noue ??cieo oei?a iiaiaee ia oa?eoi??? i.Ee?aa ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?icaeoeo ?oai?/ii? oai?iae na?oey Ni?eyoeea? Iii??ii a?i-Iani?eyoeea?oeieo?iii? oeieoeie?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui a aaniyi? i?nyoe? iiaiaeo iiaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye iani?eyoeeao aeey aeieeiaiiy oa ia?aa?ao ?ON. Oae, ni?eyoeea? oeie iiaiae a?aei?/aeenue ia i?ioyc? 19,3% aei?a ca aeine?ae-aeaiee ia??iae, a iani?eyoeea? noaiiaeee 80,9%. ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aiae?c iiaiaei-aaio?ce/ieo neooaoe?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iiaiaeicoiiaeai?noue i?aeoe/ii an?o i?aeaeuaiue ? cieaeaiue /anoioe ?icaeoeo caaino?aiue ?ON a?aeiinii na?aaeiueiai ??aiy. Onoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue caoai?thaaiino? ?ON ia o?eueee a?ae aieeao iiaiaee, a e a?ae ci?ie ie?aieo iiaiaeioi?ioth/eo aeaiaio?a. Iai?eeeaae, ?I aeieea? /ano?oa i?e ii?aeiaii? oieiaeiiai o?iioo ? cia/iiai c?inoaiiy aoiinoa?iiai oeneo, a noaiiea?ae?y, a?eoi?y, ii?ooaiiy e?iaiia?ao - i?e iiaiae? c aeaiaioaie a?iien??. A?aei?/aii ??cea i?aeaeuaiiy /anoioe caaino?aiue an?o oi?i ?ON a aei? aeieeiaiiy AIA, iacaeaaeii a?ae oeio iiaiaee. Aecia/ai? iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey oai?eo ?ON - ?iaeeoa?aioia iiaiaea oa ia?ao?aeia "nianoe/iiai" oeio a no?eeo ?iaeeoa?aioio c iacia/iith i?aeaeiaiaith ci?iith iaoaiaeaiaio?a. Ee?i?/iee o?aaiaio ?iaioe ie i?iaaee o aeaeyae? aieaoiiai iieooaaiiy 118 in?a oa aeeiai?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy 50 in?a ia i?ioyc? 2-o i?nyoe?a o ea?ae?ieia?/i?e ee?i?oe? IIO ?iai? I.I.Aiaiiieueoey. Onoaiia-eaii, ui ia?aaaaeia e?euee?noue oai?eo ?ON (84,7%) iathoue ae?aaeaio iaoaio?iii?noue, ui ia?aaeuo? aeai? ae?oaeo aaoi??a, ye? a?aei?/aee iaoai/ooeea?noue o 60-80% oai?eo ?ON (A.A.Aa?aeia, 1978; I.I.Ai?iiei, 1981; I.O.Oaieoia, 1988). Iao? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue, oiaoi 9 ?c 10 oai?eo ?ON iaoai/ooeea?. Oeae aeniiaie na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo caoiae?a ai?ioueae c iaoaio?iii?noth i?aeoe/ii an?o oai?eo ?ON. Iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeey inoaiiueiai ? aeai? ?yaeo aaoi??a i?i oa, ui cia/ia /anoeia oai?eo ia iaceaaee naaa iaoaio?iiieie, a i?e ee?i?ei-iaoai?ieia?/iiio ni?anoaaeaii? ia iani?eyoeea? oeie iiaiaee ?aaaoaaee ci?iith ia'?eoeaieo iieaciee?a (A.E.A?eai?ueaa, 1978; E.ss.Oaieoia, 1980). Aae?iiaoaio?iii? ?aaeoe?? oai?eo ?ON ia iathoue niaoeeo?/ieo i?eciae?a, iiaa eaea i?i oeiia? caaino?aiiy iniiaiiai caoai?thaaiiy i?ae aieeaii iaoaioiia. Iaoai/ooeea?noue o ae?iie a?aei?/a?oueny /ano?oa, i?ae o /ieia?e?a (ia 42,6%) ? ia? a?eueo ae?aaeaiee neiioiiieiiieaen. Ia?aaaae-ia a?eueo?noue iaoaio?iiieo oai?eo (86,0%) a?ae/oaathoue ia?ai?io iiaiaee caa/anii. Oai?? a?aei?/athoue, ui iaee?aua naaa aiie ii/oaathoue e?oii oa ?aii ainaie, a iaea??oa ii?a ?ieo aeey ieo - i?ciy in?iue, ceia oa ?aiiy aania. Iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaeie aeey oai?eo ?ON aeyaeeenue iiaiaee c? neaa-eith i?ieea?noth iaoaiaeaiaio?a, aioeoeeeeiiaeueiiai aaiaco, iaea?eueo ia-ni?eyoeeaeie - i?ieea? c iiaaeaie iiaiaee, ye? niinoa??aathoueny a oeeeeii?. Aiae?coth/e iaoa??aee i?i aeeiai?eo caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua Ee?anueei? iaeano? ca 5 ?ie?a aei aaa??? ia *AAN oa 5 ?ie?a i?ney, anoaiiaeee, ui a aeiaaa??eiee ia??iae ??ai? caa?oaeiaiino? eiaeiiai oe?aeeeaiai eiiiiiaioa ?ioaineaii c?inoaee. O i?neyaaa??eiee ia??iae (1986-1990 ??.) ?ioaineai?noue ae?? aeayeeo oaeoi??a ca?eueoeeanue (caa?oaeiaiiy io?ooio?i?eaoaie, i?o?eoaie, i?o?aoaie), c?inee ??ai? ooio, AII) a aeayeeo - ia ci?ieeanue ? iaa?oue cieceeanue (cia/ia /anoeia oe?aeeeaeo aeee-ae?a i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa ? o?ainii?oo a aoiinoa?ia iia?o?y). Oa aieiaia ci?ia o oeae ia??iae iieyaa? o caa?oaeiaii? ?aae?iaeoeaieie ?a/iae-iaie a?oioo ? ca?eueoaii? aeiciaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca ?aooiie ciai?oiueiai ? aioo??oiueiai ii?ii?iaiiy. I?ney aaa??? ia *AAN ?aae?aoe?eiee oaeoi? ca i??i??oaoii iin?a ia?oa i?noea. Caaaeii iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i neeaaeio aeieia?/io neooaoe?th, ui neeaeany ia oa?eoi??? Ee?anueei? iaeano?. ? ae?eyi-ee oaeoe/ii iai?eaiaei? aeey i?iaeeaaiiy ianaeaiiy (*i?iiaeeuenueeee, /anoeia Iie?nueeiai ?aeiio) ? ? oiiaii /eno? (ae?eyiee Neae?nueeiai, Oao??anueeiai, A?eioea?e?anueeiai,Noaaeuainueeiai,Oa?auainueeiai, Ie?ii?a-nueeiai, Eaaa?eeoeueeiai ?aeii?a). Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui a oe?eiio aio?iiiaaii? oaeoi?e caa?oae-iaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a na?aaeiueiio ia 82,6% iaoiiaeththoue caoai?thaai?noue ?ON. Iaea?aeai? aeineoue aenie? IEE (a?ae 0,88 0,05 ?<0,05, aei 0,93 0,03<0,05), ye? na?ae/aoue i?i neeo aca?iica'yceo i?ae oaeoi?aie ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua ? iieacieeaie caei?ia'y. Ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiee aiae?c aeyaea noaoenoe/ii cia/eiee ca'y-cie i?ae ?aae?iaeoeaiei ii?ii?ithaaiiyi ethaeeie oa iieacieeaie caaaeue-ii? oa ia?aeiii? caoai?thaaiino? oa nia?oiino? i?e ?ON. Oaeei /eiii iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui i?iiaiaaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ia? iaaaoeaiee aieea ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie, cie?aia ? ia NNN. Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui ai?no ianoeoeeae?a a ia'?eoao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua aieeaa? ia iioe?ai?noue ?ON. Oe?aeeea? aeeeaee i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa oa o?ainii?oo ? ie?ai? o?i?/i? caa?oaeithaa/? (SO2, aoaeaaiaei?) iathoue aieea ia caoai?thaai?noue oa nia?oi?noue i?e ?I. A aeinoia??ii? caeaaeiino? iieaciee?a ?ON a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y oaa?aeeie oa aaciiiae?aieie oe?aeeeaeie ?a/iaeiaie ia anoaiiaeaii. Ca ??aiai cia/eiino? o?ce/ieo oa o?i?/ieo oaeoi??a aeey iioe?aiino? oa caoai?thaaiino? ?ON aeu? ?aiae iathoue aeica ii?ii?iaiiy (-eiao?oe??ioe - 0,18 oa 0,24 a?aeiia?aeii), AII (0,10 oa 0,05) oa caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y n??eiaiaeiai (0,18 oa 0,18). Ia iioe?ai?noue oa caoai?thaai?noue ?I oaae aieeaathoue a?eueo ca ana AII (-eiao?oe??ioe - 0,50 oa 0,52) oa aeica ii?ii?iaiiy (0,17 oa 0,20). I?e aea/aii? ii?aeiaii? ae?? iiaiaee ? caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai ii-a?o?y ia uiaeiaiao /anoioo caaino?aiue ?ON aia?oa aoea iiaoaeiaaia ?aa?a-n?eia iiaeaeue, yea aaeaeaaoia c a??ia?aei?noth 95%. -eiao?oe??ioe ??aiyiue ?aa?an??, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue "/enoee" aieea eiaeiiai oaeoi?o, na?ae/aoue, ui ia aeieeiaiiy, caaino?aiiy NNC aeinoia??ii aieeaathoue o ??ai?e i???, ye iiaiaea (0,25) oae ? eiiieaenia caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y (0,27). Caaaeii, ae?y i?e?iaeiiai ? aio?iiiaaiiiai oaeoi??a aca?iiiioaioe?thth/a. I?aenoiiaoth/e aeeeaaeaiee iaoa??ae, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia aee-iai?eo ?ON oa ?? iniiaieo i?iya?a - noaiiea?ae?? oa ?I o ianaeaiiy Oe?a?-ie aieeaathoue i?e?iaei? ? aio?iiiaaii? oaeoi?e. Ae?y oeeo /enaeueieo oaeoi-??a ia ?cieueiaaia, ?o ii?aeiaiee aieea i?eaiaeeoue aei aca?iiiioaioe?thaaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iaie ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen caoiae?a ii iiia?aaeaeaiith iaaaoeaiiai aieeao i?e?iaeieo oa aio?iiiaaiieo eiiiiiaio?a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia aeieeiaiiy oa ia?aa?a ?ON oa i?io?eaeoeoe? oeueiai aieeao. A E N I I A E E 1. Eiiieaenia a?a??i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oa no/aniee iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/iee aiae?c aeicaieeee e?euee?nii anoaiiaeoe, ui ia aeeiai?eo aeieeiaiiy, ia?aa?ao oa iane?aeee ?ON o i?inoi?? oa /an? nooo?ai aiee-aathoue i?e?iaei? (-eiao?oe??io 0,25) oa aio?iiiaaii? (-eiao?oe??io 0,27) oaeoi?e iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. 2. Ia i?aenoaa? noaoenoe/iiai oa iaaeeei-aaia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui o ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ??ai? iioe?aiino? oa caoai?thaaiino? ?ON oa ?? iniiaieo i?iya?a - ?I oa noaiiea?ae?? iaaieiii c?inoathoue. Nia?oi?noue a?ae ?ON ca 10 ?ie?a (1981-1990) ciaioeeanue a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i?, a a?ae ?I ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei c?inoaiiy. Aeey caoai?thaaiino? ?ON iaeaeu? ?aiaia? i?noey a oe?eiio na?aae 25 iaeanoae Oe?a?ie oa i.Ee?aa iathoue A?iieoeueea, *a?i?aaoeueea, Oiaeueieoeueea iaeano?. Ieae/? - iaeaaeaoue i.Ee?ao, Caii??cuee?e oa Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e iaeanoyi. 3. A Ee?anuee?e iaeano?, ia oa?eoi??? yei? noaeany aaa??y ia *AAN, oaae iaaieiii c?inoa? caaaeueia oa ia?aeiia caoai?thaai?noue. ??cea c?inoaiiy iieaciee?a a?aeaoeiny o ?iee i?ney aaa???. A ia??iae 1986-1990 ?ie?a a?aeiinii ia??iaeo 1981-1985 ?ie?a a 1,2 ?ace ca?eueoeany oaii i?e?inoo iioe?aiino? ?ON, a caoai?thaaiino? iaeaea a 3 ?ace. Nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy Ee?anueei? iaeano? a?ae ?ON, oae ye ? a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i? ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy. Na?aae 26 ?aeii?a Ee?anueei? iaeano? iaeaeu? iieacieee caoai?thaaiino? iathoue Iie?nueeee, ?ieeoiyinueeee, ?aaie?anueeee ?aeiie. I?ney aaa??? ia *AAN iaeaeu? ?aiaia? ??ai? caeiyee ?aaie?anueeee oa Iie?nueeee ?aeiie, ye? aei aaa??? iaee na?aaei?e ??aaiue caoai?thaaiino?. 4. I?e a?ao?/iiio oa ei?aeyoe?eiiio ni?anoaaeaii? ??/ieo iieaciee?a NA ? ??/ieo iieaciee?a caoai?thaaiino? ?ON aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ai?acaioaoeaiee noaoenoe/iee ca'ycie c iioe?ai?noth, caoai?thaai?noth oa nia?oi?noth i?e ?ON oa ?I ia a?aei?/a?oueny (r<0,300 i?e ?>0,05).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae /an o?iiinoa?ieo niaeao?a, i?iii?oe?eii ?o
iiooaeiino?, a?aeaoaa?oueny aeinoia??ia i?aeaeuaiiy /anoioe
caaino?aiue ?ON (aei 7,7%) oa ?I (aei 22,9%) a ia?oo oa ae?oao aeiao
i?ney ?a?no?aoe?? niaeaoo. *anoioa caaino?aiue ?ON oa ?I a ia?o? aei?
ia?aae AIA caeeoa?oueny ia ??ai? na?aaeiueiai aai iaa?oue cieaeo?oueny.
A aeaiue ?a?no?aoe?? AIA a?aei?/a?oueny i?aeeii /enea caaino?aiue ?ON
(ia 3,7%) oa ?I (ia 5,2%), ?ai?acaioaoeaia i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
na?oeaai-noaeeiieo eaoano?io i?iaeia-aeo?oueny 1-2 aeiae. Ioaea,
oa?i?iiao aae?iaaio?ce/io i?io?eaeoeeo caaino?aiue NNO ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe
ca 2 aeiae aei ii/aoeo ? ia i?ioyc? 3-o ae?a i?ney ?a?no?aoe??
ei?ioei/aniiae?th/eo i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a — o?iiinoa?ieo niaeao?a oa
iaai?oieo ao?ue.

5. Aecia/ai? caeiiii??iino? naciiii? caoai?thaaiino? ?ON oa ?I.
*anoioa caaino?aiue c?inoa? o ia?oiio eaa?oae? ?ieo c iaeneioiii o
aa?aci? (116,9%), cieaeo?oueny a e?oi? i?nyoe? (i?i?ioi o eeii? —
88,9%) oa a aa?ani?.

6. Ca oaeaeeith iaaee/iith aeiiiiiaith i?e oai?iaao na?oey /ano?oa
caa?oathoueny ethaee iioeeiai a?eo noa?oa 50 ?ie?a (88,3%). C
i?eaiaeo ?ON /ano?oa aeeeeeathoue oaeaeeo aeiiiiiao ae?iee (57,7%), a c
i?eaiaeo ?I — /ieia?ee (62,9%).

7. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee iaa?oiooaaoe a?a??i?/io eeaneo?eaoe?th
iiaiaee aeey oai?eo NNC, ui i?iaeeaathoue o ?aa?iiao, ye? caciaee
aieeao iane?aee?a aaa??? ia *AAN. Iani?eyoeeaeie oeiaie iiaiaee aeey
oai?eo ?ON oa ?I aeyaeeenue iiaiaee «nianoe/iiai» oa «a?iiene/iiai»
oei?a, ia?a-o?aei? c iii??iei, ae ?aaeaiei oa ??cei ae?aaeaiei
nooiaiai i?aeaeiaiai? i?ieeaino? iaoaiaeaiaio?a. Ni?eyoeeaeie ? no?eea
?iaeeoa?aioia oa iiaiaee c ?iaeeoa?aioiei nooiaiai i?ieeaino?
iaoaiaeaiaio?a.

8. Iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/iee aiae?c aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe, ui
aio?i-iiaaii? oaeoi?e, ye? iaoiiaeththoue nai?i aieeaii i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy na?-oeaai-noaeeiii? caoai?thaaiino? ia 82,6%, ca ??aiai cia/eiino?
?iciiae?-eythoueny oae: aeu? ?aiae iathoue aeica ?ii?coth/iai
ii?ii?iaiiy, AII oa caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y n??eiaiaeiai.

9. Ee?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?eo aeicaieeei aecia/eoe, ui
iaoai-o?iii?noue i?e caoai?thaaiiyo na?oey a inoaii?e /an c?inea. 84,7%
oai?eo iathoue ae?aaeaio iaoaio?iii?noue.

10. Iaa?oioiaaii, ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo ioi?iie
caei?ia’y iaoiae iaaee/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy aieeao aae?iaaio?ce/ii?
aeoea-iino?, ee?iaoo, iiaiaee aeey ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii? i?io?eaeoeee
NNC o ianaeaiiy, ui i?iaeeaa? o ?aa?iiao, ye? caciaee aieeao iane?aee?a
aaa??? ia *AAN.

NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??.

1. Aeeyiea aaeeiiaaieoiuo e eeeiaoe/aneeo eieaaaiee ia /anoioo ?acaeoey
ia?ooaiee na?aea/iiai ?eoia //Oe?a?inueeee ea?ae?ieia?/iee aeo?iae. —
E., 1996. — N4. — N. 26-29. (Ni?aaao. A.A.Eeciaoa, A.A.Aa?aeia).

2. Aieea iaeeiaaeoeyoe??/ieo oeeee?a niiy/ii? aeoeaiino? ia ia?aa?a
na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiue//Oe?a?inueeee ea?ae?ieia?/iee aeo?iae.
— E., 1997. — ? 4. — N. 45-47.

3. Aecia/aiiy aeeiai?ee caaino?aiue ?oai?/ii? oai?iae na?oey a ??ci?
aei? ii a?aeiioaiith aei aei?a ii/aoeo aaiiaai?oii? ao??//Oe?a?inueeee
ea?ae?ieia?/iee aeo?iae. — E., 1997. — ? 6. — N. 38-39.

4. Caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey ye oaeoi? ?eceeo caoai?thaaiue nenoaie
e?iaiia?ao ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie iaaeeoeeie. — 1998. — ? 1. — N.
55-57

5. Caeaaei?noue caoai?thaaiino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia ?ioa?eo
i?iea?aea, eiai nia?oiino? aiane?aeie iieieia?/ieo oa
oea?aa?iaaneoey?ieo caoai?thaaiue a?ae ai?noo naeaio a ?aoe?ii?
//Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ni?a?ia?oiee?a EIAII ii cae?i/aieo oa
ia?ao?aeieo IAe? ca 1990-1996 ?iee.- E., 1997.- N. 620-622.
(Ni?aaao. A.I.No/eia).

6. Aeaye? ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? iioe?aiino? na?oeaai-noaeeiieo
caoai?thaaiue na?aae ianaeaiiy a ??cieo ee?iaoi-aaia?ao?/ieo ciiao
Oe?a?ie //A?a??i?/i? i?iaeaie ioi?iie caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy. Iao.
tha?eaeii? iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997.- N. 170-173.

7. Iiiaieaoiea aaeeiaeinoa?iua nayce eae iaoiaee/aneay iniiaa iaeiie ec
ia? eiiieaeniie i?ioeeaeoeee aieaciae nenoaiu e?iaiia?auaiey
//Eeeiaoe/aneea e i?aoi?ie?iaaiiua oece/aneea oaeoi?u a i?ioeeaeoeea e
?aaaeeeoaoeey aieueiuo a?iioi-eaai/iuie e na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouie
caaieaaaieyie. Oac. aeiee. ?ani. iao/. eiio.- I., 1989.- N. 56-57.

8. A?a??i?/i? aniaeoe i?iaiicoaaiiy i?io?eaeoeee iiaiaeicoiiaeaieo
caaino?aiue na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiue ianaeaiiy a ee?iaoe/ieo
oiiaao Oe?a?ie //I??i??oaoi? i?iaeaie a?a??i?/ii? iaoee, iaaee/ii?
aeieia??, nai?oa?ii? i?aeoeee oa ioi?iie caei?ia’y. Oac. aeii. XIII
c’?caeo a?a??i?no?a Oe?a?ie.- E., 1994.- N. 123-124. (Ni?aaao.
?.?.I?eaa?a, I.I.Eieii??oeue, A.I.Oi?aoi, ?.I.Ai?n?iia, I.?.Ioeee).

9. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
eaoaae?e i?iiaaeaaoeee a?a??ie c ieoaiue aieeao iiaiaee ia noai
caei?ia’y oai?eo c na?oeaai-noaeeiiith iaoieia??th aei oa i?ney aaa???
ia *AAN //Iaoiaei-eia?/i? aniaeoe iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia iaaee/ieo
oaeoeueoaoao. Iao. iaa/.-iaoiae. eiio. 4-ai iaae. oaeoeueoaoo.- E.,
1997. N. 38-39.

AIIIOAOe?ss

Oea/aiei N.I. A?a??i?/ia ioe?iea ii?aeiaiiai aieeao i?e?iaeieo oa
ai-o?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia aeeiai?eo ia?aa?ao
oai?ia nenoaie e?iaiia?ao.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo
ia-oe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.02.01. — A?a??ia, Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaaee/iee oi?aa?-neoao ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, Ee?a, 1998.

Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao eiiieaeno i?e?iaeieo oa
aio?i-iiaaiieo oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia ia?aa?a oai?ia
nenoaie e?iaiia?ao. Iaa?oioiaai?, ?ic?iaeai? oa ai?iaaaeaeai? a
i?aeoeeo ioi?i-ie caei?ia’y iaoiaee iaaee/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy aieeao
aae?iaaio?ce/ii? ae-oeaiino?, ee?iaoo oa iiaiaee aeey ia?aeiii? oa
aoi?eiii? i?io?eaeoeee na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiue o ianaeaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: na?oeaai-noaeeii? caoai?thaaiiy, i?io?eaeoeea, aieea
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Oea/aiei N.I. Aeaeaie/aneay ioeaiea ni/aoaiiiai aeeyiey i?e?iae-iuo e
aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia aeeiaieeo oa/aiey
aieaciae nenoaiu e?iaiia?auaiey.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.02.01. — Aeaeaia, Iaoeeiiaeueiue
iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao eiaie I.I.Aiaiiieueoea, Eeaa, 1998.

Onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe aeeyiey eiieiaena i?e?iaeiuo e aio?iiiaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia oa/aiea aieaciae nenoaiu e?iaiia?auaiey.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee 15-eaoiaai ia?eiaea (1981-1995 aa.) iieacaoaee
caaieaaaaiinoe eoaie/aneie aieaciueth na?aeoea e aa eeeie/aneeie oi?iaie
— eioa?eoii ieiea?aea e noaiiea?aeeae iaoeeiiii ?inee. Oaii i?e?inoa
o?iaiy ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe eoaie/aneie aieacie na?aeoea n?aaee ianaeaiey
Oe?aeiu aic?in a n?aaeiai ia 11,0%.

A Eeaaneie iaeanoe, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?ie i?iecioea aaa?ey ia
*a?iiaueuenueeie aoiiiie yeaeo?inoaioeee, caaieaaaaiinoue
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouie caaieaaaieyie oaeaea eiaao oaiaeaioeeth ?inoa.
Iauay caaieaaaaiinoue aic?inea n 1981 aiaea ii 1995 aiae a 4,2 ?aca.
Ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea ?aceia oaaee/aiea iieacaoaeae a aiaeu iinea
aaa?ee. A 1,2 ?ac oaaee/eeny oaii i?e?inoa ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe
eoaie/aneie aieacie na?aeoea, a caaieaaaaiinoe ii/oe a 3 ?aca a ia?eiae
1986-1990 aiaeu ii ioiioaieth e ia?eiaeo 1981-1985 aiaeu.

Iaaeeei-aaia?aoe/aneee aiaeec iicaieee ?ani?aaeaeeoue 25 iaeanoae
Oe?aeiu e 26 ?aeiiia Eeaaneie iaeanoe ii 7-aaeueiui oeaeai o?iaiae
caaieaaaaiinoe eoaie/aneie aieaciueth na?aeoea e nicaeaoue
iiciaaia?aoe/aneea ea?ou ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe eoaie/aneie aieacie na?aeoea
ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey i aeeyiee iiiaieaoieo,
naciiiuo e e?aoeia?aiaiiuo eciaiaiee eeeiaoa e iiaiaeu ia aeeiaieeo
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo caaieaaaiee ianaeaiey auee nicaeaiu noaiu ioeaiee
aeio?iiiinoe ?acee/iuo oeiia iiaiaeu ia oa??eoi?ee a.Eeaaa aeey
i?ioeeaeoeee iiaiaeiiaoneiaeaiiuo iaino?aiee eoaie/aneie aieacie
na?aeoea e eioa?eoa ieiea?aea.

Aiaeece?oy iaoa?eaeu i aeeiaieea caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
Eeaaneie iaeanoe, iu onoaiiaeee, /oi ia oa??eoi?ee Eeaaneie iaeanoe
nicaeaeanue neiaeiay yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey. A /anoiinoe, ioia/aaony
iaoeeiiiue ?ino eioaineaiinoe caa?yciaiey ii/au, aicaeooa, aiaeu
yeciaaiiuie oeie/aneeie aauanoaaie (yaeioeieeaoaie, ieo?eoaie,
ieo?aoaie, a?aaeiuie aua?inaie a aoiinoa?iue aicaeoo i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?iecaiaenoa e o?ainii?oa).

Aeey auyaeaiey aiciiaeiie caaeneiinoe caei?iauey ianaeaiey io
aio?iiiaaiiuo caa?ycieoaeae aue i?iaaaeai iiiaioaeoi?iue
ei??aeyoeeiiii-?aa?anneiiiue aiaeec niaieoiiinoe iieacaoaeae.N iaeiie
noi?iiu auee aeeth/aiu iiiai/eneaiiua oaeoi?u caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?iiai
aicaeooa, aiaeu, ii/au — ieo?eoaie, ieo?aoaie, ianoeoeeaeaie,
o/eouaaeenue o?iaie ooia, iai?yaeaiiinoue yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iieae, a
oaeaea aiaeiaua noiia?iua yeaeaaeaioiua aeicu iaeo/aiey, n ae?oaie —
o?iaie caaieaaaaiinoe eoaie/aneie aieaciueth na?aeoea ianaeaiey ?aeiiia
Eeaaneie iaeanoe e a.Eeaaa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a oeaeii aio?iiiaaiiua
oaeoi?u caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a n?aaeiai ia 82,6 %
iaoneaaeeaatho caaieaaaaiinoue eoaie/aneie aieaciueth na?aeoea.
Ei??aeyoeeiiii-?aa?anneiiiue aiaeec auyaee noaoenoe/anee cia/eioth
naycue iaaeaeo ?aaeeiaeoeaiui iaeo/aieai /aeiaaea, eioaineaiinoueth
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iieae, niaea?aeaieai ianoeoeeaeia a iauaeoao
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e iieacaoaeyie caaieaaaaiinoe e nia?oiinoe i?e
eoaie/aneie aieacie na?aeoea. I?e eco/aiee ni/aoaiiiai aeeyiey iiaiaeu
e caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa ia /anoioo iaino?aiee eoaie/aneie
aieacie na?aeoea auei auyaeaii, /oi, a oeaeii, aeeyiea i?e?iaeiuo e
aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia eiaao acaeiiiioaioeee?othuaa aeaenoaea.

O/eouaay ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee, iu iainiiaaee, ?ac?aaioaee e
aiaae?eee a i?aeoeeo cae?aaiio?aiaiey iaoiaeu iaaeeoeeineiai
i?iaiice?iaaiey aeeyiey aaeeiaaioece/aneie aeoeaiinoe, eeeiaoa e iiaiaeu
aeey ia?ae/iie e aoi?e/iie i?ioeeaeoeee na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo
caaieaaaiee o ianaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: na?aea/ii-ninoaeenoua caaieaaaiey, i?ioeeaeoeea,
aeeyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Tkachenko S.M. Hygienic assesment of the combined influence of
natural and antropogenic environmental factors on flow diseases of blood
circulation system.

The dissertation for the Master Degree of Science (Medicince) on
speciality 14.02.01- Hygiene, Bogomolets National Medical University,
Kiev, 1998.

Conformities of complex influence of natural and antropogenic
factors of environment on the flow diseases of blood circulation
system are defined. The methods of medical prognoses influence of
helioheophisical impact on activity, climate and weather on primary
and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases in population
have been substantiated, eleborated and implemnted into
practice.

Key words: cardiovascular diseases, prophylaxis, influence
of environment.

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