IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AAIEIA?*IEO IAOE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Eeei/oe Ieaenaiae? Ai?eniae/

OAeE 556.34:551.44 (477.8)

A?Ae?IAAIEIA?*I? OIIAE ?ICAEOEO ? AAIACeN EA?NOIAEO II?IAEIEI A
IAIAAIIAEO NOEUeOAOIEO A?AeEEAAeAO AIEEII-IIAe?EUeNUeEIAI
A?OAC?AINUeEIAI AANAEIO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 04.00.06 — A?ae?iaaieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeaaeai?e IAIO, aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? OANOIIAEIA Ay/aneaa Ieoaeeiae/, caa. a?aeae?eii
a?ae?iaaieiae/ieo i?iaeai ?AI IAIO

Ioeoe?ei? iiiiaioe: /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAIO, aeieoi?
aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? EssEUeEI Aaaeei ?aaiiae/,
aee?aeoi? Oeaio?o aa?ieini?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue Caie? ?AI IAIO

eaiaeeaeao aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe OOOIA TH??e ?aaiiae/, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai ?ino?oooo i?ia?aeueieo
?ano?n?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 15 » /a?aiy 1999 a. i 15-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.162.05 a ?inoeooo?
aaieiae/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie (252054, Ee?a-54, aoe.I.Aii/a?a 55-a).

N aeena?oaoe??th iiaeii iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooa
aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 12 o?aaiy 1999.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aaieiai- i?ia?aeiae/ieo iaoe

A.I.AoaeynueCAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie: Ea?no o i?ioeaiia?e a?iniaia?ae?eoia?e oiau? (IAO)
?icaeiooee iaeaea anthaee ia ieiu? (aeecueei 20 oen.ei2) ??
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e ie?a?i? Aieeii-Iiae?eey, aea c
iei iia’ycaiee iecea iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai a?ae?iaaieia??,
?iaeaia?ii? aaieia??, aaio?i??, ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.
Niaeaiaaiac (aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie ea?noiaeo ii?iaeieie) ?
«na?oeaaeiith» ea?noiai? i?iaeaiaoeee. Aaeaeaaoi?noue niaeaiaaiaoe/ii?
eiioeaioe?? ae??oaeueiith i??ith aecia/a? iiaiioo aeyaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ea?noo o oe?eiio,
aoaeoeai?noue eiai i?iaiico ? caiia?aaiiy iani?eyoeeaeo iane?aee?a.
Oi?eaeueiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith a?iniaiai ea?noo ?aa?iio ? oe?ieee
?icaeoie eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo nenoai c aenieith u?euei?noth (aei 320
ei/ei2) ea?noiaeo eaiae?a. O Iiae?euenueeiio I?eaei?no?ia’? ? ia
Aoeiaei? a?aeiii 14 aaeeeeo a?iniaeo ia/a?, i’youe c yeeo ? iaea?eueoeie
a?iniaeie ia/a?aie na?oo. ?o noia?ia aeiaaeeia (iaeaea 500 ei) neeaaea?
iiiaae iieiaeio aeiaaeeie an?o ?ioeo ?ica?aeaieo a?iniaeo ia/a? na?oo,
?acii ocyoeo. I?iaeaia aaiace aaeeeeo ia/a? ?aa?iio iiia?aaei?ie
?iaioaie ia ae??oaia. A ?ioeo ?aeiiao nioae ?iciianthaeaeaiiy IAO o
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?, a iaeano? no/aniiai a?oac?ainueeiai noieo, ea?noia?
ii?iaeieie iianthaeii o?enothoueny ao??iiyi, iaeiae oyaeaiiy i?i ?o
iioiaeaeaiiy, no?oeoo?o ? a?ae?iaaieia?/io ?ieue a?aenooi?.

A?ae?iaaieia?/i? oiiae ? aecia/aeueieie a ?icaeoeo ea?noo. ?oi? aea/aiiy
a iaeaia?ae?iaaieia?/iiio aniaeo? iaiao?aeia aeey aeyaeaiiy aaiace oa
aaiethoe?? ea?noiaeo nenoai. C ?ioiai aieo, niaeaiaaiac ? iaeiei c
i?ia?aeieo oaeoi??a aaiethoe?? a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia oa??oi???
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ic/eiieo ii??ae. Aca?iiiia’ycaiee ?icaeyae
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo noeueoaoiiai ea?noo ? i?iaeaie
niaeaiaaiaco aeey anueiai ?aa?iio, a oaeiae aeyaeaiiy ?ie? ia/a? o
aiaeiiai?i? a i?ioeaiiaiio aiaeiiiniiio eiiieaen? (IAE), ? aeooaeueieie
caaaeaiiyie, ia ae??oaieie iiia?aaei?ie aeine?aeaeaiiyie.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o ?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oai a?aeae?eo
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo i?iaeai ?AI IAI Oe?a?ie ? Aeine?aeiiai i?aei?e?inoaa
?inoeoooo, a oaeiae i?ia?ai Iaoeiai? ?aaee IAI Oe?a?ie c i?iaeaie
«A?ae?iaaieia?y ? ?iaeaia?ia aaieia?y» ? Eii?n?? ii a?ae?iaaieia??
ea?noo ? niaeaiaaiaco I?aeia?iaeiiai niaeaieia?/iiai Nithco.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aeyaeaiiy aaiace ? a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo
ea?noiaeo ii?iaeieie o i?ioeaiia?e noeueoaoi?e oiau? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie,
a oaeiae ?ie? ea?noiaeo nenoai o aiaeiiai?i? a IAE. Aeey ?? aeinyaiaiiy
noaaeeeny ianooii? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe oiiae oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae IAE ? ?icaeoeo a?iniaiai
ea?noo, aeeiiaoe oeiieia?th no/anieo ianoaiiaie.

2. Aea/eoe oiiae caeeaaeaiiy, ii?oieia?th ? aoi?eii? a?aeeeaaee
ea?noiaeo ii?iaeiei a a?inia?e oiau?, ?aeiino?othaaoe a?ae?iaaieia?/i?
ianoaiiaee ?oiueiai oi?ioaaiiy, aeyaeoe iniiai? /eiieee, ye?
eiio?ieththoue niaeaiaaiac o a?inia?e oiau?.

3. ?ic?iaeoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe caaaeueio ? ?aa?iiaeueio eiioeaiooaeuei?
iiaeae? niaeaiaaiaco, a?aeiia?aei? aeyaeaiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai ea?noiaeo
ii?iaeieie ? a?ae?iaaieia?/iei ianoaiiaeai, i?aaenoaaeaiei o ?aa?ii?.

4. Aeyaeoe ?aa?iiaeuei? caeiiii??iino? aaiethoe?? a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia
? ea?noiaeo nenoai i?ioeaiiai? oiau?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. A ?iaio? aia?oa aeeiiaii
?aa?iiaeueia oeiieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia ?icaeoeo ea?noo o a?inao oa
oi?ioaaiiy aiae IAE a ?oiueiio aca?iiaecia/ath/iio ca’yceo. Iieacaii,
ui, anoia?a/ ?iciianthaeaeaiiio o ?aa?iiaeuei?e a?ae?iaaieia?? iiaeyaeo,
a?iniaa oiaua ia ? aiaeio?eaeei ? ?icae?eueiei oa?ii i?ae aeaiia
aiaeiiinieie ai?eciioaie. Aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aia
?ioaineai?noue ?ic/eiaiiy a?ino o ??ciiiai?oieo oiiaao, aeyaeai?
?aa?iiaeuei? caeiiii??iino? aeoeaiino? ea?noa.

Aeyaeai? iniiai? /eiieee, ye? eiio?ieththoue niaeaiaaiac o i?ioeaiia?e
a?inia?e oiau? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie. Cai?iiiiiaaia i?eioeeiiai iiaa
iiaeaeue aaiace eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo nenoai o a?inao ?aa?iio. Aia?oa
aeae?eaia ? ioa?aeoa?eciaaia a?oac?ainueea ianoaiiaea niaeaiaaiaco,
?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iniiae niaeaiaaiaco a a?oac?ainueeeo oiiaao.
Aeiaaaeaia aaiaoe/ia ?aei?noue eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo nenoai ?aa?iio, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny o ??cieo no/anieo a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiiaao, ui aeicaiey?
canoiniaoaaoe can?a aiaeia?e aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy no?oeoo?e ea?noiaeo
nenoai a ianoaiiaeao, aea i?yia aea/aiiy ii?iaeiei iaiiaeeeaa
(ianoaiiaea iai??iiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaeno). Ia iniia? aiae?co ?noi???
iaioaeoii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio ? niaeaiaaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeyaeaia aaiethoe?y aiaeiiai?iieo nenoai o i?ioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaaeao.
Iieacaiee aaiethoe?eii-noaae?eiee oa?aeoa? aeae?eaieo ianoaiiaie (cii)
oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae IAE.

Oeiieia?y ianoaiiaie ?icaeoeo ea?noo a a?inao ? oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo
aiae IAE, a oaeiae oyaeaiiy i?i no?oeoo?o aiaeiiai?io o IAE c
o?aooaaiiyi aaiace, aoaeiae, ooieoe?iioaaiiy, aaiethoe?? oa
a?ae?iaaieia?/ii? ?ie? ea?noiaeo nenoai o a?inao, neeaaeathoue iniiao
iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ?aa?iiaeueiiai oa eieaeueiiai
i?iaiico caea?noiaaiino?, i?iaaeueii? iaaaciaee ? aiaeii?eoie?a o
a?aee?eo? a??ie/? ae?iaee (?iaeiaeua n??ee, a?ino, aeei a iaeano?
a?oac?ainueeiai noieo), aaiace ? i?iaiico n??/aieo ?iaeiaeu ? ?iaeiaeu
n??eiaiaeiaaeo i?ia?aeueieo aiae. Aecia/aiiy /eiiee?a oi?eaeuei?no?
oa?aeoa?enoee ? iioiaeaeaiiy iaea?eueoeo o na?o? a?inia?o ia/a?ieo
nenoai neeaaeathoue iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? iniaeeaeo caoiae?a ii
ioi?ii? ia/a?ieo ?ano?n?a ?aa?iio, ye? iathoue na?oiaa cia/aiiy.

?aae?caoe?y ?iaioe: Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue c oaie aeena?oaoe?? ?
aeaye? ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aeei?enoai? a i?aai?caoe?? oa aaaeaii?
?aa?iiaeueiiai iii?oi??iao aaieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua (Euea?anueea
aeniaaeeoe?y AAI «Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y»), o cae?eniaii? iia?aoeaiiai
eiio?ieth ca ci?iith a?ae?iaaieia?/aieo oiia ? ?ic?iaoe? caoiae?a
i?ioeaiea?noiaiai caoenoo i?e aenieoaoaoe?? ssc?anueeiai n??/aiiai
?iaeiaeua (AIAeI?N??ea, ssai??anueeia AI «N??ea»), a iaa?oiooaaii?
aaio?eueo?aoe?eii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ssai??anueeiai ?iaeiaeua
(Ee?anueea oaiaoe/ia aeniaaeeoe?y EAO «Oe?aaieia?y»), a
i?iaeoii-aeooeoaaeueieo ?iaioao ii iaeaaeiaiith ea?noiaeo ia/a? ye
aeneo?n?eieo ia’?eo?a (OOII, Oiaeueieoeueea iae?aaea ii oo?ecio,
Aea?aeeii?oao ii ioi?ii? iai’yoie i?e ?I A??iai?? oiui), a oeeaaeaii?
Eaaeano?o aaeeeeo ia/a? eieeoiueiai N?N? (Iaoeiaa ?aaea AI N?N? ii
?iaeaia?i?e aaieia?? ? a?ae?iaaieia??) oa an?o ia/a?ieo ?ano?n?a Oe?a?ie
(ONA), o ?aaeeiieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?ioaineaiino? noeueoaoiiai ea?noo,
ye? i?iaiaeeeeny oi?aa?neoaoii Aeueia??? (?niai?y) ? ?aa?iiaeueiith
aaaioe??th Ath?i oi?aae?iiy caiaeue a Aeueaoea?ea (Iueth-Iaeneei, NOA),
o ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoo ?N c ioe?iee i?iaaeueii? iaaaciaee ?aeii?a a?iniaiai
ea?noo, a oaeiae a 11 ca?oao ii ainiaeiaia??i?e oaiaoeoe? AeI ?AI IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae: A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeai? iaoa??aee 20-??/iiai
aea/aiiy aaoi?ii ea?noo ? ia/a? caoiaeo Oe?a?ie. I?iaaaeai? aiae?c oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo ? oiiaeiaeo iaoa??ae?a ii a?ae?iaaieia??
i?ioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a ? n??/aieo ?iaeiaeu, ii aaeeeeo ia/a?ao ?aa?iio.
I?iaiae?ciaaiee iaoa??ae ii a?eueo i?ae 400 naa?aeeiaeiao, ui
?icoeiythoue a?iniao oiauo ? ea?noia? ii?iaeieie a i?e. Aeeiiaia
nooe?eueia aai o?aaiaioa?ia ii?oiaaiaoe/ia ea?ooaaiiy oa
?ino?oiaioaeueia i?io?ethaaiiy 6-oe aaeeeeo ia/a?ieo nenoai ?
niaoe?aeuei? ceiiee o??ueioaaoino? o a?inao. ?ic?aoiaai? ia?aiao?e
caea?noiaaiino? ia/a?ieo iie?a, ii ea?oao ia/a? aeeiiaiee aiae?c ?o
no?oeoo?e oa o??ueioaaoino?. Aeine?aeaeaia aoaeiaa (12 ?ic??c?a),
a?aioeiiao?e/iee neeaae (120 aiae?c?a), i?ia?aeia?/iee neeaae aaaeei?
o?aeoe?? (40 aiae?c?a) ia/a?iiai caiiaithaa/a. I?iaaaeaia ?aaeeiia
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?i?/iiai neeaaeo i?aecaiieo aiae (aeecueei 1500
aiae?c?a) oa ?ioaineaiino? ?ic/eiaiiy a?in?a (493 aei??e) ia 47
noaioe?yo, ?icoaoiaaieo o ??cieo ianoaiiaeao. Aea/aiee aaciaee neeaae
iia?o?y ia/a? (aacio?iiaoia?aoe/iee aiae?c; aeecueei 650 i?ia) oa
?cioiiiee neeaae aoaeaoeth N02 (ian-niaeo?iiao?e/iee aiae?c; 35 i?ia).

I?iaaaeaia eiiieaenia ea?noieia?/ia ea?ooaaiiy i-ao 1:25000 i?aaeaiii?
/anoeie iaaee??//y Na?ao-I?/eaaa ia ieiu? 320 ei2, aei neeaaeo yeiai
aoiaeeee aaieia?/ia ceiiea, ceiiea aiaeicai??a ? ea?noii?iya?a, ceiiea
aeaea?ae, a?ae?io?i?/ia (400 i?ia) ? ?aaeiiiiao?e/ia (80 i?ia)
ii?iaoaaiiy. Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aiaeiiai?io ia ssc?anueeiio ?
Ieeiea?anueeiio ?iaeiaeuao cae?enithaaeiny c aeei?enoaiiyi
oaeineiiaeaii? iaoiaeeee o?anoaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae (28 aenia?eiaio?a c
39 ?i’?eoe?yie o?ana??a, aeecueei 1500 i?ia-ianoie o nenoai?
niinoa?aaeaiue). Iaea?aeai? iaoa??aee neeaee iniiao eiii’thoa?ii?
aai?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie «A?iniaee ea?no Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie».

Ai?iaaoe?y iniiaieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe??: ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia III-io (Aeoooa, 1982), IV-io
(Aeaaeeainoie, 1986) ? V-io (Ee?a, 1987) Ananithcieo
ea?noiai-niaeaieia?/ieo ia?aaeao, I-io Ananithciiio C’?cae?
a?ae?iaaieia?a, ?iaeaia??a-aaieia?a oa aaie??ieia?a (Ee?a, 1988),
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo nai?ia?ao-ia?aaeao «Aeei?enoaiiy ia/a?» (Ia?i, 1979),
«I?iaeaie ?iaeaia?ii? aaieia?? O?aeo» (Ia?i, 1984), «I?aeoe/ia
aeei?enoaiiy ia/a? a?iniaiai ea?noo ? ?oiy ioi?iia» (Ia?i, 1987), ia I-e
(Aieaa??y, 1980) ? II-e (Aaeuea?y, 1992) ?a?iiaenueeeo ?aa?iiaeueieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ii niaeaieia??, 8-io (NOA, 1981), 10-io (Oai?ueia, 1989) ?
12-io (Oaaeoea?ey, 1997) I?aeia?iaeieo niaeaieia?/ieo eiia?anao,
I?aeia?iaeieo neiiic?oiao c ea?noo aaaii?eo?a (?oae?y, 1985), «I?i?eae a
ea?noia?e aaii?e?ia?ieia?? ? ?aaeieni?e aaio?i??» (NOA, 1994), «Ea?noia?
aiaee ? aieea iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua» (Oo?oe?y, 1995),
I?aeia?iaeiiio eieiea?oi? c ea?noieia?? (Ethenaiao?a, 1992),

Ioae?eaoe??: Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii 75 ?iaio, o oiio
/ene? 3 iiiia?ao??, 2 i?ai?eioa, 32 ?iaioe o ca?oa?aeieo aeaeaiiyo, 29
?iaio iniaenoi aac niaaoi??a.

A ?iaio? aaoi? caoeua? ianooii? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Oeiieia?th no/anieo a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo ianoaiiaie ?icaeoeo a?iniaiai
ea?noo ?aa?iio ? oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae i?ioeaiiai? oiau?, aeniiaee
i?i ?o ii?oino?oeoo?io coiiaeai?noue oa aaiethoe?eii-noaae?eiee
oa?aeoa?.

2. ?acoeueoaoe niaeaiaaiaoe/iiai aiae?co, aeniiaee i?i oi?ioaaiiy
ia/a?ieo nenoai ?aa?iio a oiiaao iai??iiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaeno c
?icn?yiei aeno?aeiei aeeaeaiiyi a?ae aacaeueiiai aiaeiiiniiai ai?eciioa.

3. Eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue a?oac?ainueeiai niaeaiaaiaco, ui
a?oioo?oueny ia oyaeaiiyo i?i aaeeeo ?ieue aa?oeeaeueii? oeeueo?aoe??
/a?ac neaaii?iieei? aa?noae a aaaaoioa?iaeo aiaeiiai??ieo nenoaiao ?
?iaa?n?th a?ae?iaaieia?/ii? ooieoe?? aeaiaio?a aaio?eueo?aoe?eiiai
?icoeio a oiae? niaeaiaaiaco.

4. ?aa?iiaeueio niaeaiaaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, ?aeiino?oeoe?th aaiethoe??
aiaeiiai?io a i?ioeaiiaiio aiaeiiiniiio eiiieaen? i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii?
ieieeoe? AIAA, iieiaeaiiy i?i i?ia?aeio ?ieue niaeaiaaiaca a a?inia?e
oiau? o oi?ioaaii? no?oeoo?e oa ?ioain?aiino? aiaeiiai?io i?ae
ai?eciioaie IAE.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, naie
?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a, aeeeaaeaieo ia 155 noi??ieao. Aiia i?noeoue 64
iaethiea, 4 oaaeeoe?, nienie e?oa?aoo?e c 178 iaeiaioaaiue. O ?icae?e? 1
iiaeaii noeneee iaeyae ?noi??? aea/aiiy a?iniaeo ia/a? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie
? ?icaeoeo niaeaiaaiaoe/ieo oyaeaiue, aeeeaaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
iiia?aaeiuei? eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae? aaiace ia/a? ?aa?iio ? iieacaia
?? i?iaeaiaoe/i?noue. O ?icae?e? 2 ?ice?eo? iaoiaee/i? iniiae ?
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ?iaioe. O ?icae?e? 3 oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
aaieiai-oaeoii?/i? ? aaiii?oieia?/i? oiiae, o ?icae?e? 4 –
a?ae?iaaieia?/i? oiiae ?icaeoeo noeueoaoiiai ea?noo ?aa?iio ?acii c
e?euee?niith ioe?ieith eiai no/anii? aeoeaiino? a ??ciiiai?oieo
ianoaiiaeao. O ?icae?e? 5 i?aaenoaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea no?oeoo?e,
ii?oieia?? oa aoi?eiieo a?aeeeaae?a aaeeeeo a?iniaeo ia/a? ?aa?iio ?
aeeiiaiee ?aa?iiaeueiee niaeaiaaiaoe/iee aiae?c. ?acoeueoaoii oaeiai
aiae?co ? aeniiaee i?i no?oeoo?i? ia?aaeoiiae ? a?ae?iaaieia?/i? oiiae
oi?ioaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia/a?.

Iiaoaeiaa ?aa?iiaeueii? eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae? iioiaeaeaiiy ia/a?
aeiaaaea ?ic?iaee ?yaeo oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai niaeaiaaiaco, cie?aia
ieoaiue niaeaiaaiaco o a?inao (c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae e?iaoeee
?ic/eiaiiy oeeo ii??ae), iioiaeaeaiiy eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo no?oeoo? ?
niaeaiaaiaco a a?oac?ainueeeo oiiaao (?icae?e 6). O ?icae?e? 7
i?aaenoaaeaia iiaeaeue niaeaiaaiaco a a?inao Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, yea
a?oioo?oueny ia ?acoeueoaoao i?iaaaeaiiai niaeaiaaiaoe/iiai aiae?co ?
iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo oyaeaiyo, ?icaeyiooa aaiethoe?y aiaeiiai?io a IAE oa
?ieue niaeaiaaiaco a a?inao o oeueiio i?ioean?.

?iaioa aeeiiaia i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aeaaeai?ea IAI Oe?a?ie
A.I.Oanoiiaeiaa, yeiio aaoi? aeneiaeth? aaey/i?noue ca oe?ii? ?aaee,
aeiiiiiao ? oa?i?iiy. I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi? ei?enooaaany
eiinoeueoaoe?yie ? iaoiaee/iith aeiiiiiaith i?ioani??a A.I.Aeoaeyineiai,
Ae.Oi?aea (Eaiaaea) ? A.Iaeia?a (NOA). Aaaaoi iieiaeaiue ?iaioe
?aaoey?ii iaaiai?thaaeeny c aeieoi?ii aaie.-i?i.iaoe A.I.Aiae??e/oeii, c
yeei aaoi?a iia’yco? aaaaoi??/ia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai. Ei?eni? ii?aaee ?
eiinoeueoaoe?? iaaeaa eaiae.aaie.-i?i.iaoe TH.N.Aoo. Iaioe?iaio
aeiiiiiao o i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue iaaeaee ni?a?ia?oieee
ea?noieiai-niaeaieia?/iiai caaiio Aeine?aeiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ?AI IAI
Oe?a?ie N.Ae.Aenueii, A.I.Ian?aee?i, A.ss.?iaiaei?eia, I.E.*o?oa?iaa,
I.N.*o?oa?ia, I.E.ssaeieiaa, a oaeiae niaeaieiae Ee?anueeiai,
Oa?iii?euenueeiai, Euea?anueeiai ? *a?i?aaoeueeiai niaeaieeoa?a. An?i
caaaeaiei iniaai aaoi? aeneiaeth? aeeaieo aaey/i?noue.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss ? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?ice?eaathoueny ieae/a ii /ioe?ueio iai?yieao, ca?aeii eia?ee oa
iaoiaeieia?? iinoaiiaee ? ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue ?iaioe, c iineeaiiyie ia
?icae?ee, o yeeo ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee io?eiaee ?acai?iooa
iaa?oiooaaiiy oa oi?ioethaaiiy.

1. Aaieiai-a?ae?iaaieia?/i? oiiae ?icaeoeo noeueoaoiiai ea?noo Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie

1. A ?acoeueoao? ?aae?caoe?? ia?oiai c caaaeaiue, iinoaaeaieo o ?iaio?,
aia?oa aeeiiaiee ?aa?iiaeueiee (aeey an??? oa?eoi??? ieaooi?iaiii?
ie?a?ie) aiae?c aaieiai-aaiii?oieia?/ieo ? a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia
?icaeoeo noeueoaoiiai ea?noo, aeae?eai? ? aeaoaeueii ioa?aeoa?eciaai?
ianoaiiaee oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae IAE, aeeiiaia aenia?eiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeoeaiino? noeueoaoiiai ea?noo o ??ciiiai?oieo
ianoaiiaeao (?icae?ee 3 ? 4).

No/ani? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ? caeyaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae noeueoaoii? oiau? ?
noi?aeieo aiaeiiinieo ai?eciio?a aa??ththoue ii cia/i?e (aeecueei 20
oen.ei2) ieiu? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy noeueoaoieo ii??ae, a?aeiia?aeii
?aa?iiaeuei?e i?ieeaino? aaieia?/ieo oa aaiii?oieia?/ieo oiia.
A?aei?iiino? a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia aecia/athoue a?aei?iiino? o
aiaeiiai?ieo ooieoe?yo ea?noiaeo nenoai, i?iyaao ? no/ani?e aeoeaiino?
a?iniaiai ea?noo.

Aeine?aeaeoaaia oa?eoi??y aecia/a?oueny ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi
a?iniaia?ae?eoiaeo ii??ae o iaaeao ieaooi?iaiii? ie?a?ie (?en.1). Aiie
a?aeiinyoueny aei aaaii?eoi-oa?eaaiii-ea?aiiaoii? (iieaniai?) oi?iaoe??
i?ioeaio, ui aeieeaaeii oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia iniia? ?ia?o
?.A.Aaiaeeinueeiai ? A.A.Ai?aoeueeiai (1979), I.N.Ayeiaa (1966, 1980,
1986), E.I.Eoae?eia (1966), Ae.A.Ao?ae?y (1969), A.?.Eieooia c
ni?aaaoi?aie (1972), A.O.Iieeoiiaa (1979, 1990), A.O.Iieeoiiaa c
ni?aaaoi?aie (1979), A.?.?oaeueei, A.I.Naeiiao?ia (1987), a oaeiae ii
aeaieo aeaoaeueieo ea?noieiai-niaeaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ie?aieo
?aeii?a (Eeei/oe oa ?i., 1983; Eeei/oe, Aiae??e/oe, Oo?/eiia, 1995, oa
?i.). Oi?iaoe?y neeaaea? aa?oith /anoeio aeuei?enueeiai no?oeoo?iiai
iiaa?oo ? aeeth/a? a naaa a?aeeeaaee na?aaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai
i?ioeaio, ye? caeyaathoue ia ?icieo?e iiaa?oi? a?aeeeaae?a iaeaiaaio,
iacicith oa iaeaicith. A?iniaia?ae?eoiaa oiaua iiooaei?noth a?ae
aeae?eueeio aei 30… 46 i a?aeiineoueny aei oe?anueei? naeoe (aa?oi?e
aaaeai?e), ?acii c aeuacaeyaath/ei ai?eciioii iae?oiii?oieo ?
e?enoae?/ieo aaiiye?a, oa iaeaea iianthaee i?aenoeea?oueny a?iaa?iieie
? i?uaii-i?neia?eiaeie inaaeaie ieaeiueiai aaaeai?th. A?iniaia?ae?eoe
?icaeiai? nioaith (aeiaaeeia aeecueei 300 ei, oe?eia a?ae aeae?eueeio
aei 80 ei) acaeiaae i?aaeaiii-cao?aeiiai noeeo ?icoi//y, ia i?aaeaii?e ?
i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e ie?a?iao Aieeii-Iiae?euenueei? ieeoe (?en. 1), a
oaeiae o Ciai?oi?e cii? Ia?aaeea?iaonueeiai i?iaeio. Ia e?aiaa?aaeiiio
I?eaei?no?ia’? noeueoaoia oiaua ia? ii??aiyii iaaeeaiea caeyaaiiy,
i?aaenoaaeaia a?inaie (iiooaei?noue 5…20 i) ? ?ic/eaiiaaia a?ic?eiith
ia?aaeath ia ?cieueiaai? a?aaee. O I?ei?ooo?, o noi?aei?e c i?iaeiii
cii?, a?ine iathoue iaeaea nooe?eueia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy, aeeaeia ?o
caeyaaiiy ? iiooaei?noue ca?eueoothoueny, aea ??cei aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? ii
aeieao. Noeueoaoi? ii?iaee i?ieea? o no?oeoo?ii-oaenoo?iiio a?aeiioaii?
ye ii i?inoyaaiith, oae ? o ?ic??c?. Aa?oeeaeueia no?oeoo?ii-oaenoo?ia
iaiaeii??aei?noue a?in?a aeyaeeany iaeaaaeeea?oith ia?aaeoiiaith
oi?ioaaiiy iniaeeainoae o??u?ioaaoino? ?, a ?aoo? ?aoo – no?oeoo?e
ia/a?ieo nenoai o a?iniai? oiau?: ?oiueiai y?oniiai ?icoaooaaiiy,
ieaiiai? aoaeiae ia?aae oiui (Klimchouk, 1986; Eeei/oe, Aiae?ae/oe,
1988; Klimchouk, 1996; Eeei/oe, Aiae?ae/oe, Oo?/eiia, 1995).

Ea?aiiaoia oaoe?y oe?anueei? naeoe i?aaenoaaeaia iae?oiii?oieie ?
e?enoae?/ieie oaiiaaiieie aaiiyeaie iiooaei?noth a?ae <1 aei >25 i, ye?
caeyaathoue, cae/aeii, o iie??ae? a?iniaia?ae?eo?a, aea ?ieiee
cai?uothoue ?o o ?ic??c?. O ?oiueiio neeaae? aeae?eythoueny inaaeia?,
(aeania «?aoeinuee?») aaiiyee ? ai?aaiaoe/i? aaiiyee, ui ooai?eeeny o
?acoeueoao? iaoaniiaoe/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy coeueoao?a (A?eiaiei oa ?i.,
1966; Iai/o?, 1972; Naenaaa, 1972; Eaei oa ?i.., 1977 ? ?i.).
Ai?aaiaoe/i? aaiiyee a?ae??ciythoueny aiiiaeueii iieaaoaiei ?cioiiiei
neeaaeii aoaeaoeth, ui iia’ycaia c o/anoth o ?oiueiio ooai?aii? NI2,
yeee aeieea? i?e ieeneaii? iaoaio (Klimchouk & Jablokova, 1989; 1994). C
ai?aaiaoe/ieie aaiiyeaie iia’ycai? n??/ai? ?iaeiaeua ?aa?iio.

Oe?anueea naeoa ia?ae?eaa?oueny a?aeeeaaeaie ein?anueeie naeoe, ui ia
ieaooi?iai?e ie?a?i? i?aaenoaaeaia oiauath aaiiyeiaenoeo aeei c
i?ioa?eaie ia?aae?a, aaiiye?a, ooo?o?a, i?neiaee?a ? i?ne?a iiooaei?noth
a?ae 20…30 aei 150…200 i. Naeoa a?ae??ciy?oueny a?aeiiniith
??cii??aei?noth neeaaeo a ieaei?e /anoei? ? iaeii??aeiei aeeiynoei
neeaaeii o aa?oi?e. O aeeaei? ieaooi?ie ?? aiaeiaii ? oa?iii?euenuee?
oa?e, i?aaenoaaeai? a?iaa?iieie aeeiynoeie aaiiyeaie ? ia?aaeyie.
Aa?oi?e i?ioeai ia Aieeii-Iiae?ee? i?aaenoaaeaiee a?aeeeaaeaie ?aiiueiai
? na?aaeiueiai na?iaoo. O nioc? c/eaioaaiiy ieaooi?ie c i?iaeiii
ieaeiueina?iaonuee? a?aeeeaaee (aeeie, ia?aae?) e?oieia?/ii ia
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ein?anueei? naeoe. O aeeaei? ieaooi?ie o ieo
ae??ciythoueny aeeiynoi-ia?aaeuei? oa i?uai? aoaeianuee? oa?e, a oaeiae
aaiiyeia?, ?eoiaaii? ? i?uaii-aeeiyno? aieeinuee? oa?e.

Iaeaaaeeea?o? ?ene no/aniiai no?oeoo?iiai ieaio i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii?
ie?a?ie No?aeii-?a?iiaenueei? ieaooi?ie iia’ycai? c e?ioeaaeie oacaie
aeuei?enueeiai oeeeeo oaeoiaaiaco ? iaioaeoii?/ieie iiae?yie o noi?aei?e
Ea?iaonuee?e aaineiee?iae?. No?oeoo?a iaiaaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a,
iaioaeoii?ea ? aaiii?oieia?y ?aa?iio ioa?aeoa?eciaai? ii ?iaioao
A.A.Aiiaea?/oea, I.A.Aieeiaa, I.E.Caii??y, E.?.Aa?ai/oea,
?.Ae.Aioooaeia, A.I.Iae??iei, A.I.Oo?ia?ia, I.I.Oeeny oa ?i., a oaeiae
?iaioao, i?enay/aieo n??eiiiniino? Ia?aaeea?iaooy (Aeaenaiei, 1967;
Ia?ee/, Aeaoeaiei, 1976; Iieeoiia oa ?i., 1979) ? iaoa??aeao
ea?noieiai-niaeaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ie?aieo ?aeii?a
A.I.Aeoaeyineiai, A.I.Aiae??e/oea ? aaoi?a. O aeena?oaoe?? aeaoaeueii
?icaeyioo? i?inoi?iaa ? /aniaa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iia?oi?o ?oo?a oa
?noi??y oi?ioaaiiy aeieeie Aei?no?a, yeeie coiiaeai? ?aa?iiaeuei?
a?aei?iiino? o aeeaei? caeyaaiiy a?iniaia?ae?eo?a, iiooaeiino?
aeeiynoiai iie?iao ? nooiaith aeaioaeaoe?eiiai ? a?ic?eiiai
?ic/eaioaaiiy ?ic??co i?ioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a, a ?aoo? ?aoo –
a?aei?iiino? a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo ea?noa. Oe? /eiieee
caeiiii??ii ci?iththoueny a iai?yieo a?ae aioo??oi?o ae?eyiie
ieaooi?iaiii? ie?a?ie aei aeieeie Aei?no?a ? aeae? aei Ia?aaeea?iaoneiai
i?iaeio. ?oi? no?ee? aeey cia/ieo oa?eoi??e ii?aeiaiiy aeae?eythoueny ye
a?ae?iaaieia?/i? ianoaiiaee (?en.2), ye? yaeythoue niaith
?ao?iniaeoeaiee aaiethoe?eiee ?yae. Iniaeeaino? iaioaeoii?/iiai ?
aaiii?oieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??? coiiaeee caeiiii??ia ciiaeueia
?ici?uaiiy ieiu, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue eiaei?e c ianoaiiaie oi?ioaaiiy
i?aecaiieo aiae IAE. A?ae aioo??oi?o ae?eyiie ieaooi?iaiii? ie?a?ie aei
aeieeie Aei?no?a ca?eueoo?oueny aeeaeia a?ic?eiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy
iacieaeiicieneeo ooai?aiue, a a?ae aeieeie Aei?no?a aei i?iaeio aiia
??cei ciaioo?oueny. O oeueiio iai?yieo aeaioaeaoe?eia iiaa?oiy ?
i?noeaa? aacene ae?aioaaiiy ?icoaoiaothoueny o iaaeao ana a?eueo aenieeo
aeaiaio?a aaio?eueo?aoe?eiiai ?ic??co IAE. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
iayai?noue aai a?aenooi?noue, a oaeiae iiooaei?noue ia?ae?eaath/i?
neaaeii?iieeii? aeeiynoi? iie?eoee. ?? iiooaei?noue ca?eueoo?oueny aei
i?iaeio, eiiiainoth/e aeieiai-no?aeoeaaa caio?aiiy ii??ae aeania IAE.
Oeeie /eiieeaie aecia/a?oueny ?aa?iiaeueia ciiaeuei?noue
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia IAE a oe?eiio ? no/anieo oiia ?icaeoeo ea?noo.

A?ae?iaaieia?/i? oiiae ?icaeoeo a?iniaiai ea?noo ?aa?iio ocaaaeueiai? o
?icae?e? 4 ia iniia? iaoa??ae?a aeaoaeueieo ea?noieiai-a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo
(aeeth/ath/e ?iaeeeaoi?i?) aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo ia eeth/iaeo
ae?eyieao (sscianueea, Ieeiea?anueea, iaaee??//y Na?ao-I?/eaaa), a
oaeiae ia iniia? iioae?eiaaieo ea?noieia?/ieo i?aoeue ii
i?aaeaiii-no?aei?e /anoei? nioae a?iniaia?ae?eo?a (Eaaiia, 1956; Eaaiia,
Oooia, 1970; Eo/a?oe, 1976; Aiae?ae/oe, 1984, 1985 e ae?.; Eeei/oe e
ae?., 1985; Klimchouk, Andrejchouk, 1986; Eeei/oe, Aiae?ae/oe, 1988;
Eeei/oe, Oanoiiaeia, 1990; Klimchouk, 1992; 1996, 1997a, 1997a) ?
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo i?aoeue ii ?? i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei? (Aaaeiaoe,
Oanoiiaeia, 1972; Aaa?iaoeue, Oeaiaiei, 1960; Aoo, 1962, 1972; Aieaaa,
1962; Eiieaaa, 1969; Aaeaeei, 1983; Eooie?, 1988; Eeoiiaiiaa, Oaaeinaaa,
Oaaeaiei, 1979; Iieeoiia, Aeaienaae/, Eino?ianeay, 1979; Aaea, 1984;
?oaeueei, Naeiiaoei, 1987 oa ?i.) ? ?aa?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo
ocaaaeueiaiue (Aaaeiaoe, 1961; Oi?ie?iaaiea…, 1979; Aeae?iaaieiaey NNN?,
1971; Oanoiiaeia, 1981, 1989, Klimchouk, 1997b oa ?i.). Aieea
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia ia ?icaeoie ea?noo ?ioaa?aeueii ae?aaeaiee o
no/ani?e aeoeaiino? i?ioeano, ui ioe?ith?oueny ii ?ioaineaiino?
?ic/eiaiiy a?in?a, yea aea/aeany iaoiaeii noaiaea?oieo c?ace?a ia
ia?aae? c 47 noaioe?e, ui ?ai?acaioothoue ??ci? ianoaiiaee ? oiiae
aca?iiae?? aiaee c ii?iaeith (Eeei/oe oa ?i., 1989; Klimchouk et al,
1996).

O a?ae?iaaieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? aeine?aeaeoaaia oa?eoi??y a?aeiineoueny
aei Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai a?oac?ainueeiai aanaeio ieaooi?iaiiiai oeio,
aei Iiae?euenueeiai ? Aoeiaeinueeiai aanaei?a noieo I-ai ii?yaeeo. Aeey
a?oac?ainueeiai aanaeio a oe?eiio oa?aeoa?ia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ieanoiai-o??ueiieo eieaeoi??a c eieaeueiei ?icaeoeii iiaa?oiai
caeyaath/eo aiaeiiinieo ai?eciio?a ? eiiieaen?a (Oanoiiaeia, 1981,
1988). Ciia c/eaioaaiiy ieaooi?ie c i?iaeiii yaey? niaith
iiiiee?iaeueiee a?oac?ainueeee noee c caaaeueiei iai?yieii noieo
ia cao?ae — i?aaeaiiee cao?ae — i?aaeaiue, a?ae aioo??oi?o ae?eyiie
ieaooi?iaii? ie?a?ie aei aeieeie Aei?no?a ? i?iaeio. Ooo
a?ae??ciythoueny aiaeiiini? ai?eciioe ? eiiieaene /aoaa?oeiieo,
i?ioeaiiaeo ? iaeaiaaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a, iacicienueeeo, iaeaicienueeeo ?
i?ioa?icienueeeo oiau. Aa?oiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/ia ciia ioiieth? i?ioeaiia?
? iacicienuee? eieaeoi?e, aeieeaaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaai? a ?iaio?.

A?aeeeaaee ein?anueei? naeoe ? na?iaoo (aeeiyno? inaaee) ooai?ththoue
neaaii?iieeio oiauo, ui ?icae?ey? aiaeiiini? eiiieaene /aoaa?oeiieo ?
i?ioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a. ?? aiaeii?iieei?noue ca?eueoo?oueny o ciiao
ii?ooaiue aai aeaioaeaoe?eiiai c??co ?? aa?oiuei? /anoeie. C oaeeie
ciiaie iia’ycai? ieiu? ? ina?aaeee aa?oeeaeueiiai ieno?aeiiai aai
aeno?aeiiai o?eueo?oaaiiy e??cue oeth oiauo.

Aiaeiiiniee eiiieaen i?ioeaiiaeo a?aeeeaae?a ?iciianthaeaeaiee ia
aiaeiae?eueieo i?inoi?ao ?icoi//a, Ii?eey ? I?eaei?no?ianueeiai
(cao?aeiiai) Iiae?eey, ? iaeaea iianthaee — o iaaeao nioae, yea
aaciina?aaeiuei i?eeyaa? aei i?iaeio. A?i ?icaeiaiee o
aaiiyeiai-ia?aaeenoeo a?aeeeaaeao iec?a ein?anueei? naeoe ? ?oi?o
aiaeia?a o aeeaei? ieaooi?ie, aaiiyeao ?aoeinueeiai ai?eciioo, a?inao oa
a?iniaia?ae?eoao aei?no?ianueeiai ai?eciioo, aaiiyeiai-i?uaienoeo
i?aea?iniaeo ieaeiueiaaaeainueeeo a?aeeeaaeao. Caaaeueia iiooaei?noue
ii??ae eiiieaeno neeaaea? 30… 50 i, i?noeyie aei 80 i. Aa?oeeaeueia ?
eaoa?aeueia oaoe?aeueii-e?oieia?/ia i?ieea?noue ii??ae IAE, ??ciee
nooi?iue o??ueioaaoino?, caea?noiaaiino? ? aeaioaeaoe?eiiai ?ice?eooy
coiiaeth? i?ieea?noue eieaeoi?nueeeo aeanoeainoae ai?eciio?a ? neeaaeiee
oa?aeoa? aiaeiiai?io i?ae ieie.

O neeaae? IAE cae/aeii aeae?eythoue iaaea?iniaee ? i?aea?iniaee
aiaeiiini? ai?eciioe. Iaaea?iniaee ai?eciio ?aoeinueeeo aaiiye?a
iiooaei?noth a?ae 1 aei 25 i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia??aiii??iith, /anoi
aeineoue aenieith o??ueiii-eaaa?iiaith ? eaaa?iiai-o??ueiiith
i?iieei?noth. I?aea?iniaee ai?eciio ?icaeiooee iaeaea iianthaeii, ca
aeiyoeii ieiu aeeaiei a??caieo aeieei. A?i ? iniiaiei ai?eciioii
eiiieaeno ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o??ueiii-ii?iaith i?iieei?noth. Noeueoaoia
oiaua oe?anueei? naeoe, iiooaei?noth a?ae 5 aei 40 i cae/aeii
?icaeyaea?oueny o ?aa?iiaeuei?e a?ae?iaaieia?? ye aiaeio?eaeee oa?, ui
?icae?ey? i?aea?iniaee oa iaaea?iniaee aiaeiiini? ai?eciioe
(Ia?anoiueei, 1960; Oeth?thia, 1960; Aieaaa, 1962; Aeaenaiei, 1967;
Eieooi oa ?i., 1972; Iieeoiia, Aeaienaae/, Eino?ianueea, 1979; Aaea,
1984; Oaaei?iaa, 1985, 1986; Eooi??, 1988; Eooaiia, Eiaeaaieeiaa, 1989
oa ?i.). A?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a aeacothoue ia a?ae?aae?/iee ca’ycie
i?ae ai?eciioaie i?ioeaiiai? oiau? eeoa ia ae?eyieao a?aenooiino? a
?ic??c? a?iniaia?ae?eo?a, o oae caaieo «a?eiao». Eeoa aeaeio?? aaoi?e
(Aaa?iaoeue, Oeaiaiei, 1960; Aoo, 1962; Aaeae?i, 1983; Oaaei?iaa, 1985)
caaaeothoue a?iniao oiauo na?aae aiaeiai?uoth/eo. Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c
ieoaiiy iieacaa, ui oa?aeoa?enoeea a?in?a ye ?aa?iiaeueiiai
aiaeio?eaeiai ? ?icae?eueiiai oa?o, a oe?eiio, iai?aaii??ia. O?niee
a?ae?aae?/iee ca’ycie i?ae- ? iaaea?iniaiai ai?eciio?a ? caaaeueiith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith, oi/a aa?oeeaeueia aii?iieei?noue oiao? ia??aiii??ia oa
aecia/a?oueny nooi?iai ? no?oeoo?ith ?? caea?nooaaiiy. Aa??aoe?? a
caea?nooaaii? a?in?a aecia/athoue iaeaaaeeea?o? iniaeeaino? aiaeiiai?io
a IAE. Ia aaeeeeo caea?noiaaieo ieiuao a?iniaa oiaua oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aenieith o??u?iii-eaiaeiaith i?iieei?noth, ui caaacia/o? ye
aa?oeeaeueiee, oae ? eaoa?aeueiee aiaeiiai?i /a?ac a?ine.

Oiiae oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae IAE aeaoaeueii aea/ai? ia
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo eeth/iaeo ae?eyieao o eiaei?e (ie??i ia?oi?) ?c
aeae?eaieo a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo ianoaiiaie (cii), o aca?iiaecia/aeueiiio
ca’yceo c ea?noii a a?inao. 1-a ianoaiiaea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaeaea
iiaiei cieuaiiyi a?iniai? oiau?, iayai?noth aaciai??iiai aiaeiiiniiai
ai?eciioo o i?aea?iniaeo ieaeiueiaaaeainueeeo a?aeeeaaeao, ni?eyoeeaeie
oiiaaie ?io?eueo?aoe?eiiai aeeaeaiiy. 2-a ianoaiiaea a?ae??ciy?oueny
neeaaeieie oiiaaie aeeaeaiiy (?io?eueo?aoe?eia, ?ioethaoe?eia,
eiiaeainaoe?eia), ye? ci?iththoueny o caeaaeiino? a?ae oe?eino?
aeeiynoi? neaaii?iieeii? oiau? ? ?acaeiooino? aiaeiiiaeeiath/eo
iiaa?oiaaeo ea?noii?iya?a, iiaiith cae?aiiaai?noth a?iniai? oiau? c
iayai?noth ie?aieo ina?aaee?a aa?oeeaeueii? ieno?aeii? o?eueo?aoe?? ?
ei?ioeeo i?aea?oaieo i?aecaiieo aiaeioie?a o a?inao; aenieeie
i?inoi?iaeie aa??aoe?yie i?ia?ae?caoe?? aiae, ai?noo noeueoao-?iio oa
?ioaineaiino? ?ic/eiaiiy a?in?a (a?ae 0 aei -84.0 ia.aeiao-1.ni-2).
Neeaaei? oiiae aeeaeaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae caa??aathoueny ? o 3-e
ianoaiiaoe?, aea iiaa?oiy aiaeiiiniiai ai?eciioo ?icoaoiaaia ooo o
iaaeao a?in?a o ca’yceo c iaioith aeeaeiith a?ic?eieo a??c?a. O 4-e
ianoaiiaoe? iaiothoue oiiae iai??ii? o?eueo?aoe??, i?e o?niiio
a?ae?aae?/iiio ca’yceo an?o aiaeiiinieo ai?eciio?a. Ia?aaaaea? aeno?aeia
aeeaeaiiy noeueoaoii? oiau? a?ae i?aenoeeath/iai ai?eciioo. Aeno?aeia
?icaaioaaeaiiy aiae eiiieaeno a?aeaoaa?oueny, caeaa?eueoiai, ia
ae?eyieao iioiaaieo aeieei. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c? ci?uaiiyi i?aecaiiiai
iioieo a?ae i?aea?iniaiai ai?eciioo /a?ac a?ine aei iaaea?iniaiai,
neeaae aiae ci?ith?oueny a?ae neaaii?ia?ae?ciaaieo HCO3-Ca aiae aei
SO4-Ca aiae c i?ia?ae?caoe??th 1.7…2.1 a/aei o ii?iaeieiao a?iniai?
oiau?, ? c i?ia?ae?caoe??th 2.0…2.5 a/aei ia aeoiae? c a?iniai? oiau?
o iaaea?iniaee ai?eciio. Aeieeiaiiy aiaa?iaieo oiia ii i??? a?aeaeaeaiiy
a?ae e?aeiai? iaeano? aeeaeaiiy ? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aoaeaaiaei?a ii
?aceiiao c ieaei?o eieaeoi??a i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeoeaiiai ia?aa?ao
i?ioean?a i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? noeueoao?aaeoeoe?? c aaia?aoe??th
n??eiaiaeith (ai?no o aiaeao aei 170…350 ia/aei) ? NI2 (aei
120…267 ia/aei). ?ioaineai?noue ?ic/eiaiiy a?in?a iaea?eueo aeniea i?e
iaaeoiaeaeaii? aa?aneaieo aiae a?ae i?aea?iniaai ai?eciioo (-9.15
ia.aeiao-1.ni-2). Ii i??? ?ooo aiae ii o??ueiao ? eaiaeao o a?inao ?oiy
ni?iiiaei?noue ?ic/eiyoe a?ine oaeaeei ciaioo?oueny ? ?ioaineai?noue
?ic/eiaiiy iacia/ii aa??th? iaaeiei cia/aiue -(0.1…0.2)
ia.aeiao-1.ni-2. I?inoi?iai-/ania? aa??aoe?? iieaciee?a iaaaeee?
ii??aiyii c 2-th oa 3-th ianoaiiaeaie. O aeiaaeeao aeoea?caoe??
aiaeiiai?io i?e oaoiiaaiiiio aieea? ?ioaineai?noue ?ic/eiaiiy c?inoa? o
4-70 ?ac?a.

Iniiai? aeniiaee ii oeueiio iai?yieo, ui ?ice?eaathoue 1-a iieiaeaiiy,
ui caoeua?oueny:

1.1. ?aa?iiaeueia i?ieea?noue oiia oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae IAE ?
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo noeueoaoiiai ea?noo aecia/a?oueny
iniaeeainoyie ii?oino?oeoo?iiai ieaio, ui noi?ioaaeeny o ?acoeueoao?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo o /an? oa i?inoi?? aa?oeeaeueieo ?oo?a caiii? ei?e o
i?ciueiiaiaai-/aoaa?oeiiee /an ? ?icaeoeo aieiaieo ??/eiaeo aeieei. Oeae
eiio?ieue i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac caeiiii??io ci?io, o iai?yieo a?ae
aioo??oi?o ae?eyiie ieaooi?ie aei aeieeie Aei?no?a ? i?iaeio, aeeaeie
caeyaaiiy a?iniaia?ae?eo?a, iiooaeiino? aeeiynoiai iie?iao, nooi?i?
aeaioaeaoe?eiiai oa a?ic?eiiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy aaio?eueo?aoe?eiiai ?ic??co
IAE.

1.2. Aeae?eai? a?ae?iaaieia?/i? ianoaiiaee iathoue
aaiethoe?eii-noaae?eiee oa?aeoa? ? yaeythoue niaith iine?aeiai? noaae??
?ice?eooy, ae?aioaaiiy ? aeaioaeaoe?? aeo?aeiiai iai??iiai IAE ?
a?aeiia?aeii? aaiethoe?? aiaeiiai?io. O ie?ioeai-/aoaa?oeiiee /an
ianoaiiaea iai??iiai IAE iine?aeiaii ci?uoaaeanue aei ei?aeiio c
i?iaeiii, aeo?nithth/enue a?eueo ?ice?eoeie oa cae?aiiaaieie oiiaaie, ui
oyae?thoue aei aeieei Aei?no?a ? eiai e?aeo i?eoie.

1.3. Iaea?eueoa ??ciiiai?oi?noue oiia aca?iiae?? aiaee c
a?iniaia?ae?eoaie, eieaeuei?noue ? a?a??eia?noue no/aniiai
ea?noiooai?aiiy oa iaea?eueo? aa??aoe?? ?ioaineaiino? ?ic/eiaiiy
niinoa??aathoueny o 2-e (iiaia ae?aioaaiiy a?iniai? oiaue) ? 3-e
(a?eueia iiaa?oiy i?aecaiieo aiae o a?inao) ianoaiiaeao. Eieaeuei?
cia/aiiy ?ioaineaiino? ?ic/eiaiiy a?in?a o 4-e ianoaiiaoe? (iai??iee
aiaeiiiniee eiiieaen) ?noioii ieae/?, iaeiae ?ioaa?aeueia aeoeai?noue
ea?noo (caaaeueia ?ioaineai?noue aeiino iaoa??aeo c aeaiiai ia’?io
ii?iaee) ooo iaea?eueo aeniea aiane?aeie ii??aiyii ??aiii??iiai
?ic/eiaiiy an?o aioo??oi?o iiaa?oiiue ? a?eueoei noieii /a?ac a?ine.

1.4. ?iciianthaeaeai? oyaeaiiy i?i aiaeio?eae?noue noeueoaoii? oiau?
oe?anueei? naeoe a iaeano? a?oac?ainueeiai noieo ? i?i ?? ?ieue ye
?icae?eueiiai oa?o a i?ioeaiiaiio eiiieaen? ? iiieeeiaeie ? coiiaeai?
iaa?aooaaiiyi aaiace ? a?ae?iaaieia?/ii? ooieoe?? ea?noiaeo nenoai. Oey
oiaua a?ae?a?aaaea ?ieue ?icae?eueiiai oa?o eeoa ia ?aii?o noaae?yo
no/aniiai ?io?eueo?aoe?eiiai aoaio. Niaeaiaaiac coiiaea aaiethoe?th ??
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae a?ae aiaeio?eaa aei ea?noiaiai eieaeoi?a
c eaiaeiaith aiaeii?iieei?noth, c a?aeiia?aeieie aeeaieeie ci?iaie
no?oeoo?e aiaeiiai?io a IAE. Eieaeoi?nuee? aeanoeaino? oiau? oa nooi?iue
aca?iica’yceo ai?eciio?a eiiieaeno ia??aiii??i? ii ieiu? ?
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? caeiiii??iinoyi caea?nooaaiiy. Ea?noia? nenoaie o
a?iniaia?ae?eoao caaacia/othoue aiaeiiai?i i?ae ai?eciioaie IAE,
aecia/ath/e eiai no?oeoo?o.

2. ?aa?iiaeueiee niaeaiaaiaoe/iee aiae?c

A ?acoeueoao? ?aae?caoe?? ae?oaiai caaaeaiiy, iinoaaeaiiai a ?iaio?,
aia?oa aaiaca ea?noiaeo ii?iaeieie o a?inao ?icaeyiooa a ?aa?iiaeueiiio
ianooaa?, aeeiiaiee aiae?c ?oiuei? ii?oieia?? ? aoi?eiieo a?aeeeaae?a,
aeyaeai? no?oeoo?i? ? a?ae?iaaieia?/i? oaeoi?e niaeaiaaiaco, aeiaaaeaii
oi?ioaaiiy ia/a?ieo nenoai o oiiaao aiaeiiai??ii? nenoaie (?icae?e 5).

O ?aa?ii? a?aeiii 14 aaeeeeo (aeiaaeeiith iiiaae 1 ei) ia/a?, ui
aeaiiino?othoue eaa??eioiao no?oeoo?o (?en. 3) c aeiyoeiai aenieith
ieoiiith u?euei?noth eaiae?a (118-321 ei/ei2; aeea. oaaeeoeth). C ieo 11
?ici?uai? o iaaeao E?aiaa?aaeiiai I?eaei?no?ia’y, i?e/iio 9 — o nioc?,
noaia?aeaeuei?e aeieei? Aei?no?a, ui iiaea aooe iacaaia «ia/a?iei iiynii
I?eaei?no?ia’y».

Oaaeeoey: Ii?oiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e aaeeeeo a?iniaeo ia/a? oa ?oi?o iie?a

N

i/i

Iacaa ia/a?e

Aeiaaeeia,

iIeoiiee ia’?i (i?aeaeue)

i3/iAonoeia oiae?a,

ei/ei2Eiao?oe??ioe caea?noiaaiino?, %ieiueiieeia’?iieeI?eaei?no?ianueea
Iiae?eey1Iioei?noe/ia207000+2.62983842Ica?ia11700061735163Ieeiee250003.3
1232434E?eooaeaaa2200051612875Neaaea91003.81182436Aa?oaaa7820620661127Ao
eaioeaea25254.51683048Oa?eiue21203.81933679THa?eaeia15002.327737410Eiini
iieuenueea12442.112417311Aeaeo?einueea11352.3126182Aoeiaeia12Cieooea9200
0820871613Aoeiaeiea24082.532157414Aino??
Aiaaee20001.6272274Noia492853—-Na?aaei? cia/aiiy-3.84198375

Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aaiace ia/a? aeiaaa?, ia?aaeon?i, aeyaeaiiy: 1)
no?oeoo?ieo ia?aaeoiia niaeaiaaiaco; 2) oeio aeeaeaiiy ? oa?aeoa?o noieo
o aiaeiiai?ii?e nenoai? (a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia o ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy);
3) i?e?iaee ?ic/eithaaeueii? caeaoiino? aiae, ye? oi?iothoue ia/a?e; 4)
a?eo iniiaieo aoai?a oi?ioaaiiy ia/a?ieo nenoai.

O ?aa?iiaeueiiio niaeaiaaiaoe/iiio aiae?c? aeei?enoiaothoueny aea?
iniiai? a?oie e?eoa???a (iaoiae?a): ii?oiaaiaoe/i? oa naaeeiaioieia?/i?,
ye? aeicaieythoue aeyaeoe iniiai? ia?aaeoiiae oa ?aeiino?othaaoe oiiae ?
iiae?? ?noi??? oi?ioaaiiy ia/a?ieo nenoai. Aeania niaeaiaaiaoe/ia
aii??e/ia iiaeaeue, ui eiino?oth?oueny ia iniia? aiae?co no?oeoo?e,
ii?oieia?? ? aoi?eiieo a?aeeeaae?a ia/a?, ni?anoaaey?oueny c
iaeaia?ae?iaaieia?/iith iiaeaeeth, noai?thaaiith ia iniia? aiae?co
iaioaeoii?/ii? ? aaiii?oieia?/ii? ?noi??? ?aa?iio. I?ney oeueiai o
?aieao iaeaia?ae?iaaieia?/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e aecia/athoueny ia??iaee,
a?ae?iaaieia?/i? oiiae yeeo a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai niaeaiaaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae?. Noi?uaiiy oeeo aeaio ?aeiino?oeoe?e aea? iiaeeea?noue
iaa?oiooaaoe ? iiaoaeoaaoe inoaoi/io niaeaiaaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, yea
aiaeii/an ?noioii ooi/ith? ? aeiiiaith? aeo?aei? iaeaia?ae?iaaieia?/i?
iiaoaeiae (Aeoaeyineee, 1977a, a; Eeei/oe, 1985; Eeei/oe, ?iaiaeieeia,
1982).

A?eueo?noue aea/aieo eaa??eioiaeo ia/a? ciaoiaeeoueny o no/anieo oiiaao
2-? ianoaiiaee (a?iniaa oiaua ?ice?eoa ? cae?aiiaaia). Iiia?aaei?
aaiaoe/i? iiaoaeiae aeey oeeo iaua? iinooethaaee ?oi? oi?ioaaiiy o
?aiiueiio-na?aaeiueiio ieaenoioeai? o a?aee?eoeo a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo
oiiaao, aiaeia?/ieo oiiaai 3-? ianoaiiaee. Iniiaieie iieiaeaiiyie
?ioethaoe?eii-ia?ao?/ii? eiioeaioe?? A.I.Aeoaeyineiai ?: 1) oi?ioaaiiy
ea?noiaeo nenoai ca ?aooiie ?ioethaoe?eiiai ina?aaeeiaiai aeeaeaiiy, i?e
iaiaaeaiiio /ene? ina?aaee?a aeeaeaiiy a oiiaao iie?eoiai ea?noo, 2)
i?a?aoe?y eieae?ciaaieo aiaeieo iioie?a ii a?iniaiio ai?eciioo i?ae
noi?aeieie a??caieie aeieeiaie, aai i?ae iiii?aie ? aeieeiaie
(Aeoaeyinueeee, Niieueieeia, 1969; Aeoaeyinueeee, Eiia?a, 1980).
I?aenoeeath/? ? ia?ae?eaath/? ii?iaee ?icaeyaeaeeny ye a?aeiini?
aiaeio?eae; aaaaoiy?onia aoaeiaa eaa??eio?a iia’ycoaaeanue c oeeeeaie
i?aeiyoue ? noaa?e?caoe?? oa?eoi???, caaeeaeaiiyie a?ic?eieo a??cia oa
a?aeiia?aeieie cieaeaiiyie ??ai?a i?aecaiieo aiae. I?e?iaea
niaeai?i?oe?thth/i? o?au?ioaaoino? a?in?a o?aeooaaeany ye oaeoii?/ia.
Iniaeeaino? e?iaoeee ?ic/eiaiiy a?in?a o ca’yceo c? niaeaiaaiacii ia
?icaeyaeaeeny. Oi?ioaaiiy eaa??eioiaeo no?oeoo? iia’ycoaaeiny c
??cii/aniith i?i?iaeith nenoai o??uei ??cieo iai?yie?a ?
ia?ai???ioaoe??th noieo.

Oey eiioeaioe?y aeecueea aei eeane/ieo iiaeaeae «ieno?aeiiai»
niaeaiaaiaco. Iniiai? ?? i?ioe??//y iia’ycai? c: 1) «oaeaeeith»
e?iaoeeie ?ic/eiaiiy a?in?a, yea iaoiiaeth? oaeaeea cieaeaiiy
noeueoaoii? aa?aneaiino? i?aecaiieo aiae ia oeyoao o?eueo?aoe?? ?
iaiiaeeea?noue ??aiii??iiai ?ic/eiaiiy ia aaeeeeo aeenoaioe?yo
iinooeueiaaieo ia?aoie?a, 2) iaiiaeee a?noth iiyniaiiy eaa??eioiai?
no?oeoo?e ia/a? o ?aieao caaaeaieo oiia aeeaeaiiy ? ?ooo
i?aecaiieo aiae. Inoaii? noaei i/aaeaeiei o ?acoeueoao? oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?iaie ? /eneiaiai ? o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy, aeeiiaieo ca inoaii? 20
?ie?a (Ford & Ewers, 1978; Palmer, 1984, 1991 oa ?i.), ye? iieacaee, ui
aeene?aoia aeeaeaiiy iiaa?oiaaeie aiaeaie /a?ac iiii?e a oiiaao
aaciai??iiai aiaeiiiniiai ai?eciioo ? i?eioeei eiieo?aioiiai ?icaeoeo
ia?aeiieo oeyo?a o?eueo?aoe?? i?ecaiaeyoue aei oi?ioaaiiy
aea?aaiiiae?aieo aai e?i?eieo nenoai, aea ia eaa??eioiaeo ia?aae.

?ioethaoe?eii-ia?aoi/ia eiioeaioe?y niaeaiaaiaco, ui aoea cai?iiiiiaaia
?ai?oa aeey a?ae?iaaieia?/ii ?ice?eoeo oiia E?aiaa?aaeiiai
I?eaei?no?ia’y, ia iiaea aooe canoiniaaia aei oiia no/anii? iaeano?
a?oac?ainueeiai noieo (4-a ianoaiiaea), aea /eneai? ea?noia? ii?iaeieie
o a?inao iianthaee o?enoaaeeny ao??iiyi. Ooo aiie iae/ano?oa
o?aeooaaeeny ye iioiaai? iaeaiea?noia? oi?ie, a ieoaiiy i?i ?oith
aaiaco, no?oeoo?o oa a?ae?iaaieia?/io ?ieue i?aeoe/ii ia ?icaeyaeaeenue.
Oaeei /eiii, iiia?aaei?e noai ieoaiiy aaiaoe/ii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
ea?noiaeo ii?iaeieie o a?inao Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ieceith
?noioieo i?ioe??/, a?aenooi?noth ?aa?iiaeueiiai ocaaaeueiaiiy oa
caaaeueii? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo
no?oeoo?, yea iiaea aooe canoiniaaiith aei oiia iie?eoiai ea?noo ?
iai??iiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaeno.

Aeeiiaiee o ?icae?e? 5 aiae?c no?oeoo?e, iaci- ? i?e?iii?oieia?? oa
aoi?eiieo a?aeeeaae?a aaeeeeo eaa??eioiaeo ia/a? ?aa?iio aeicaieea
iaa?oiooaaoe ianooii? aeniiaee, ui aeaoae?cothoue 2-a iieiaeaiiy aei
caoenoo:

2.1. Eaa??eioiaa no?oeoo?a ia/a?ieo nenoai aecia/a?oueny
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieie oiiaaie ?oiueiai ?i?oe?thaaiiy ? ?aiiueiai ?icaeoeo,
a oaeiae no?oeoo?ith niaeai?i?oe?thth/i? o??ueioaaoino?. Ii?oieia?y
aea/aieo ia/a? noi?iiaaia a oiiaao iai??iiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaeno, c
ianooiiei cia/iei iiaeaethaaiiyi a oiiaao ai?eciioo c a?eueiith
iiaa?oiath ? iacia/iei iiaeaethaaiiyi a?eueieie iioieaie a oiiaao iiaii?
cae?aiiaaiino? a?in?a.

2.2. Oi?ioaaiiy y?on?a o ia/a?ieo nenoaiao ?aa?iio ia iia’ycaia c
aoaii?noth o i?ae?eiaii? oa?eoi??? ? a?aeiia?aeiith ci?iith aacena
ea?nooaaiiy, ye oea i?eioneaeiny ?ai?oa. ss?onia aoaeiaa ia/a? ?aa?iio
aecia/aia y?oniei caeeaaeaiiyi niaeai?i?oe?thth/eo o??uei, ui
ooai?ththoue iacaeaaei? ia?aae? c ?noioii ??cieie ia?aiao?aie o iaaeao
iaaieo oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?ieo ai?eciio?a a?iniai? oiau?.
Niaeai?i?oe?thth/a o??ueioaao?noue aeyaey? aeanoeaino?, oa?aeoa?i? aeey
e?oiaaiaoe/ii? ? ieaiaoa?ii? (caaaeueii?) o??ueioaaoino?.

2.3. No?oeoo?a ? ii?oieia?y ia/a? na?ae/aoue i?i ?oi? ooai?aiiy ca
?aooiie ?icn?yiiai aeeaeaiiy a?ae i?aenoeeath/iai aiaeiiiniiai
ai?eciioo, i?e caaaeueiiio aeno?aeiiio aiaeiiai?i? /a?ac a?ine.
Oi?ioaaiiy ia/a? a?aeaoaaeiny a oiiaao oa?iai? aiaeiiai??ii? nenoaie ?
iia’ycaia c aeno?aeiith o?eueo?aoe??th o ciiao i’?cii?i?ioi?a, aea aiaee
aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaeno ?icaaioaaeoaaeenue ia ae?eyieao aeieei, ui
a??cathoueny o aeeiynoo iie??aeth. C ?ice?eooyi iai??iiai IAE ?
caaeeaeaiiyi aacen?a ae?aioaaiiy a?aeaoaaeeny ?iaa?n?y noaie
aiaeiiai?io, ci?ia ?aaeeio i?aecaiieo aiae oa ia?ao?ae ia/a?ieo nenoai o
?ae?eoiaee noai.

3. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae eiioeaioe?? a?oac?ainueeiai niaeaiaaiaco

Iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee ?yaeo oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai niaeaiaaiaco (3-a
caaaeaiiy) aeieeea o ca’yceo c oei, ui aeyaeai? a oiae? ?aa?iiaeueiiai
aiae?co oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaeiei oa ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee ia ciaoiaeeee
caaeia?eueiiai iiyniaiiy o ?aieao iayaieo caaaeueieo oai?aoe/ieo
oyaeaiue ? iiaeaeae niaeaiaaiaco. A ?icae?e? 6 ?icaeioo? oai?aoe/i?
iniiae eiioeaioe?? niaeaiaaiaco a a?oac?ainueeeo oiiaao, cai?iiiiiaai?
iia? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo
no?oeoo? ? niaeaiaaiaco a a?inao.

No/ani? oai?aoe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i niaeaiaaiac aacothoueny ia ?acoeueoaoao
/eneiaiai e?ioeaai-a?aei?iiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ?icaeoeo aeaiaioa?iiai
eaiaeo ii ia?aeiiiio oeyoo o?eueo?aoe?? (Palmer, 1991, 1999; Dreybrodt,
1990, 1996), ui aeicaieeei aeyaeoe ooieoe?iiaeuei? caeaaeiino? i?ae
oaeaee?noth c?inoaiiy eaiaeo ? ??ciiiai?oieie ci?iieie. Aiii caniiaaia
ia ni?eueiiio ae??oaii? ??aiyiue o?i?/iiai aaeaino ian, a?ae?ieia?/iiai
aaeaino ian, eai?ia?iiai (??aiyiiy Oaaaaia-Ioacaeey) aai oo?aoeaioiiai
(??aiyiiy Aea?n?-Aaenaaoa) iioieo ? eeiaoeee ?ic/eiaiiy eaeueoeeoo, ?
?aae?ciaaia aeey a?aie/ieo oiia, a?aeiia?aeieo o?aaoe/i?e cii?
aiaeiiiniiai ai?eciioo c a?eueiith iiaa?oiath (oiaoi, aeey a?aee?eoeo
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia). Ia noaae?? ?i?oe?thaaiiy (aei oae caaiiai
e?iaoe/iiai i?i?eao) niinoa??aathoueny aaee/aci? aa??aoe?? o oaeaeeino?
?icaeoeo eaiae?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?oiuei? ii/aoeiai? oe?eie ?
a?aeiioaiiy aeo?ao aiaee aei aeiaaeeie oeyoo o?eueo?aoe?? (Q/L). Eaiaee,
ui iathoue a?eueo ni?eyoeea? ii/aoeia? oiiae ? caeaoi? ca?eueooaaoe
aeo?aoe ca ?aooiie ia?aoiieaiiy noieo o aeueoa?iaoeaieo eaiae?a,
?icoe?ththoueny ?c c?inoath/ith oaeaee?noth, aeinyaath/e oiia
e?iaoe/iiai i?i?eao ? iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo. ?io? eaiaee
i?eieiythoue na?e ??no c ao?aoith aeeaeaiiy. Oaea eiieo?aioe?y oeyo?a
o?eueo?aoe?? ia noaae?? niaeaiaaiiiai ?i?oe?thaaiiy ? aieiaiith
i?e/eiith aea??eiaiai caea?nooaaiiy o ianea? ii?iae ? ?icaeoeo
aea?aaiiiae?aieo no?oeoo? ia/a?ieo nenoai a oiiaao a?ae?iaaieia?/ii
a?aee?eoiai ea?noo. Oiiaith ??aiii??iiai ?icaeoeo aaaaoueio
o?eueo?oth/eo eaiae?a, (oi?ioaaiiy eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo no?oeoo?) ?, ca
Iaeia?ii, iaeii/ania aeinyaiaiiy ieie aenieeo cia/aiue Q/L, ui
aeiionea?oueny o iniaeeaeo ianoaiiaeao (aaeeea e?euee?noue o??uei c
aenieei ?ice?eooyi o i?eiiaa?oiaa?e aai i?enoeeia?e ciiao; aenie?
a?aae??ioe ia ae?eyieao i?aeia?oeo iiaaiaaeo iioie?a). AEiaeia c oeeo
ianoaiiaie ia a?aeiia?aea? oiiaai iai??ieo aiaeiiinieo eiiieaen?a
(a?oac?ainueeei oiiaai).

Niaoeeo?ea niaeaiaaiaco o a?inao aecia/a?oueny iniaeeainoyie e?iaoeee
?ic/eiaiiy: ii/aoeiaa oaeaee?noue ?ic/eiaiiy a?ino cia/ii aeua, i?ae
eaeueoeeoo, eiio?ieth?oueny aeiyoeiai aeeooc??th /a?ac i?eei?aeiiiee
oa?, aac ci?ie ii?yaeeo ??aiyiiy e?iaoeee ?ic/eiaiiy c? ca?eueoaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eio. Ioaea: 1) niaeaiaaiia ?i?oe?thaaiiy o a?inao
aeiaaeo aiaeii?ia?aeieo oeyo?a c iaeith ii/aoeiaith ?ice?eo?noth
oai?aoe/ii iaiiaeeeaa; ?icaeoie ia/a?ieo eaiae?a iiaeeeaee eeoa ca oiiae
aenieeo cia/aiue Q/L, oiaoi ii o??ueiao c aaeeeith ii/aoeiaith
?ice?eo?noth, iaeith aeiaaeeiith ? (aai) i?e aenieeo a?ae?aae?/ieo
a?aae??ioao; 2) caaaeath/e ia oaeaeeo e?iaoeeo ?ic/eiaiiy a?ino ?
neeueio caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? aeeooc?eiiai ?ic/eiaiiy a?ae aeo?ao
aiaee, oaeaeeino? ? ?aaeeio (eai?ia?iiai aai oo?aoeaioiiai) iioieo,
eiieo?aioe?y o niaeaiaaiiiio ?icaeoeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo ia?aeiieo oeyo?a
o?eueo?oaaiiy o a?inao aeyaey?oueny neeuei?oith, i?ae o ea?aiiaoao. Oea
ua a?eueo iaiaaeo? iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo
no?oeoo? o a?inao o a?aee?eoeo a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiiaao.

?aii? ni?iae iiyniaiiy eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo no?oeoo? ?oi?i ?icaeoeii a
a?oac?ainueeeo oiiaao (Howard, 1964; White, 1969; Ford, 1971) ?iaeeeny
ia iniia? eeane/ii? iiaeae? eaoa?aeueiiai a?oac?ainueeiai noieo ii
?ic/eii?e ii?iae?. Aiie ia iaee o iiaeaeueoiio aeciaiiy ? ?icaeoeo,
ine?eueee Iaeia?ii (1984) aoea aeiaaaeaia iaiiaeeea?noue ??aiii??iiai
?icaeoeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo ia?aeiieo oeyo?a o?eueo?oaaiiy i?e
eaoa?aeueiiio a?oac?ainueeiio noieia?, yeee iinooeth?oueny eeane/iith
iiaeaeeth.

Iiaa eiioeaioe?y a?oac?ainueeiai niaeaiaaiaco, ui neeaaea? 3-a
iieiaeaiiy aei caoenoo, aaco?oueny ia iao?aaeeoe?eieo oyaeaiiyo i?i
a?ae?iaeeiai?eo oa?iaeo aiaeiiai??ieo nenoai ieaooi?iaiiiai oeio, ui
iinooeththoue aaeeeo ?ieue aa?oeeaeueii? o?eueo?aoe?? o aiaeiiai?i?
(iiaeaeue Iyoe?aa-A???inueeiai, ?icaeiaia aeey a?oac?ainueeeo aanaei?a
Oe?a?ie o ?iaioao Oanoiiaeiaa, 1974, 1981, 1988, Aiaeiiaiai…, 1989; ?en.
4-A), ?acoeueoaoao iiaeaethaaiiy ?aiiuei? aaiethoe?? ia/a?ieo eaiae?a
(Iaeia?) ? oyaeaiiyo i?i iaa?iaiiy a?ae?iaaieia?/ii? ooieoe?? aeaiaio?a
aaio?eueo?aoe?eiiai ?ic??co o oiae? niaeaiaaiaco (?en. 4-A). Iniiai? ??
iieiaeaiiy caiaeyoueny aei ianooiiiai (Eeei/oe, 1990; Klimchouk, 1992,
1994, 1997b,n):

3.1. Oa?e ?ic/eiieo ii?iae, ye? caeyaathoue i?ae ii?iai-o??u?ii?ie
eieaeoi?aie, nii/aoeo a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue ?icae?eiaeo. Niaeaiaaiac
?i?oe?th?oueny aa?oeeaeueiith o?eueo?aoe??th ii o??ueiao /a?ac oe? oa?e.
C ?icaeoeii eaiaeiai? i?iieeiino? o oa?ao ?ic/eiieo ii??ae
iineeth?oueny, aae aei aeineiiaeiai, a?ae?aae?/iee ca’ycie ai?eciio?a ?
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaa?iaiiy a?ae?iaaieia?/ii? ooieoe?? aeaiaio?a
aaio?eueo?aoe?eiiai ?ic??co.

3.2. Iaea?eueoa ?ioaineai?noue aa?oeeaeueiiai aiaeiiai?io /a?ac
?icae?eia? oa?e ? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey niaeaiaaiaco aeieeathoue a
iaeanoyo aeno?aeii? o?eueo?aoe?? (ciiao i’?cii?i?ioi?a — caiaaeei o
?aeue?o?).

3.3. Ia?aaaaeiei aeaeii aeeaeaiiy ea?noiaeo nenoai o oa?? ?ic/eiieo
ii??ae ? ?icn?yia ??aiii??ia aeeaeaiiy a?ae noi?aeieo iaea?noiaeo
eieaeoi??a. A oiiaao oa?iai? aiaeiiai??ii? nenoaie iiia?a/i? oeyoe
o?eueo?aoe?? a?ae??ciythoueny iaaaeeeith aeiaaeeiith, a aeo?aoe /a?ac
eaiaee, ye? ?icaeaathoueny o ?ic/eii?e oiau?, eiio?ieththoueny
(iaiaaeothoueny) i?iieei?noth noi?aeieo eieaeoi??a ? iniiaiiai
aa?oiueiai neaaeii?iieeiaiiai oa?o. Aieiaiith iniaeea?noth
a?oac?ainueeiai niaeaiaaiaco ? ??aiii??ia ?icoe?aiiy an?o ia?aeiieo
oeyo?a o?eueo?aoe?? /a?ac ?ic/eiiee oa?, ui, ca iayaiino? a?aeiia?aeieo
no?oeoo?ieo ia?aaeoiia, aaaea aei oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaeaaeo (eaa??eioiaeo)
ia/a?ieo no?oeoo?.

3.4. Oi?ioaaiiy eaa??eioiaeo ia/a? o a?inao iiaeeeaa aeiyoeiai i?e
aa?oeeaeueiiio aiaeiiai?i? /a?ac caea?noiaaiee oa? o oa?ia?e
aiaeiiai??i?e nenoai?. Niaeaiaaiac o a?inao o a?aee?eoeo
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiiaao ? i?e eaoa?aeueiii ?on? aiae /a?ac oiauo
iiaeeeaee eeoa ca aeniei? ii/aoeiai? ?ice?eoino? o??uei ? i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ooai?aiiy e?i?eieo ? (neaaei) aea?aaiiiae?aieo ia/a?ieo no?oeoo?.
?noioiiai caea?nooaaiiy o ieaei?o a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ciiao i?e oeueiio ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny.

3.5. Aaiethoe?y ia/a? a a?oac?ainuee?e ianoaiiaoe? (?en. 5) iiaea
ioiiethaaoe o?eaae? aaieia?/i? aiioe, i?ioyaii yeeo oiiae ci?iththoueny
iinooiiai (noaae?? ?i?oe?thaaiiy ? iniiaia a?oac?ainueea). ??cea ci?ia
oiia iia’ycaia c ianooiiei ?ice?eooyi aiaeiiai??ii? nenoaie, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aiaeiiai?io ? i?enei?aiiy niaeaiaaiiiai
?icaeoeo eaiae?a (i?ciy a?oac?ainueea noaae?y).

3.6. Ia/a?e a?oac?ainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia aeyaeythoue
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ca’yceo c no/aniei ?aeue?oii, iaeiae, o
iaeaiaaiii?oieia?/iiio ieai?, oyae?thoue aei ??/eiaeo aeieei (o o./.
iioiaaieo). Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeayeeie oeiiaeie ii?oieia?/ieie
?enaie (iaeiiiai?oi?noue ?ici???a ? ii?oieia?? eaiae?a, eaa??eioi?
no?oeoo?e, aace?/ «ne?ieo» ooiee?a, eoiie?a oa iai?ao?oa eiiaaeoe?eiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy ia noaeyo oiae?a), a oaeiae aeii?ioaaiiyi aeia?a
a?aeni?oiaaieo aeeiynoeo aiaeiiiaoai?/ieo a?aeeeaae?a.

4. Aaiethoe?y a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia IAE ? ia/a? a noeueoaoi?e oiau?

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a ?aa?iiaeueiiai aiae?co oiia oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo
aiae IAE (1-a caaaeaiiy, ?icae?e 4), ?aa?iiaeueiiai niaeaiaaiaoe/iiai
aiae?co (2-a caaaeaiiy, ?icae?e 5) ? ?ic?iaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue
ii niaeaiaaiaco a a?oac?ainueeeo oiiaao (3-a caaaeaiiy, ?icae?e 6),
?aeiino?oeiaaia ?noi??y ?icaeoeo eaa??eioiaeo ia/a? o a?inao oa
i?e?iaeii-?noi?e/ia aaiethoe?y aiaeiiai?io a IAE, aeyaeaia ?ieue
a?iniaiai ea?noo o aiaeiiai?i?; ia i?eeeaae? a?aee?eoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o
?ice?eoa ?ieue oaoiiaaiiiai aieeao ia aiaeiiai?i a oiiaao a?iniaiai
ea?noo, oei naiei ?aae?ciaaia 4-a caaaeaiiy ?iaioe (?icae?e 7) oa
iaa?oioiaaii 4-oa iieiaeaiiy aei caoenoo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? niaeaiaaiaoe/ii? eiioeaioe??
caiaeyoueny aei ianooiiiai:

4.1. Oi?ioaaiiy eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?ieo nenoai a?aeaoaaeiny a oiiaao
iai??iiai IAE, iniiaiei aiaeiiiniei ai?eciioii yeiai ? i?aea?iniaee.

4.2. Ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao ?icaeoeo aiaeiiai?iii? nenoaie a?iniaa oiaua
a?ae?a?aaaea ?ieue aiaeio?eaeiai oa?o, ui iiae?ey? i?aea?iniaee ?
iaaea?iniaee aiaeiiini? ai?eciioe. C aeieeiaiiyi o??ueioaaoino? o a?inao
oa caeeaaeaiiyi ia?aeiii? a?ae?iia?aae? aeieeaee ia?aaeoiiae aeey
aa?oeeaeueiiai aiaeiiai?io /a?ac a?ine. Oi?ioaaiiy ia/a?ieo nenoai
a?aeaoaaeiny a ciiao i’?cii?i?ioi?a, aea aa?oiy neaaii?iieeia oiaua
aeyaeyeany aeoii/aiith aiane?aeie caaeeaeaiiy a?ic?eieo a??c?a ?
oaeoii?/ii iineaaeaiith (?en. 6), ? aea ia?aaaaeaea aeno?aeia
o?eueo?aoe?y i?aecaiieo aiae a?ae i?aea?iniaiai ai?eciioo /a?ac a?ine
aei iaaea?iniaiai ai?eciioo, c ?icaaioaaeaiiyi /a?ac aeu/acaeyaath/?
aeeiyno? a?aeeeaaee.

4.3. Oee?eoeyoe?y aiae o a?inao aecia/aeany iieai iai??ieo a?aae??io?a ?
no?oeoo?ith ia?aae o??uei, ?icaeiaieo a ??cieo ?ioa?aaeao oiau?.
AEeaeaiiy a?iniai? oiau? ia ieaeiueiio eiioaeo? iaei ieiueiiee
??aiii??iee oa?aeoa?, /ei caaacia/oaaeiny ??aiii??ia ?icoe?aiiy an???
aeinooiii? ia?aae? o??uei a a?inao. Oea, ii?yae c? no?oeoo?ith
niaeai?i?oe?thth/i? o??ueioaaoino?, aeyaeeiny iaeaaaeeea?oith
ia?aaeoiiaith oi?ioaaiiy eaa??eioiaeo ia/a?. Ia?aaaaeiee ?icaeoie
eaiae?a a?aeaoaaany o aeieao, aea ia?aae? o??uei ia ??cieo y?onao iaee
aeia?o eaoa?aeueio ? aa?oeeaeueio ca’yci?noue.

4.4. Ia caaaeueiiio oe? aeno?aeiiai aiaeiiai?io a IAE, noie ?
niaeaiaaiac o a?inao iaaoaaa ?noioii? eaoa?aeueii? eiiiiiaioe
aiane?aeie: a) ??cii?iaeiino? no?oeoo?e i?iieeiino? i?aea?iniaiai ?
iaaea?iniaiai ai?eciio?a (ia eiioo?ao aeeaeaiiy ? ?icaaioaaeaiiy
a?iniai? oiau?); a) ??cii??aeiino? no?oeoo?e i?iieeiino? ??cieo y?on?a
o??ueioaaoino? ? n) ??ciiai nooiaith aa?oeeaeueii? ca’yciino? o??u?iieo
ia?aae. A ?ioa?aaeao a?iniai? oiau?, aea ia?aaea o??uei iaea ?icaeiaio
eaoa?aeueio ca’yci?noue ? a?eueoo ?ice?eo?noue, oi?ioaaeany ia?aaea
iaa?no?aeueieo aaea?ae.

4.5. I?e ?ice?eoo? aa?oiuei? aeeiynoi? oiau? aeieeiaie ?noioii c?inoaea
?ioaineai?noue aiaeiiai?io /a?ac a?ine ? oaeaee?noue ?icaeoeo eaiae?a.
I?e iiaeaeueoiio a??caii? aeieei ? cieaeaii? ??aiy ae?aioaaiiy a a?inao
anoaiiaethaaany ?aaeei aiaeiiiniiai ai?eciioo c a?eueiith iiaa?oiath.
I?e iiaiiio ae?aioaaii? a?iniai? oiau? a i?e iiaeooue oee?eoethaaoe
i?aea?oai? aiaeioiee, ye? iiaeeiathoueny e?eeaie ia iiaa?oi?. Ia
inoaii?o aeaio noaae?yo a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaeaethaaiiy ii?oieia??
ii?iaeiei, yea ?noioii ia ci?ith? ?oith no?oeoo?o, noai?aio ia aoai?
iai??iiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaeno.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue niaeaiaaiaco a?oioo?oueny ia oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiiyo, ?icaeiooeo o ?icae?e? 6, a?aeiia?aea? ye no/aniei, oae ?
iaeaia?ae?iaaieia?/iei oiiaai ?aa?iio, aeia?a iiynith? eaa??eioiao
no?oeoo?o ia/a?ieo nenoai o a?inao, iniaeeaino? ii?oieia?? eiie?aoieo
ia/a? ? aiaeiiiaoai?/ieo a?aeeeaae?a o ieo. C ?? iiceoe?e iaea?aeothoue
caeiiii??ia oeoia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia/a?
? caea?noiaaieo cii.

Ine?eueee ?aeiino?oeiaai? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?eoiaeo iei? ia/a?ieo
nenoai I?eaei?no?ianueeiai Iiae?eey ? Aoeiaeie a?aeiia?aeathoue oiiaai
iaeano? a?oac?ainueeiai noieo, aa?eo?eaoe?y cai?iiiiiaaii? aaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae? io?eiaia ?? canoinoaaiiyi aei iiyniaiiy iniaeeainoae
caea?nooaaiiy (?iciiae?e o ?ic??c? ? ia?aiao?e aeyaeaieo ao??iiyi
ii?iaeiei, i?eo?i/ai?noue cii i?aeaeuaii? caea?noiaaiino? aei iioiaaieo
? no/anieo aeieei), a?ae?iaeeiai?ee (?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a ii
o?anoaaiith i?aecaiieo aiae ? aeine?aeieo a?aeea/ie, aeai? ii ?aaeeio
ea?’??ieo aiaeia?aeai??a) ? a?ae?io?i?? iai??iiai IAE o ?aeiiao eiai
no/aniiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy. Oaeei /eiii i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeniiaie
i?i aaiaoe/io ?aei?noue ii?iaeiei, aeyaeaieo ao??iiyi a oiiaao 4-?
ianoaiiaee, ? ?ae?eoiaeo ia/a?, aea/aieo a no/anieo oiiaao 2-? ? 3-?
ianoaiiaie. Oea oaeiae ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeniiaeii i?i
aaiethoe?eii-noaae?eiee oa?aeoa? ciiaeueiino? no/anieo a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo
oiia.

A ?iaio? aeaoaeueii ?aeiino?oeiaaia i?e?iaeia aaiethoe?y aiaeiiai?io a
IAE ii/eiath/e c i?caeiueina?iaonueeiai /ano, eiee a ?aa?ii? anoaiiaeany
eiioeiaioaeueiee ?aaeei ? ae?c?eiee aoai a?ae?iaaieia?/iiai oeeeeo
ci?ieany ?io?eueo?aoe?eiei. Aiia o?nii iia’ycaia c aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieie
iaioaeoii?/ieie ?ooaie, aaiii?oieia?/iei ?icaeoeii oa?eoi??? ?
niaeaiaaiacii o a?inao.

C? niaeaiaaiacii o a?inao ? a?aeiia?aeiith aaiethoe??th oiia aiaeiiai?io
a IAE o?nii iia’ycai? aaio?i?/i? i?ioeane, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei
oi?ioaaiiy ai?aaiaoe/ieo aaiiye?a o iie??ae? noeueoaoii? oiau? ?
n??/aiiai i?oaeai?iiy. Naia aa?oeeaeueiee aeno?aeiee aiaeiiai?i /a?ac
noeueoaoio oiauo, ui caaacia/o?oueny niaeaiaaiacii, noai?thaaa
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a (Klimchouk, 1997a). C
?ioiai aieo, i?ioeane noeueoao?aaeoeoe?? ni?eythoue i?aeneeaiith
ea?noiaeo i?ioean?a o noeueoaoieo oa ea?aiiaoieo ii?iaeao ca ?aooiie
i?aeo?eiaiiy o ?ic/eiii? caeaoiino? ii a?aeiioaiith aei a?iniaia?ae?eo?a
(aeanoeueoaoecaoe?y), i?aeaeuaiiy ea?aiiaoiie aa?aneaiino? i?e
aaia?oaaii? n??eiaiaeith, a oaeiae ca ?aooiie aaia?oaaiiy neioaoe/ieo
aiae o oiae? iecee ?aaeoe?e n??eiooai?thth/iai oeeeeo. Oaeei /eiii,
nenoaia «ea?no – n??eiooai?aiiy» o ?icaeyiooeo oiiaao oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aeainoi?iii?i iiceoeaiei ca’yceii. O i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei? nioae
?iciianthaeaeaiiy a?iniaia?ae?eo?a i?ioyaii aeinoaoiuei o?eaaeiai (o
aaaaoueio i?noeyo — aae aei iia?oiueiai) /ano caa??aaeeny oiiae aeey
noeueoao?aaeoeoe?? oa n??eiooai?aiiy o ea?noiaeo ciiao, i?e a?aeiinii
no?eeiio a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiio ? a?ae?io?i?/iiio ?aaeei?. Oeei
aecia/a?oueny cina?aaeaeaiiy ooo aaeeeeo n??/aieo ?iaeiaeu, ui, ye ?
ia/a?i? nenoaie, caeiiii??ii i?eo?i/ai? aei aeaai?o ? no/anieo ??/eiaeo
aeieei (aeaai?o ? no/anieo cii i’?cii?i?ioi?a). A?aecia/aia aaaaoueia
aeine?aeieeaie iia’ycaii?noue i?ioean?a ea?noiaaiaco ? oi?ioaaiiy
n??/aieo ?iaeiaeu aecia/a?oueny ca?aii ?yaeo aaciaeo oiia ?oiuei?
?aae?caoe??. Ea?noiooai?aiiy ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo eiiieaenieo
ia?aaeoiia oi?ioaaiiy ai?aaiaoe/ieo n??/aieo ?iaeiaeu o cii? a?ia?aaiaco
(Klimchouk, 1997a).

Oaoiiaaii?e aieea, iia’ycaiee c aiaeia?aeai?ii c IAE (iniaeeai a?aee?eo?
a??ie/? ?iaioe), i?ecaiaeeoue, a oiiaao 4-? ianoaiiaee, aei
?aaeeeaeueieo ci?i aiaeiiai?io: ??cei? eiai aeoea?caoe?? aai iaa?oue
?iaa?n??, ? aeoea?caoe?? ea?noiooai?aiiy o a?iniaia?ae?eoao. Oe? ci?ie ?
?o i?aeoe/i? iane?aeee ?icaeyioo? ia i?eeeaae? ssc?anueeiai n??/aiiai
?iaeiaeua ? Ieeiea?anueeiai ?iaeiaeua aeei. ?ioaineai?noue ?ic/eiaiiy
a?in?a o i?e?iaeieo oiiaao 4-? ianoaiiaee c?inoa? o 4-70 ?ac?a i?ae
aieeaii aiaeia?aeai?o. I?iieei?noue oiau? oaeaeei ca?eueoo?oueny ca
?aooiie ?icoe?aiiy ii?iaeiei ?ic/eiaiiyi ? aeieaaiiy c ieo caiiaithaa/a.
Ii?yae ?c ciyooyi aai cieaeaiiyi iai???a, oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??cei?
?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?iaaeiooai?aiiy c aeaoi?iaoe??th iiaa?oi?, nii?oae oa
eiioi?eaoe?e.

Iniiai? aeniiaee

1. ?aa?iiaeueia i?ieea?noue oiia oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae IAE ?
a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo noeueoaoiiai ea?noa aecia/a?oueny
iniaeeainoyie ii?oino?oeoo?iiai ieaio, ui noi?ioaaeeny a ?acoeueoao?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo aa?oeeaeueieo ?oo?a o i?caeiueiiaiaai-/aoaa?oeiiee
/an, ? ?icaeoeo aieiaieo ??/eiaeo aeieei. Oeae eiio?ieue aeyaey?oueny
/a?ac caeiiii??io ci?io, o iai?yieo a?ae aioo??oieo ae?eyiie ieaooi?ie
aei aeieeie Aei?no?a ? i?iaeao, aeeaeie caeyaaiiy a?iniaia?ae?eo?a,
iiooaeiino? aeeiynoiai iie?iao, nooiaiy aeaioaeaoe?eiiai oa a?ic?eiiai
?ice?eooy aaio?eueo?aoe?eiiai ?icoeio IAE. Aeae?eai? ? ioa?aeoa?eciaai?
/ioe?e ianoaiiaee oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae IAE, ui iathoue
aaiethoe?eii-noaae?eiee oa?aeoa? ? oyaeythoue niaith iine?aeiai? noaae??
?ice?eooy, ae?aioaaiiy ? aeaioaeaoe?? aeo?aeiiai iai??iiai IAE ?
a?aeiia?aeii? aaiethoe?? aiaeiiai?io.

2. Aaeee? ia/a?e a a?inao Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie iathoue aaaaoiiiaa?oiao
eaa???ioiao aoaeiao. ?o no?oeoo?a aecia/a?oueny a?ae?iaaieia?/ieie
oiiaaie ?i?oe?thaaiiy oa ?aiiueiai ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae no?oeoo?ith
niaeai?i?oe?thth/i? o??u?ioaaoino?. Ia/a?e noi?iiaai? a oiiaao iai??iiai
aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaeno ca ?aooiie ?icn?yiiai aeeaeaiiy a?ae
i?aeno?eath/iai ai?eciioo, i?e caaaeueiiio aeno?aeiiio aiaeiiai?i? /a?ac
a?iniao oiauo. ss?onia aoaeiaa ia/a? aecia/aia y?oniei caeyaaiiyi
niaeai?i?oe?thth/eo o??u?i, ui ooai?ththoue ia?aae? c a?aei?iieie
ia?aiao?aie o iaaeao iaaieo oaenoo?ii-no?oeoo?ieo ai?eciio?a a?in?a.

3. ?acoeueoaoe niaeaiaaiao?/iiai aiae?co ocaiaeaeothoueny c ?ic?iaeaiith
caaaeueiith eiioeaiooaeueiith iiaeaeeth a?oac?ainueeiai niaeaiaaiaca, ui
a?oioo?oueny ia oyaeaiiyo i?i aaeeeo ?ieue aa?oeeaeueii? o?eueo?aoe??
/a?ac neaaeii?iieei? oa?e a iiaa?oiaeo aiaeiiai??ieo nenoaiao ?
?iaa?n?th a?ae?iaaieia?/ii? ooieoe?? aeaiaio?a aaio?eueo?aoe?eiiai
?icoeio a oiae? niaeaiaaiaco. Oi?ioaaiiy eaa???ioiaeo ia/a? a a?inao
iiaeeeaa aeeeth/ii i?e “iiia?a/iiio” aiaeiiai?i? /a?ac ?ic/eiiee oa? o
oa?ia?e aiaeiiai??i?e nenoai?. Ia/a?e a?oac?ainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy
oa?aeoa??cothoueny a?aenooi?noth ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ca’yceo c no/aniei
?aeue?oii ? ieceith oeiiaeo ii?oieia?/ieo ?en (iaeiiiai?oi?noue ?ici???a
? ii?oieia?? eaiae?a, eaa??eioi? no?oeoo?e, aace?/ «ne?ieo» ooiee?a,
eoiie?a oa iai?ao?oa eiiaaeoe?eiiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia noaeyo oiae?a), a
oaeiae aeii?ioaaiiyi aeia?a a?aeni?oiaaieo aeeiynoeo aiaeiiiaoai?/ieo
a?aeeeaae?a. A?inia? ia/a?e Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie ? iaea?eueo ae?aciei
i?eeeaaeii ii?iaeiei a?oac?ainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy c a?aeiieo o na?o?
ia/a?.

4. Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aa?iiaeueia ? caaaeueia niaeaiaaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeia?a
iiyniththoue iniaeeaino? caea?nooaaiiy, a?ae?iaeeiai?ee ? a?ae?io?i??
IAE a iaeano? iai??iiai noieo. Ii?iaeieie, ui ?ice?eaathoueny ooo
ao??iiyi, ? ?ae?eoia? ia/a?i? nenoaie, ui aea/ai? o cae?aiiaaieo ianeaao
e?aiaa?aaeiiai I?eaei?no?ia’y, iathoue ?aeeia iioiaeaeaiiy.

5. I?e?iaeia aaiethoe?y aiaeiiai?io a IAE o?nii iia’ycaia c
ae?oa?aioe?eiaaieie iaioaeoii?/ieie ?ooaie, aaiii?oieia?/iei ?icaeoeii
oa??oi??? oa ?icaeoeii ea?noiaeo nenoai o a?inao. Oaoiiaaii? aieeae,
iia’ycai? c aiaeia?aeai?ii ?c iai??iiai IAE, i?ecaiaeyoue aei
?aae?eaeueieo ci?i o aiaeiiai?i?, eiai ??cei? aeoea?caoe?? /e iaa?oue
?iaa?n??, oa aei ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ea?noiooai?aiiy a a?iniaia?ae?eoao o
4-70 ?ac?a.

6. Oyaeaiiy i?i no?oeoo?o aiaeiiai?io o iiaa?oiaiio i?ioeaiiaiio
aiaeiiiniiio eiiieaen? oa i?i a?ae?iaaieia?/io ?ieue niaeaiaaiaco o
a?inao neeaaeathoue iniiao aeey iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
i?iaiico caea?noiaaiino? oa aiaeii?eoie?a o a?aee?eo? a??ie/? ae?iaee
(?iaeiaeua n??ee, a?ino, aeei o iaeano? a?oac?ainueeiai noieo), a oaeiae
i?iaeai aaiace oa i?iaiico n??/aieo ?iaeiaeu ? ?iaeiaeu n??eiaiaeiaaeo
i?ia?aeueieo aiae.

Iniiai? ioae?eaoe?? c oaie ae?na?oaoe??

Iiiia?ao?? ? a?ioth?e:

1. Io?aia aaieiae/aneie n?aaeu ia na?iuo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo. IEEOYOEI,
I.- 1985.- 36 n. (niaao. A.I.Aaeaeei, I.I.Eiaoeeia, E.A. Naethe).

2. No?oeoo?iua i?aaeiinueee niaeaiaaiaca a aeinao Caiaaeiie Oe?aeiu.
Oe?. niaeaie. Annioe., Eeaa, 1995.- 104 n. (niaao. A.I.Aiae?ae/oe,
E.E.Oo?/eiia).

3. Gypsum Karst of the World. Internat. Journ. of Speleol., Theme
issue, vol. 25 (3-4), 1996.- 307 p. (?aae. niaianoii n D.Lowe, A.Cooper,
U.Sauro).

Ioae?eaoe?? a iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo:

4. I ea?noiauo ooiiaeyo, iinoao e a?eao *a?oiaaoeeiai ea?noiaiai ?aeiia
// Aeae?iaaieiaey e ea?noiaaaeaiea, aui.7. — Ia?iue, 1975. – C. (niaao.
A.A.Ei?aeaiaaneee).

5. Cia/aiea ea?noiauo iaua? a aaieiae/aneii eco/aiee ea?noiauo iaeanoae
// Eniieueciaaiea iaua?, Oac.aeiee.Anan.niaau. — Ia?iue, 1979. C.

6. Iiiyoea i iaua?a a oai?aoe/aneie niaeaieiaee // Proc. Europ. Regional
Conf. on Speleology, vol.II. — Sofia, Bulgaria, 1980. — N.117-119.

7. The regularities in the formation of gas composition of the air in
the large karst caves of Podolia and Bukovina. // Proc. of the 8th
Intern. Congress of Speleology, Vol.1. — Bowling Green, USA, 1981. — P.
(niaao. N.L.Jablokova, S.P.Ol’shtynsky).

8. Organizational principles of complex stationary researches of karst
// Proc. of the 8th Intern. Congress of Speleology, Vol.1. — Bowling
Green, USA, 1981. – ?. 21-23 (niaao. G.V.Lisichenko, V.M.Shestopalov).

9. ?aciiaic?anoiinoue nenoai o?auei a aeinao Iiaeieee e niaeaiaaiac. //
Ninoiyiea, caaea/e e iaoiaeu eco/aiey aeoaeiiiai ea?noa a NNN?. Oac.
aeiee. Anan. niaau. — I., 1982.- N. (niaao. A.ss.?iaiaeieeia).

10. Aaieiai-aeae?iaaieiae/aneea oneiaey ?acaeoey ea?noa I?eaeiano?ianeie
Iiaeieee (ia i?eia?a thaeiie /anoe iaaeaeo?a/uey Na?ao-Ie/eaaa) //
Ninoiyiea, caaea/e e iaoiaeu eco/aiey aeoaeiiiai ea?noa a NNN?. Oac.
aeiee. Anan. niaau. — I., 1982.– N. (niaao. A.ss.?iaiaeieeia,
N.Ae.Aenai, A.A.Eene/aiei, A.I.Oanoiiaeia).

11. Aeeiaieea nia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey ea?noa a aeinao ii aeae?ioeie/aneei
aeaiiui // Eeiaoeea e aeeiaieea aaioeie/aneeo i?ioeannia. Oac. aeiee.
Ananithci. niaauaiey. — AI ONN?, Eeaa, 1983. N. 154-159 (niaao.
N.Ae.Aenai, A.ss.?iaiaeieeia).

12. Iiuo aeaoaeueiiai eco/aiey aiaeiiiaoaie/aneeo ioeiaeaiee e?oiiie
iaua?iie nenoaiu // Iaua?u. Iaaeaoc.na.iao/.o?oaeia. – Ia?iue, 1984. N.
70-88.

13. Oi?ie?iaaiea aaciaiai ninoaaa aicaeooa a iaua?ao Iiaeieee e Aoeiaeiu
// Aeiee.AI ONN?, na?.A.- 1984.- ?2. N.138-143 (niaao. I.E.ssaeieiaa,
N.I.Ieueoouineee).

14. Acaeiinaycue iiaa?oiinoiuo e iiaecaiiuo ea?noiauo oi?i a oneiaeyo
aeiniaiai ea?noa I?eaeiano?ianeie Iiaeieee // Eiaeaia?iay aaieiaey
O?aea. Oac. aeiee. ?aaeiiaeuei. niaau.- Ia?iue, 1984.- N. 35-37 (niaao.
A.ss.?iaiaeieeia).

15. Eco/aiea oneiaee ieoaiey, o?aiceoa e ?aca?ocee iiaecaiiuo aiae
caea?noiaaiiiai aeiea a iaaeaeo?a/uea Na?ao-Ie/eaaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai
aeey i?aaiecaoeee ea?noiaiai noaoeeiia?a // ?acoeueoaou
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio (1981-1983 aa.). I?ai?eio EAI AI ONN?.-
Eeaa, 1984.- N.26-28 (niaao. N.Ae.Aenai, A.A.Eene/aiei,
A.ss.?iaiaeieeia, A.I.Oanoiiaeia).

16. Eco/aiea aaieiai-aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaee e iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey
ea?noa I?eaeiano?ianeie Iiaeieee a nayce n i?aaiecaoeeae
ea?noieiae/aneiai noaoeeiia?a // Oec. aaia?aoey e aaiii?oieiaey,
aui.32. — Aeua Oeiea, Eeaa, 1985. N. 27-33 (niaao. N.Ae.Aenai,
A.I.Oanoiiaeia, A.A.Eene/aiei).

17. Iaoiaeeea eco/aiey eioaineaiinoe e aeeiaieee eieaeueiiai ?anoai?aiey
a noeueoaoiuo ii?iaeao // Iaoiaeeea eco/aiey ea?noa. Oac. aeiee. Anan.
iao/ii-oaoi. niaau. — Ia?iue, 1985. — N. 40-42. (niaao. N.Ae.Aenai).

18. Aiciiaeiinoe e iai?aaeaiey iaeaiaeae?iaaieiae/aneeo ?aeiino?oeoeee
i?e eco/aiee ea?noiauo iieinoae // Iaoiaeeea eco/aiey ea?noa. Oac.
aeiee. Anan. iao/ii-oaoi. niaau. — Ia?iue, 1985. – N. 149-150.

19. Iiiyoea i iaua?a e iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiiua aii?inu oai?aoe/aneie
niaeaieiaee // Oece/aneay aaia?aoey e aaiii?oieiaey, aui.32.- Aeua
Oeiea, Eeaa, 1985.- N.18-22.

20. Karst and caves in gypsum in the USSR territory // Int..Symp. on
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21. Genesis and development hystory of the large gypsum caves in the
Western Ukraine // La Grotte d’Italia, (4), XIII.- Bologna, 1986.- P.
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22. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of gypsum karst
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23. Iaoiaeeea eco/aiey aaciaiai ninoaaa aicaeooa ea?noiauo iieinoae //
Iaua?u. Iaoiaeeea eco/aiey. Iaaeaoc.na.iao/.o?oaeia.- Ia?iue, 1986.- N.
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24. Eeannu oiiinuaii/iuo ?aaio a iaua?ao // Ea?oia?aoe?iaaiea e
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25. Iaoiaeeea ea?oe?iaaiey iaua? aeey i?iaeoiuo e eiaeaia?iuo caaea/ //
Ea?oia?aoe?iaaiea e ?aeiie?iaaiea ea?noa a nayce n inaiaieai oa??eoi?ee.
Oac.aeiee.Anan.nia..- Aeaaeeainoie, 1986.- N. 52-52.

26. Aeeeiiaeoea aeiniaua iaua?u NNN? // I?aeoe/. eniieuecia. iaua?
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27. Aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaua? aeey ?aciauaiey
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Oac.aeiee.niaau.- Ia?iue, 1987. N. 12-13.

28. Iaua?u caiaaea Oe?aeiu e eo iiiaioeaeaaia eniieueciaaiea // I?aeoe/.
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29. I?iaeaia o/aoa e aeieoiaioaoeee ea?noiauo iieinoae NNN? // I?iaeaiu
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30. I i?iaeaia niaeaiaaiaca e oaeniiiiee ea?noiauo iieinoae // I?iaeaiu
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36. I?iaeaiu eco/aiey noeueoaoiiai ea?noa a oneiaeyo aai oaoiiaaiiie
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37. Gypsum solution rate in karst regions of Western Ukraine under
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67. Gypsum karst in the Western Ukraine // Gypsum Karst of the World.-
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68. The role of karst in the genesis of sulfur deposits, Pre-Carpathian
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69. The role of speleogenesis in the Miocene gypsum in the Western
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70. Artesian speleogenetic settings // Proceedings of the 12th Internat.
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71. Speleogenetic effects of water density differences // Proceedings of
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I?ai?eioe:

73. Nii?yaeaiiue aiaeec enoi?ee oi?ie?iaaiey iaua?iie nenoaiu (ia
i?eia?a iaua?u Aoeaioeaea). I?ai?eio EAI AI ONN?. — Eeaa, 1982. 58 n.
(niaao. A.ss.?iaiaeieeia).

73. ?aaeeiiia eco/aiea aeoeaiinoe aeiniaiai ea?noa caiaaeiuo iaeanoae
Oe?aeiu. I?ai?eio EAI AI ONN?.- Eeaa, 1988.- 55 n. (niaao. N.Ae.Aenai,
A.I.Oanoiiaeia, A.E.?oaeueei).

Aiioaoe?y

Eeei/oe I. A. A?ae?iaaieia?/i? oiiae ?icaeoeo ? aaiacen ea?noiaeo
ii?iaeiei a iaiaaiiaeo noeueoaoieo a?aeeeaaeao Aieeii-Iiae?eueneiai
a?oac?ainueeiai aanaeio. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 04.00.06 – A?ae?iaaieia?y. – ?inoeooo aaieia?/ieo
iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith aaiace iaea?eueoeo a na?o?
ea?noiaeo ii?iaeiei a a?inao oa ?o ?ie? a a?ae?iaaieia?? iaiaaiiaeo
a?aeeeaae?a i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? ieieeoe? Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeiai
a?oac?ainueeiai aanaeio. Aeae?eai? ianoaiiaee oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae
i?ioeaiiai? oiau?, ui iathoue aaiethoe?eii-noaae?eiee oa?aeoa?.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaeee? eaa??eioia? ia/a?i? nenoaie a a?inao noi?iiaai? a
oiiaao iaii?iiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaena ca ?aooiie ?icn?yiiai aeeaeaiiy
a?ae aacaeueiiai ai?eciioa, i?e caaaeueiiio a?no?aeiiio aiaeiiai?i?
/a?ac a?iniao oiauo. ?ic?iaeai? caaaeueia oa ?aa?iiaeueia iiaeae?
a?oac?ainueeiai niaeaiaaiaco, ui aacothoueny ia oyaeaiiyo i?i aaeeeo
?ieue aa?o?eaeueii? o?eueo?aoe?? /a?ac neaaii?iieei? aa?noae a
iiaa?oiaeo aiaeiiaii?ieo nenoaiao oa ?iaa?n?th a?ae?iaaieia?/ii?
ooieoe?? aeaiaio?a aaio?eueo?aoe?eiiai ?icoeio i?ioyaii niaeaiaaiaco.
Oyaeaiiy i?i no?oeoo?o oa aaiethoe?th aiiai?io a i?ioeaiiaii aiaeiiiniii
eiiieaen? c o?aooaaiiyi ?ie? niaeaiaaiaco a a?inao neeaaeathoue iiao
iniiao aeey ae??oaiiy iecee iia’ycaieo c ea?noii i?iaeai a?ae?iaaieia??,
?iaeaia?ii? aaieia??, aaio?i?? oa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
?aa?iio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noeueoaoiee ea?no, ea?noia? ii?iaeieie, niaeaiaaiac,
oi?ioaaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae, Aieeii-Iiae?euenueeee a?oac?ainueeee aanaei.

Klimchouk, A.B. Hydrogeological conditions of development and genesis of
the karst cavities in the Neogenic sulphate deposits of the
Volyno-Podilsky artesian basin. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree by speciality 04.00.06 – Hydrogeology. –
The Institute of Geological Sciences of National Academy of Science of
Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation investigates the genesis of the largest gypsum caves in
the world and their role in the hydrogeology of the Neogene sequence in
the southwestern outskirts of the Volyno-Polilsky artesian basin.
Evolutionary-stadial settings of the formation of groundwater of the
Miocene thickness are marked out. It is found that the large maze cave
systems in the gypsum are formed under conditions of a confined aquifer
system due to dispersed recharge from a basal aquifer, under general
ascending circulation through the gypsum layer. The general and regional
models of artesian speleogenesis are elaborated, based on ideas about a
substantial role of transverse percolation through dividing layers in
multi-layer artesian systems, and about inversion of hydrogeological
function of elements of a geo-filtration section during speleogenesis.
The concepts on structure and evolution of groundwater circulation in
the Miocene aquifer system, which account for the role of speleogenesis
in the gypsum, constitute a new basis for solving a number of practical
problems of hydrogeology, engineering geology, geochemistry and
environment in the region.

Key words: sulphate karst, karst cavities, speleogenesis, groundwater
formation, Volyno-Podilsky artesian basin.

Eeei/oe A.A. Aeae?iaaieiae/aneea oneiaey ?acaeoey e aaiacen ea?noiauo
iieinoae a iaiaaiiauo noeueoaoiuo ioeiaeaieyo Aieuii-Iiaeieueneiai
a?oaceaineiai aannaeia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.06 – Aeae?iaaieiaey. – Einoeooo aaieiae/aneeo
iaoe IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aaiacena e?oiiaeoeo a ie?a
ea?noiauo iieinoae a aeinao e eo ?iee a aeae?iaaieiaee iaiaaiiauo
ioeiaeaiee thai-caiaaeiie ie?aeiu Aieuii-Iiaeieueneiai a?oaceaineiai
aannaeia. Auaeaeaiu ianoaiiaee oi?ie?iaaiey iiaecaiiuo aiae ieioeaiiaie
oieue, eiathuea yaiethoeeiiii-noaaeeeiue oa?aeoa?. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie iineaaeiaaoaeueiua noaaeee ?ane?uoey, ae?aie?iaaiey e aeaioaeaoeee
enoiaeiiai iaii?iiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaena e niioaaonoaothuae
yaiethoeee aiaeiiaiaia. A ieeioeai-/aoaa?oe/iia a?aiy ianoaiiaea
iaii?iiai eiiieaena iineaaeiaaoaeueii niauaeanue e a?aieoea n i?iaeaii,
auoaniyynue aieaa ?ane?uouie e nae?aie?iaaiiuie oneiaeyie, oyaioathueie
e aeieeiai Aeiano?a e aai eaauo i?eoieia. ?ani?ino?aiaiiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey i aiaeioii?iinoe noeueoaoiie oieue oe?anneie naeou a
iaeanoe a?oaceaineiai noiea e aa ?iee eae ?acaeaeueiiai neiy a
ieioeaiiaii aiaeiiiniii eiiieaena yaeythony ioeai/iuie e iaoneiaeaiu
iaaeio/aoii aaiacena e aeae?iaaieiae-/aneie ooieoeee ea?noiauo nenoai.
Yoa oieua ea?aea ?ieue ?acaeaeueiiai neiy eeoue ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo
nia?aiaiiiai eioeeueo?aoeeiiiiai yoaia. Niaeaiaaiac iaoneiaee
yaiethoeeth aa aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo naienoa io aiaeioii?a aei ea?noiaiai
eieeaeoi?a n eaiaeiaie aiaeii?iieoeaaiinoueth, n niioaaonoaothueie
eciaiaieyie no?oeoo?u aiaei-iaiaia a eiiieaena. Eieeaeoi?neea naienoaa
aeiniaiaeae?eoia e noaiaiue acaeiinayce ai?eciioia eiiieaena
ia?aaiiia?iu ii ieiuaaee e iiae/eiaiu caeiiiia?iinoyi caea?noiaaiey.
Ea?noiaua nenoaiu a aeiniaiaeae?eoao iaania/eaatho aiaeiiaiai iaaeaeo
ai?eciioaie ieioeaiiaiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaena, ii?aaeaeyy aai
no?oeoo?o.

Ana eco/aiiua niaeaieiae/aneeie iaoiaeaie eaae?eioiaua iaua?u yaeythony
?aeeeoiauie ii ioiioaieth e nia?aiaiiui oneiaeyi ?aeiia eo
?ani?ino?aiaiey (aeiniaay oieua iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii ?ane?uoa e
nae?aie?iaaia). Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea iaua? i?ienoiaeeei a
oneiaeyo iaii?iiai aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaena ca n/ao ?annayiiiai ieoaiey io
aacaeueiiai ai?eciioa, e naycaii n ainoiaeyuae oeeueo?aoeeae a ciiao
iuaciieieioiia, aaea i?ienoiaeeea ?aca?ocea aiae eiiieaena ia o/anoeao
oi?ie?othueony y?iceiiiuo a?acia a aeeienooth iie?uoeo. N ?ane?uoeai
iaii?iiai eiiieaena e oaeoaeaieai aacenia ae?aie?iaaiey i?ienoiaeeee
eiaa?ney noaiu ieoaiey/?aca?ocee, niaia ?aaeeia iiaecaiiuo aiae e
ia?aoiae iaua? a ?aeeeoiaia ninoiyiea.

?ac?aaioaiu iauay e ?aaeiiaeueiay iiaeaee a?oaceaineiai niaeaiaaiaca,
iniiaaiiua ia i?aaenoaaeaieyo i aieueoie ?iee aa?oeeaeueiie oeeueo?aoeee
/a?ac neaaii?iieoeaaiua neie a yoaaeiuo aiaeiiaii?iuo nenoaiao e
eiaa?nee aeae?iaaieiae/aneie ooieoeee yeaiaioia aaioeeueo?aoeeiiiiai
?ac?aca a oiaea niaeaiaaiaca. Oi?ie?iaaiea eaae?eioiauo iaua? a aeinao
aiciiaeii eneeth/eoaeueii i?e aa?oeeaeueiii aiaeiiaiaia /a?ac
ea?noothueeny neie a neienoie aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaia. Niaeaiaaiac a
aeinao a ioe?uouo aeae?iaaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo e i?e eaoa?aeueiii
aeaeaeaiee aiae aiciiaeai eeoue i?e aunieie ia/aeueiie ?ane?uoinoe
o?auei e i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth eeiaeiuo e (neaai)ae?aaiaeaeiuo
iaua?iuo no?oeoo?. No?oeoo?a iaua?iuo nenoai ii?aaeaeyaony
aeae?iaaieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie eo eieoeee?iaaiey e ?aiiaai ?acaeoey, a
oaeaea no?oeoo?ie niaeaieieoeee?othuae o?aueiiaaoinoe. Yaiethoeey iaua?
a a?oaceaineie ianoaiiaea iiaeao ioaaouaaoue aeeeoaeueiua aaieiae/aneea
yiioe, a oa/aiea eioi?uo oneiaey eciaiythony iinoaiaiii (noaaeee
eieoeee?iaaiey e iniiaiay a?oaceaineay). ?aceia eciaiaiea oneiaee
naycaii n iineaaeothuei ?ane?uoeai aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaiu, /oi i?eaiaeeo
e nooiai/aoie eioaineoeeaoeee aiaeiiaiaia e onei?aieth niaeaiaaiiiai
?acaeoey eaiaeia (iicaeiyy a?oaceaineay noaaeey). Iaua?u a?oaceaineiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ia iaia?oaeeaatho ooieoeeiiaeueiie nayce n nia?aiaiiui
?aeueaoii e oa?aeoa?ecothony ?yaeii oeie/iuo ii?oieiae/aneeo /a?o, a
oaeaea i?aiaeaaeaieai oi?ioi ni?oe?iaaiiuo aeeienouo aiaeiiiaoaie/aneeo
ioeiaeaiee. Aeiniaua iaua?u Caiaaeiie Oe?aeiu yaeythony iaeaieaa
au?aceoaeueiui i?eia?ii iieinoae a?oaceaineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey ec
ecaanoiuo a ie?a iaua?.

Anoanoaaiiay yaiethoeey aiaeiiaiaia a ieioeaiiaii aiaeiiiniii eiiieaena
oanii naycaia n aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuie iaioaeoiie/aneeie aeaeaeaieyie,
aaiii?oieiae/aneei ?acaeoeai oa??eoi?ee e ?acaeoeai ea?noiauo nenoai a
aeinao. Oaoiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey, naycaiiua n aiaeiioai?ii ec iaii?iiai
aiaeiiiniiai eiiieaena, i?eaiaeyo e ?aaeeeaeueiui eciaiaieyi
aiaeiiaiaia, aai ?aceie aeoeaecaoeee eee aeaaea eiaa?nee e
eioaineoeeaoeee ea?noiia?aciaaiey a aeiniaiaeae?eoao a 4-70 ?ac.

I?aaenoaaeaiey i no?oeoo?a e yaiethoeee aiaeiiaiaia a ieioeaiiaii
aiaeiiiniii eiiieaena n o/aoii ?iee niaeaiaaiaca a aeinao ninoaaeytho
iiaoth iniiao aeey ?aoaiey ?yaea naycaiiuo n ea?noii i?aeoe/aneeo
i?iaeai aeae?iaaieiaee, eiaeaia?iie aaieiaee, aaioeiee e io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ?aaeiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noeueoaoiue ea?no, ea?noiaua iieinoe, niaeaiaaiac,
oi?ie?iaaiea iiaecaiiuo aiae, Aieuii-Iiaeieueneee a?oaceaineee aannaei.

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