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Гігієнічна характеристика важких металів у навколишньому середовищі та їх вплив на репродуктивну функцію жінок: Автореф. дис… д-ра мед. наук / Е.М.

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Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiaee a?a??i?/iee oeaio? IIC Oe?a?ie

A?eaoeueea Aeaiii?a Ieeiea?aia

OAeE 613.63:669.018.674]-02: 618.2-053.81./86

A?A??I?*IA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AAAEEEO IAOAE?A O IAAEIEEOIUeIIO
NA?AAeIAEU? OA ?O AIEEA IA ?AI?IAeOEOEAIO OOIEOe?TH AE?IIE

14.02.01– a?a??ia

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai??
IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IA?AIUeEI IEEIEA IEOAEEIAE*,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e a?a??ie oa aeieia??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? AA?AeIA AANEEUe AAA?EEIAE*,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?ith;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe OEI*AIEI IEUeAA ?AAI?AIA, Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiaee
oeaio? iaaee/ii? aaiaoeee IIC ? IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ea eaai?aoi???th;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e AII Oe?a?ie, /eai – ei?. IAI Oe?a?ie,
i?ioani? O?AOOAIAA?A ?NAE IEOAEEIAE*, ?inoeooo iaaeeoeeie i?aoe? AII
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???th.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
?i.I.E.Ooi?ea IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a caaaeueii? oa eiioiaeueii? a?a??ie,
IIC Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ” 15 ” aeiaoiy 1999?. i 1000 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.604.01 Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiaiai a?a??i?/iiai oeaio?o IIC Oe?a?ie (253660, i.Ee?a-94, aoe.
Iiioae?aiea, 50).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiaiai a?a??i?/iiai oeaio?o IIC Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a, aoe. Iiioae?aiea,
50).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ” 14 ” aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ___________
Naeaciueia A.TH.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. I?iaeaia “aeiaeaoeiaiai” aei i?e?iaeiiai oiio
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iaoae?a o na?aaeiaeua ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie; iniaeeai o
i?iieneiaeo ?aa?iiao, iiaycaia c iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii, ui
iio?aao? iino?eiiai caeo/aiiy a oaoiieia?/io ia?a?iaeo i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a. I?ioeane aeaeiaoaaiiy, caaaa/aiiy oa ia?a?iaee ??ciiiai?oieo
ei?enieo eiiaeei, aeieaaea /aaoio oa noae?, eienio?i?/i?, iaoeiiaoae?ai?
oa o?i?/i? i?aei?e?inoaa, /eneaii? aeaee o?ainii?oo oa aaaaoi ?ioeo ?
aeaea?aeaie aeeeae?a o aeiae?eey. Oe? aeeeaee a aoiinoa?o, aiaeieieua,
a?oio ca?eueoothoue ai?no iaoae?a o iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?
(?.Ae.Aaaiae/, E.N.I?eiooeia, 1987; .A.Aea?ea/aa, 1992; I.I.Ia?aiueei e
niaao., 1981; I.I.Ia?aiueei, .I.Aaeeoeeay, 1995; A.A.?aae/, 1992;
A.I.Na?aethe, 1995; E.I.O?aooaiaa?a e niaao., 1991, 1994, 1995;
?.N.Aeeueaeaineeieueae e niaao., 1992; A.Ia?oaee, 1989; E.?aeee, 1985;
Body Peter E., 1991 oa ?i.). Iaoaee c i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy, aiaeith ?
iia?o?yi iiaeooue iaaeoiaeeoe a i?aai?ci, caa?oaeithth/e aioo??oi?
na?aaeiaeua ethaeeie.

Iaoaee – iniaeea? ?a/iaeie, ?i i?eoaiaii? niaoeeo?/i? aeanoeaino?, a
naia: oea i?e?iaei? niieoee, aea ?o ?iciianthaeaeai?noue o?nii iia’ycaia
c ae?yeuei?noth noni?euenoaa; oea ?a/iaeie iiaea?eiiai a?ieia?/iiai
cia/aiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? – a?ioeee oa aa?ioeee aeey
ethaeeie; aaaee? iaoaee iaeiie/othoueny oa aeaiiiothoueny a i?aai?ci?, o
ca’yceo c /ei a?eueo?noue c ieo iathoue o?eaaeee /an a?ieia?/iiai
iai?aaeaaaeaiiy ? a?aeaeaeai? iane?aeee aeey ethaeeie. Iaoaee aoiaeyoue
o no?oeoo?o ee?oei, oa?iaio?a, ai?iii?a, aa?ooue o/anoue o
ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ioeanao ae?yeueiino? ia?aiai?, na?oeaai-noaeeiii?,
?ioiii? oa ?ioeo nenoai i?aai?cio.

O ca’yceo ?c aeuacacia/aiei ca?eueoaia aai iaaeinoaoi? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
iaoae?a a i?aai?ci iiaea aooe /eiieeii ?icaeoeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ii?ooaiue oa caoai?thaaiue ianaeaiiy (A.A.Aeeia?iai, 1980; A.I.Aaoei e
niaao., 1991; A.E.Niiey?, 1989; E.I.O?aooaiaa?a e niaao., 1994; Schauzer
G.N., 1984; E.G.Underwood, 1977).

Oae, o NOA c 1989 ?ieo oi?iaaaeaeaia nenoaia iaia’yceiaiai
a?iiii?oi?eiao naeioeth o e?ia? aaa?oieo oa ae?oae, a c 1991 ?ieo
ii/aeany ?aae?caoe?y 20-??/iiai no?aoaa?/iiai ieaio e?ea?aeaoe??
naeioeaai? ?ioieneeaoe?? ae?oae, yea ii/eia?oueny ua o i?aiaoaeueiiio
ia??iae? /a?ac iaoa?einueeo e?ia oa i?iyaey?oueny o 2-??/ieo ae?oae o
aeaeyae? cao?eiee ?icoiiaiai ?icaeoeo oa ?ioeo ii?ooaiue (Mushak Paul,
1989; Perrota D.M., 1992).

?c onueiai ??ciiiai?ooy o?c?ieia?/ii? cia/ouino? iaoae?a iniaeeaa i?noea
iin?aea? ?o aieea ia aaia?aoeaio ooieoe?th ethaeeie, yea ia o?eueee
aeoaea neeaaeia oa u?eueii iia’ycaia c ?ioeie nenoaiaie, aea ? iaei??th
c iaea?eueo /ooeeaeo ooieoe?e i?aai?cio. Aieea aaaeeeo iaoae?a (AI) ia
?ai?iaeoeoeaio ooieoe?th ethaeeie cae?enith?oueny ia an?o ?? aoaiao:
aaa?oi?noue – iieiae – iai- oa iinoiaoaeueiee ia??iae ?icaeoeo aeeoeie ?
caeaaeeoue a?ae /eiieea, eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? – aeice, e?eoe/iiai
ia??iaeo aaa?oiino? oa ?i. (.E.Aeeaiacyi, 1990; E.?.Aa?eeye e niaao.,
1989; A.A.Aeeia?iai, 1980; A.I.Aeaai, 1970; I.A.Etheueei, A.I.Noonue,
1996; A.A.Iaaeaaiei e niaao., 1991; Bond M.B. et al., 1985; Baghurst
P.T., 1991; Crocetti A.F. et al., 1990; Goyer R.A., 1990; Sager P.R. et
al., 1986; Winstel C., 1992).

Oaeei /eiii i?iaeaia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy AI o aeiae?ee? o ca’yceo c ?o
iani?eyoeeaei aieeaii ia i?aai?ci oa iniaeeai ia aeineoue /ooeeao aei
ieo ?ai?iaeoeoeaio nenoaio ? aeooaeueiith. Ianaiia?aae oea noino?oueny
?aa?ii?a i?aeaeuaiiai oaoiiaaiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue ?
I?eaei?i?ianueeee ?aa?ii.

?acii c oei, ia an? iai?yiee oe??? i?iaeaie aeey iaoi? e?a?ie aea/ai? a
aeinoaoiueiio ianyc?. Eiiieaenia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy AI aei i?aai?cio o
eiaeiiio ?aa?ii? ia? nai? i?e?iaei? oa aio?iiiaaii? iniaeeaino?, i?ae
oei oe? ieoaiiy iaa?oioiaai? o?eueee aeey aeayeeo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie.

Nenoaiaoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith oa eiio?ieth i?aeeyaa? o?eueee iaiaaeaia
e?euee?noue iaoae?a-enaiia?ioee?a. ?acoeueoaoe aiae?cothoueny ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ?o AAeE aac o?aooaaiiy o?c?ieia?/ii? iio?aae ethaeeie
aei aeayeeo c ieo, iai?eeeaae, i?ae?, oeeieo oa ?i.

?niothoue ?ica?aeiino? ai?noo AI a ia’?eoao aeiae?eey ca aeaieie ??cieo
aaoi??a, iia’ycai? a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a
??cii? /ooeeaino?.

Aaaeeeaei oaeiae ? ia o?eueee a?a??i?/ia ioe?iea AI o ia’?eoao
aeiae?eey, aea ? iaa?oiooaaiiy i??i?eoaoieo caa?oaeiee?a na?aae ieo aeey
oeo /e ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aia iaeiie/aiiy AI o oeaieiao,
i?aaiao ? a?ieia?/ieo ??aeeiao i?aai?cio ethaeeie. I?ae oei iieacieee
a?iiii?oi?eiao na?ae/aoue i?i ae?enia iaeiie/aiiy iaoae?a a i?aai?ci? ?
a?eueo iieaciaa o ii??aiyii? ?c ciai?oiueith aeniiceoe??th o
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu? (E.I.O?aooaiaa?a e niaao., 1991; Griffith J.
et al., 1989; Foa V., 1990). Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny iaea?eueo
a?aceeaeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy – aaa?oieo, iaiiaeyo, ui iia’ycaii ?c
o?iii?noth AI aei ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? nenoaie oa iaaaciaeith iiaeeeaiai
o?ainieaoeaioa?iiai i?iieeiaiiy aei ieiaeo.

?niothoue /eneaii? aeieace aiiaaeio?iiii?, oa?aoiaaiii? ae?? AI, aea oea
ia?aaaaeii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? (N.A.Aaa?aiyi, 1975; A.A.Aaao/yi,
1986; A.A.Aeeia?iai, 1980; A.E.Eaca/eia, 1989; I.I.Eeoaeiia e niaao.,
1988; Mas A. et al., 1985; Bhattacharyya Maryka H., 1983; Sowa Boguslaw
et al., 1985). Ai?aeai?ieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ia iiioeyoe?eiiio ??ai?
iiiaeeiie? ? noinothoueny a iniiaiiio ie?aieo caoai?thaaiue (A.E.Aaa?eia
e niaao., 1991; A.A.Iaaeaaiei e niaao., 1991; A.I.Na?aethe oa ni?aaao.,
1995; I.E.Oei/aiei e niaao., 1995; N.Oaaaeiaa, 1987).

Iaiao?aeia oaeiae ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie i?io?eaeoe/ieo
caoiae?a oaoiieia?/iiai, nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iiai oa
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o uiaei caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeaiiio
aieeao AI ia ethaeeio oa ioi/oth/a na?aaeiaeua.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo iniia i?io?eaeoeee
?ai?iaeoeoeaieo ii?ooaiue e?eoe/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy (aaa?oi?, ii?iae?ee?,
iiaiia?iaeaeai?), iaoiiaeaieo iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi aaaeeeo iaoae?a c ia?eo?a
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aaaaeaee aeioe?eueiei ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

– aeine?aeeoe oa ioe?ieoe ai?no iaoae?a o ia’?eoao aeiae?eey – iia?o??,
aiae?, oa?/ia?e ne?iaei? oa i?iaeoeoao oa?/oaaiiy i?noeaaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa;

– iaa?oiooaaoe noia?ia aeiaiaa iaaeoiaeaeaiiy AI a i?aai?ci aa?iaaiiei,
aiaeiei oa oa?/iaei oeyoaie;

– aecia/eoe ai?no AI o a?ieia?/ieo noano?aoao e?eoe/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy –
aaa?oieo, ii?iae?eue, iiaiia?iaeaeaieo;

– ioe?ieoe noai ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? ae?iie ca iieacieeaie /anoioe
oneeaaeiaiue aaa?oiino?, iieia?a, iaiiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo,
aio?iiiiao?e/ieo aeaieo, ??aiy aeeoo?caeaoiino? ? i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae
?icaeoeo iiaiia?iaeaeaieo;

– aeyaeoe iiaeeeaee caycie i?ae ?ai?iaeoeoeaieie ii?ooaiiyie,
iaoieia??th iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ? ai?noii AI o aeiae?ee? oa aioo??oiueiio
na?aaeiaeu? oeyoii iiiaeeiiiai ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiiai iaoaiaoe/iiai
aiae?co;

– iaa?oiooaaoe i?io?eaeoe/i? caniae ii caiia?aaiith ?icaeoeo
?ai?iaeoeoeaieo ii?ooaiue o ae?iie oa cieaeaiith iaoieia?? iaiiaeyo,
iaoiiaeaieo aieeaii aaaeeeo iaoae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeenue ia eaoaae?? a?a??ie oa aeieia?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ye o?aaiaioe eiieo?nii?
aea?aeathaeaeaoii? IAe? IIC Oe?a?ie (1994-1996 ??., ? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
0194V012328) oa ?iiiaaoe?eii? aea?aeathaeaeaoii? IAe? IIC Oe?a?ie (1996
?., ?10) o o?niiio ca’yceo c I?eaei?i?ianueeei iaoeiaei oeaio?ii oa
?inoeoooii i?iaeai i?e?iaeiaeei?enoaiiy oa aeieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie i?e
i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie aeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao “I?eaei?i?ia’y”
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?, a oaeiae ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe c iaeaniith oa i?nueeeie
nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/ieie noaioe?yie Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?
(1994-1996 ??.).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo a oiiaao aeieia?/ii caa?oaeiaiiai
i?iieneiaiai ?aa?iio:

– i?iaaaeai? eiiieaeni? a?a??i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo AI o ??cieo
ia?eoao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?iieneiaeo i?no;

– aia?oa iaa?oioiaaia noia?ia aeiaiaa iaaeoiaeaeaiiy AI a i?aai?ci
iaoeaioe?a i?iieneiaeo i?no;

– aecia/aiee ai?no AI o a?inoano?aoao iaoa?? oa ?? aeeoeie;

– ?ice?eo? iia? eaiee iaoai?cio iaaeoiaeaeaiiy, i?a?aoe??, iaeiie/aiiy
oa ae?i?iaoe?? AI a i?aai?ci? ca noaiith “iaoe oa ?? ie?ae”, o oiio
/ene? ?o o?ainieaoeaioa?iee ia?ao?ae a oiiaao ee?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue;

– aia?oa aeeiiai? ai?aeai?ieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo
oneeaaeiaiue na?aae i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo ae?iie, ye? iaoeathoue o
i?iieneiaeo i?noao;

– io?eiai? aeai? uiaei aieeao AI i?e eiiieaeniiio ?o iaaeoiaeaeaii? a
i?aai?ci oa aca?iicayceo ?c oneeaaeiaiiyie ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? nenoaie ia
an?o ?? aoaiao – aaa?oi?noue, iieiae, iaoieia?y iiaiia?iaeaeaieo – ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a iiaeaethaaiiy oa iaaee/iiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaeniiai
a?a??i?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeai? i?io?eaeoe/i? caniae caiia?aaiiy
?ai?iaeoeoeaiei ii?ooaiiyi o ae?iie oa iaoieia?? iaiiaeyo, ui iaoeathoue
o i?iieneiaeo ?aa?iiao, ye? aeeeaaeai? o iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo
“I?io?eaeoeea ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo ii?ooaiue, iaoiiaeaieo aaaeeeie iaoaeaie
aeiae?eey” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997). ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe noaee
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaaee/iiai aeieo nenoaie aeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao
“I?eaei?i?ia’y” Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?. Iaoa??aee ?iaioe
oi?iaaaeaeai? nai?oa?ii-ai?aeai?ieia?/iith neoaeaith Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?
iaeano? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy eiio?ieth aaaeeeo iaoae?a o ia’?eoao
aeiae?eey oa i?e aeeiiaii? noi?nii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe.
Anoaiiaeai? cia/aiiy iaoae?a a i?aai?ci? aaa?oieo oa iaiiaeyo,
noaoenoe/i? iieacieee oneeaaeiaiue aaa?oiino?, iieia?a, iaiiaoaeueiiai
ia??iaeo oa aio?iiiiao?e/i? aeai? iaiiaeyo ?aeiiaiaeothoueny o yeino?
?aa?iiaeueieo noaiaea?o?a i?e ?o ioe?ioe? o a?aeiia?aeieo a?oiao
ianaeaiiy aeaii? oa?eoi???. Iaoa??aee ii oai? aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?no a?a??ie oa aeieia?? a
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia I I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Aeaeaia oece/aneeo
oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie n?aaeu” (16-18 eenoiiaaea 1993
?.; i.Ee?a), Oe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?eiaiaiea
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee a
iaaeeei-aeaeaie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo “Iaoaaeaeaia – 93” (27-28 o?aaiy
1993 ?.; i.Ee?a), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Icaei?iaeaiea
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu I?eaeiai?ianeiai ?aaeiia” (23 aa?aciy 1993 ?.;
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? AeAeIA,
i?enay/ai?e 10-??//th aaa??? ia *i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN (29 ea?oiy 1994?.;
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), i?aenoieia?e iaoeia?e nan?? AeAeIA (24 o?aaiy
1994?.; i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiio neiiic?oi?
“Yeieiaecaoeey i?iiuoeaiiiai ?aaeiia” (22 a?oaeiy 1994?.;
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), ?a?iiaenueeiio nai?ia?? AIIC “I?aeoe/aneay ioeaiea
i?iaeai ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu” (31 aeiaoiy – 5 eenoiiaaea
1994?.; i.Ee?a), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “ICSD’ 95
– yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu auaeeaaaiinoe” (4-8 a?oaeiy 1995 ?.;
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), II oa III I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?aioe?y oa
Oe?a?ia, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae o eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueieo
eoeueoo?” (22-25 o?aaiy 1995 ?.; 14-16 o?aaiy 1996 ?.;
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), ia ae?ciiio can?aeaii? eieaa?? IIC Oe?a?ie (15-18
ethoiai 1995 ?.; i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), XIII c’?cae? a?a??i?no?a Oe?a?ie
(21-23 o?aaiy 1997 ?.; i.Oa?e?a).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? o 63 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo, c yeeo 17 – o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 12 – o ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 34 – o iaoa??aeao ? oacao XIII c’?caeo a?a??i?no?a oa
?ioeo eiioa?aioe?e, neiiic?oi?a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 252
noi??ieao iaoeiiieno, ?c ieo 180 noi?. oaenoo, ? neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, 7 ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
caeeth/aiiy, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, aeniiae?a ? 10 aeiaeaoe?a.
A?ae?ia?ao?/iee iieac/ee i?noeoue 334 a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
aeaea?aea. ?iaioa aeeth/a? 43 oaaeeoe? ? 17 ?enoie?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia i?io?eaeoe/ieo
caoiae?a uiaei caiia?aaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaiei ii?ooaiiyi o ae?iie oa
iaoieia?? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo, ye? iaoiiaeai? iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi aaaeeeo
iaoae?a ?c ia?eo?a aeiae?eey a i?aai?ci. Iaa?oioiaaii noia?ia aeiaiaa
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oeeo ?a/iaei a i?aai?ci oeyoii a?a??i?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ioe?iee a ia?eoao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
i?iieneiaiai ?aa?iio. I?iaaaeai? ai?aeai?ieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy o
eiai?o? i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo ae?iie ca iieacieeaie ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo
oneeaaeiaiue oa iaoieia?? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo, ?ic?iaeai? aio?iiiiao?e/i?
?aa?iiaeuei? iieacieee aeiiioaieo iiaiia?iaeaeaieo, aecia/aiee ai?no AI
o a?inoano?aoao ii?iae?eue oa iaiiaeyo. Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo oneeaaeiaiue ? iaoieia??
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ?c noia?iei aeiaiaei iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi iaoae?a a i?aai?ci
oa ?o ai?noii o a?inoano?aoao. O ni?eueieo iioae?eiaaieo ?iaioao
caeiaoaa/o iaeaaeeoue a?eueoa 75% ?aeae ? ?ic?iaie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia?eoe, iaoiaee oa ianya aeine?aeaeaiue. I?ia?aia iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o, aeeiiaia ca ia??iae c 1987 ii 1996 ?iee i?noeea iaoo?i? oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii eiiieaeni?e a?a??i?/i?e ioe?ioe?
ai?noo AI a ia?eoao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua oa ?o aieeao ia
?ai?iaeoeoeaia caei?iay ianaeaiiy, yea iaoea? o i?iieneiaeo i?noao
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo, Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo oa E?eaiio ?ic?, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iayai?noth iaea?eueoi? e?eueeino? i?aei?e?inoa oa
aaoio?ainii?oo – caa?oaeithaa/?a aeiae?eey aaaeeeie iaoaeaie. Caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea aeae?a oa ianyao aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeaia o oaaeeoe?
1.

Oaaeeoey 1

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeae?a oa ianyao aeine?aeaeaiue

Aoaie ?iaioe, oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeaiueIanya aeine?aeaeaiueAea/aiiy ai?noo
AI o ia?eoao iaaeieeoiueiai

na?aaeiaeua:

– aoiinoa?ia iia?o?y;

– aiaeiaeaea?aea;

– ieoia aiaea;

– i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy oa oa?/iaa ne?iaeia

i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Aea/aiiy noaio ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai caei?iay ae?iie oa

iaoieia?? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo:

– /anoioa oneeaaeiaiue ia?aa?ao aaa?oiino?;

– /anoioa oneeaaeiaiue ia?aa?ao iieia?a;

– /anoioa oneeaaeiaiue ia?aa?ao ?aiiueiai

iaiiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo;

– aio?iiiiao?e/i? iieacieee iiaiia?iaeaeaieo;

– /anoioa i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ?icaeoeo

iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo AI o a?inoano?aoao:

– e?ia, a?eyie?aei? aiaee, na/a, iieiei, ieaoeaioa ae?iie;

– ioiiaeiia e?ia, iaeii?e, aieinny

2086 i?ia

1601 i?iaa

1670 i?ia

2307 i?ia

6962

?noi??? iieia?a

6962 ?noi???

iiaiia?iaeaeaieo

2254 aeine?aeaeaiiy

40 ii?iae?eue

40 iiaiia?iaeaeaieoO aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny oae? iaoaee,
ye naeiaoeue, eaaei?e, i?eaeue, ia?aaiaoeue, o?ii, oeeie oa i?aeue. Ca
aeiiiiiaith aoiiii-aani?aoe?eiiai niaeo?ioioiiao?o AAS-1 o??ie Ea?e
Oeaen Ene (I?ia//eia) aiae?coaaeeny na?aaeiueiaeiaia? oa
na?aaeiueii?ny/i? i?iae. ?aaeei eiio?ieth, a?aea?? i?ia iia?o?y oa
aecia/aiiy a ieo iaoae?a aeeiioaaee o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei AINOo
17.2.3.01-86 “I?aaeea eiio?iey ea/anoaa aicaeooa ianaeaiiuo iano”.
A?a??i?/ia ioe?iea ai?noo iaoae?a aeeiiaia ca?aeii ?c “IAeE
caa?yciythueo aauanoa a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa ? 3086-84 io 27.08.84”.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo AI o aiae? i?iaiaeeany ?aaoey?iee a?aea??
i?ia aiaee aiaeiaeaea?ae oa aiaee ieoii? c aiaeiaii?a
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianueea – ii Eiiianueeiio oa Eaeaeaoeueeiio aiaeicaai?ai,
i.Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueea – Aoeuenueeee aiaeii?ia?ae, i.E?eaiai ?iao – ii
Ea?a/oi?anueeiio ? ?aaeooainueeiio aiaeicaai?ai. I?iae aiaee
a?aeae?aeenue oa aiae?coaaeenue ca?aeii c AINOii 2874-82 “Aiaea
ieoueaaay”, AINOii 2761-84 “Enoi/ieee oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
oicyenoaaiii-ieoueaaiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey”, NaiIeIa ? 4630-88 ia ai?no
oaeeo iaoae?a, ye cae?ci, ia?aaiaoeue, i?aeue, naeiaoeue, eaaei?e,
oeeie, o?ii (o?e- oa oanoeaaeaioiee), i?eaeue, eiaaeueo, iie?aaeai,
aethi?i?e ca ia??iae c 1989 ii 1994 ??e. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue
ia?iaeai? noaoenoe/ii oa i?iaiae?ciaai? o iai?yieao: ca?aeii c AAeE
na?aaeiuei??/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?e oa ?o aeeiai?ee ca ia??iae ianoaaeaiue,
eieeaaiiyi na?aaeiueii?ny/ieo (na?aaeiueinaciiieo) eiioeaio?aoe?e.

Aecia/aiiy AI o oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoao aeeiioaaeinue oaeiae ca?aeii ?c
eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith ii eiio?ieth enaiia?ioee?a, yea ?ic?iaeaia oa
ai?iaaaeaeaia iaeaniith NAN a 1991 ?ioe?. Eiio?ieth i?aeeyaaee iniiai?
i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy, ae?iaeai? o i?noeaaiio ?aa?ii?, oae? ye: 1)
ca?iia?, oe?aiaoei/i? oa eiiaeeoa?nuee? ae?iae; 2) iieiei, iiei/i?
i?iaeoeoe; 3) i’yni, i’ynii?iaeoeoe; 4) ?eaa, ?eaii?iaeoeoe; 5) iai/?;
6) o?oeoe; 7) yeoey. I?iae oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a oa oa?/iai? ne?iaeie
i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy a?aeae?aeenue o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeiiaaie
ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioo “Oieoeoee?iaaiia i?aaeea ioai?a i?ia ieuaao
i?iaeoeoia” (? 2051-79 io21.08.79) oa aea?aeaaieo noaiaea?o?a AINO
7269-79, AINO 9792-73, AINO 77020-74, AINO 2689-86, AINO 13928-84, AINO
7631-85, AINO 12569-85, AINO 5667-65, AINO 9404-88, AINO 7194-81, AINO
18430-73 oa ?i. O oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoao aecia/aeenue oae? iaoaee, ye
naeiaoeue, eaaei?e, oeeie, i?aeue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?ae?/aieo ?a/iaei
aeeiioaaeeny ca?aeii c ?nioth/eie aeiiaaie AINO 26929-86 “Nu?uea e
i?iaeoeou ieuaaua. Iiaeaioiaea i?ia. Ieia?aeecaoeey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
oiene/iuo yeaiaioia”, AINO 26932-86 “Nu?uea e i?iaeoeou ieuaaua. Iaoiae
ii?aaeaeaiey naeioea”, AINO 26933-86 “Nu?uea e i?iaeoeou ieuaaua. Iaoiae
ii?aaeaeaiey eaaeiey”, AINO 26934-86 “Nu?uea e i?iaeoeou ieuaaua. Iaoiae
ii?aaeaeaiey oeeiea”, AINO 26931-86 “Nu?uea e i?iaeoeou ieuaaua. Iaoiaeu
ii?aaeaeaiey iaaee”. Ii?yae ?c aeine?aeaeaiiyi ai?noo iaoae?a
o?aaeeoe?eiei iiey?ia?ao?/iei iaoiaeii a?ae?a?aii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii 190
i?ia i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy i?noeaaiai ae?iaieoeoaa i. Aei?i?iiao?ianueea
a?eueo /ooeeaei aoiiii-aani?aoe?eiei iaoiaeii, c aeei?enoaiiyi
niaeo?ioioiiao?o AAS ae?iaieoeoaa o??ie “Ea?e Oeaen Eaia” (I?ia//eia).
A?a??i?/ia ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a i?iaiaeeeanue ca?aeii c ?nioth/eie
ii?iaoeaaie IAO ? 5061-89 oa NaiIeI ? 42-123-4089-86.

Aeey ioe?iee eiiieaeniiai aieeao AI ?ic?aoiaaia noia?ia aeiaiaa
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei i?aai?cio iaoae?a ??cieie oeyoaie: c aiaeith,
iia?o?yi, oa?/aie. ?ic?aooiee aeeiiai? ca?aeii c ?nioth/eie iaoiaee/ieie
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie “Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ii?aaeaeaieth
?aaeueiie iaa?ocee ia /aeiaaea oeie/aneeo aauanoa, iinooiathueo n
aoiinoa?ii aicaeooii, aiaeie e ieuaaie i?iaeoeoaie” (I., 1986) aeey
ona?aaeiaii? ae?iee 20-30 ?ie?a, aaaith 60 ea.

Aeey aea/aiiy noaio ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? ae?iie i?iieneiaeo i?no
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue noaoenoe/i? iieacieee ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai caei?ia’y ii
ia?aeiieo noaoenoe/ieo aeieoiaioao oi?ie ?111/o, 097/o, 102/o oa ?i.).
Iaiao?aeio ?ioi?iaoe?th aeeii?thaaee ca niaoe?aeueiith ea?oith,
?ic?iaeaiith ?acii c? niaoe?ae?noaie aeooa?-a?iaeieiaaie oa
iaiiaoieiaaie, o yeo aeeth/ai?: oneeaaeiaiiy ia?aa?ao aaa?oiino?,
iieia?a, ?aiiueiai iaiiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo, aio?iiiiao?e/i? iieacieee
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. ?ic?aooiee ia?eiaoaeueii?, aioaiaoaeueii? oa ?aiiuei?
iaiiaoaeueii? nia?oiino? aeeiioaaee o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoiaee/ieie
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie “Ainoaea?noaaiiay noaoenoeea ia?eiaoaeueiie nia?oiinoe
e aa eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea” (I., 1988). Aiae?c aio?iiiiao?e/ieo
aeaieo iiaiia?iaeaeaieo i?iaiaeeee ia o?eueee ca aaniethoieie
cia/aiiyie, a e ca a?aeiinieie iieacieeaie, ye a?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaieie:
iani-c?inoiaee eiao?oe??io oa iiiaea?aeiaee ?iaeaen (A.I.Aeoeyaaa e
niaao., 1990). O ai?aeai?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aoa canoiniaaiee
eiai?oiee iaoiae. O caeaaeiino? a?ae i?noa iino?eiiai i?iaeeaaiiy ae?iie
noi?iiaai? 4 a?oie, eiaeia c yeeo ?icae?eaia ia 2 i?aea?oie ae?iie
i?iieneiaiai oa iai?iieneiaiai ?aeii?a i?no. A?oie ae?iie aoee
iaeii??aei? ca a?eii (20-25 ?ie?a), ia?aaaaeii ia?oi?iae?ee?, c
i?ioan??th ?-?? a?oie oyaeeino? i?aoe?, iaia’yceiai aac
i?iooe?aeeeainoae. AE?iee ia iaee iaoyaeaiiai niiaoe/iiai aiaiiaco,
niaaeeiaeo caoai?thaaiue oa oe?aeeeaeo cae/ie.

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo iaoae?a o a?inoano?aoao aeeiiaia o 40 i?aeoe/ii
caei?iaeo ae?iie oa ?o 40 iaiiaeyo (ca noaiith “iaoe oa ?? ie?ae”).
A?oia i?ae?a?aia iaeii??aeiith ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), a?eii (20-25 ?ie?a), n?iaeiei noaiii, a?aenooi?noth
o aiaiiac? iaoa?? i?ioan?eieo niiaoe/ieo oai?ia oa oe?aeeeaeo cae/ie, c
o?c?ieia?/iei ia?aa?aii aaa?oiino? oa iieia?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo
naeioeth, eaaei?th, i?ae?, oeeieo, o?iio, i?eaeth oa cae?ca aeeiiai? o
e?ia?, na/?, a?eyie?aei?e ??aeei?, ieaoeaio?, iieioe? ii?iae?eue oa o
ioiiaeii?e e?ia?, aieinn?, iaeii?? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. A?inoano?aoe
a?aeae?aeenue a oiiaao ee?i?ee ca?aeii c ?nioth/eie i?aaeeaie aeiai?o oa
aeinoaaee a?iiaoa??ae?a aeey eaai?aoi?ieo aiae?c?a (“Iaoiaee/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey iaaeia?niiaea eeeie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee”, I., 1988;
“Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii enneaaeiaaieth ieaoeaio /aeiaaea”, E.,
1985).

Iaoiae aecia/aiiy – aoiiii-aani?aoe?eiee, yeee ca nai?ie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (/ooeea?noue, oi/i?noue, naeaeoeai?noue) yaey?oueny
iaea?eueo i?eaeaoiei i?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?e?ie?eueeinoae iaoae?a.
I?aeaioiaea a?inoano?ao?a oa aecia/aiiy a ieo AI cae?enithaaeenue o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii niaeo?io?i?/iiio
aeine?aeaeaiith AI o a?ieia?/ieo iaoa??aeao (I., 1986).

Ii?yae c ioe?ieith aaniethoieo cia/aiue ai?noo AI o a?inoano?aoao,
?ic?aoiaai? a?aeiini? iieacieee-?iaeaene i?iieeiaiiy iaoae?a o ??aeeie
(na/a, a?eyie?aei? aiaee, iieiei) oa iaeiie/aiiy ?o o aeaiiioth/eo
a?inoano?aoao (ieaoeaioa, iaeii?e, aieinny), ye? aeeiiai? o % ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ?o eiioeaio?aoe?? o iaoa?einuee?e oa ioiiaeii?e e?ia?
(E.A.Naiioeeee, A.I.Oiiaiei, 1979). Oe? ?iaeaene aeicaieeee aeeaoa
?ice?eoe a?aeiia?aei? eaiee iaoai?cio i?a?aoe?? oa ae?i?iaoe?? a
i?aai?ci?.

Aeey ioe?iee nooiaiy ?ioaa?iaaiiai oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai aieeao AI ia
?ai?iaeoeoeaio ooieoe?th ae?iie i?iaaaeaiee aaaaoioaeoi?iee
ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiee aiae?c. ?ic?aoiaai? ia?iee, /anoeiiee oa
iiiaeeiiee eiao?oe??ioe ei?aeyoe??, iiaoaeiaai? ??aiyiiy iiiaeeiii?
?aa?an?? aeey iiaeaethaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaieo iciae. On?
?ic?aooiee aeeiioaaeenue ia IAII PC/386SX c aeei?enoaiiyi iaeao?a
i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aeaieo “StatGraph”, a?ae?ioaee
noaiaea?oieo i?ia?ai ia Oi?o?ai?. sse ?acoeueoaoeai? iciaee
?icaeyaeaeenue 42 iieacieea oneeaaeiaiue ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe??.
Oaeoi??aeueieie aoee eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoae?a o iia?o??, aiae?, oa?/ao,
a?inoano?aoao o a?aeiia?aei? ia??iaee aaa?oiino? oa iieia?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

A?a??i?/ia ioe?iea aaaeeeo iaoae?a a ia?eoao iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo i?no. Niinoa?aaeaiiy aeeiiai? o i?ia?aeieo
i?iieneiaeo i?noao ?aa?iio – Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo, Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo,
E?eaiio ?ic? c? cia/iith e?euee?noth ianaeaiiy oa aaeeeith eiai
u?euei?noth ia iaeeieoeth ieiu? (ca aeiyoeii E?eaiai ?iao), eiiiaeoiei
?icoaooaaiiyi aeeoeiai? ciie o aaciina?aaei?e aeeceino? aei i?iieneiaeo
ia’?eo?a, niaoeeo?/iei ?aeue?oii i?noeaaino?, yeee oneeaaeith?
?icn?thaaiiy aoiinoa?ieo aeeeae?a oa ?i. ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue, ui AI
aecia/athoueny ye o iia?o??, oae ? o aiae? oa oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeoao
i?noeaaiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Oae, aoiinoa?ia iia?o?y i?noeoue oae? iaoaee, ye naeiaoeue, eaaei?e,
i?eaeue, i?aeue, oeeie, o?ii oa ia?aaiaoeue. ?o na?aaeiueiaeiaia?
eiioeaio?aoe?? cia/ii eieeaathoueny, aea na?aaeiueii?ny/i? oa
na?aaeiuei??/i? aeineoue noae? ii a?aeiioaiith iaeia iaeii?. A?a??i?/ia
ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a ca na?aaeiuei??/ieie cia/aiiyie na?ae/eoue, ui ca
ia??iae niinoa?aaeaiiy (1988-1995 ??.) o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
eiioeaio?aoe?? AI ia ia?aaeuothoue a?aeiia?aeieo AAeE (? 3085-84 a?ae
27.08.84), aea iaaaaaoi aeu? ca oiiia? (A.A.?aae/, 1992; TH.A.Naao,
1988). Aiie a?aeiia?aeathoue ??aiyi ?ioeo i?iieneiaeo i?no
(I.I.Ai?iioeia, 1990; T.M.Roberts, 1974). A ie?ai? ia??iaee
niinoa??aaeenue ii?ooaiiy AAeE ca na?aaeiuei??/ieie aaee/eiaie aeey
naeioeth (0,34iea/i3), eaaei?th (0,45 iea/i3), i?ae? (6,0 iea/i3) oa
i?eaeth (0,14 iea/i3).

Eiiieaenia a?a??i?/ia ioe?iea aeicaieeea iaa?oiooaaoe i??i?eoaoi?
iaoaee-caa?oaeieee iia?o?y ca e?aoi?noth ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE, eeanii
iaaacia/iino?, ?o ieoiiith aaaith o caaaeuei?e e?eueeino?. ?acoeueoaoe
na?ae/aoue, ui i??i?eoaoieie iaoaeaie-caa?oaeieeaie aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y
?aa?iio ? naeiaoeue, i?eaeue, eaaei?e oa i?aeue, aeey yeeo aeyaeaii
iaea?eueoo e?aoi?noue ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE (1-6 ?ac?a), oe? aeaiaioe
iaeaaeaoue aei 1-2 eeano iaaacia/iino? oa iathoue nooo?ao ieoiio aaao o
caaaeuei?e e?eueeino?.

Eiaeia i?noi ia? nai? iniaeeaino? iaoaeaaiai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y ye o
ye?niiio, oae ? o e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii?. Oae, yeui o
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo i?ia?aeieie iaoaeaie ? naeiaoeue, eaaei?e oa
i?aeue, o Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo oea i?aeue, i?eaeue oa naeiaoeue, a o
E?eaiio ?ic? – naeiaoeue. Ii??aiyeueia a?a??i?/ia ioe?iea i?no i?ae
niaith na?ae/eoue, ui aei iaea?eueo caa?oaeiaieo iaoaeaie iaeaaeeoue
a?aeianoe Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, a aei iaeiaio caa?oaeiaieo – E?eaee ??a,
o yeiio ia? i?noea ieiueiiee ?aeue?o oa aeeooci?noue ?ici?uaiiy
aeeoeiaeo oa i?iieneiaeo ?aeii?a, ui o aeaye?e i??? iieaaoo?
?icn?thaaiiy oa ciaioo? eiioeaio?aoe?th caa?oaeiee?a o iia?o??, a oaeiae
ia?aaaaea? a??ie/iaeaeiaoaia i?iieneia?noue.

Aeine?aeaeai? i?noa a?aeiinyoueny aei ianaeaiieo ioieo?a i?aeaeuaiiai
oaoiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iia?o?y iaoaeaie, ine?eueee ?o ai?no o 5-350
?ac?a ia?aaa?oo? i?e?iaei? cia/aiiy. Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny eaaei?th,
eiioeaio?aoe?y yeiai o 60-350 ?ac?a aeua ca oiiiao (A.A.?aae/, 1992).

Aeeiai?ea aaaaoi??/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy na?ae/eoue i?i iinooiiaa
cieaeaiiy na?aaeiuei??/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?e iaoae?a, ui aeayeith i??ith
iiynith?oueny caaaeueiei niaaeii ae?iaieoeoaa oa cieaeaiiyi aeeeae?a a
aoiinoa?o. O iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo niinoa??aathoueny oaeeaiiae?ai?
eieeaaiiy AI ia i?ioyc? ?ieo c i?aeaeuaiiyi o o?aai? oa na?ii?, a aeey
i?ae? oa oeeieo – ua ? o eenoiiaae?. Aea a?aeiinii na?aaeiiuei??/ieo
cia/aiue oe? eieeaaiiy noaoenoe/ii ia aeieacia?, ui oa?aeoa?eco?
noae?noue naciiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y iaoaeaie.

Ua iaei??th iniaeea?noth io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? oa, ui o iia?o??
ianoaaeaieo i?no, ca iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ia? i?noea i?aeaeuaia
e?euee?noue oaeeo aaciiiae?aieo caa?oaeiee?a, ye SO2 oa NO2, eio?? i?e
iaeii/ani?e i?enooiino? Pb, Ni, Mn, Cu iathoue aoaeo a?ieia?/ii?
noiaoe?? (AAeE ?3085-84 oa ?4256-87). Oiaoi ia oe? ia??iaee/ieo
ii?ooaiue na?aaeiuei??/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?? AI iaeii/ania ?o ae?y c ?ioeie
iiethoaioaie iiaeeaeth? iani?eyoeeaee aieea ia caei?ia’y iaoeath/iai
ianaeaiiy.

O aiae? iniiaieo aiaeiaeaea?ae a i?noao Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo,
Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo oa E?eaiio ?ic? iino?eii ?a?no?othoueny oae?
iaoaee: i?aeue, cae?ci, ia?aaiaoeue, o?ii, naeiaoeue, ??aeoa – oeeie,
i?eaeue, iie?aaeai. ?o eiioeaio?aoe?? a?aeiia?aeathoue aeaiei, ui
?niothoue a e?oa?aoo??. Oae, ai?no o?iio o aiae? aiaeiaeaea?ae ca
aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e eieeaa?oueny a?ae 0,01 aei 0,001 ia/aei3, o iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo – 0,0003-0,0008 ia/aei3, o ieoi?e aiae? 0,0023-0,079
ia/aei3, ca iaoeie aeaieie – 0, 0027-0,005 ia/aei3 (?.A.Iaiaeueoeaaa e
niaao, 1969). Ai?no i?ae? eieeaa?oueny a?ae 0,2 aei 12,5 iea/aei3, ui
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e – 1-7 iea/aei3. O ieoi?e aiae?
?aa?iio eiioeaio?aoe?y oeueiai iaoaeo noaiiaeoue 1-83 iea/aei3 , ui
aeua, i?ae ca ?ioeie aeaieie (.E.A?aiianeee e niaao., 1989), ye?
eieeaathoueny a?ae 0,2 aei 7,2 iea/aei3. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
a?aeiia?aeathoue oaeiae aeaiei e?oa?aoo?e i?i ai?no naeioeth a
i?e?iaei?e aiae? a?aee?eoeo aiaeieieu. Oae, yeui o aiaeieieuao e?a?i
NIAe ai?no naeioeth 0,0005-0,4 ia/aei3 (A.A.Eiaaeueneee, 1982;
I.A.Eieiieeoeaaa, ?.Ae.Aaaiae/, 1970), oi ca iaoeie aeaieie: 0,001-0,098
ia/aei3 o Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo, 0,0008-0,003 ia/aei3 o
Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo, 0,0003-0,012 ia/aei3 o E?eaiio ?ic?.

On? na?aaeiuei??/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? ca 6 ?ie?a aeine?aeaeaiue ia
ia?aaeuoaaee AAeE. A?aecia/a?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei iia?eueiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo i?ae? o aiaeiaeaea?aeao i.Aei?i?iiao?ianueea
(Eiiianueeee aiaeicaa??), i?ae? oa o?iio o aiaeiaeaea?aeao i.E?eaiai
?iao. O ieoi?e aiaeii?ia?aei?e aiae? oaeiae i?enooiy a?eueo?noue oeeo
iaoae?a, oa ?o eiioeaio?aoe??, ye i?aaeei, a?aeiia?aeathoue a?a??i?/iei
ii?iaoeaai AINOa 2874-82 “Aiaea ieoueaaay”.

O 1989 ?ioe? a?aecia/aiee oaeo ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE na?aaeiuei??/ii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaei?th a ieoi?e aiae? i.Aei?i?iiao?ianueea. Ne?ae
a?aooaaoe, ui eaaei?e iaeaaeeoue aei IV a?oie o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a, ye?
a?aecia/athoueny ca oeiaie noai?thaaiiai ieie iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua, oiaoi ? aeaiaioii c aenieeie eiioeaio?aoe?yie o
aeiaaeaii?, ia oii? yeeo iioe?ai? ae?eyiee c iaaeoi aenieeie oa
oa?i?iiaeie cia/aiiyie.

Iacaaaeath/e ia a?aeiia?aei?noue aiaee a?a??i?/iei aeiiaai ii eiaeiiio
aeaiaioo, i?enooi?noue o aiae? aiaeii/an aeae?eueeio iaoae?a iaa?oue ia
??ai? AAeE ? a niieo/aii? c ?ioeie ?a/iaeiaie i?e?iaeii? aiaee i?e
a?ieia?/i?e noiaoe??, iiaea oe?aeeeai aieeiooe ia i?aai?ci.

A?a??i?/ia ioe?iea ai?noo iaoae?a o oa?/ia?e ne?iaei? oa i?iaeoeoao
oa?/oaaiiy i?noeaaiai ae?iaieoeoaa na?ae/eoue, ui a ieo aecia/athoueny
naeiaoeue, eaaei?e, i?aeue oa oeeie (oaae.2). ?o e?euee?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee caeaaeaoue, o ia?oo /a?ao, a?ae aeaeo i?iaeoeoo
oa?/oaaiiy oa eiai iioiaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae i?noa niinoa?aaeaiiy. Oae,
na?aaeiy eiioeaio?aoe?y naeioeth o aeine?aeaeaieo i?iaeoeoao noaiiaeoue
0,0056-0,088 ia/ea, ui ieae/a a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo ca?aeii c NaiIeI
42-123-4089-96. O oaa?eiieo i?iaeoeoao aiia noaiiaeoue 0,02-0,07 ia/ea,
ui ca?aa?oueny c aeaieie ?ioeo aaoi??a – 0,01-0,21 ia/ea (?.Ae.Aaaiae/,
E.N.I?eiooeia, 1987; A.I.Aaoei e niaao., 1991; E.?aeee, 1985). Ca?iia?,
oe?aiaoei/i? oa ?io? ?ineeii? i?iaeoeoe o iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?noyoue
iaioo e?euee?noue oeueiai aeaiaioo 0,018-0,028 ia/ea, ye? aiaeia?/i?
?ioei ?acoeueoaoai (O.E. A?eai?ueaaa e niaao., 1978; A.I.Nieieiaa e
niaao., 1989; I.A.ss?oeaaa, 1973). Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue naeioeth
aeyaeaia a i?iaeoeoao oa?/oaaiiy E?eaiai ?iao ? noaiiaeoue 0,04-0,08
ia/ea, ui aeua oiiiai?.

Eaaei?e ye enaiia?ioee i?noeoueny a on?o a?oiao aeine?aeaeaieo
i?iaeoeo?a o e?eueeino? a?ae 0,46 aei 12 iea/ea ii na?aaei?o cia/aiiyo
oa 6-7 iea/ea ii iaeneiaeueieo, ui ieae/a a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e. Io?eiai? aeai? ca?aathoueny c aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e, ye?
eieeaathoueny a?ae 2 aei 95 iea/ea o ?ineeiieo i?iaeoeoao (?.Ae.Aaaiae/,
A.E.Naeth/aiei, 1990; Lenzi E., 1990), 6-90 iea/ea – o i’yn? oa 30-60
iea/ea – o ?ea? (Kladssen C.D. et al., 1986). Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao oa,
ui ?ineeii? i?iaeoeoe oa ?eaa o iaea?eueo?e e?eueeino? caa?oaeiai? oeei
enaiia?ioeeii, iniaeeai oea noino?oueny i.Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueea. A
oiiaao oeueiai i?noa

Oaaeeoey 2

Ai?no iaoae?a o iniiaieo a?oiao i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy oa oa?/iai?
ne?iaeie

i. Aei?i?iiao?ianueea ( M )

A?oie oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?aIaoaee, eiioeaio?aoe?? ( ia/ea ); e?euee?noue
i?ianaeiaoeueEaaei?eI?aeueOeeieCa?iia? oa oe?aiaoei/i? ae?iae

AAeE

0,0280,086 137

0,3 – 0,5

0,00970,016 137

0,05 – 0,1

1,161,22 136

5 – 10

2,62,5 136

2,5 – 50,0Iieiei oa iiei/i? i?iaeoeoe

AAeE0,00560,01 218

0,05 – 0,10,00120,0013 230

0,02 – 0,030,240,24 117

1,01,00,9 114

4,0 – 5,0I’yni oa i’ynii?iaeoeoe

AAeE0,020,037 130

0,50,0030,003 129

0,050,540,4 127

5,06,75,1 124

70,0?eaa i??niiaiaeia

AAeE0,070,035 56

1,00,0090,0018 67

0,20,750,4 67

10,03,52,3 67

40,0Iai/?, o?oeoe

AAeE0,0180,038 142

0,4 – 0,50,0080,015 140

0,030,750,6 138

5,01,51,4 138

10,0sseoey

AAeE0,0250,035 25

0,30,0030,0015 25

0,010,440,3 25

3,02,61,9 24

50,0I?ei?oea. AAeE – NaiIeI 42-123-4089-86 “IAeE oyae?euo iaoaeeia e
iuoueyea a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii nu?uea e ieuaauo i?iaeoeoao”

i?iaeoeoe oaa?eiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, oae?, ye i’yni oa i’ynii?iaeoeoe,
i?aeoe/ii eaaei??i ia caa?oaeiai?, eiai e?euee?noue noaiiaeoue ooo 0,46
iea/ea.

Ioaea, oa?/ia? i?iaeoeoe i?iieneiaeo i?no i?noyoue iaoaee-enaiia?ioeee o
eiioeaio?aoe?yo, ia ia?aaeuoth/eo AAeE, oa a?aeiia?aeathoue cia/aiiyi,
io?eiaiei o ?ioeo ?aa?iiao c ia?aaaaeaiiyi naeioeth o i?iaeoeoao
oaa?eiiiai, a eaaei?th – ?ineeiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Aiae?c i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo aeine?aeaeaieo i?iaeoeo?a na?ae/eoue i?i
?o a?aeiia?aei?noue ?nioth/ei a?a??i?/iei ii?iaoeaai. Eiioeaio?aoe?y
i?ae? eieeaa?oueny a?ae 0,13 aei 1,8 ia/ea aeey ?ineeiieo i?iaeoeo?a,
aea aiia ciaoiaeeoueny ia ieae/eo ??aiyo a?ieia?/ii? ii?ie, aeey yeeo,
ca aeaieie (E.I.Oeaaoeiaa, 1969), aiia noaiiaeoue 0,8-10 ia/ea.
I?iaeoeoe oaa?eiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy i?noyoue 0,13-1,3 ia/ea i?ae?, ui
a?aeiia?aea? oiiaai ii?iaeueieo aaio?i?/ieo i?ia?ioe?e, aea
aecia/a?oueny 0,7-1 ia/ea oeueiai iaoaeo (.A.Aonaa, 1974). Oeeie ye
i?e?iaeaiaio aecia/a?oueny a on?o aiae?ciaaieo i?iaeoeoao oa?/oaaiiy,
aea c a?aei?iieie a?ae i?ae? iniaeeainoyie. Oae, ?ineeii? i?iaeoeoe
i?noyoue 1,5-7,8 ia/ea eiai, ui cia/ii ieae/a ia o?eueee AAeE, a e
a?ieia?/ii? ii?ie, yea noaiiaeoue 5-10 ia/ea (?.Oeaiaa, E.Iao?ia, 1983;
J.J.Christenses et al., 1976). Ne?ae iaaieineoe, ui oa?i?/ia ia?iaea
?ineeiieo i?iaeoeo?a cieaeo? a ieo e?euee?noue oeeieo ia 30-70%.
Iecueeee ai?no oeeieo niinoa??aa?oueny o Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo, ui ?
iaaecae/aeii iani?eyoeeaei. Oaa?eii? i?iaeoeoe ai?uothoue oeeieo a?ae 1
(iieiei) aei 6,7 (i’yni) ia/ea, ui cia/ii iaioa AAeE oa a?ieia?/ieo
cia/aiue aeey ieo. Inoaii? noaiiaeyoue 2-6 ia/ea aeey iieiea oa 15-40
ia/ea aeey ?eae, i’yna oa y?oeue (E.?aeee, 1985; A.J.Ober et al., 1984).
Aeiyoie neeaaea? aeinoaoi?e ai?no oeeieo o i’yn? i.E?eaiai ?iao, yeee
aei??aith? 14,2 ia/ea.

Oaeei /eiii, o i?iaeoeoao i?noeaaiai ae?iaieoeoaa Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?
iaeano? ai?no i?ae? a?aeiia?aea? ii?iaoeaai oa ii?iai, a oeeieo – cia/ii
?? ieae/ee. Iniaeeai iani?eyoeaa noaiiaeua o oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ia?
i?noea o i.Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe aeeeeeathoue na?eicia
caiaiiei?iiy, ine?eueee iiaeooue aeeeeeaoe o ianaeaiiy ?icaeoie
i?e?iaeaiaioico oeeie-aeao?oeeoiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e aaaeeeao
?ieue oeeieo o ?ai?iaeoeoeai?e ooieoe??, eiai iaaeinoaoi?noue iiaea
iaoiiaeoe ?? ii?ooaiiy, iniaeeai ia oe? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a i?aai?ci
naeioeth oa eaaei?th, a?aeiieo iani?eyoeeaith o?iii?noth aei
aaia?aoeaii? noa?e ethaeeie, a oaeiae iayai?noth aioaaii?noe/ieo
a?aeiinei oeueiai i?e?iaeaiaioo ?c naeioeai (B.L.ODell, 1984).

Eiiieaenia ioe?iea noia?iiai aeiaiaiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aaaeeeo iaoae?a a
i?aai?ci. Noia?ia aeiaiaa e?euee?noue iaoae?a i?e eiiieaeniiio ?o
iaaeoiaeaeaii? c oa?/aie, aiaeith, iia?o?yi a oiiaao i?iieneiaeo i?no
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano? oi?io?oueny ye oieneeaioaie, oae ?
anaioe?aeueieie aeaiaioaie (?en.1). Aieiaiei ? oa, ui a aeaieo oiiaao
ia? i?noea i?aeaeuaia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei i?aai?cio i??i?eoaoieo
caa?oaeiee?a aeiae?eey – naeioeth oa eaaei?th oa cieaeaia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
i?ae? oa oeeieo, ye i?e?iaeaiaio?a. Oaea neooaoe?y iiaea?eii
iani?eyoeeaa aeey aaia?aoeaii? ooieoe?? o ca’yceo c a?aeiiith
iani?eyoeeaith o?iii?noth naeioeth ? eaaei?th aei oe??? noa?e i?aai?cio
oa iiaeeea?noth ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo ii?ooaiue i?e cieaeaii? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
oeeieo oa i?ae? a i?aai?ci ae?iee.

Oae, NAeI naeioeth a i?noao niinoa?aaeaiiy noaiiaeoue o na?aaeiueiio
0,09-0,27 ia/aeia (i?e iaeneiaeueiiio -0,67-1,23 ia/aeia), ui ieae/a
aeiionoeiiai – 0,43 ia/aeia (OAI/AIIC), aea ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/i?
aaee/eie o ?ioeo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, Iieueu? – 0,11-0,15 ia/aeia
(A.I.Ooaanueeee oa ni?aaao., 1990; A.A.Oeaiei e niaao., 1990; D.Coggon
et al., 1994). Ieoiia aaaa oa?/iaiai oeyoo o ii??aiyii? c aiaeiei oa
aa?iaaiiei ia?aaaaea? ? noaiiaeoue 98-99%.

Aeiaiaa iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eaaei?th eieeaa?oueny a?ae 20,4 aei 33,7 iea ? ia
aeua ca ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? OAI/AIIC – 70 iea oa ca?aa?oueny c iiae?aieie o
?ioeo ?aeiiao Oe?a?ie, o NOA aiii noaiiaeoue 30-92 iea (A.I.Ooaanueeee
oa ni?aaao., 1990; C.D.Kladssen et al., 1986). Ieoiia aaaa oa?/iaiai
oeyoo aeey eaaei?th aeii?io?, neeaaeth/e 97,6-99% a?ae caaaeueiiai NAeI.

Iaoeaioe? aeine?aeaeaieo i?no io?eiothoue i?aeue aieiaiei /eiii ca
?aooiie ?ae? (97-98,7%). Aaee/eia NAeI neeaaea? 1,8-2,5 ia, ui ieae/a
o?c?ieia?/ii? iio?aae, ca aeiyoeii Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueea, aea aeinoaoiy
e?euee?noue oeueiai i?e?iaeaiaioo – 3,0 ia/aeia. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?eionoeoe ?icaeoie o ianaeaiiy i?aeueaeao?oeeoieo
noai?a (A.I.Aaoei e niaao., 1991), a o aaa?oieo – ?ai?iaeoeoeai?
ii?ooaiiy o aeaeyae? iaie?aeiino?, iecueei? iane iaiiaeyo oa aaae
?icaeoeo (P.J.Aggett, S.Rose, 1987).

Oeeie iaaeoiaeeoue a i?aai?ci oaeiae ia?aaaaeii c oa?/aie (99%) o
e?eueeino? 7,1-13,2 ia, ui o 1,5-3 ?ace ieae/a a?ieia?/ii? ii?ie,
iniaeeai o E?eaiio ?ic?. Aeao?oeeo oeueiai eeth/iaiai i?e?iaeaiaioo aeey
aaia?aoeaii? noa?e ae?iee iiaea iaoiiaeoe ?? ii?ooaiiy, ?icaeoie IA?
oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie (Ed.H.Waldron, 1980). Aei?a/ii iaaaaeaoe,
ui aeao?oeeo oeeieo a ?aoe?ii? ia oe? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eiai a?ieia?/iiai
aioaaii?noo naeioeth (B.L.ODell, 1984) iiaea iineeeoe eiai iani?eyoeeao
ae?th ia ?ai?iaeoeoeaio ooieoe?th ae?iie.

A?iiii?oi?eia aaaeeeo iaoae?a a i?aai?ci? ae?iie oa ?o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.
Aiae?c iaoaeaaiai neeaaeo a?inoano?ao?a ae?iee oa ?? aeeoeie aeaa
iiaeeea?noue ia o?eueee ioe?ieoe eiai o ii??aiyii? c aeaieie ?ioeo
aaoi??a oa ?nioth/eie noaiaea?oaie o iai?yieo – oaoiiaaii? ?aeiie
–”/eno?” ?aeiie, a e ni?iaoaaoe ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aeaye? iniaeeaino?
iaoai?cio i?a?aoe?? a i?aai?ci (oaae.3).

Ia?o ca ana, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe i?eioeeiiao noia?a/i?noue iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?ae niaith. A naia: iacaaaeath/e ia iecuee?
eiioeaio?aoe?? AI ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?o AAeE o aiae?, iia?o??,
i?iaeoeoao oa?/oaaiiy i?iieneiaeo i?no aeine?aeaeaiiai ?aa?iio,
aioo??oi?e ?o ai?no a i?aai?ci? aeineoue cia/iee o ii??aiyii? c
?nioth/eie noaiaea?oaie oa aeaieie ?ioeo aaoi??a, i?e oeueiio nooo?aee a
i?aai?ci? ia o?eueee iaoa??, a e iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. Ia iao iiaeyae, oe?
a?oioiai? ?ica?aeiino? iia’ycai? c oei, ui AI, iniaeeai ?o
aiaeiia?ic/eii? niieoee, iathoue cia/iee no?ie iai?aaeaaaeaiiy c
i?aai?cio oa iiaeooue iaeiie/oaaoenue. Iai?eeeaae, aeey eaaei?th oa
naeioeth – oea 20 ?ie?a (S.Jeliman et al., 1986; R.P.Wedeen, 1988).
Ie??i oeueiai, ia caaaeaee aaoi?e aeacothoue iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoaeo, yeee

Oaaeeoey 3

Eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoae?a o a?ieia?/ieo noano?aoao ae?iie oa iaiiaeyo (Mm)

Iaoaee,

iea/ieAeae a?ieia?/iiai noano?aooa?inoano?aoe ae?iieiaoa?einueea
e?iaA?eyie?aei? aiaeeieaoeaioa,
iea/aIieieiNa/aNaeiaoeue0,880,110,780,121,30,110,740,0680,840,082Eaaei?e
0,140,0230,230,0490,250,0450,150,0180,180,019I?aeue1,470,140,310,0240,92
0,110,640,0530,480,086Oeeie4,450,321,540,2814,12,95,70,371,90,89O?ii0,96
0,120,730,090,40,0360,50,050,30,03I?eaeue0,840,080,220,0140,630,080,870,
0740,660,06Cae?ci444,525,93,20,549,153,63,40,422,730,43A?inoano?aoe
iiaiia?iaeaeaieoIoiiaeiia e?iaIaeii?e, iea/aAieinny,
iea/aNaeiaoeue0,870,121,460,1816,71,2Eaaei?e0,110,0161,130,171,820,11I?a
eue0,960,1317,31,78,30,78Oeeie2,320,3124,82,1617,41,6O?ii0,910,0861,50,1
41,00,09I?eaeue0,790,071,920,22–Cae?ci530,529,230,743,2211,119,0eiie?aoi
i a?ieia?/iee noano?ao aea/aany – oe?eueia e?ia, ne?iaaoea, a?eo?ioeeoe,
oiui. Icia/aiiy ia??iaeo aaa?oiino?, iieia?a /e eaeoaoe?? oaeiae
aaaeeeaa aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ai?noo i?e?iaeaiaio?a.

Naeiaoeue ? eaaei?e i?noyoueny o e?ia? iaoa??a, ye iaea?eueo
aeine?aeaeaiiio a?inoano?ao? ethaeeie, ca iaoeie aeaieie, a
eiioeaio?aoe?yo, ia?aaeuoth/eo ye aeai? e?oa?aoo?e o oaoiiaaiieo
?aa?iiao (C.Ae.Aai?iaa e niaao., 1990; A.A.Etheueei e niaao., 1996;
A.TH.ss?ooeei, 1992), oae ? ?a?iiaenueeee noaiaea?o (Ed.J.Angerer,
K.Shaller, 1985) oa noaiaea?o AIIC (G.Ducoffre et al., 1990). ?o cia/i?
eiioeaio?aoe?? iathoue i?noea ? o ieaoeaio?, a?eyie?aei?e ??aeei?,
iieioe?, na/? ae?iie. Iniaeeai aaaeeeaei ? oie oaeo, ui, iaeiie/oth/enue
o ieaoeaio?, oe? iaoaee i?iieeathoue a i?aai?ci ieiaeo. I?i oea
na?ae/aoue ?o nooo?a? eiioeaio?aoe?? o ioiiaeii?e e?ia? ? o iaea?eueo?e
e?eueeino? – o iaeii??. Inoaii? aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i iiaeeea?noue
aioo??oiueioo?iaii? o?ii?/ii? ?ioieneeaoe?? ieiaeo. Iaoaee o?ii oa
i?eaeue oaeiae aecia/athoueny a i?aai?ci? ye iaoa??, oae ? ?? aeeoeie.
Iniaeea?noth o?iio ? oa, ui a?i, ia iaeiie/oth/enue o ieaoeaio?, o
cia/i?e e?eueeino? i?noeoueny o a?eyie?aei?e ??aeei?. Oeae oaeo
aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui inoaiiy ia? caoeni? yeino?, ye aani?aaio o?iio,
ui iio?aao? a?eueo aeeaieiai aea/aiiy.

Caaaeueiith caeiiii??i?noth uiaei naeioeth ? eaaei?th ? ?o ia?aaaaeia
ae?i?iaoe?y c na/ath, i?ae c iieieii, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaoa iiia?aaei?
i?eiouaiiy i?i ?o i?iaeiaaeaia iaeiie/aiiy a i?aai?ci? iaoa?? o ca’yceo
?c ciai?oi?i iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi.

Oaeei /eiii, iaoaee naeiaoeue, eaaei?e, i?eaeue, o?ii aecia/athoueny o
ca?eueoaieo e?eueeinoyo a i?aai?ci? ye ae?iee, oae ? ?? aeeoeie. Oea
aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe ?o oaoiiaaiia iioiaeaeaiiy, ine?eueee aiie iathoue
caeaoi?noue aei iaeiie/aiiy ia oe? iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e o ia’?eoao
aeiae?eey ianoaaeaiiai ?aa?iio.

I?aeue oa oeeie aecia/athoueny a on?o aeine?aeaeaieo a?inoano?aoao ye
ae?iie, oae ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. ?o i?a?aoe?y a i?aai?ci? aeoaea
neeaaeia, caeaaeeoue a?ae iniaeeainoae iaoaaie?cio i?e aaa?oiino?,
iieiaao, eaeoaoe?? oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo. A oiiaao aeaiiai
ee?i?/iiai aenia?eiaioo aaaeei aeeaiei ?ice?eoe ?o iaoai?ci. Aea aeaye?
i?eiouaiiy iiaeeea?. Oae, oeeie o ieaoeaio? aecia/a?oueny o
eiioeaio?aoe?yo, ye? ao?e/? ia?aaeuothoue ai?no o e?ia?, ui ia? iaaia
o?c?ieia?/ia cia/aiiy. Aeai? a?aeoai?ththoue ?acoeueoaoe ?ioeo
aeine?aeiee?a (A.TH.ss?ooeei, 1992). Oeae oaeo, eiia??ii, iia’ycaiee c
ae?yeuei?noth oaoiieaoeaioa?iiai aa?’??o. Aecia/aia i?aeaeuaia
ae?i?iaoe?y oeeieo ? i?ae? c na/ath oa iecueea eiioeaio?aoe?y oeeieo o
iieioe? ii?iae?eue aeey oeueiai no?ieo eaeoaoe?? (E.?.*a?ieoiaa oa
ni?aaao., 1994). Io?eiai? aeai? iathoue aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy, ine?eueee
na?ae/aoue i?i ii?ooaiiy iai?io i?e?iaeaiaio?a a i?aai?ci? o ca’yceo c
aeao?oeeoii oeeieo oa i?ae? a ?aoe?ii? aaa?oieo aeaiiai ?aa?iio, a
oaeiae iaeiie/aiiyi a i?aai?ci? naeioeth ? eaaei?th, ye?, ye a?aeiii,
yaeythoueny a?ieia?/ieie aioaaii?noaie ia?ae?/aieo i?e?iaeaiaio?a
(W.C.Pteiffer et al., 1980).

Ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? ae?iie
i?iieneiaeo i?no. Niinoa?aaeaiiy aaia?aoeaieo ii?ooaiue a?aeiinii
caei?iai? /anoeie ae?iie iioeiaeueiiai ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai a?eo, iaoeath/eo
o i?iieneiaiio ?aa?ii?, aeicaieeee aeyaeoe aaaeeea? caeiiii??iino? ia
iiioeyoe?eiiio ??ai?. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a na?ae/eoue, ui ia?aa?a
aaa?oiino? o ae?iie i.Aei?i?iiao?ianueea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaea?eueoei
a?aenioeii oneeaaeiaiue – 124,31,1%, yeee cia/ii aeuee ca ??ai?, ui
niinoa??aathoueny ia o?eueee o i?no? ii??aiyiiy, a e o ?ioeo i?iieneiaeo
i?noao. O no?oeoo?? oneeaaeiaiue ia?aa?ao aaa?oiino? (OIA)
ia?aaaaeathoue aiai??, caa?ice ia?a?eaaiiy aaa?oiino?, i?ci? oieneeice
oa i??eiiao?eoe. ?acii c oei, /anoioa oneeaaeiaiiy iieia?a (OI) o oeeo
ae?iie a oe?eiio ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo i?no oa i?noa ii??aiyiiy
? noaiiaeoue 54,21,0%. Aea na?aae ie?aieo OI caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao
ia?aae/ania a?aeoa?oaaiiy ieaoeaioe oa aeaoaeoe iine?aeo, ??aaiue yeeo
noaiiaeoue 1,20,2% oa 6,80,5% ? aeuee ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?ioeo i?no
(?

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