35

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO ?NOI??? OE?A?IE

OAeE 947.04 (Oe?.)

AO?AE?E Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/

AAOUeIAINUeEA AEAAeA

A OE?A?INUeE?E EICAOeUeE?E AeA?AEAA?

IA?OI? *AA?O? OV??? no.

(ia i?eeeaae? ae?yeueiino? ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai)

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie na?aaei?o a?e?a ?inoeoooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?enaiei
Aieiaeeie? Eineiiae/, caa?aeo-

aa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ieoeee TH??e Aiae??eiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa iie?oieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? “Oi?aa?neoao
Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y”

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ioo?i Ieaen?e ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo e?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai ?inoeoooo “Neia’yinueeee
oi?aa?neoao”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
eaoaae?a aeaaiuei? oa iiai?

?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 28 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.235.01 a ?inoeooo?
?noi???

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a, aoe. I. A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ?noi???

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a, aoe. I. A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
Iaoyo A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A no/anieo oiiaao aeiiii?/ieo neeaaeiinoae ?
caaino?aiino? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo eie?c?e o e?a?i?, iaoa??aeueieo
iaaa?acae?a o noa?ao iaoee ? eoeueoo?e ia?aae oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeii
noi?oue ae?ae aaaeeeaa caaaeaiiy — iiaeieaoe o?oaeiiu? e caa?aaoe
iaoe?iiaeueiee noaa?ai?oao aeanii? aea?aeaae. Iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie
aaea ia ?ac o ieioeiio i?aaioee a?aenoiyoe ii-nai?io ?? i?aaeoae? —
eiyc?, aaoueiaie, eioia? ioaiaie, i?aceaeaioe… Oiio i?aaeeueia
?icoi?iiy ?noi?e/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ? i?ioean?a noaiiaeaiiy
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, a?aooaaiiy iaaooiai aeina?aeo ia? aaeeea
cia/aiiy ia eeoa aeey iei?oi?o iaoeiaoe?a, a e o?yaeiaoe?a. O oeueiio
aniaeo?, ia iao iiaeyae, i?eioeeiiaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? aiae?c
ae?yeueiino? aieiaea?y aoeaae ii/aoeo OV??? no. ?aaia ?ee?/a
Nei?iiaaenueeiai (1646—1722), ca i?aae?iiy yeiai i?aeoe/ii i?eieieeiny
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a aaoiiiiiiio ooai?aii? — Aaoueiaiuei? e ?icii/aany
oaeaeeee caiaiaae naiiaooiueiai eicaoeueeiai ono?ith, noai?aiiai
aaoueiaiii A. Oiaeueieoeueeei (1595—1657). O iaiaaaiiyo ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai caa?aaoe a iniia? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaie aeaaee,
oa?eoi??th, o?iainiao nenoaio, ca?iei? neee, i?aeianoe i?aeia?iaeiee
aaoi?eoao e?a?ie oiui, aacia?a/ii, aaa/a?oueny ?noi?e/iee ca’ycie aiio,
ai naia ca?ac ioneii ae??ooaaoe noiae? i?iaeaie.

O na?e /an a?aeiiee oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee, i?aaiciaaaoeue, a?oaia?ao,
aoiia?ao ? aaeao?eno, aeaaeai?e I. Eaaeoeueeee (1866—1922), aea/ath/e
aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee i?i iaeiiai c iiia?aaeiee?a Nei?iiaaenueeiai —
aaoueiaia ?aaia Naiieeiae/a, eaoaai?e/ii cayaea: “A ?noi??? an?o e?a?i ?
ia?iae?a iaa?yae /e iiaeia a?aeooeaoe i?aaeoae?a, aeania aeiey yeeo aoea
a oaeith c?aaeeeaith oa i?ieeaith, iane/aiith an?eyeeie iauanoyie e
eaoano?ioaie, ye aeiey iaei?in?enueeeo aaoueiai?a” Iaoeiaa a?ae?ioaea
Oe?a?ie ?i. A. ?. Aa?iaaenueeiai. ?inoeooo ?oeiien?a, o. 1, ni?. 3893,
a?e. 1-2..

O ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ia?niiae?yi inoaii?o i?eae?eyeinue
iaaei?aaaeaii iaei oaaae. ?? “io?oe?ei?” i?aaenoaaieee c ??cieo i?e/ei
ia aeionoeee a na?o aeiaeii? iiiia?ao??, niaoe?aeueii i?enay/aii?
eiionue c aieiaea??a aoeaae Oe?a?ie, ie??i o?aa ui A. Oiaeueieoeueeiio,
aaoi?eoao ? caneoae yeiai oiae? aoee aaea caaaeueiiaeciaieie. Ca oiia
iaioaaiiy ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei? iaoiaeieia??, c ?? aaneii i?i
i?ia?aeio ?ieue ia?iaeieo ian a ?noi???, a i?aoeyo noni?euenoaiciaaoe?a
i?inoaaeoaaeany iaaia iaaeiioe?iea ae?yeueiino? aaaaoueio iaia?an?/ieo
in?a, iniaeeai eiee aiie iaeaaeaee aei na?aaeiueia?/ii? nioe?aeueii?
ae?oe, oiaoi aoee aiiaeoaeyie i?inoeo o?oaea??a. Aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a
aeaaiueiai ieioeiai cia?aaeoaaee, ye i?aaeei, eeoa o aaeeeeo ni?aaao, o
iai?aeeia?ieo iiiaioao ?o aeeooy. Ia?acii eaaeo/e, c ieo ?iaeee
iiioiaioe. Oiae? ye ia’?eoeai?noue oa ?noi?e/ia ni?aaaaeeea?noue
aeiaaaee ?ioiai aeey ieo — i?aaaeeai? a?ia?ao?? c oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie e
?iaeea?aeoaeueieie ii?aeueieie yeinoyie. Ua a e?ioe? 50-o ?ie?a iaoiai
noie?ooy O. Oaa/aiei a iaei?e c nai?o noaoae caeeeeaa a?o/eciyieo
iaoeiaoe?a iie?i/eoe c “noaiaoeciii” ? iiaeaaaoe a nooae?yo eiaeio
aeaeaoio iniao a ia?ic?eai?e ?aeiino? c iiae?yie iaaiiai /ano Oaa/aiei
O. I. I?i ?ieue ia?iaeieo ian a ?noi??? // Iaoeia? caienee ?inoeoooo
?noi??? AI Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. — E., 1957. — ?9. — N. 24.. Iacaaa?ii oey
i?aoey caciaea aino?i? e?eoeee c aieo aeueo ia?o?eieo ea??aiee?a. A
aeena?oaoe?? ae anaa?/ii aena?oeaia ae?yeuei?noue iaeiiai c i?ia?aeieo
aaoueiai?a ia oe? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua
Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae ia?oi? /aa?o? XVIII no.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iinoaoue ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai aeiiei?
caeeoaeany o a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? iaeiae?aciith e
iaeaea ia aeine?aeaeaiith. A iaoeiaeo ? iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo nooae?yo
i?eaaethaaee caeaa?eueoiai o?ea/ano? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa
noa’?eoeaii-iaaaoeai? ioe?iee eiai aea?aeaaieoeueei? e a?enueeiai?
ae?yeueiino?. Cie?aia a?i ia??aeei “o?aaeeoe?eii” i?ioenoaaeyany ?.
Iacai? e cia?aaeoaaany ye einiiiie?o, eio?ee ao?aoea onyeo a?aei?noue ?
ieacoaaa ia?aae ?in?enueeei oea?ai ? aeueie naiiaieeaie, ye oaeee, ui
iiai?noth caiaaeaaa aeiiii?eo, eoeueoo?o oa eicaoeuee?e ono??e ia
E?aiaa?aaeae?. Ieoaiiy i?i oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a ?
iayai?noue o ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aea? acaaae?
niaoe?aeueii ia noaaeeeny. Ie?ai? a/ai? caia?a/oaaee i?iaaaeaiiy iei
aoaeue-yei? i?aeia?iaeii? iie?oeee. Aaaaoi a?ia?ao?/ieo iiieeie ?
iaoi/iinoae uiaei iueiai i?noeoueny ia noi??ieao aeayeeo aeaeaiue, o
oiio /ene? e aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo.

Oiio a aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaia ni?iaa aeaoe iaoia?aaeaeaio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aaoueiainueei? aeaaee ia a?oio? a?eueo oe?ieiai caeo/aiiy
oa aeeaieiai aiae?co oiai/anieo aeaea?ae, a oaeiae aea/aiiy aioo??oiuei?
neooaoe?? a e?a?i? /a?ac i?ecio ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a, ui iaoiiaethaaee ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aia?oa ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy i?i oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii?
?aea? aeui? ca ?aiaii iniae a Aaoueiaiuei? ii/aoeo XVIII no. Anaa?/ii
iieacaii yeeie iaoiaeaie ?.Nei?iiaaenueeee i?aaioa a?aenoiyoe aaoiiii?th
aaeeeiai ?aa?iio oa caa?aaoe eiai oe?e?ni?noue o oa?eoi??aeueiiio
a?aeiioaii?. A i?aoe? aeaoaeueii aiae?co?oueny ciai?oiy iie?oeea
oe?a?inueeiai aieiaea?y aoeaae ca oyaeeeo oioae?oa?ieo oiia oea?aoo, ui
aeicaiey? iaaiith i??ith ii-iiaiio aena?oethaaoe aniaeo oiai/anieo
aca?iei o?yae?a ?in??, “Iaei?in??” oa aaaaoueio ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i.

Ieoiia oaaaa ia noi??ieao ?oeiieno cina?aaeaeaia ia ?ie? aaoueiaia o
a?eiao ? iioiaeao, ye ea??aieea eicaoeueeeo iiee?a o aiyo i?ioe aiye?a
Iieueu?, Oo?a//eie, E?einueeiai oainoaa oa Oaaoe??, a oaeiae ia
o?aa?/ieo ianoaaeiao o noinoieao Iao?a ?, ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa
caii?iaeoe?a. (Oe? aniaeoe aei inoaiiueiai caeeoaeenue iica iaoeiaeie
?ioa?anaie ?noi?ee?a). Iienaii noaaeaiiy aieiaea?y aoeaae aei ieciaee?a,
ye? ia?aaoaaee ca iaaeaie Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, cie?aia noa?oeinueeeo
a?oi ia /ie? c E. Ai?ae??ieii, I. I?eeeii ? o. ae. I?iaiaeeoueny aeoiea
iaaii? aeano?oeoeaii? ?ie? Caii?icueei? N?/? a aea?aeaaioai?/eo
i?ioeanao a Oe?a?i? a ia?o?e /aa?o? XVIII no.

C?icoi?ei, ui anaa?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aaoueiaioaaiiy ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai
oaiaoe/ii ia?aaeaa/a? c’ynoaaiiy nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e ianaeaiiy,
caeiiiaeaa/i i?aeii?yaeeiaaiiai eiio, i?aa ? iaia’yce?a ie?aieo noai?a
/e noni?eueieo a?oi. Oae, o aeena?oaoe?? niaoe?aeueii ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy
i?i cia/ou?noue aieiaea?y aoeaae ia /ie? iaoe?iiaeueiiai noaei/einoaa,
aecia/ai? iniiai? aeaee e ?ici??e iiai??a o ?aa?ii?, a oiio /ee? e
cai?iaaaeaeai? aaciina?aaeiuei iei.

Aea/aiiy nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iniiaieo ae?iaiee?a oa ?icaeoeo (aai
cai?oaiiy) oe?a?inueei? oi?a?ae? o cacia/aiee ia??iae, anoaiiaeaiiy
iiiiiie?? oea?aoii ia i?iaeaae aaaaoueio no?aoaa?/ii aaaeeeaeo oiaa??a,
aeicaiey? i?iaanoe ?ioa?ani? aiaeia?? c no/aniei aeiiii?/iei noaiiaeuai
a Oe?a?i? e ca ?? iaaeaie, c?iaeoe caaaeuei? aeniiaee uiaei aeayei?
oeeee?/iino? a i?ioeanao XVIII ? XX no.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiaeo ieai?a a?aeae?eo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie na?aaei?o a?e?a ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iiaiiaaaeaiiy aaoueiaia
?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai ?, a ia?oo /a?ao, o? c ieo, ye? aoee ni?yiiaai? ia
caa?aaeaiiy iaaeaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a i?ioean? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy
a e?a?i?. Oea ia?aaeaa/a? eiiieaeniee aiae?c aoai?a oi?ioaaiiy
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a aieiaea?y aoeaae, ioe?ieo eiai ye
aea?aeaaiiai e a?enueeiaiai ae?y/a, oa?aeoa?enoeeo ioi/aiiy ? aca?iei c
i?aaeoaeyie non?aei?o e?a?i, c’ynoaaiiy i?e/ei e?ea?aeaoe?? aeui? aeaaee
oea?aoii.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeai? ?ieaie aeeooy oa
aaoueiaioaaiiy ?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, ia??iaeii, ca yeee noaeeny ?acth/?
ci?ie a noaoon? e ono?i? Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia’?eoeaia aena?oeaiiy aaciina?aaei?o caoiae?a
?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai a ni?ia? ie?iiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeai caa?aaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aaoiiii?? ia ii/aoeo XVIII no. ? aecia/aiiy i?noey
aaoueiaia a iiceoe?? nioe?aeueii? ae?oe E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aei o?yaeo
?in?enueei? aea?aeaae.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aaoi? ia?aaeaa/aa ae??oeoe oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— aeine?aeeoe iniiai? aoaie aeeooy e oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
iiaeyae?a ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai;

— noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaea?eueo oeiia? aea?aeaaieoeuee? ono?aie?iiy aeui?
ca ?aiaii iniae a e?a?i? a ii??aiyii? c iiaeyaeaie ?ioeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
nioe?aeueii? ae?oe;

— ?ice?eoe ci?no iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo caoiae?a
aaoueiaia;

— c’ynoaaoe ia?niiaeueio cia/ei?noue aieiaea?y aoeaae, ye a?enueeiaiai
ae?y/a;

— aena?oeeoe aca?ieie aaoueiainueei? aeaaee ? ea??aieoeoaa Caii?icueei?
N?/? e iieacaoe ?o aieea ia caaaeueio neooaoe?th ia E?aiaa?aaeae?;

— aeyaeoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? a noinoieao ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai c Iao?ii
?, oea?nueeeie naiiaieeaie, noa?oeinueeith aa?o?aeith;

— iieacaoe canaaee ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee aaoueiainueei? aeaaee;

— aecia/eoe eiie?aoi? iciaee e aieiai? iai?yiee caoaeaiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aaoiiii??;

— ii?ooeoe ieoaiiy i?i iiaeeeao aeueoa?iaoeao iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo
Aaoueiaiueie;

— anoaiiaeoe iane?aeee i?aae?iiy ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai aeey Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ? i?eioeeie ae?aeaeoeee oa iaoa??ae?noe/iiai
?icoi?iiy noni?eueieo yaeu ? iaaieo in?a — ?noi?ecio, iaoeiai?
ia’?eoeaiino? ? ieth?ae?cio. Canoiniaai? iaoiaee: o?iiieia?/iee,
i?iaeaiii-oaiaoe/iee oa eiiieaeniiai aiae?co iiae?e, oaeo?a, aeaea?ae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaoa??aee, ai?uai? a
i?e, i?eioeeiia? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee ei?eaothoue, a oi e aeiaaathoue
ii-iiaiio ?icaeyaeaoe oe?iea eiei ieoaiue ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ia?oi? /aa?o?
XVIII no. Aaoi?nuee? a?ia?ao?/i? ooi/iaiiy e ioe?iee uiaei aeeooy oa
ae?yeueiino? ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai, cae?eniai? ia a?oio? aiae?co
ia?oiaeaea?ae, aeicaieyoue o iaeaooiueiio oieeiooe aaaeeeaeo iiieeie o
niaoe?aeueieo nooae?yo, i?ae?o/ieeao, aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo oiui.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?oeiien i?aoe? aoei iaaiai?aii
ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie na?aaei?o a?e?a ?inoeoooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee ??
ianoithaaeenue ia aeaio i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
“Caii?icueea eicaoeoai a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi???, eoeueoo?? oa
iaoe?iiaeuei?e naiina?aeiiino?” (Ee?a-Caii??aeaey, 1997) ? “Aecaieueia
a?eia oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo na?aaeeie XVII no.” (Ee?a, 1998), a oaeiae
?anioae?eainueeeo “Aaoueiainueeeo /eoaiiyo” (Ee?a, 1996), neiiic?oi?
“Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaia ?aeay: ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue” (*a?eane, 1998) ?
*aoaa?o?e Aeaaeai?? iai’yo? A. A. Aioiiiae/a (1834—1908). 90-??//y a?ae
aeiy nia?o?” (Ee?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iiai?noth ?ice?eoi a iioae?eiaaieo
iiiia?ao?yo “Oe?a?inueea eicaoeueea aea?aeaaa a ae?oa?e iieiaei?
XVII-XVIII no.: ei?aeiie, ianaeaiiy, i?aai” (E., 1996. — 224 n.),
“Aaoueiai ?aai Nei?iiaaenueeee” (E., 1998 — 207 n.) ? 20 iaoeiaeo
noaooyo, ai?uaieo o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo (14) ? aeo?iaeao (6).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith, caaaeaiiyie ? oa?aeoa?ii
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
iiae?eaieo ia 16 ia?aa?ao?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
eeoa?aoo?e, a oaeiae aeaio aeiaeaoe?a.

Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 391 noi??ioe? iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a oiio
/ene? aeaa aeiaeaoee caeiathoue 9 noi??iie (n. 383—391). Nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e iae?/o? 179 iaeiaioaaiue (202 iacae
a?o?aieo ni?aa, ii?aoeueiaaieo aeena?oaioii, iiaeaii i?ae ii?yaeeiaeie
iiia?aie a?aeiia?aeieo ?i oiiae?a).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai?
i?aaeiao, o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoe??. Noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, a oaeiae
noa?aeoa?eciaai? ?? ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiie?aoieo
?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “?noi??ia?ao?y ieoaiiy oa iaeyae aeaea?ae” —
?icaeyiooi noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie a oe?eiio e i?iaaaeaii aiae?c
aeei?enoaii? aaoi?ii aeieoiaioaeueii? aace aeey ?? aea/aiiy. Ianaiia?aae
cacia/aii, ui noaaoe aieiaea?ai aoeaae — aeui? iciaee aeaaee a Oe?a?i?
“iaio aie?a Aei?i?a” — i?ney ?. Iacaie ? ae?th/e oaeoe/ii aiaeii/an c
“aaoueiaiii a ai?a?aoe??”, iaeiei c aaoi??a ia?oiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eiinoeoooe?eiiai aeoa I. I?eeeii, ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee, iiaeia neacaoe,
aeyaeany i?e?a/aiei ia iaiiioey?i?noue na?aae a?eueoino? ?noi?ee?a
iaeaooi?o iieie?iue. sseui aeaii ia?oei c oeeo ae?y/?a i?enay/aii nioi?
niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue (o oiio /ene? iiiia?ao??) ye o a?o/eciyi?e, oae ?
ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? (?in??, NOA, Eaiaae?, Iieueu?, Oaaoe??,
O?aioe??, O?I ? o. ae.), oi i?i aeeooy e ae?yeuei?noue inoaiiueiai ia?ii
eeoa e?eueea iaaaeeeeo nooae?e ia?aaaaeii caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Iae/ano?oa a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? i?i iueiai eoeiny iia?aeii: oiae?, eiee
?icaeyaeaeeny oae? iinoao?, ye Iao?i ?, I. Iaioeeia oa ?oi? noaaeaiiy
aei oe?a?ioe?a, aai ae i?e aena?oeaii? aniaeo?a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai
ono?ith Aaoueiaiueie e?ioey XVII — ia?oi? /aa?o? XVIII no.

Iaeiei c ia?oeo, ooi aaciina?aaeiuei i?enayoea nooae?th ?iaeei?
Nei?iiaaenueeeo noaa oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee I. Eaca?aanueeee (1834—1902).
A i?e a/aiee, cie?aia, iaaieinea, ui /ioe?iaaeoeyoe??/ia i?aae?iiy ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai aoei /e ia iaenoii?oei ia??iaeii a ?nioaaii?
Aaoueiaiueie Eaca?aaneee A. I. Ethaee Noa?ie Iaei?innee. 1. Naiuey
Nei?iiaaeneeo (1674—1758 a.) // Enoi?e/aneee Aanoiee, 1880. — ?8. — N.
713.. A aeaio ?ioeo nai?o i?aoeyo a?i aeiaiaeea, ui /a?ac
aacoa?aeoa?i?noue aieiaea?y aoeaae ia ae?yeuei?noue oiai/anii?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? iiaee iii?oii aieeaaoe iaa?oue oi?aaeoae? aaoueiainueeei
ainiiaea?noaii, a naaa?eey noa?oeie aeinyaei iaea?eueoiai “?icaeoeo”
Eaca?aaneee A. I. Iaei?inneeneea iiniieeoua e?anoueyia (1648—1783 aa..
Enoi?eei-th?eaee/aneee i/a?e. — E., 1908. — N. 65; Eiai ae. Caia/aiey ia
enoi?e/aneea iiiia?aoee Ae.I. Ieeea?a i iaei?onneii aeai?yinoaa e i
noaoooiauo noaeao. — Oa?ueeia, 1898. — n.37.). Ia iaoo aeoieo, oae?
i?eioeeiia? iieiaeaiiy caeeoeeeny iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiaioiaaieie, a oiio
iaaiith i??ith ? noa’?eoea?nonueeeie.

Ia i?ioeaaao aaaaoueii o/aiei ? ienueiaiieeai, iao??ioe/ii iano?i?iee
aiii?iiee aaoi? “Enoi??e ?onia eee Iaeie ?in?e” (e?iaoeue XVIII —
ii/aoie O?O no.) aaaaeaa, ui ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao i?a
??oo/a i?ioanooaaoe i?ioe ??oaiue Iao?a ? uiaei Oe?a?ie, ye “aieueiie
no?aiu, auaoath oieueei a i?ioaeoe?e ?inn?eneie, e eiaaoae naie i?aaa e
aeiaiai?u n oea?yie” Enoi??y ?onia eee Iaeie ?in?e. Ni/?iai?a Aai?a?y
Eiieneaai, a?o?aieneiia aaei?onneaai. — I., 1846. — *. 2. — N. 25..

?noi?ee ? a?oaia?ao Ae. Aaioeo-Eaiainueeee (1788—1850) o nai?e “Enoi?ee
Iaeie ?innee”, ia?oa aeaeaiiy yei? iiaa/eei na?o o 1822 ?. o Iinea?, a
inoaii? (cae?eniaia ca iaoi? ?i?oe?aoeae) a Ee?a? 1993 ?., iiaeaa ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai ye a??iii?aeaeaiiai oea?aa?. Ia aeoieo a/aiiai, Iao?i ?
aaea ia /an ia?aiiy eiai aieiaea?ai aoeaae oio?a, eiee a ia oa neeaeeny
a?aeiia?aei? ianoaaeie, cieueoe ?inoeooo aaoueiainoaa oa e?ea?aeoaaoe
aaoiiii?th e?aiaa?aaeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie. A?i aeaui ia?aa?eueooaaa,
eiee ienaa, ui aeania iino?ei? c?aaee e ceiaaeeaaiiy eicaoeueei?
aa?o?aee noai?eee a?oio aeey “iaae?iiy” aeaai?o ia?iaeieo i?aa, a
aaoueiai “neaaui, aacia/iui i?aaii ia oieueei onei?ee naith eii/eio, ii
e eeoee aaa?aiiuo iiia/aieth aai nia?aaeaeai ae?aaioeaiiaeoaai aeey ieo
aeinoiyiey”. ?acii c oei Ae.Aaioeo-Eaiainueeee cacia/ea e oaea: aaaaoi a
/iio caaaey/oth/e i?aai?caoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino? ?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, a
e?ioe? 1708—1709 ??. iii?oii iineeeany ii?? oe?a?ioe?a ?iicaiiei
iaiaaeieeai Aaouo-Eaiaineee Ae. I. Enoi?ey Iaeie ?innee io aiaeai?aiey
neaayi a nae no?aia aei oie/oiaeaiey aaoiainoaa. — E., 1993. — N. 400,
405, 420, 426..

Aeeaiei aea/ath/e ?noi??th caii?icueeeo eicae?a, cia/io oaaao ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiio ye aea?aeaaiiio oa a?enueeiaiio ae?y/aa? i?eae?eea Ae.
ssai?ieoeueeee (1855—1940). Aaciina?aaeiuei a 3-io oii? “?noi???
caii?icueeeo eicae?a” (i?aoey aeo?eiaea e?eueea aeaeaiue) a?i aeaoaeueii
noa?aeoa?ecoaaa caoiaee aaoueiaia ni?yiiaai? ia iie?ioaiiy aca?iei c
ieciaeeaie, a oaeiae ia?iaiaioia caaino?aiiy noinoie?a c ieie /a?ac
aioeoe?a?inueeo iie?oeeo oea?aoo.

Ae. Aaaae?e (1857—1932) a iaei?e c i?aoeue iacaaa aaoueiaioaaiiy ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai “neaaei” Aaaaeae Ae. E. Iiaue enoi?ee Iaei?innee: ?aoe.
ia eieao A. I. Eaca?aaneiai “Iienaiea Noa?ie Iaei?innee. — O. 1.
Noa?iaeoaneee iiee”. — Nia., 1891. — n.112., a a ?io?e — aeae?eea eiai
na?aae aeayeeo aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a “iaei?in?enueeiai oi?aae?iiy”:
Ia?eiae/a, ?icoiianueeiai, ?oiyioeaaa-Caaeoiaenueeiai oa aeayeeo ?ioeo
Aaaae?e Ae. ?. ?noi??y Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie. — Oa?e?a, 1990. — N. 43..

Aaoi?eoaoia aeine?aeieoey ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo I. ?oeiaiei
(1848—1918) aeiaiaeeea, ui aaoueiai aoa cian?i “iai?eaeaoiei” aeey
naiino?eii? e a?aeiia?aeaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, a oiio e?a?iith i?aaeea
eiai ae?oaeeia Ianoy. I?aaaea, iaeii/anii aiia oaa?aeeea e oaea: Iacaia,
Nei?iiaaenueeee, Aiinoie aoee i?aaeoaeyie, ye? ciaee noaiiaeua nai??
aaouee?aueie, oe?ioaaee ?? ?ioa?ane ? caoeuaee ?o a i??o aeanieo nee ?
?icoi?iiy Aoeiaiei A. ss. Enoi?ey oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. — E., 1990. — N.
300, 301, 321.. A i?aoe? “?noi??y Oe?a?ie oa ?? ia?iaeo” a/aia aeaui
eaoaai?e/ii cacia/eea, ui “neaaiaeooee” ?.Nei?iiaaenueeee i?ye ia i?a
i?ioeae?yoe aeaaeiiio oea?aa? Iao?o ?oeiaiei I. ss. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie oa
?? ia?iaeo. — E., 1992. — N. 136..

Nioe?aeueio iie?oeeo aaoueiaia uiaei iiniieeoeo a caaaeueieo ?enao
aena?oeea A.Aa?a?inueeee (1855—1940) o iiiia?ao??, i?enay/aii? noaiiaeuo
naeyinoaa E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie XVII—XVIII no. Ia??iae i?aae?iiy ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai a?i ia?aeiieeai aecia/ea ye ae??oaeueiee a i?ioean?
oi?ioaaiiy aaeeei? caiaeueii? aeaniino? Aa?aeineee A. A. E?anoueyia a
Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeia a XVII—XVIII aa. — Oa?ueeia, 1909..

1911 ?. ia noi??ieao /aniieno “Enoi?e/aneee Aanoiee” (?8) noaooth i?i
ae?oaeeio aaoueiaia Aianoan?th Ia?e?aio, o?iaeaeaio Ia?eiae/,
iioae?eoaaea I. Ia?eia. Aeine?aeieoey aoea ia?aeiiaia, ui i?aaeea
cai?noue ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai eiai ae?oaeeia, a ia?aoai?aiiy Iao?a ?
oiae? a Oe?a?i? iaee ia iao?, ianaiia?aae, i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy i?noeaaiai
oi?aae?iiy aa?oiai?e aeaae? ?in?? oa “i?eaeooaiiy” naiiaooiino?
ei??iiiai ianaeaiiy Ia?eia I. I. Aaoiaioa Nei?iiaaeneay, o?iaeaeaiiay
Aianoaney Ia?eiaia Ia?eiae/ (1667—1729) // Enoi?e/aneee Aanoiee, 1911. —
?8. — N. 534-550..

Caaaeii iaaaoeaia ioe?iea aea?aeaaieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aieiaea?y
aoeaae i?noeoueny ia noi??ieao i?aoeue I. A?ooaanueeiai (1866—1934)
A?ooaanueeee I. N. ?ethno?iaaia ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — E., 1990. — N.
381-392; Eiai ae. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie, i?eeaaeaeaia aei i?ia?aie aeueo
ii/aoeiaeo oe?e ? ieae/eo eean?a oe?e na?aaei?o. — E., 1991. — N. 166..
Noiaea ienaa ?. Aeaeeaeaei?a, aeeaiei aea/ath/e aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo
?in?enueeiai o?yaeo noi?ioe E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie a 1710—1730 ??.
Aeaeeaeaei?a ?. Oe?a?ia a ia?o?e iieiaei? XVIII a?eo. ?ica?aeee ?
cai?oee. — E., 1930. — N. 1, 2, 57, 131.

O. Eino?oaa, iaaiaee, aaaaeaa, ui i?aae?iiy ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai a
oe?eiio iaei aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey e?a?ie, ai oie i?aaioa coieieoe
“?ica?i” aioeoe?a?inueei? iie?oeee Iao?a ? ? a?yooaaoe a aaoiiii??
eicaoeueeee ono??e Eino?oaa O. Aaoueiai ?aai Nei?iiaaenueeee
(1708—1722). — Euea?a, 1932.. Iiae?aio aeoieo aeneiaea Ae. Aei?ioaiei
(1882—1951) ia noi??ieao “Ia?eno ?noi??? Oe?a?ie”. Eiie?aoii a?i
cacia/ea, ui ia aeieth aaoueiaia aeiaei oyaeea caaaeaiiy — ?yooaaoe, ui
iiaeia aoei c aaoiiii?? Aaoueiaiueie, yeo Iao?i ? ii iieoaanuee?e
eaoano?io? iai??eany caanoe iai?aaoeue Aei?ioaiei Ae. ?. Ia?en ?noi???
Oe?a?ie. — Euea?a, 1991. — N. 391..

Iaeiei c aeoeaieo ni?ao/aniee?a Iacaiaieo ieai?a ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai
aaaaeaa ?. E?ei’yeaae/ (1886—1967), oi/a aeieeaaeii e ia iaa?oiooaaa
oaea i?eioeeiiaa oaa?aeaeaiiy E?ei’yeaae/ ?.I. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. —
Euea?a, 1990. — N. 220..

A. Aeyaee/aiei (1909—1973) iaaiith i??ith iienaa aca?ieie aieiaea?y
aoeaae c o?yaeii ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae, ia?niiaeueii Iao?ii ?, c
i?aeeaaeeie noa?oeiaie, iieacaa i?ioean iinooiiaiai iaiaaeaiiy aaoiiii??
Oe?a?ie. Ia eiai aeoieo, i?ae aieeaii ?aoi?ioaaiue nthca?aia aaoueiai
?iaea ni?iae ia?aoai?eoe i?aaeaiio /anoeio E?aiaa?aaeaey a ?aeii
aenieiye?niiai othothiieoeoaa, oaeiae a?ae?a?aa cia/io ?ieue o ni?aa?
iaiaaeaiiy naeyinueeeo ia?aoiae?a Aeyaee/aiei A. A. Ia?ene
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ono?ith E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie e?ioey XVII —
ii/aoeo XVIII no. — E., 1959. — N. 18, 22, 39, 88..

Oae? a?aeii? a/ai?, ye A. Aioiiiae/, A. Aaoe, I. Einoiia?ia, a oaeiae
no/ania aeine?aeieoey I.Aiaiiae/ ? aeaye? ?io? acaaae? iieioee iinoaoue
?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai o nai?o nooae?yo, niaoe?aeueii i?enay/aieo
aaoueiaiai Oe?a?ie ? eioiaei ioaiaiai Caii?icueei? N?/?. Iiyaa a 1997 ?.
i?ea?iaeueii? i?aoe? A. Niie?y e A. Noaiaieiaa “Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaia
?aeay: i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy, aaiethoe??, ?aae?caoe??” eiinoaooaaea i?i
iacaaeia?eueiee noai ?ic?iaee aniaeoo “aaoueiai ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee ye
iie?oe/iee ae?y/”.

Cia/iee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ? aaaeeea? niinoa?aaeaiiy i?i
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io e iie?oe/io ae?yeuei?noue ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai
i?noyoueny a a?oioiaieo nooae?yo no/anieo iaoeiaoe?a A. Iaiaoaiei, A.
Ai?iaoey, E. Iaeueieea, A. E?eaioay oa aeayeeo ?ioeo Iaiaoaiei A. A.
Nioe?aeueia ae?oa Aaoueiaiueie (ae?oaa iieiaeia XVII — XVIII no.). — E.,
1995; ?? ae. Iieeiaa oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i? (na?aaeeia XVII —XVIII no.). —
E., 1997; Ai?iaaoeue A. I. A?ae nithco aei ?iei?ii?aoe??:
oe?a?inueei-?in?enuee? a?aeiineie ae?oai? iieiaeie XVII — ia?oi? /aa?o?
XVII? no. — E., 1995; Eiai ae. I?enia?e Aaoueiaiueie: Oe?a?ia a ?iee
?aoi?i Iao?a ?. — E., 1998; Iaeueiee E. A. Iie?oe/ia ?noi??y
Aaoueiaiueie XVIII co. o aeieoiaioao ? iaoa??aeao: Iaa/. iin?aiee. — E.,
1997; Eiai ae. Aaoueiaiueia ia?oi? /aa?o? XVIII noie?ooy: Iaa/.
iin?aiee. — E., 1997; E?eaioay A. A. Oe?a?inueea eicaoeueea no?aoeia.
E., 1997. — *. 1. O?yaeieee aaoueiainueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??.. O ieo,
cie?aia, ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ianooiii oea?ecio ia aaoiiii?th
Aaoueiaiueie, iie?oe/iith aeaaeith, noaiiaeuai a?enueea, o?iainaie,
a?ioiaei ia?aii o ?aa?ii? oiui.

O i?ioean? iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aaciina?aaeiuei a?aoiaai?
eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue A. Ai?enaiea, A.
Ieoeeea, I. Ioo?a Ai?enaiei A. E. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVII no. — E., 1986; Eiai ae.
Eo?n oe?a?inueei? ?noi???. — E., 1996; Eiai ae. Aaiethoe?y nioe?aeueii?
no?oeoo?e Aaoueiaiueie. E., 1997; Ieoeee TH.A. Aeaea?aea c ?noi???
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? a?eie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo na?aaeeie XVII no.
— Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1996; Eiai ae. Eicaoeueeee e?ae. —
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997; Ioo?i A. E. Eaaiaa?aaeiay Oe?aeia a ninoaaa
?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII aaea. Iaeioi?ua
aii?inu nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey.
— E., 1988., a oaeiae ie?aieo ?noi?e/ieo ?ica?aeie A. Noai?neaanueeiai,
I. No?oeaae/a, O. *ooe?aa Noai?neaanueeee A.A. Iie?oe/i? a?aeiineie
Caii?icueei? N?/? ? E?einueeiai oainoaa a e?ioe? XVII — ia ii/aoeo XVIII
no. — Aaoi?ao. aeen… eaiae. ?noi?. iaoe. — E., 1996; No?oeaae/ I.E.
Oe?a?ia — Aaoueiaiueia oa ?in?enueea ?iia??y i?ioyaii 50-80-o ??. XVIII
noie?ooy (iie?oeei-aaei?i?no?aoeaiee aniaeo i?iaeaie). — E., 1996;
*ooe?a O. A. Eicaoeuee?e ono??e I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie (inoaiiy /aa?oue
XVII co.). — E., 1996. oa aeayeeo ?ioeo a/aieo, ye? o?iiieia?/ii e
oaiaoe/ii cieeathoueny c ia?aiith iaie i?iaeaiith.

Na?aae ?noi?ee?a aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey, ye? a o?e /e ?io?e i???
i?eae?eeee oaaao (oi/a ? a caaaeueieo ?enao) oa?aeoa?enoaoe?
aaoueiainueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?inuee?e eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa? ia?oi? /aa?o?
XVIII no. ne?ae iacaaoe, ianaiia?aae, Eea?aina Iaii?iaa, Einoyioeia
Eiiiiaiea, I?eiena (Ieeieo) *e?ianueeiai, Caiiia Eiaooa, Aeaei?aeaea
Aa?oeueeiai Mannig C. The story of the Ukraine. — New York, 1947;
Kononenko K. Ukraine and Russia. A history of the economic relations
between Ukraine and Russia (1654—1917). — Milwaukee-Wisconsin, 1958;
Chirovsry N. Old Ukraine: It’s sotio-economic history prior to 1781. —
Madison (New Jersey),1963; Kohut Z. Russian centralism and ukrainian
autonomy. ?mperial absorption of the Hetmanate 1760 s — 1830 s. —
Cambridge, 1988; Gajecky G. The Cossack administration of the Hetmanate.
— Cambride, 1978. Vol. 1; Vol. 2.. Iniiaia ?aeay, i?eoaiaiia i?aoeyi
iacaaieo a/aieo, oaea, ui oea?eci i?iaiaeea iie?oeeo ni?yiiaaio ia
iiaeieaiiy i?noeaaiai naia?aoecio ? oio?a i?e oeueiio acyoe yeiiiaa
a?eueoa a?ae aeiiii?ee ? ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a E?aiaa?aaeaey.

Ioaea, ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeeoue, ui ia?aia
aeena?oaioii iaoeiaa i?iaeaia aena?oethaaeany iiia?aaei?ie
aeine?aeieeaie eeoa o?aaiaioa?ii ? ia noaea i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueii?
i?aoe? (n. 15-30).

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? oaeiae cacia/aii, ui na?aae aeei?enoaieo
iaiioae?eiaaieo aeaea?ae, ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue yeeo aaoi? aeena?oaoe??
aia?oa aa?a o iaoeiaee ia?a, iae/enaeuei?oeie ? iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie a i. Ee?a?. Aaciina?aaeiuei ooo
ii?aoeueiaai? oae? oiiaee: 51 — Aaia?aeueia a?enueeiaa eaioeaey??y
(1656—1765), 52 — Aaia?aeueia nea?aiaa eaioeaey??y (1723—1781), 53 —
Ia?oa iaei?in?enueea eieaa?y (1722—1727), 54 — Ae?oaa iaei?in?enueea
eieaa?y (1764—1786), 57 — Aaia?aeueiee (?oiyioeaanueeee) iien
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie (1765—1769), 59 — Ee?anueea aoaa?inueea
eaioeaey??y (1708—1782), 220 — Eieaeoe?y aeieoiaio?a Ee?anueei?
a?oaia?ao?/ii? eii?n??, 1219 — Iniaenoee oiiae
noa?oeinueei-aeai?yinueeiai ?iaeo Nei?iiaaenueeeo (1760—1917), a oaeiae
Eieaeoe?? i?e?io?euei?a (7, 9, 15) — ia?aciyo? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ui caa??aathoueny a ?in?enueeiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?
aeaai?o aeo?a (i. Iineaa), ?oeiienieo a?aeae?eao Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueeiai
a?aeae?eo Aeaaeai?? iaoe ?in?? oa a?ae?ioae ?anioae?ee Iieueua. A
ni?aaao iacaaieo oiiae?a ? i?ea?iaee, “eenoe” iieeiaiee?a,
?icii?yaeaeaiiy e aecia/aiiy ??cieo eaioeaey??e noiniaii aioo??oiueiai
oi?aae?iiy E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie a ia?o?e /aa?o? XVIII co. Aeanyoee
aeaea?ae iiaeathoue oi?eaeuei? a?ia?ao?/i? a?aeiiino? i?i ?iaeeio
Nei?iiaaenueeeo, ?o noinoiee c ??cieie iniaaie, nioe?aeueiee noaoon ?
iaeiiaa caaacia/aiiy.

Cia/ia e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aea/aia a
?in?enueeiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeaai?o aeo?a, a naia: oiiaee 13 —
Ni?aae i?i Oe?a?io, 124 — Iinieuenueeee i?eeac. Iaei?in?enuee? ni?aae,
248 — Naiao ? eiai onoaiiae. Iaei?in?enueea aeniaaeeoe?y Naiaoo (iien
29). A ieo aeena?oaioii i?iaiae?ciaai? aieiaiei /eiii oea?nuee? oeace
noiniaii Aaoueiaiueie, a oaeiae eenooaaiiy ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai c aeueie
?in?enueeeie naiiaieeaie A. Ua?aiao?aei, O. I?ioanue?aei oa ?ioeie
io?oe?eieie iniaaie c i?eaiaeo aioo??oiueiai ono?ith ?aa?iio.

Oe?iiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae c ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae
ciaoiaeeoueny a ?inoeooo? ?oeiien?a i?e Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?ie ?i.
A. ?. Aa?iaaenueeiai. Cie?aia o oiiaeao 1 — Ca??ea aeieoiaio?a I.
Eaca?aanueeiai oa 2 — ?noi?e/i? iaoa??aee. Ca??ea A. Iiaecaeaanueeiai —
caa??aathoueny oi?aa?naee ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai, aeaeai? ia ia?oee, i?aaa
oeaoai ? i?uaiai, ?c ciaia’ycaiiyi iiniieeoeo iaiaei?iii aeeiioaaoe
“iineooainoai” ? caai?iiith ?i ienaoeny a eicaee oiui. Aei “C?a?aiiy
oi?aa?neoaoo na. Aieiaeeie?a” (oiiae 8) aa?eoee aaoueiainuee? oi?aa?naee
??ciiai /ano, oeace Iao?a ? i?i c?aaeo ?. Iacaie e aeai?eiiaiai
aieiaea?y aoeaae, eenooaaiiy Nei?iiaaenueeiai c ?in?enueeeie
o?yaeiaoeyie Aie?oeeiei, Aieiae?iei ? eioiaeie ioaiaiaie noiniaii
aioo??oiueiai noaiiaeua e?aiaa?aaeiiai ?aa?iio, i?i iiae?? a Oo?a//ei?,
E?einueeiio oainoa? ? o.ae.

Ii??aiyii iaioa ni?aa caeo/aii c oiiaeo 159 — C?a?aiiy ?. Eoeaoaae/a oa
I. Ia?eaae/a a?aeae?eo ?oeiien?a o ?in?enuee?e aea?aeaai?e a?ae?ioaoe?
(i. Iineaa). Ia?aaaaeii oea eenoe io?oe?eieo in?a aei ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai, a?aeiiino? i?i cae?aiiy iiaeaoe?a a Oe?a?inuee?e
eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa?, iiene ia?oe?a naiiaiee?a ?in?? ia E?aiaa?aaeae?.

Anueiai ae o aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii iiiaae 200 a?o?aieo ni?aa 25
oiiae?a.

Na?aae iioae?eiaaieo aeaea?ae iaeaaaeeea?oeie aeey ?ice?eooy
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie noaee caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, aeaeai? aa?oiaieie
i?aaiaie aeaaee. Iniiai? th?eaee/i? aeieoiaioe oea?nueeiai o?yaeo
ai?uaii a “Iieiii nia?aiee caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee”. Aeena?oaioii
ii?aoeueiaaii ?o ia?oa aeaeaiiy, cae?eniaia a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c? i?ioyaii
1830 ?. Cie?aia oiie 4-7 ioiieee ia??iae c 1700 ?. ii 1727 ?. Caeiie,
?ici?uai? a ieo o o?iiieia?/iiio ii?yaeeo, /anoeiai noinothoueny
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, ??
i?aeia?iaeiiai noaiiaeua. A caeiiao /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny caaaeueia
oaiaeaioe?y caoaeaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue aaoueiainueeiai oi?aae?iiy e
ci?oeiaiiy aeaaee a Oe?a?inuee?e eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa? /eiiaiee?a c
?in??, iinooiiaa anoaiiaeaiiy c oea?nueei? aie? iiiiiie?? a
iaoe?iiaeuei?e oi?a?ae? e i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee
?ioa?anai aaniethoenueei? iiia?o??.

Aaoueiainuee? oi?aa?naee, “eenoe” iieeiaiee?a, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
Aaia?aeueii? a?enueeiai? eaioeaey??? e ?io? o?yaeia? aeoe naiai /ano
aoei iioae?eiaaii ia noi??ieao “Aaia?aeueiiai ne?aenoaa i?i ia?oiino?”
1729—1730 ??., o ca??oe? aeieoiaio?a “Ae?eiaa aeieoiaioaoe?y
Aaoueiaiueie XVIII no.” (E., 1993), a oaeiae ??cieo aeaeaiiyo
noa?oeinueeeo ?iaeiaeo a?o?a?a Aaeaaaiianeee oaieeueiue a?oea //
Eeaaneay Noa?eia, 1883. — ?11. — N. 452—469; Iiouaeeineee a?oea. Aeou
Ia?ayneaaneiai iieea. XVII—XVIII aa. — E., 1890; Noi?iaeaiee. Oaieeueiue
a?oea. — E., 1902. — O. 1; Noeeiianeee a?oea. Oaieeueiua aoiaae Noeei,
Nei?oi e Aieoeaoiae/ae, XVII—XVIII aa. — E., 1884.. Oaeiai ?iaeo
aeaea?aea ioiieee oaeoe/ii an? noi?iie aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a.

I?e ?icaeyae? oaie aeena?oaoe?? i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy ia? ai?noiey?ia
niaaeueia aaoueiaia. *anoeiai aiia aeae?oeiaaia I. Noae??ieii o o. 1 ? 2
“Iaoa?eaeia aeey ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee” (E., 1853; 1855) ? ia noi??ieao
ia??iaeeee, cie?aia “Eeaaneie Noa?eiu”. Eenoe io?oe?eiiai e i?eaaoiiai
oa?aeoa?o aaaaoi a /iio iiyniththoue ae?? aaoueiaia ca ??cieo ianoaaei,
aeathoue ciiao e?aua c?icoi?oe o? /e ?io? a/eiee oa ??oaiiy.

Iii?oii ?icoe?eoe ia??? iaoeiaiai iiooeo aeicaieeee oiai/ani? iaioa?e oa
?noi?e/ia e?oa?aoo?a. Na?aae ?o aaoi??a oia?oo /a?ao ne?ae iacaaoe
aaia?aeueiiai i?aenea?a?y ss.Ia?eiae/a, aaia?aeueiiai eaioeaey?enoa a
o?yae? ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai I. Oaiaiea, eicaoeueeeo noa?oei-e?oiienoe?a
N. Aaee/ea, A. A?aa’yieo, Naiiaeaeoey. A nai?o i?aoeyo o a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a oi?aae?iiy Aaoueiaiueie ieie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye
aeaiie?aoe/ia, caaaeueiiia?iaeia. Ae?? oea?acio ae, ye? ca/?iaee noaiia?
e aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane i?noeaai? aea?aeaaii? ae?oe a iniiaiiio ioe?iai?
iaaaoeaii. Iaa?oue caaino?aiiy nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo aiie /anoi
iia’ycoaaee ia?aaaaeii c ao?o/aiiyie /eiiaiee?a ?in?? o aioo??oi? ni?aae
Iaei?in??.

Oi?eaeueiith, ia iao iiaeyae, ? ca??ea Ae. Aaioeo-Eaiainueeiai
“Enoi/ieee iaei?inneeneie enoi?ee” a 2-o /anoeiao (I., 1858; 1859).
Ia?aaaaeio e?euee?noue, ai?uaieo aei ia? aeaea?ae, noaiiaeyoue o?, ye?
?icooeaa ?noi?ee ? a?oaia?ao o eieeoiueiio Aieiaiiio a?o?a? i?i?noa?noaa
?iicaiieo ni?aa ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a Iinea?. O?iiieia?/ii aiie
ioiieththoue 1654—1722 ??., a oaiaoe/ii — noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? e
aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Ie?aii ne?ae neacaoe i?i aaaaoioiiio i?aoeth A. Iiaecaeaanueeiai
“Iaei?inneeneee ?iaeineiaiee”, yea ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii iaaeeaea?oueny
aei ia?oiaeaea?aea, ai i?noeoue aeia?? iaoa??ae?a iaeaea i?i an?
e?aiaa?aaei? noa?oeinuee? (aeai?yinuee?) ?iaeeie. A iniiao aeaeaiiy
iieeaaeai? i?eaaoi? a?oeai? c?a?aiiy, eiio?? a nai?e a?eueoino? ia
caa?aaeeny.

Oaeei /eiii, /a?ac a?ae niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e, eeoa iacaai? aeua
a?o?ai? iaoa??aee e iioae?eiaai? aeaea?aea aeicaieeee aeeaiei aea/eoe oa
aia?oa iaoeiai aena?oeeoe oaio i?i aaoueiainueeo aeaaeo a Oe?a?inuee?e
eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa? ia?oi? /aa?o? XVIII no.(ia i?eeeaae? ae?yeueiino?
?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Iniiai? aoaie aeeooy e oi?ioaaiiy
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a ?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai” — aena?oeai?
?noi?e/i? oiiae noaiiaeaiiy oe??? iniae ye aea?aeaaiiai ? a?enueeiaiai
ae?y/a oa noa?aeoa?eciaaia aaciina?aaeiy neoaeaa a noa?oeinuee?e
aaei?i?no?aoe?? aei ia?aiiy aieiaea?ai aoeaae. Oe?iei aeeneooo?oueny
ieoaiiy i?i iaoe?iiaeueia oa nioe?aeueia iioiaeaeaiiy ?iaeeie
Nei?iiaaenueeeo, c?iaeai? aaaeeea? ooi/iaiiy uiaei a?ia?ao?? aaoueiaia.
Cie?aia ia i?aenoaa? aeaea?ae c’yniaaii, ui a?i ia?iaeeany 1646 ?. o i.
Oiai? a n?i’? eicaoeueeiai noa?oeie. Eiai ae?ae Oaae?? a?aa o/anoue o
Aecaieuei?e a?ei? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo i?ae i?iaiaeii A.
Oiaeueieoeueeiai ? caaeioa i?ae /an AEiaoiaiaenueei? aeoae 1648 ?. O
1674 ?. oiane?aeie iaiaaeo oaoa? ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee aoa ciooaiee
ia?anaeeoeny ?acii c a?aoii Aaneeai (ae?oaee a?ao Iaaei iaaeiaai
iio?aiea o oo?aoeueeee iieii) ia E?aiaa?aaeio Oe?a?io, aea iinooiea ia
neoaeao aei aaoueiaia ?. Naiieeiae/a. Ii/aaoe c iinaaee a?enueeiaiai
eaioeaey?enoa (c 1675), a?i caiaeii ia?eiaa iinaaee /a?i?a?anueeiai
iieeiaiai iena?y (1680—1694), aaia?aeueiiai aoi/oaeiiai (c 1694),
aaia?aeueiiai inaaoea (c 1701), noa?iaeoanueeiai iieeiaieea (c 1706). ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeee a?aa o/anoue o oae caaieo *eae?einueeeo (1676—1678) ?
E?einueeeo (1687 ? 1689) iioiaeao i?ioe oo?aoeueeeo ? oaoa?nueeeo
iiaeiiaeaaeoe?a. I?ney ia?aoiaeo ?.Iacaie o i?ioaeoe?th aei oaaaenueeiai
ei?iey Ea?ea XII, eiai 6 eenoiiaaea 1708 ?. ia noa?oeinuee?e ?aae? a
Aeooia? ia?aii aaoueiaiii. Nai???aeiino? oe??? aeaeoe?? i?eae?eaii
iniaeeao oaaao, aecia/ai? ?? i?a?iaaoeae.

A?ia?ao?th aieiaea?y aoeaae ?icaeyiooi ia oe?ieiio oe? aioo??oiueiai
aeeooy ianaeaiiy e?aiaa?aaeiiai ?aa?iio oa i?aeia?iaeieo iiae?e, ui iaee
i?yia a?aeiioaiiy aei Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae.

Caeo/aiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ia?aeiieeai cana?ae/ea, ui ianoaaeie ?
caaaeueia aoiinoa?a a yeeo aeiaaeiny ae?yoe ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiio, ua aei
io?eiaiiy iei aeuiai ?aiao a e?a?i?, iii?oii aieeioee ia oi?ioaaiiy eiai
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a, iaaiith i??ith aee??noae?coaaee ?aeath
iaiao?aeiino? caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii?? oa aea?aeaaiiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Ie??i ?ioiai, ia oeueiio iicia/eeeny iino?ei?
iaaiai?aiiy na?aae noa?oeinueeeo e?e ae?yeueiino? iaia?an?/ieo in?a
Aecaieueii? a?eie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo na?aaeeie XVII no., ianaiia?aae,
A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai, ?. Aeaianueeiai, ?. A?thoiaaoeueeiai, I.Aei?ioaiea.
Oaeiae iaaaeyea cia/aiiy iaa oaeoi? ?nioaaiiy a aaoueiainueeiio
oi?aae?ii? noa?oei iaaaeiaieaieo ?nioth/eie ii?yaeeaie, iaoiiaeaieie
ia?aaoaaiiyi E?aiaa?aaeaey a neeaae? ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae (n. 45-73).

A ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny oaca i?i oa, ui noaiiaeaiiy ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai aoei aeineoue oeiiaei aeey a?eueoino? i?aaenoaaiee?a
oiae?oiuei? nioe?aeueii? ae?oe. Aiii i?ieoei e?eueea iinooiiaeo aoai?a ?
a?aeaoeiny i?ae aaciina?aaei?i aieeaii ea?iaie/?a Oe?a?inueei?
eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae ?. Naiieeiae/a oa ?. Iacaie. Ia?aaoaath/e a ?o
ioi/aii?, ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee iiaeieaa aeiaao ? neeaaeio aeenoaioe?th
a?ae cae/aeiiai aeeiiaaoey (uii?aaaea, aeineoue oi?eiai) /oaei? aie? aei
ia?oi? iniae a Aaoueiaiuei?. A eiai eiie?aoieo caoiaeao aaea ye
aieiaea?y aoeaae “iaio aie?a Aei?i?a”, ye ae oa ia caia?a/oaaee aeaye?
aeine?aeieee (I. ?oeiaiei, I. A?ooaanueeee, Ae.Ii?aeiaoeaa, ?.
Aeaeeaeaei?a), /?oei i?inoaaeoaaeiny iaiieaaeeaa, oi/a e ia a
?aaeeeaeuei?e oi?i?, iaiaaaiiy caa?aaoe o?aaeeoe?eiee
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee ono??e, anoaiiaeaiee ua a ia??iae Oiaeueie//eie.
A?i iaiaeii?aciai, a?aenoithth/e ia?aae oea?aoii “aeaai?” i?aaa ?
aieueiino? oe?a?ioe?a, iieeeeaany naia ia ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ae?iaeai? A.
Oiaeueieoeueeei, a iio?i i?aeoaa?aeaeai? oiai ianooiieeaie.

Aacia?a/ii ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe ? oie iiaooi?e, ia?aaaaeii iaaaoeaiee,
oene, ui /eieee aanue /an ia ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai ?in?enueeee iiia?o oa
oea?nuee? iiie?/ieee. Ia iao iiaeyae, ia iathoue aeinoaoi?o i?aenoaa o?
?noi?eee, ye? iiyniththoue on? iaaa?acaee a e?a?i? ca eiai i?aae?iiy
eeoa iniaenoeie aaaeaie aaoueiaia. Aaeaea c aeaea?ae XVIII no. a?aeiii:
iaa?oue /a?ac aaaaoi iieie?iue o na?aeiiino? oa a/eieao eicaoeueeeo
noa?oei aeaaaeeny aciaee iane?aeee oioae?oa?iiai e ?ai?aneaiiai ?aaeeio
Iao?a ?.

Oaeoe iacaia?a/ii na?ae/aoue, ui caeiaoaoe aeuo aeaaeo a Aaoueiaiuei? a
62 ?iee, ?.Nei?iiaaenueeee iaa oaea oe?eeii aecia/ai? aea?aeaaieoeuee?
ono?aie?iiy, aoeei-eoeueoo?i? oiiaeiaaiiy e oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe??. I?i
ie?ai? c ieo iiaeia io?eiaoe oyao ia i?aenoaa? eiai eenoa — a?aeiia?ae?
?. Iacai?, yeee ia?aae oei cai?iiiioaaa i?e?aeiaoeny aei iueiai ? Ea?ea
XII, uia aenooieoe ni?eueii i?ioe “ai?iaei? caeaaia iioaioe??
Iineianueei?” (8 a?oaeiy 1708 ?.). A iueiio o?eueee-ii ia?aiee aieiaea?
aoeaae canoaeea ni?iao naiai iiia?aaeieea noaoe “naiiaeanooeai” iaae
oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeii ? ia?aeoe i?ae ianoa?iia iieuenueea y?ii,
iiceoeaii ioe?iea caoiaee A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai, ni?yiiaai? ia ?ic?ea c
??//th Iiniieeoith oa ni?eeo c ?in??th. (No/ani? aeine?aeieee A. Oaa/oe,
I.Ioo?i oa aeaye? ?io? noeeuei? ioe?ithaaoe a?aeiiao ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai
i?aeo?eiaoe aenooi ?. Iacaie ye c?aaeo “naiai” aaoueiaia). Aaea oiae?
a?i aeia?a ona?aeiiethaaa, ui ia i?aeaeaaei?e eiio oa?eoi??? anoaiiaeany
nai???aeiee “ii?yaeie eicaoeueeee”, yeee iii?oii a?ae??ciyany a?ae oiai,
ui ?nioaaa o non?aei?o aea?aeaaao.

Ia o?eueee a oeueiio eeno?, a e aaaaoueio aeieoiaioao 1708—1709 ??., ui
aeeoee c-i?ae ?oee ?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, ?. Aeaianueeiai, I. Oaoa?th ye ?
?. Iacaio (?c c?icoi?eeo i?e/ei), iacaaii c?aaeieeaie. I?ioa /ei aeae? a
/an?, oea “oaa?i” o iueiai iinooiiai cieea? ?c canoinoaaiiy. I?ci?oa
a?i, eiee a nai?o ae?yo aeoiaeea c o?aaeeoe?e, oi iiynithaaa
ni?aaaaeeea?noue (caeiii?noue) ?o oae: ai noiaea /eieee iiia?aaeieee —
an? aac aeiyoeo. Aaoueiai aaaaeaa ca ia?oi/a?aiaee iaia’ycie oe?a?ioe?a
iaeiinoaeii a?aenoithaaoe i?aaineaaio a??o, caoeuaoe iiianoe?? e
aaouee?aueio, ia aenooiaoe i?ioe oea?nueei? aaee/iino?, yeo ia??aeei
ioioiaeithaaa c on?i aeecueeei ?in?enueeei ia?iaeii. I?ioenoiyiiy
iiia?oia?, ia eiai aeoieo, iaiaei?iii i?ecaaei a A?enueei Caii?icueea ?
Iaei?in?th aei inoaoi/ii? ?o?ie (n.80-96).

C iaoith anaa?/iiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeiae, a ye?e aeea ? ae?ya ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeee, aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi aniaeo i?i aaoueiainueea ioi/aiiy
? niaaeei?ioe?a. Iai?eeeaae, iacaaii iaea?eueo aieeaiaeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
eiai aaei?i?no?aoe??. Ia oie /an aaea ioi?ieeeny oe?e? ?iaeeii? eeaie,
ye? iin?ee iaai? ?aiae. Aeaye? c noa?oei — ?iaee/?a ia aac i?ioaeoe??
aieiaea?y aoeaae iicaeiaee ea??ai? iinaaee a iaeiiio iieeo /e nioi?,
?io? — a ??cieo. Noaey/e c i??caeu, i?aae?iiy Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei?
aea?aeaae ia?oi? /aa?o? XVIII no. aieiaiei /eiii noaiiaeee oe?a?ioe?
(iiiaae 90%).

Iica iaaeaie Aaoueiaiueie ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee iaa noinoiee c i?ia?aeieie
naiaoi?aie, i?i?no?aie, aaia?aeaie ?in?? oa ?a/? Iiniieeoi?,
a?o??ieneiiaie Aaeeeiai Iiaai?iaea O.ssiianueeei ? ineianueeei,
ia?anueeei oa ?cai?nueeei O. I?ieiiiae/ai ? o.ae.

Ei?enooth/enue neooaoe??th, i?ea?eaeiaaia noaiiaeua a ?aa?ii? iaee
??aei? oa aeecuee? aaoueiaiia? ethaee. Iai?eeeaae, oe?ieia?aeiiith ia
o?eueee ia E?aiaa?aaeae?, a e aeaeaei ca eiai iaaeaie, cie?aia
Neiaiaeaiuei?, Caii?iaeae?, a Iinea? oa Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?, noaea
ae?oaeeia ?aaia ?ee?/a — Aianoan?y, yeo a ia?iae? caeaa?eueoiai iaceaaee
Ianoy-aaoueiaieoa. Ia??aeei a aaoueiainueeiio aoaeeieo a Aeooia?
(?aceaeaioe?? aieiaea?y aoeaae) aiia i?eeiaea iiaaaeieo ia?nii c ?in??,
aeineoue aeoeaii ao?o/aeany a o?yaeia? ni?aae. Caeiaeany Aianoan?y e
aeaaiae?ei?noth, cie?aia, iaoa??aeueii i?aeo?eioaaea i?aaineaai?
iiianoe??. Caeeoeaoenue aac /ieia?ea aiia io?oe?eii ao?aoeea e iie?oe/io
aeaaeo. I?ioa iaaoo? naiai /ano ca’ycee aeaaaee ?e iiaeeea?noue
oo?eioaaoeny ia iiaa?oi? noni?eueiiai aeeooy a e?a?i?, oa e ia o?eueee
ooo. Aiia iniaenoi, ?? ??aei? e aeecuee? i?iaeiaaeoaaee iino?eii
iaa?aeoaaoeny aei Iineae, aoaaoe i?e oea?nueeiio aeai??. Caaaey/oth/e
oeueiio, aaoueiaioa aaaaeaea naaa iaaeioi?eaiith aeey i?noeaaeo
iiaeiiaeaaeoe?a ? iaa?oue a?aeiiaeyeany i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoeny
th?enaeeeoe?? Aaia?aeueii? a?enueeiai? eaioeaey??? (n. 108—126).

Iaea?eueo a?aeiieie niaaeei?ioeyie aaoueiaia noaee Ieoaeei Aaneeueiae/ —
cyoue Ae.Aiinoiea, aaia?aeueiee i?aenea?a?e, yeee 1744 ?. a?ae ?iai?
an??? eicaoeueei? aa?o?aee a Aeooia? a?oaa ?iia?ao?eoeth Aeecaaaoo, a a
1751 ?. — aaoueiaia E. ?icoiianueeiai. Nei oiai ?aai Ieoaeeiae/
a?aeiiaeany i?aeienoaaoe iaoeoe?th noa?oei i?i caoaa?aeaeaiiy ca
?icoiianueeei niaaeeiaiai i?aaa ia aieiae?iiy aoeaaith, a 1767 ?. noaa
aeaiooaoii Eaoa?eieinueei? eii?n?? aeey neeaaeaiiy “Iiaiai oeiaeaiiy”.
?in?enueeee iieeiaiaeaoeue, aeeieiiao ? aea?aeaaiee ae?y/
I.I.?oiyioeaa-Caaeoiaenueeee neacaa i?i iueiai Eaoa?ei? ?? oae: “I?e
anao iaoeao… inoaeny eacaeii”. A?i aeiiooaaa i??th caeiaooe nia?
eieenue aaoueiainoai. Iaaei Iao?iae/ Nei?iiaaenueeee noaa o 1918 ?.
aaoueiaiii Oe?a?ie.

Aeyaeai? a i?ioean? iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ia?oiaeaea?aea ae?oai?
iieiaeie XVII — ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no., ia i?aeoaa?aeeee oaa?aeaeaiiy
ie?aieo ?noi?ee?a i?i i?aeoi iieuenueei-oeyoaonueea iioiaeaeaiiy ?iaeo
Nei?iiaaenueeeo ?onneay ?iaeineiaiay eieaa. — Nia., 1873. — O. 1. — N.
294; ?onneee aeia?aoe/aneee neiaa?ue. — Nia., 1905. — O.
Naaaiaaa-Niuneia. — N. 610.. Oiio iaea??ia?aei?oei, ia iao iiaeyae,
ne?ae aaaaeaoe ia?oeo c a?aeiieo eiai i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?ioeyie. Ca
i?aoi?a noie?ooy, ii/eiath/e a?ae Oiaeueie//eie, Nei?iiaaenuee? noaee ia
eeoa na?aeeaie, a e aeoeaieie o/anieeaie aeieeiaiiy, ?icaeoeo oa
iinooiiaiai caiaiaaeo Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Iie?oe/ia ? a?enueeiaa ae?yeuei?noue. Iaiaaeaiiy
aaoueiainueeeo ooieoe?e oea?aoii” — iaaieioaii ia oiio, ui noaiiaeua
Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae cia/ii a?ae??ciyeiny a iie?oe/iiio
aniaeo? a?ae a?eueoino? ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i. sse neeaaeiaa /anoeia
?in?enueei? aea?aeaae, a iio?i ?iia???, aiia th?eaee/ii iaiaaeoaaeanue o
ciai?oi?o ciineiao c non?aeaie. Iaaia a?aeia?aaeaiiy oea ciaeoei ua a
7-io ioieo? “Eieiiaoeueeeo noaoae” 1687 ?. — oaiae? oea?nueeiai e
aaoueiainueeiai o?yae?a. I?aaaea, nai Iao?i ? a?aenooiaa /a?ac ??ci?
ianoaaeie a?ae oaeiai ?iaeo iinoaiia ? aeicaieya aieiaea?th aoeaae /an
a?ae /ano aanoe a?eueo-iaio naiino?eio ciai?oith iie?oeeo, aea i?ae
eiio?ieai c naiai aieo. I?i ui, iai?eeeaae, na?ae/eee i?e?caee aei
aaoueiaia ?iicaiieo a?ioe?a.

Oi?iaeueia ia?aiiy ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai aaoueiaiii, a oaeoe/ii
i?ecia/aiiy oea?ai, aeaeaei ia iiaiith i??ith aecia/eee i?aaiaee noaoon
ea?iaie/a a Oe?a?i?. Aaeaea oiae? i?ae iei ? oea?ai ia aoea i?aeienaia
aeiaeia oaiaea a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy. O aeaeaiiio 1 eenoiiaaea 1708 ?.
“Iaieoanoa anae noa?oeia e aieneo, nuaoaaoeiny a Aeooiaa aeey eca?aiey
aieueiuie aieinaie iiaiai aaoueiaia”, iiia?o o?eueee iiia?oeya iaaeaoe
an? aieueiino?, i?aaa ? i?aa?ea? ca?aeii c aeiaiai?ii 1654 ?.,
oeeaaeaiei Ieaen??i Ieoaeeiae/ai ? Aiaaeaiii Oiaeueieoeueeei. Iaeiae
aaea i?ae /an aeaeoe?? noa?oeie iaaiai?thaaee c oiiaiiaaaeaieie a?ae
Iineae i?iaeaio a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a oaeiio
aeaeyae?, yeee aiia iaea a na?aaeei? XVII no., oiaoi a?ae naiiai
ii/aoeo, iacaaaeath/e ia ?? iaiaaeaiiy oea?aoii a?ae ?. Aeaianueeiai aei
?.Iacaie aeeth/ii. Ae?acii aiai?eeiny i?i iaiao?aei?noue oe?e?niino?
“Io/eciu Iaei?inn?eneie” ye eicaoeueei? aaoiiii?? a neeaae? ?in?enueei?
aea?aeaae. Aaciina?aaeiuei aieiaea? aoeaae iaiaeii?aciai aeiaiaeea, ui
ia?iae i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee eiio ? in?aiee, oaeee, eio?ee ia? aeani?
aea?aeaai? ei?aeiie (n. 131-137).

?aaeueiei caoiaeii ia aeinyaiaiiy caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oea?ai
aaoueiainueeiai aa/aiiy noaoono ?aa?iio, noaea iiaea/a ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeei nthca?aiia? 17 eeiiy 1709 ?. a?aeiia?aeiiai ci?noo
“noaoae”. I?ioa Iao?i ? ia a?eueo?noue ioieo?a o ieo ia aeaa
a?aeiia?ae?, ioaea ia naieoe?iioaaa.

Oei /anii eiaeiee ianooiiee ??e i?eiinea yeanue iiaa iaiaaeaiiy
aaoueiainueei? aeaaee, aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie. Aaoueiaiueio /eiiaieee c ?in??
aeaaeae? /ano?oa aecia/aee aaea iaa?oue ia ye “Iaei?in?th”, a
“Iaei?in?enueeee e?ae”.

Oa e ca oeo neeaaeieo oiia, i?ae iino?eiei iaaeyaeii ? oeneii c aieo
oea?aoo ?.Nei?iiaaenueeee i?aaioa i?iaiaeeoe ciai?oith iie?oeeo a
?ioa?anao oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Cie?aia, a?i ye aeina?ae/aiee
aea?aeaaiee ae?y/, iaiaeii?aciai aenooiaa ca ia’?aeiaiiy I?aaiaa?aaeaey
oa E?aiaa?aaeaey i?ae ?aeeiith aoeaaith, oio?a i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe
Neiaiaeaiueio, ui iii?iaeueii ia?aaoaaea i?ae ea??aieoeoaii oea?nueeeo
ai?aiae. A?aeii? ?noi?e/i? oaeoe, eiee aaoueiai iaiieaaeeai a?aenoithaaa
eiaeia i?noi /e i?noa/ei, eio?? yeeinue /eiii i?aaioee a?ae?a?aoe c-i?ae
eiai th?enaeeeoe?? (n. 145-152).

Iaeneeuei?oiai ?oei?aiiai oaea?o aaoueiainuee?e aeaae? aoei caaaeaii
Iao?ii ? a o?aai? 1722 ?. canioaaiiyi o Aeooia? oae caaii?
Iaei?in?enueei? eieaa?? — aeui? eanaoe?eii? e o?iainiai? onoaiiae, aei
neeaaeo yei? iaee aoiaeeoe eeoa ?in?enuee? /eiiaieee, i?ecia/ai?
?iia?aoi?ii aai Naiaoii. Io?oe?eiei i?eaiaeii aeey oaeiai caeiiiaeaa/iai
aeoo noaee i?aeoi ceiaaeeaaiiy a oe?a?inueeeo noaeao, iacaeiiia
a?ae?a?aiiy oa?aeue o eicae?a, naeyi ? i?uai, i?eiooaiiy ?o aei
aeeiiaiiy an?eyeeo “?iaioeci”, iie??ia/aiiy oiui. Ia ni?aaae? ae
canioaaiiy eieaa??, ye cacia/ea A. Ai?iaaoeue, aoei ia naiioe?eeth
oea?nueeiai o?yaeo, a ia?aaeoiiaith e?ea?aeaoe?? iie?oe/ii? aaoiiii??
Aaoueiaiueie, ?? anei?eyoe?? oa ianooiiiai iiaeeiaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue ?iia???th. C oaeith ioe?ieith aaaeei ia iiaiaeeoeny.

Aeoiaey/e c iayaiiai aeieoiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe,
ui ?.Nei?iiaaenueeee, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?. Iacaie, I. I?eeea oa ?o
i?ea?/iee?a aoa oeiiaei i?aaenoaaieeii iii??eiaaii? uiaei i?i?in?enueei?
iie?oeee /anoeie aea?aeaaieoeueei? ae?oe Oe?a?ie. Aeanieie
ia?aeiiaiiyie, oae ae iiaeoe, ia?eaiaionueeeie iaoiaeaie a?i i?aaioa
a?aenoiyoe aaoiiiii?noue Aaoueiaiueie, oi/a ? ia aa/ea ?? iica neeaaeo
?in?enueei? aea?aeaae. A eiai ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe?, aacia?a/ii,
i?inoaaeothoueny oaiaeaioe??, caii/aoeiaai? A.Oiaeueieoeueeei. Iaeiae
/a?ac ye ia’?eoeai?, oae ? noa’?eoeai? oaeoi?e aaoueiai ia ci?a aei
e?ioey i?iyaeoe naaa iaeaaeiei /eiii ye iie?oe/iee ae?y/ eieenue
iiaooiuei? e aaeeei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iniaeeaa i?noea a iie?oeoe? ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai
caeiaee caii?iaeoe? oa e?einueea ieoaiiy. Ia ii/aoeo XVIII no.
Caii?icueea N?/, oey “iaea Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa, ui nie?aeany ia
a?enueeiao i?aai?caoe?th” (I. Oa?eaoeueeee), aeaaeae? /ano?oa noaaaea a
iiiceoe?th aei aaoueiainueei? aeaaee. Cai?noue oiai, uia ae?yoe a
?aeeiiio ?one? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai cao?ooaaiiy oe?a?oe?a o ni?aa?
?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii??, “ieciaa oiaa?enoai”, a?aenoithth/e
aeani? “aeaai?” i?aaa ? i?ea?ea?, nai?ie ia??aeei iai?iaeoiaieie
caoiaeaie i?iaaeoaaei o?yaee ?a/? Iiniieeoi?, Oo?a//eie, E?einueeiai
oainoaa, Oaaoe?? oa ?in?? aeoea?coaaoe canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo
naieoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo i?ioe “iaei?in?enueei?” aea?aeaaiino?.

?nioaaei e ia’?eoeaia i?ioe??//y : “oe?ai?ianuee?e” /anoei? ianaeaiiy
Aaoueiaiueie aoee ae?ae iaiao?aei? noaa?euei? ie?i? oiiae aeeooy aeey
?icaeoeo ainiiaea?noaa. N?/ aea aiane?aeie nai?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
e iie?oe/ii? noo? yaeyea niaith iaaiith i??ith aeaiie?aoe/io
?inoeoooe?th c aia?o?/ieie oaiaeaioe?yie ? iaaaeueiith iio?aaith
ia??iaee/ieo a?enueeiaeo iioiae?a (iinaciii? i?iienee ieciaee?a, aei
oiai ae ia an?o, c?icoi?ei, ia iiaee iiai?noth caaacia/eoe iiaiioe?iia
iaoa??aeueia ?oi? ?nioaaiiy).

*a?ac naiiaea?aeaaio iie?oeeo Iao?a ? noinoiee aieiaea?y aoeaae c
ieciaeeaie neeaaeaeeny iniaeeai iaaaoeaii. Ia N?/? aac aiooc?acio
ni?eeiyee ca?noeo i?i ia?aiiy iiaiai aaoueiaia. Iaaiith i??ith
caii?iaeoe?a ia?acea oie oaeo, ui ?oi?o i?aaenoaaiee?a ia cai?ineee ia
aeaeoe?th aei Aeooiaa. Iaeio c i?e/ei ?oeiaoe?? a Oe?a?i? aiie aaa/aee o
aeanoiethanoa? e i?iaeaaeiino? e?aiaa?aaeieo noa?oei, ?oiueiio
iaiao??ioeci?. Io?oe?eii ae aeaaea ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai iioe?thaaeany ?
ia Caii?iaeaey. A iniiaiiio a?i i?aaioa aeei?enoiaoaaoe caii?iaeoe?a ye
a ?ioa?anao Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae, oae ? ?in??.
Iaiiaeeea?noue cae?eniaiiy oe??? iaoe iaoiiaeea e?ea?aeaoe?y a o?aai?
1709 ?. *a?oiieeoeueei? (aai Noa?i? /e Aacaaeooeueei?) N?/? ca iaeacii
iaia?oa. ?? caie? i?eienaee aei Ie?ai?iaenueeiai iieeo, a iana
caii?iaeoe?a caciaea ?ai?an?e, aaaaoi c ieo aoei no?a/aii. A?aeaoeany
?i?a?aoe?y inoaii?o ia oa?eoi??th aieiae?iue e?einueeiai oaia (n.
163-170).

Oe? aeoe ia ii/aoeo i?aae?iiy ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai ua ?ac yne?aai
cana?ae/eee iaoa?ieia noaaeaiiy oea?y ? eiai ioi/aiiy aei naiiaooiino?
oe?a?ioe?a, cie?aia ?oi?o nai???aeieo ca?ieieo nee. Iaeii/anii oe?
iiae?? a na?aeiiino? aieaethaieo i?aaenoaaiee?a ei??iiiai aoiino ia
iiaee ia aeeeeeaoe iaaaoeai? anioe?aoe?? noiniaii ? aaoueiainueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

Aiae?c aeaea?ae oiai /ano aeicaiey? c iaai?noth oaa?aeeoe: ieciaeee
oe?eeii ona?aeiiethaaee, ui iie?oeea Iao?a ? caiaeeoue iai?aaoeue
“aieueiino?” oe?a?ioe?a ? ia aac o/ano? aieiaea?y aoeaae. I?ioenoiyoe
oeueiio, ia ?o aeoieo, iiaea o?eueee N?/, iie?ath/enue ia iie?oeeo
iiia?aaei?o aaoueiai?a, cie?aia A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai oa ?. Iacaie,
ci???ioiaaio ia ni?eeo c ei?ieai oaaaenueeei ? iainoaii e?einueeei.
Eicaee aeia?a ?icoi?ee “iai?e?iaei?noue” naiai noaiiaeua a ?in?enuee?e
aea?aeaa?, caia?a/oaaee aeioe?euei?noue i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy Oe?a?ie o?yaeo
a Iinea?. C?aooith “ieciaa oiaa?enoai” 1711 ?. ?ici?noeeiny a o?i/eu?
Ieaoee a?ey Ea?aeaoeinueeiai eeiaio, ia i?aaeaiue a?ae aiaae?iiy ?iaoeo
a Aei?i?i (ia oa?eoi??? no/aniiai i. Oeth?oieinueea Oa?niinueei?
iaeano?). ?icii/aeiny ?o aaaaoi??/ia i?ioenoiyiiy a nithc? c
oo?aoeueeeie oa e?einueeeie iiaeiiaeaaeoeyie aaoueiainuee?e ? oea?nuee?e
aeaae?, ui /an a?ae /ano noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny e?eaaaeie iaiaaeaie ia
oe?a?inuee? caie?. Oea, i?aaaea, ia aeeeth/aei ia??iaee/ieo iiooe?a
caii?iaeoe?a ie?iiai oeyoo aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy Noa?i?
N?/?.

A ?noi??? aca?iei aaoueiaia — oea?y — ieciaee?a iii?oio ?ieue a?ae?a?aee
I. I?eee ? eioiaee ioaiai E. Ai?ae??iei. Iai?eeeaae, ia?oee a?aenoithaaa
eicaoeuee? ?ioa?ane ia?aae iiia?oaie Oaaoe??, Oo?a//eie, I?ia//eie, ?a/?
Iiniieeoi?. ?aeeiith eiai aeiiaith aoei eeoa oa, uia caii?iaeoe? i?eiee
ia ei?eeeny ? ia i?enoaaaee ia i?iiiceoe?? ianoa?iiiai eiio ?in?enueeiai
o?yaeo (n. 175-182).

Ia ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a noinoiee n?/iaee?a c oainueeith aeaaeith ae?ae
caaino?eeeny. Caaaeath/e ia oea, ?a?aa?i-iaoa i?ae /an
?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeeo ia?aaiai??a 1722 ?. ii?ooea ieoaiiy i?i
iiaeeea?noue iiaa?iaiiy eicae?a o iaae? Aaoueiaiueie. Iaeiae oiae? aiii
oae ? caeeoeeiny iaae??oaiei.

Iniaeeao oaaao a ?icae?e? i?eae?eaii a?enueeia?e ae?yeueiino? aaoueiaia.
Eiee i?i a?enueeiaee oaeaio ?. Iacaie no/anieee, a ca ieie e ?noi?eee
aeneiaethaaeeny ii-??ciiio: a?ae aeciaiiy ca iei aai?aeueiino? a oeueiio
aniaeo? ae?yeueiino? aei iiaiiai caia?a/aiiy oaoo sse, neaae?ii, ia
aeoieo Ae. Aaioeoa-Eaiainueeiai,— “aua aeo?iui aieiii, Iacaia aue
eneoniui ieieno?ii, oiae aeaaaoue niaaou, iieaciua ainoaea?noao e
no?aia, ei oi?aaeyaiie”., oi i?i ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai i? a aeaea?aeao, i?
a ?noi??ia?ao?? ia ?nio? a?eueo-iaio iiaieo ? aeaaaeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee.
Iae/ano?oa iiaeia ciaeoe eeoa iaae?aci? caaaeee i?i eiai o/anoue o oiio
/e ?ioiio iioiae? i?ioe ai?iaa. Iaeiae, aoaeo/e ii?yae c ?. Iacaiith ia
a?no?? iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?a?ie, aa?o/e aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o
ai?iieo eaiiai?yo e?ioey XVII — ii/aoeo XVII? no. noi?ioe aiye?a
E?einueeiai oainoaa, Oo?a//eie, ?a/? Iiniieeoi?, Oaaoe?? e o.ae. a?i,
aacia?a/ii, ciaa i?i e?aueo ia o?eueee oe?a?inueeeo ? ?in?enueeeo
iieeiaiaeoe?a oiai /ano, a e ?iicaiieo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeee aoa aeia?a ia?ciaiee c no/anieie eiio iaoiaeaie aaaeaiiy
aith. Aeaea?aea cao?enoaaee ? iaaaeyeo aeiao?aeeea?noue inoaiiueiai o
canoinoaaii? a?enueeiaeo caoiae?a. Oae, 1708 ?. a?i?y Ea?ea XII oe?ieei
o?iioii ianiiae?aaii iaaeeceeany aei ei?aeii?a Aaoueiaiueie. A oiae? ??
ianooio ia Noa?iaeoanueeee iiee, yeee oiae? i/iethaaa ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee
? iaa aaaeeeaa no?aoaa?/ia cia/aiiy, noaany oe?eaaee aeiaaeie.
I?noeaaee naeyiei, niaoe?aeueii i?ae?neaiee aei ai?iaeiai oaai?o
iieeiaieeii, iiia?oeya i?iaanoe oaaaenueeee caa?i ia /ie? c Eaaa?e?iiii
aei Noa?iaeoaa iaeei?iooei oeyoii, a caa?a cian?i ia ooaee. Caaaeyee
/iio aei i?noa anoeaee i?ae?eoe ?in?enuee? a?enueea e aaeaei a?aeaeoe
iaiaae ai?iaa. Noiaeee a/eiie, aeia?a a?aeiiee c ?noi???, cae?eniea
aa?ie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae ?in?enueeiai ia?iaeo i?ioe
iieuenueei? oa oaaaenueei? ?ioa?aaioe?? ii/aoeo XVII no. naeyiei ?.
Nonai?i (n. 183-190).

Aoaeo/e aaoueiaiii, ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee /anoi iaaiai?thaaa ieoaiiy
a?enueeiai? oaeoeee ? no?aoaa?? c? nai?ie aaia?aeueieie no?aoeiaie oa
iieeiaieeaie, o/anieeaie I?ai?/ii? a?eie 1700—1721 ??.
aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaeii A.Oa?aiao?aei, iaeiei c iaeaeeae/eo aei Iao?a ?,
ea??aieeii Iinieuenueeiai i?eeaco, aea?aeaaiei eaioeea?ii A. Aieiae?iei,
a oaeiae aaia?ae-iaei?ii A. Aieeiinueeei, iineianueeei eiiaiaeaioii,
iieeiaieeii I. Aaaa??iei. Aiane?aeie ni?eueieo iaiaae?a aieiaea?y aoeaae
oa ae?aaoinueeeo caaii?a aaia?aea ?aiia iaia?aaeiaei? aeoae i?ae
Iieoaaith ie?ai? oaaaenuee? /anoeie ciooai? aoee a?aenooieoe c naiai
oaai?o i?ae n. AEoee.

I?ioa ne?ae eiinoaooaaoe: i?ney iiae?e 1708—1709 ??., /a?ac iaaeia??o
nthca?aia oe?a?inueeei eicaeai, a?enueeiaa ae?yeuei?noue ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai noa? iaio ae?aciith, ai?ciaee/iith. I?aaaea, aaoueiai ?
iaaeae? “iani?eth?oueny” ?aaeeoe oea?aa? oa eiai aeayeei i?i?no?ai, ye
e?aua aoei a /eieoe c noi?ioeaieeii o iaaeao Oe?a?ie, a o?, o?aieyeiny,
i?eeiaee oae? i?iiiceoe?? “ca aeaai”. A?i ciaa i?i an? a?enueeia? ae??,
ui iaee oi/ yeanue a?aeiioaiiy aei Aaoueiaiueie, ? eiee aeicaieyee
ianoaaeie, a neeo nai?o iiaeeeainoae ea??aieea aea?aeaae, ei?eaoaaa ia
ei?enoue oe?a?ioe?a (191-195).

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e — “Aaoueiainuee? caoiaee a aaeoc? aeiiii?ee” —
i?noeoue aeaoaeueiee aiae?c aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee aeui? aeaaee noiniaii
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ia E?aiaa?aaeae?. A ia?oo /a?ao ?icaeyioo?
i?iaeaie, ye? ?nioaaee a ia?o?e /aa?o? XVIII no. o oi?a?ae?. A?aeiii, ui
eoi?aey ? i?iaeaae i?aaeiao?a oe?ieiai aaeeoeo oa ei?enooaaiiy
a?ae?a?aaaee /e ia iaeaaaeeea?oo ?ieue o iiiiaiaii? aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo Aaoueiaiueie, caaacia/oaaee cia/i? iino?ei? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy c
ia? aei iineianueei? eacie. Aaeee? eiooe c i?eaooe?a a?ae oi?a?ae? eoee
ia oo?eiaiiy aeanieo aaei?i?no?aoe?? oa a?enueea, aeo?a/aeeny ia
ainiiaea?nuee? iio?aae i?no, ?iceaao?e?iaai? ia oa?eoi??? ?aa?iio
?in?enuee? a?i??, naiiaiee?a oiui. Iinooiiai iii?iaeuei? a?io? iaaoaaee
ia?oi/a?aiaiai cia/aiiy i?e an?eyeeo ?ic?aooieao, aeo?niyth/e ??ciiai
?iaeo “iaoo?aeuei? aea/?” e iiai?e. Iio?aae a ieo iaaieiii c?inoaee,
iniaeai i?ae /an aeiaaio?eaaeeo a?ei. Ine?eueee aeaye? a?ioia? iaeeieoe?
aoee a iino?eiiio ia?ao eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae, ei??ii? aeeoae? ia??aeei
iaceaaee ?o “oe?a?inueeeie” aai “/a?eanueei? e?/ae”.

Iai?ee?ioe? XVII — ia ii/aoeo XVIII no. o oi?a?ae? ?aa?iio
niinoa??aaeeny aeineoue nai???aei?, iaiaeiicia/i? yaeua. Iaei? c ieo
ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eee i?i ?? iaooeeueiee ?icaeoie, iacaaaeath/e ia iaai?
o?oaeiiu? a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? (c?oeiiaai? ianaeai? ioieoe i?ae
/an a?enueeiaeo iioiae?a, caaeaaeue ethaeae, ia??iaee/i? iaa?iaea?
oiui), ?io? — i?i cai?oaiiy aeayeeo ?? iai?yi?a. Aeieacii ia?oiio aoee,
iai?eeeaae, aeoea?caoe?y ae?yeueiino? e ?icoe?aiiy eiea in?a, “aaay/eony
eoia/aneei i?iiuneii”, ? oeo, ooi iaa noaeee “oi?a”, a oaeiae
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? oi?aiaaeueieo ina?aaee?a. sseui a 1665 ?.
inoaii?o iae?/oaaeiny o?ioe a?eueoa 40, oi a ia??iae, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?o ooieoe?iioaaei aaea iiiaae 100. Ca ianyaaie
oi?aiaaeueieo iia?aoe?e iniaeeai aeae?eyeeny na?aae oaeeo oeaio??a Ee?a,
I?aeei, Noa?iaeoa, *a?i?a?a, Ia?ayneaa, Ii/ai, E?ieaaaoeue, I?eeoee. A
Noa?iaeoanueeiio iieeo, yeee i?ioyaii e?eueeio ?ie?a i/iethaaa ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeee, aeii?ioaaea eoiey-i?iaeaae i?yaeeaa, ooaeiae, oe??e,
iaaeo ? o.ae. C aaaaoueio i?no Aaoueiaiueie oiaa? aacee aei Iineae. Noia
a?ae eiai ?aae?caoe?? oai noaiiaeea 20 ? a?eueoa oen. e?a.
Iiaeeaethaaany ca’ycie oi?aiaaeueiiai eai?oaeo c ae?iaieoeoaii.

O aeaeaeinyaei? ieaie Iao?a ? aoiaeeei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a on?e
?in?enuee?e aea?aeaa? iiiiiieueiiai i?aaa ia i?iaeaae nie?oiiai ?
othothio. Cia/aiiy oaei? oi?a?ae? (o?eueee aeey iaoe?iiaeueieo iio?aa)
aeia?a ?icoi?a ? o?yae ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai. Aaoueiai iniaenoi aeaeaa
aeanyoee oi?aa?nae?a i?eaaoiei iniaai ? i?aaineaaiei iiianoe?yi c
i?ea?eayie ia aeaioiaeaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?th nie?oieo iaii?a a ie?aieo
?aeiiao. A aeaye? iiaeiiaeaaeoe? nai? i?eaeanithaaee ?o nia? (iieeiaieee
aaaeyoeueeee I. Ieei?aaeiae/, iieoaanueeee ?. *a?iye, /a?i?a?anueeee I.
Iieoaioie oa ?io?).

?c aoyaiaiiyi i?noeaai? oi?a?ae? o ana?in?enueeee ?eiie iaaaeye c??n
iiaeaoeiaee oene ia ia? ieoieo /eiiaiee?a c ?in??. Ua ca aaoueiaioaaiiy
?. Iacaie i?noeaa? eoioe? niea/oaaee /?oei anoaiiaeai? iiaeaoee ca
a?eueio oi?a?aeth ye ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae,
oae ? ca ?? iaaeaie — oae caai? aaaeoo e ?iaeoeoo. Aiie a iniiaiiio
noaiiaeee 2% a?ae aa?oino? oiaa?o. A ?a/? Iiniieeo?e cae?aeeny oaeiae
a?io? ca o?aiceo. A?ae?aco i?ney iiae?e, iia’ycaieo c ia?aoiaeii Iacaie
ia a?e oaaae?a, ianoaaeie a oe?e noa?? ?aaeeeaeueii ci?ieeeny, i?e/iio
ia a??oa aeey oe?a?ioe?a. Aaciina?aaeiuei ?iaeoeoo c e?aiaa?aaeieo
iiee?a oea? a?aeaeaa ia a?aeeoi /oae?e ?ioa?anai Aaoueiaiueie ethaeei? —
a?aeiiiio ia oie /an “o?iainenoia?” N. ?aaoceinueeiio. A?i iniaenoi
ea?oaaa cae?aiiyi eioo?a ca aea?c oiaa??a ca ei?aeii, eeaaeo/e /eiae?
noie o aeanio eeoaith. Iaaio ae /anoeio c?a?aieo iiaeaoe?a
?aaoceinueeiai ciaia’ycoaaee ui??/ii niea/oaaoe a nea?aieoeth aea?aeaae.
Io?oe?eii a?i aaaaeaany i?aeii?yaeeiaaiei aaoueiaiaoo, a caeiiiaeaa/i
eiai noaoon aecia/eee oea?nueeee oeac oa a?aeiia?aeiee oi?aa?nae
?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai.

Noai ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? oe?eaaea aieiaea?y aoeaae ia eeoa ye
aea?aeaaiiai ae?y/a, a e ye ethaeeio, ui aaciina?aaeiuei iath caeiaeany.
Oae, /a?ac naiai aeiiiia — oi?aaeoaey a?i i?aai?coaaa ii anueiio
Noa?iaeoanueeiio iieeo neoiiaoaaiiy i?yaeeaa, yea iio?i aeaiceee ca
ei?aeii.

Iayaiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a?ae
ii/aoeo ? aei e?ioey naiai i?aae?iiy ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee iniaenoi oa
/a?ac aenieeo ?in?enueeeo naiiaiee?a iaiaaaany a?aenoiyoe ?ioa?ane
oe?a?inueeeo eoioe?a ia an?o aaia?ao?/ieo iai?yieao ?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino?: a Iieueu?, Aaeoeoe?, Aaeao??, Iieaeia?, E?eio,
Neiaiaeaiuei? ? o.ae. Iniaeeai iaiieaaeeai a?i i?aaioa iie?ioeoe oiiae
aeey ieo ia oa?eoi??? ?a/? Iiniieeoi?, aea aiie /e ia iaea?eueoa
iioa?iaee a?ae iino?eieo ceiaaeeaaiue ? ?ai?aneaieo caoiae?a. Iaa?oue
Ae. Aiinoie, yeee aeaui noa’?eoeaii noaaeany aei naiai iiia?aaeieea, aoa
ciooaiee aecia/eoe 1729 ?., ui oie iaiaeii?aciai caa?oaany c oeueiai
i?eaiaeo a Eieaa?th ?iicaiieo ni?aa ? i/?eoaaa ca?aeoe a?aeiia?aeiiai
??oaiiy, a a?ae oea?y — oeaco (n. 198-220).

Caaaeii oe?a?inueea aeiiii?ea, cie?aia ?? oi?aiaaeueia noa?a, c ii/aoeo
XVIII no. ? i?eaeecii aei 1714 ?. iaea a?eueo-iaio ni?eyoeea? oiiae.
Iaeiae iioiio, aiane?aeie cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oea?aoii iiiiiie?? ia i?iaeaae
iiiaae aeanyoe oiaa??a, iaiaaeaiiy aeey eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, nooe?eueia ii?ooaiiy i?aa ? aeaiae i?noeaaiai
eoiaoeoaa, ia??iaee/i? iia?aaoaaiiy eiai iineianueeeie oa iieuenueeeie
/eiiaieeaie, a?eueiiio aeiiii?/iiio ?nioaaiith Aaoueiaiueie aoei
iieeaaeaii e?ae. Iino?ei? ae iaiaaaiiy ?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai iie?ioeoe noai
ni?aa o oe?e noa?? yeui e aeaaaee iiceoeai? iane?aeee, oi eeoa ia
ei?ioeee /an. Aei oiai ae ia??aeei aiie iaee eieaeueiee oa?aeoa?.

? ana ae, caaaeath/e ia neeaaei? ianoaaeie, ca yeeo aeiaaeiny ae?yoe
aieiaea?th aoeaae, ianaiia?aae /a?ac aaeeeiaea?aeaaio oa ?ai?aneaio
iie?oeeo Iao?a ?, aeoia?ii, i?aaeeueiei aoaea oaa?aeaeaiiy: ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeee, ii??aiyii c? nai?ie iiia?aaeieeaie, i?iaiaeea /e ia
iaeaeoeai?oo ae?yeuei?noue uiaei caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueii? oi?a?ae?
(i?eiaeii? ca e?euee?noth ??ciiai ?iaeo a?aeiia?aeieo caoiae?a, nea?a,
“i?ioai?e” oiui).

A ia?o?e /aa?o? XVIII no. Aaoueiaiueia i?iaeiaaeoaaea caeeoaoeny
?aa?iiii, ui cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaa a?ae noaio ni?aa o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?. Iaiooaeoo?ia ae?iaieoeoai o?eueee-ii ii/eiaei iaae?aoe
oaiie. C iiaeyaeo aia?eeainueeiai i?ioani?a aeiiii?ee I. *e?ianueeiai,
?nioaaee aea? i?e/eie ia?aaaaeaiiy naia n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a
aeiiii?oe? e?ath — aaia?ao?/ia na?aaeiaeua e ?iicaiia aa?an?y. Ii-ia?oa,
aea?aeiino? aa?a?iiai naeoi?a ni?eyee iniaeeaa ?iaeth/?noue caie? oa
ni?eyoeeaee ee?iao. Ii-ae?oaa, aaee/aciee i?iieneiaee “iioaioe?ae
i?ia?ae?a, aia?a?? e i?aoe?” a Oe?a?i? ia i?a ?icaeaaoeny aiane?aeie
ciai?oiueiai ao?o/aiiy oa /a?ac ai?ii? oaeoi?e.

Aaeee? iaia?aaeaa/ai? aeo?aoe c A?enueeiaiai nea?ao eoee ia
e?ea?aeaoe?th iane?aee?a noeo?eieo eeo, iaa?iaea?a, iiaeaae, ai?aeai?e
oiui. Caoiaee, ye? noinoaaeeny ai?ioueae c ieie, oae /e ?iaeoa aoiaeeee
aei eiiiaoaioe?? aaoueiainueeiai i?aae?iiy. Aieiaea? aoeaae aeaaaa uiaei
oeueiai aaciina?aaei? aeac?aee a?aeiia?aeaeueiei iniaai, niia?uaa o
Iineao aai Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a ? io?eioaaa ca?aeoe ??ci? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy.
Oae, 1710—1711 ??. ?.Nei?iiaaenueeee aoa ciooaiee aaeeoe an?eyeeo
caoiae?a aeey oiai, uia eieae?coaaoe oa?eoi??th iioe?aiiy ai?aeai??
“ii?iai? ycae” a Ee?a?, *a?i?aia?, Ia?ayneaa?, Ninieoe? oa aaaaoueio
?ioeo ianaeaieo ioieoao, a oaeiae caaacia/eoe iinoa/aiiy oe?aa a ?aeiie,
eio?? iino?aaeaeaee a?ae iaaei?iaeo. I?e oeueiio ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui
i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c oaeeie e iiae?aieie eeoaie, ae??ooaaeeny ia
“ana?in?enueeiio” ??ai?. O noieeoeyo ?aoaeueii noaaeeee ca oei, uia
iioano? ia ia?aoeiaee ei?aeiie Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae (n.
224-227).

Aaaaoi nee oa aia?a??, eioo?a aeo?a/aa ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee ia aeaaiono??e
i?no ? i?noa/ie, aii?yaeeoaaiiy oeyo?a ? iiooe oiui. A aei anueiai
oeueiai aeiaeaaaeeny ua e eeiiioe, iia’ycai? c a?aei?aaeith ia aeiiao
oea?y oa eiai naiiaiee?a aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo iaeno??a ? i?aoe?aiee?a
aei ?in?? ia aoae?aieoeoai oa ?io? ?iaioe. I?ioyaii onueiai i?aae?iiy
aaoueiai ii?eoaaany ?ai?nieoeueeeie oeaoaie, ai?iiea ?o o ?ac? iio?aae
a?ae naaaie? aea?aeaaoe?a. Oaeiae iino?eii oe?eaaeany i?eaooeaie
i?nueeeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy, iniaeeai Ee?anueeiai iaa?no?aoo, c i?eaiaeo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue “aei ne?ei?” yeiai a?i aeaeaa iaa?oue ie?aiee oi?aa?nae
iieeia?e ? nioaii?e no?aoei?.

Ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai iaea aaciina?aaei?
a?aeiioaiiy aei ?noi??? ?icaeoeo iiooiai? ni?aae a Oe?a?i?. A?i caeiaany
iaeaaiaeaeaiiyi o?aeo?a, caaacia/oaaa ooieoe?iioaaiiy niaoe?aeueii
caoaeiaaieo aeey oeueiai noaioe?e, i?ecia/aa iiooiaeno??a. O
Aaoueiaiuei? i?e Aaia?aeuei?e a?enueeia?e oa iieeiaeo eaioeaey??yo
oo?eioaaee ie?aieo ?ica?ciee?a aea?aeaaii? ei?aniiiaeaioe?? e iineeie,
yeeo aeae?aee c-iii?ae eicae?a-i?aeiii?/iee?a. Iiooia? a?aeae?eee
?nioaaee ia aaaaoueio oeyoao, ui a ??cieo iai?yieao ?ica?aaeeny a?ae
?aceaeaioe?? a Aeooia?: ia Iieueuo, a E?ei, Neiaiaeaiueio, ?in?th ?
o.ae. Ca ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai neeaeeny e iia? iai?yiee, ii yeeo i?oea
ei?aniiiaeaioe?y. Iai?eeeaae, a?aeiiee oaeee oaeo. Iai?ee?ioe? 1708 ?.
Iao?i ? ia?aaoaaa o Iieoaa?. I?ioa iacaaa?ii iiia?o ieaioaaa ia?aaanoe
anth naith a?i?th aei Noi, aea oio?a ?ici?noeoe ooaa. Ioiae iiaiia?aiiio
aieiaea?aa? aoeaae aeiaaeiny caeiyoeny iaeaoooaaiiyi iiooe i?ae oeeie
i?noaie iaeaaeiiai ??aiy. O?aieyeiny, aaoueiai ciaia’ycoaaa i?noeaaeo
aea?aeaaoe?a ? aeooiaainoai niea/oaaoe iaaio noio a?ioae ia oo?eiaiiy
iiooe.

Aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?eya ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee caa?aaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueieo
ca?ieieo nee, ye? aoee ia eeoa aaaeeeaith iciaeith aea?aeaaiino?, aea e
iaaiei aa?aioii iacaeaaeiino? Aaoueiaiueie. *a?ac aacia?a?ai? a?eie, ui
?o aaea ?in?y, oa iaoooaaiiy Iao?a ? aeeooyi eicae?a iinoaea i?yia
caa?ica ?nioaaiith oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea. Eiee a?aooaaoe oie oaeo, ui
eiaeiiai ?aco o a?nueeiaiio iioiae? /e ia aoae?aieoeoa? eaiae?a aeioei a
na?aaeiueiio 30 a?aenioe?a, a oi e a?eueoa ai?caeaoieo aiye?a,
a?aeaoaaeiny oaeoe/ia ?ici?aiiy ?oi?o o/aniee?a, iania? iaaeaae? eiiae ?
aie?a, oi iiaeia oaa?aeeoe ia o?eueee i?i oe?eani?yiiaaiee i?ae?ea
oea?aoii aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie, a e i?i cae?eniaiiy iei
aaiioeeaeo uiaei i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy. Ii?yae c eicaeaie a?ae oai?ia ?
eae?oeoa /anoi aie?aee e iiniieeo?, eio?eo caeo/aee aei oaeeo caoiae?a
ye aeiiii?aeio ?iai/o neeo, aeei?enoiaoaaee ye iiaiie/?a ? o.ae. I?ae
e?iaoeue i?aae?iiy aaoueiai ?ic?iaea oe?eo i?ia?aio, uia oe?a?inueea
a?enueei oieeei inoaoi/ii? ?oeiaoe?? e ia?aaeaa ?? ia ?icaeyae aei
Naiaoo. I?ioa i?ney eiai nia?o? noaiiaeua a oeueiio aniaeo? ia ci?ieeiny
ia e?aua (n. 231-234).

Ae?ae iaaaoeai? iane?aeee aeey ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie iaei iino?eia
ia?aaoaaiiy ooo aaeeei? e?eueeino? oea?nueeeo a?enuee. Aeo?aoe,
iia’ycai? c ?iceaa?oe?oaaiiyi ? oo?eiaiiyi ?o, i?e?iaeii, eyaee ia
iiniieeoeo ? ?yaeiaeo eicae?a. Ia??aeei oea i?ecaiaeeei aei
iaii?icoi?iue ? nooe/ie i?ae a?enueeiaeie oa aeeoaeyie. Ia?iaiaioi?
caa?oaiiy aaoueiaia ineaaeoe oyaa? ia?aaoaaiiy a?enuee c ?in?? ia
ciaeoee i?aeo?eiee a iineianueeiai o?yaeo (i?aeoi /a?ac neeaaeio
caaaeueio neooaoe?th a aea?aeaa?). Cia/io i?iaeaio noaiiaeei e
caaacia/aiiy ?aoieo ethaeae i?aeaiaeaie. ?o ia??aeei ia iiaa?oaee, a oea
oneeaaeithaaei aaaeaiiy ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

1719 ?. aaoueiai, aaia?aeuei? noa?oeie oa iieeiaieee ??oo/a aenooieee
i?ioe caoiae?a anaaeaaeiiai oea?nueeiai oaai?eoa I. Iaioeeiaa,
ni?yiiaaieo ia oa, uia on? oe?a?ioe?, aeeth/ath/e e nioe?aeueio ae?oo,
iiai?noth acyee ia naaa caaacia/aiiy ?in?enueei? a?i?? ia oa?eoi???
?aa?iio. A ia?oo /a?ao, c?icoi?ei, a?aenoithaaeeny iiia?aaei? i?ea?ea?
aea?aeaaoe?a. Iaeiae ? iaaeae? iaei ui ci?ieeiny: ia?aaoaaiiy /oaeeo
a?enuee o Aaoueiaiuei? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ianeeuenoaaie ? ceiaaeeaaiiyie
?in?enueeiai io?oea?noaa, aaia?ae?oaoo oa naiiaiee?a. ?ici?uai? ii
oaoao, inoaii?, ye i?aaeei, aeiaaaee aeiaeaoeiai a?ae naeyi ? ?yaeiaeo
eicae?a na?/ie, iaeyao, oa?/?a, a eiiyi — n?ia oa a?ana, ? oea ua
a?eueoa ?ici?thaaei ainiiaea??a. Uii?aaaea, ii/eiath/e c 20-o ?ie?a
neoaia oo?eiaiiy “eiinenoaio?a” ooo iaaoea a?eueo onoaeaieo oi?i
(235-240).

Ia oie /an Iao?a ? caoiieea ?aeay ia?aoai?aiiy E?aiaa?aaeaey oa
Neiaiaeaiueie ia ?aa?iie ianiaiai ?icaaaeaiiy iaaoeue. A?i iaa iniaenoo
?iciiao c oeueiai i?eaiaeo c aieiaea?ai aoeaae, i?ae /an yei? aeaa ??ci?
aeac?aee, ye oea, ia eiai ?icnoae, e?aua c?iaeoe. Ia aaoueiaia
iieeaaeaeany a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?icooe ethaeae caeaoieo caaacia/eoe
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?a/a?ieo “caaiae?a”. Ni?aaa oey, cae/aeii, aoea aaaaoi
a /iio ei?eniith, iaeiae ?? ?aae?caoe?y ia?aaeaa/aea ia?aoai?aiiy
oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue ia i?eaeaoie ?in?? ii ?icaeoeo a?a/a?noaa, aieiaiei
/eiii, a?oaiaiaiiai. Noiaea iaee ia iao? e caoiaee oea?nueeiai o?yaeo,
ni?yiiaai? ia ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa i?yaeeaa a Aaoueiaiuei?, ui
cae?enithaaeeny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeacii a?ae 27 na?iiy 1721 ?. “I
?aciiiaeaiee a Iaeie ?innee aeia?ie iaiueee”. ?.Nei?iiaaenueeee aeey
oeueiai iaa i?ecia/eoe niaoe?aeueieo oiiaiiaaaeaieo c iieeiai? /e
ai?iaeiai? noa?oeie.

Aei eiiiaoaioe?? aeui? ca ?aiaii iniae a ?aa?ii? aoiaeeee ieoaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia eeoa oe?a?ioe?a, a e on?o ?iicaioe?a,
ye? ooo i?iaeeaaee. Iai?eeeaae, aaeeea oaaaa o oeueiio ieai?
i?eae?eyeanue a?aeai, a??iaiai, iieyeai oa ?ioei. Ie?aiei c ieo
iaaeaaaeeny cia/i? ia?niiaeuei? i?eueae.

sse na?ae/aoue aeaea?aea, c iaoith a?eueoiai aeei?enoaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue
aei A?enueeiaiai nea?ao ia iio?aae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeee aaeaaaany iaa?oue aei iaaiiai i?eoiaoaaiiy a?ae
iineianueeeo /eiiaiee?a ?ici???a i?eaooe?a. I?ioa ia aa?oi e
ia?aa?eueooaaoe eiai caneoae a aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. ?aaeueii
(ia oeueiio o?aaa iaaieineoe) /a?ac ??ci? ia’?eoeai? e noa’?eoeai?
oaeoi?e eiio aaeaeiny cae?enieoe ia oae oaea aaaaoi, oa e oi
caeaa?eueoiai a ?ioa?anao aea?aeaaieoeueei? ae?oe Aaoueiaiueie.

Cia/ia i?noea a ?icae?e? a?aeaaaeaii aiae?co iaeiiio c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
oiai/anieo ieoaiue o aeeoo? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae
— aeui? aeaaee ? iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei. Cie?aia aeieeaaeii
iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ia??iae aaoueiainoaa
?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai noaa nai???aeiei aoaiii o ia?a?iciiae?e? caiaeueii?
aeaniino?. Eiai aa?a?ia iie?oeea iii?oii ni?eyea i?ioeano
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy caiaeueieo aaaaonoa o oi?i? niaaeeiai? aeaniino? ca
?aooiie nei?i/aiiy ia?oe?a, ui iaaeaaaeeny a oei/aniaa aea?aeaiiy.
Iaaaaaoi /ano?oa, i?ae eiai iiia?aaeieee, a?i, ia??aeei noi?ioe aeaniiai
aaaeaiiy, aeaeoaaa naiiaiee?a c ?in?? oa ?iicaioe?a. Oaeoe/ii ca iueiai
aoei “?icii?ioaii” iniiaiee caiaeueiee oiiae Aaoueiaiueie, a ?aiaiaa
aieiae?iiy, a oiio /ene? e “aaoueiainueeiai aeinoi?inoaa”, ii/aei
aeoeaii cieeaoe. Oeyoii ?icaea/? eicaoeueei? caie? ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee
iaeiei c ia?oeo aieiaea??a aoeaae iaoiiaea ia?aoai?aiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
ii??aiyii a?eueiiai a?enueeiaiai noaio ia caeaaeieo iiniieeoeo (o
iaeaooiueiio e??iinieo). Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a?i o nai?o oi?aa?naeao
i?iaeiaaeoaaa iieeeeaoeny ia cae/a? a oea?ei? iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei,
canoiniaoaaa Eeoianueeee Noaooo, ii?ie Iaaaeaao?a??, “aeaai? i?e?iaei?
i?aai”, ana i/aaeaei?oa a caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao aaoiiii?? aeyaeyany aieea
?in?enueeeo caeii?a. *ano?oa, i?ae aei oeueiai, th?eaee/i? aeoe ii/aee
i?aei?iyoe i?yi? aeac?aee /e iiaaaeaiiy nthca?aia oa naiiaiee?a c ?in??,
/ei ii?oooaaeeny, a oi e ?oeioaaeeny o?aaeeoe?? iicaiaeueieo noinoie?a
ia oa?eoi??? E?aiaa?aaeaey, ui ioi?ieeeny ua ca /an?a Iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aaiethoe?? e Aecaieueii? a?eie na?aaeeie XVII no. (n. 262-266).

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? — “Ci?ie a nioe?aeueieo a?aeiineiao” —
noa?aeoa?eciaaia aioo??oiy iie?oeea ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai noiniaii noai?a,
c yeeo neeaaeaeiny noni?euenoai Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae
ia?oi? /aa?o? XVIII no. Cie?aia anoaiiaeaii, ui ca eiai i?aae?iiy ia
oa?eoi??? ?aa?iio “iineooainoai” ia ie?aieo in?a aai aea?aeaao a oe?eiio
aeeiioaaee iiniieeo? oaeoe/ii an?o eaoaai??e (a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVII
no. ?o aoei cia/ii iaioa). Iiaei yaeuai noaei ianiaa caeo/aiiy aei
iueiai eicae?a, ye? th?eaee/ii aaaaeaeeny a?eueieie ethaeueie. Ianya ?
oi?ie ?aioe caeaa?eueoiai ia aoee noaeeie: aaoueiai neaniaoaaa ?? iaei?
aeaee aai ai?iaaaeaeoaaa iia?. ?ici??e oa oa?aeoa? iiai??a aaaaoi a /iio
aecia/aee i?noeaa? i?e?iaei? oiiae, iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?
aaciina?aaei?o ae?iaiee?a, ye? iio?aieee a iniaenoo /e iicaiaeueio
caeaaei?noue. A inoaii? ?iee aeeooy oa ae?yeueiino? ?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai
iaoo?aeueio e a?ae?ia?oeiao ?aioo ii/aee iinooiiai “aeo?niyoe”
(cai?ithaaoe) a?ioia? cai?e, ui iaoiiaethaaee a?aeiia?aei?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? c?ooaiiy a e?a?i?.

Iaea?eueo aenieoaoiaaiith /anoeiith iiniieeoeo aoee naeyie oa i?uaie
i?eaaoieo, iiianoe?nueeeo ? ?aiaiaeo ia?oiinoae. Iaoeaioe?
iaa?no?aonueeeo, ?aoooieo, a?eueieo a?enueeiaeo aieiae?iue, a oaeiae ia
neiaiaeao th?eaee/ii ia iaeaaeaee i?eaaoiei iniaai, oiio-oi aeeiioaaee
iiaeiiino? aeaui a iaioeo ianyaao, iaee a?eueoa iiaeeeainoae aeey
ia?aoiae?a ia iia? i?noey iaoeaiiy. I?ioa noiniaii iiniieeoeo on?o
eaoaai??e aaoueiai i?iaiaeea iie?oeeo, ni?yiiaaio ia iinooiiaa
i?ee??ieaiiy ?o aei caie? iiaeiiaeaaeoe?a. Iniaeeai oea i?iyaeeiny ia
ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a (n. 276-288).

Caeo/aiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe: c naiiai ii/aoeo
i?aae?iiy ?.Nei?iiaaenueeee aeiiaaaany cia/ii? iacaeaaeiino? noa?oei o
a?enueeiaeo ni?aaao a?ae ?in?enueeeo ai?aiae ? aaia?ae?a. Oio?a, uia
eicae?a, e??i ?oiueiai aaciina?aaeiueiai iaia’yceo — neoaeae, i? a ye?
i?eaaoi? “oneoae” i?ooi ia i?eioooaaa. Ua 1709 ?. a?i aenooiea ca
“eicaoeueeo aieuei?noue”. Naia oiae? aieiaea? aoeaae iaaaaeeany caoeuaoe
nai?o i?aeeaaeeo iaa?oue ia?aae aeueie naiiaieeaie ?in??. Oae,
ii?eoth/enue ?iiainueeeie noa?oeiaie, a?i i?eionea ei. Ae. Aie?oeeia
io?oe?eii aeaa/eoeny ca ooenee iaae oeie (1710). Aaoueiainueeeie
oi?aa?naeaie a eaoaai?e/i?e oi?i? caai?iiyeiny aoaeue-eiio c?
noa?oeinueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? /e i?eaaoieo in?a ao?o/aoeny o aioo??oi?
ni?aae aea?aeaaoey ia oa?eoi??? eiai ia?oea, “/eieoe ia?aoeiaee,
ia?aiiie e o?oaeiinoe”. ?noioiei noaiiaei i?ea?ea?i noa?oei ? oeyooe/?a,
ye? noaiiaeee aeanue onueiai 1% a?ae ianaeaiiy, aoei ?oi? iiaia
ca?eueiaiiy a?ae aea?aeaaieo iiaeiiinoae ? iiai??a. Aiie iaee oe?ie?
iiaeeeaino? a i?iieneia?e ? oi?aiaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?. Oeyooe/?a ?
noa?oei noai?i caai?iiyeiny “ii?aaiuaoue” ? ia?aaiaeeoe ia noaoon
caeaaeieo iiniieeoeo. Iniaeeai ieeueii ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee noaaeea ca
aeio?eiaiiyi caeiiiino? a iicaiaeueieo ni?aaao i?ae iiaeiiaeaaeoeyie,
oi/ nai ?? ia??aeei ii?oooaaa o nai?o ?ioa?anao (n. 290-297).

*anoi aaoueiai a?aa o naith iniaeeao “iai?iio” e i?ioaeoe?th iaaieo
in?a, iaa?oue oeo c ieo, ooi nei?a cei/ei. Oiio o? noaaaee ia
i?aeaeaaeieie aeey noaeae?a. O aeiaaeeao, eiee noa?oeia a?aeiiaeyany
aeeiioaaoe ??oaiiy noaeo, oi ciiao ao?o/aany a?i, ye ethaeeia, ui
ioniaethaaea aeuo aeaaeo.

Ca ?yaeiaeie eicaeaie, ye noa?oeiaie ? oeyooe/aie, caeiiiaeaa/i aoee
cae??ieai? i?aaa ia niaaeeiaa caieaaieiae?iiy, a?eueiee
i?iaeaae-eoi?aeth ae?eyiie, aeaeea?aoeaii i?iaieiooaaeanue noaiiaa
iacaeaaei?noue (ia a?aei?io a?ae iiniieeoeo). I?aaaea, ?oi? caeiii?
i?ea?ea?, ye aaea cacia/aeiny aeua, iiaeiiaeaaeoe? iino?eii ii?oooaaee.
Iacaaaeath/e ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a “noaooyo” 1722 ?. “aeaaiueiai”
th?eaee/iiai noaoono eicaoeoaa, i?aeoe/ia noaiiaeua eiai a?eueoino? iaei
/ei ??cieeiny a?ae naeyinueeiai /e i?uainueeiai. Oae, 1717 ?.
?.Nei?iiaaenueeee ciaia’ycaa eicae?a I?einueei? nioi? aeeiioaaoe 1/3
/anoeio “iineooainoaa” oaioaoi?o i?aeaeaieo. Oiaoi iiaa aaea eoea eeoa
i?i iaioee ianya iiaeiiinoae, aae i?ye ia i?i nioe?aeuei? i?ea?ea?.

Ia ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a (iaia?aaeiaei? niao?? aieiaea?y aoeaae) Iao?i ?,
caoe?eaaeaiee a iaeneiaeueiiio aeei?enoaii? iaeaea aea?iiai? a?enueeiai?
neee oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, aei?o/ea i?aceaeaioo Iaei?in?enueei?
eieaa?? N. Aaeueyi?iiao aeaui iie?ioeoe eiai noaiiaeua. E??i oiai, a?i
aeiaaaa a?ae noa?oei ? ?in?enueeeo iii?uee?a iaiaei?iii iia?aeiieyoe i?i
“cae??ia/aieo” ieie eicae?a ? ca?eueiyoe inoaii?o. I?ioa ci?i ia e?aua a
oeueiio aniaeo? ia noaeiny.

I?eioeeiiai ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aaoueiainoai ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai noaei
nai???aeiei “i?eii” caaaa/aiiy oa iiaooiino? aeey oe?a?inueeeo
i?aaineaaieo iiianoe??a. I?ney iueiai ii/aeeny cia/i? iaiaaeaiiy
i?ea?ea?a aeooiaainoaa oa naeoey?ecaoe?y caiaeue i?noeaai? oea?eae.

Iiaei o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ? iiaeyae ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai a aaeoc? iaoe?iiaeueiiai noaei/einoaa. Oe?a?inueeee
i?aaiee I. E?noye?anueeee, aiooth/e aei aeaeaiiy ?oeiien aeaeaoii?
th?eaee/ii? iai’yoee “I?aaa, ii eioi?ui noaeeony iaei?inneeneee
ia?iae…” (1879), ni?iaoaaa iaa?oiooaaoe oaco, i?ae ia?o? iai??e
neeanoe ca??iee ii?i iiaaae?iee aeey ianaeaiiy Aaoueiaiueie oa eiai
ia?aeeaae ia “aaeeei?in?enueeo” iiao ne?ae a?aeianoe aei aaoueiaioaaiiy
Ae.Aiinoiea oa oea?thaaiiy Iao?a ??. Noiaeo aeoieo caiaeii i?aeo?eiaee e
?io? aeine?aeieee. Aiia oaeoe/ii noaea caaaeueiiaeciaiith. O?eueee
I.Eaca?aanueeee caia?a/ea: ia?aeeaae, eiee ? ia caiaeo caeii?a, oi i?aa
iaei?in?enueeeo ii/aoi ca ?i?oe?aoeae ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai ca ??e aei
eiai nia?o?. Iieiaeaiiy i?i cia/io ?ieue inoaiueiai a oeueiio aniaeo? e
iaa?oioiaaii ia noi??ieao aeena?oaoe??. Cie?aia aeiaaaeaii, ui
iaiao?aei?noue ia?aeeaaeo ca??ieea ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a aeey oe?ieiai
canoinoaaiiy na?aae i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy o aieiaea?y aoeaae ia aeeeeeaea
noii?a?a. A?i aaaaeaa oeth ni?aao nai?th i?a?iaaoeaith.

“Cai?ioa” ae?yeuei?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai noaei/einoaa, c?icoi?ei, Iao?i
?. Nii/aoeo oie iineaa 14 eenoiiaaea 1721 ?. aaoueiaio “a?aiioo” uiaei
canioaaiiy a Aeooia? i?aeii?yaeeiaaiei ?in?enueeei naiiaieeai
a?enueeiai? e noaeiai? eaioeaey??e. A 29 ea?oiy 1722 ?., caeioaaoeaoe
an?o noaeae?a Aaoueiaiueie o ceiaaeeaaiiyo, i?aeaiooaaa a?oio aeey ua
a?eueoi? ?oiuei? caeaaeiino? a?ae aie? Iineae. Iacaaa?ii aieiaiei
noaeaeath a Oe?a?inueeo eicaoeueeo aea?aeaao i?ecia/aii N.Aaeueyi?iiaa
(n. 310-313).

Iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea ocaiaeaeai?noue
aaoueiainueei? aeaaee ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaiiaaaeaiue Aaia?aeueii?
a?enueeiai? eaioeaey??? — aeui? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? onoaiiae c /ano
ooai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae. Aaia?aeueia a?enueeiaa
eaioeaey??y, oae naii ye ? ?aceaeaioe?y aieiaea?y aoeaae, ci?ieea
e?eueea i?no: *eae?ei, Aaaey/, Aaoo?ei, Aeoo?a. O i?e aoei cina?aaeaeaii
an? aaaeae? ia eeoa oi?aae?iiy iaoe?iiai ?aa?iio, a e noaei/einoaa.
Iaeiae aiia cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaea a?ae aie? aaoueiaia e i? ia?aae
eei ia ca?ooaaea ca naith ae?yeuei?noue, ie??i iueiai. Eiee ae ea?iaie/
aoa a?aenooi?e, iai?eeeaae, o a?enueeiaiio iioiae?, ?? aeu? o?yaeiaoe?
i?aaeee a?ae eiai ?iai?. I?aaaea, a noaeiaeo ni?aaao inoaoi/ia ??oaiiiy,
ye i?aaeei, iaeaaeaei aaia?aeueiiio noaeae? (caeaa?eueoiai a?i ia
cai?iooaaany ia can?aeaiiy eaioeaey???, a ae?ya aaoiiiiii). Aaoueiai
ia??aeei iniaenoi aecia/aa, eiio c aaia?aeueieo noa?oei iaiao?aeii
i?eaooe ia /a?aia? cai?e /eai?a oe??? onoaiiae. Aeiyoie noaiiaea eeoa
aaia?aeueiee iena?, i?enooi?noue yeiai aoea iaia’yceiaith.

Caaaeii aei eiiiaoaioe?? onoaiiae aoiaeeee aea?aeaai? e a?enueeia?
ni?aae, a oaeiae onyeiai ?iaeo “/ieiaeoi?”, ui noinoaaeeny aieiaii
Aaoueiaiueie aai ianaeaiiy noi?aeieo c iath oa?eoi??e. Aaia?aeueiee
iena? iaa a?ae?aco niia?noeoe i?i ieo ea?iaie/a, a oie — iaeeanoe
a?aeiia?aeio ?aciethoe?th uiaei ?oiueiai ?icaeyaeo e ae??oaiiy. Eiee aei
eaioeaey??? iaaeoiaeeee “/enoi” noaeia? cayae, oi c iaeaco aaoueiaia
aiie ia?aneeaeeny aei noaeo iaeaaeii? eaoaai??? (a caeaaeiino? a?ae
cia/ouino?) — aaia?aeueiiai, iieeiaiai /e nioaiiiai.

?aoi?ie Iao?a ? uiaei E?aiaa?aaeaey ia ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a ia?aoai?eee
Aaia?aeueio a?enueeiao eaioeaey??th ia i?aai aeoaea “ianeaii?” oi?ie
oi?aae?iiy. A i?ney ?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai a?ae ia? a?ae?a?aii o?iainiao e
noaeiao ooieoe??.

Ua a?eueo a?aceeaei o?yae ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai, a neooaoe?th ia
i?aeii?yaeeiaai?e eiio oa?eoi??? ianoaa?euei?oith, ?iaeee ??ci? i?iyae
ianiaeo i?ioano?a. Oea aeaaaei caeaee i?ea?ae aeuei naiiaieeai ?in??
aeey ia?iaiaioiiai ao?o/aiiy o aioo??oi? ni?aae Aaoueiaiueie.

Ca iaoei ia?aeiiaiiyi, aeey aeeaoiai ona?aeiieaiiy e iiai?oiai
aena?oeaiiy oaie, aecia/aii? a aeena?oaoe??, aeioe?eueii aoei oaeiae
?icaeyiooe (a?aeiia?aeii aei eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue, noi?ioeueiaaieo
aaoi?ii ia ii/aoeo aeine?aeaeaiiy) aniaeoe, iia’ycai? c
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iei ?icaeoeii Aaoueiaiueie a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o —
60-o ?ieao XVIII no. Oaeee i?aeo?ae, aeoia?oueny, aeicaieea c?iaeoe
cia/ii oe?o? ocaaaeueiaiiy, a oaeiae a?aeiia?noe ia i?eioeeiia? ieoaiiy:
iiia?oa, iane?eueee ae?yeuei?noue ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai aeeaeany a iniiai?
oaiaeaioe?? an??? aaiethoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaee a iaaeao ?in?enueei?
aea?aeaae, ii/eiath/e a?ae A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai ? e?i/ath/e E.
?icoiianueeei; ii-ae?oaa, /e ciaeoee eiai ?aea? oa eiioeaioe?? uiaei
oi?aae?iiy e?a?i iaaia ao?eaiiy a caoiaeao ianooiieo aieiaea??a aoeaae.

Aiae?c eiie?aoiiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe, ui a
ia?o?e /aa?o?, oae naii ye ? na?aaeei? XVIII no., ?nioaaee ? aeiaaaee
naiai ae??oaiiy noiae? i?iaeaie a ieai? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ono?ith
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. E. ?icoiianueeiio aaeaeiny ia aeayeee /an
a?aeiiaeoe aei iaaii? i??e iie?oe/iee noaoon o ?aa?ii?, ui ?nioaaa
iaia?aaeiaei? aeai??a aieiaea?ai aoeaae ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai. I?ioa, ia
aeeeeea? noii?ao, ui aeiaeiee c o?ueio inoaii?o aaoueiai?a aaea ia i?a
i?ioeae?yoe aioeoe?a?inuee?e iie?oeoe? aaniethoenonueei? iiia?o?? a
?in??, ci?ieoe caaaeueiee o?ae aaiethoe?? (cieeiaiiy) aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
a Aaoueiaiueie (n. 324-334)..

O aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioethaai?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeianai? ia caoeno:

— aaoueiainueea aeaaea ia ii/aoeo i?aae?iiy ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai iaea
aeineoue oe?ie? iie?oeei-aaei?i?no?aoeai? e aeiiii?/i? iiaiiaaaeaiiy,
ye? na?ae/eee i?i iayai?noue oe?a?inueeiai aaoiiiiiiai ooai?aiiy o
neeaae? ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae;

— anoia?a/ aaaaoueii iaaaoeaiei ioe?ieai, ui iathoue i?noea ia noi??ieao
i?aoeue ie?aieo ?noi?ee?a uiaei ae?yeueiino? ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai,
a?aenoith?oueny i?eioeeiiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea eiai ye iaia?an?/ii? iniae a
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

— ia??oioiao?oueny aeoiea i?i oa, ui oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
iiaeyae?a ?.Nei?iiaaenueeiai i?ieoei e?eueea aoai?a ? noaeiny i?ae
i?yiei aieeaii ea?iaie/?a E?aiaa?aaeii? Aaoueiaiueie ?. Naiieeiae/a oa
?. Iacaie. ?acii c oei o nai?e i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? a ?aic? aieiaea?y
aoeaae a?i, a?aenoithth/e “aeaai?” i?aaa ? aieueiino? oe?a?ioe?a,
iineeaany ia ii?iaoeai? aeoe, i?eeiyo? A. Oiaeueieoeueeei;

— iaoiaee aaoueiaia a ni?aa? caa?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? iaee aieiaii
ianeai? oi?i?: ienueiia? /e oni? i?ioanoe oa i?ioaiiy. A?i iniaenoi, ia
a?aei?io a?ae A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai, ?.Aeaianueeiai, I.Aei?ioaiea, ?.
Iacaie oa aeayeeo ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a ae?oai? iieiaeie
XVII—XVIII no., ia aa/ea iiaeeeaino? ?nioaaiiy Aaoueiaiueie iica neeaaeo
?in?enueei? aea?aeaae;

— ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee aenooiaa ye i?eioeeiiaee i?ioeaiee aoaeue-yeeo
oa?eoi??aeueieo a?ae/oaeaiue a?ae E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ?acii c Ee?aii ?
Ee?aueiith, i?aaioa ?o ia’?aeiaiiy c on?i I?aaiaa?aaeaeyi ? anoaiiaeaiiy
/?oeeo aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a;

— iacaaaeath/e ia aioeoe?a?inueeo iie?oeeo oea?nueeiai o?yaeo, aaoueiai
i?iaiaeea (oi/a ? aeineoue iaiaaeaio ?c c?icoi?eeo i?e/ei) iino?eio
ciai?oith iie?oeeo, a ye?e, aacia?a/ii, aei iaaii? i??e i?inoaaeoaaeeny
oaiaeaioe??, caii/aoeiaai? A. Oiaeueieoeueeei;

— a?i aecia/eany ye ai?eee ai?ia/aeueiee, aeia?a ia?ciaiee c no/anieie
eiio iaoiaeaie ? oaeoeeith aaaeaiiy aith. Oaeoe/ii an? ciai?oi? oaeoi?e
ca oiia a?ei /e iioiae?a, ui iaee aaciina?aaei? /e iiina?aaeeiaaia
a?aeiioaiiy aei Aaoueiaiueie, ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee i?aaioa iiaa?iooe ia
ei?enoue nai?? e?a?ie;

— a iie?oeoe? aieiaea?y aoeaae yne?aai i?iyaeeeny iaiaaaiiy i?eie?eoe
??ci?, /anii iiiceoe?ei?, a?oie aea?aeaaieoeueei? ae?oe, Caii?iaeaey c
Aeooiaei ? Iineaith, ui ca oeo ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo ianoaaei
cae?enieoe aoei iaiiaeeeai;

— iacaaaeath/e ia iinooiiaa iaiaaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? aeaaee c aieo oea?aoo,
aioo??oiy ae?yeuei?noue ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai ioiiethaaea an? noa?e
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae. Io?eioth/e
aaeee? i?eaooe? aei A?enueeiaiai nea?ao, a?i cia/i? eiooe aeeaaeaa ia
?icaoaeiao e?a?ie (aeaaiono??e i?no, aoae?aieoeoai oeyo?a ? iiianoe??a,
?icaeoie iiooe oiui). ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee, ye i?ooi c e?aiaa?aaeieo
aaoueiai?a, i?aaioa a?aenoiyoe i?noeaa? ca?iei? neee oa o?iainiao
nenoaio, ni?eya ?icaeoeia? i?noeaai? oi?a?ae?;

— a ?noi??? Aaoueiaiueie ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee ia?oee aaeea caoiae?a,
ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaioiaeo ca??ee caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a aeey oe?iei?
noaeiai? i?aeoeee, ciaia’ycaa a?aeiia?aeieo /eiiaiee?a i?aai?coaaoe
ia?aeeaae i?aa c iieuenueei? ia oe?a?inueeo iiao;

— a ia?o?e /aa?o? XVIII no. iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo
a?aeiinei ? iineeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai aeceneo, ia ye? iii?oii aieeaaea
e??iinieoeueea iie?oeea ?in?enueei? iiia?o??, cia/ii i?enei?eee
c?inoaiiy aaeeei? caiaeueii? aeaniino? — iniiae oiae?oi?o ae?iaie/eo
aca?iei. 1708—1722 ??. noaee iniaeeaei ? ia?aeiiiei aoaiii o ??
ia?a?iciiae?e?;

— aenooiath/e ca caa?aaeaiiy eicaoeueeiai ono?ith, aaoueiai ?acii c oei
noaa ia?oei c ea?iaie/?a E?aiaa?aaeaey, ooi io?oe?eii ii/aa
ia?aoai?thaaoe i?aaenoaaiee?a ii??aiyii a?eueiiai a?enueeiaiai noaio ia
caeaaeieo iiniieeoeo;

— ia aaoueiaioaaiiy ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai i?eiaa “i?e” o caaaa/aii? e
iiaooiino? oe?a?inueeeo i?aaineaaieo iiianoe??a, ca yeei ?icii/aeeny
iinooiiaa naeoey?ecaoe?y oea?eiaii? caiaeueii? aeaniino? e iineaaeaiiy
aeaaee aeooiaainoaa;

— io?oe?eia e?ea?aeaoe?y aaoueiainueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?inuee?e
eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa? Iao?ii ? ia?aaaaeii iaea noa’?eoeaiee oa?aeoa? ?
ia aoea iaoiiaeaia aioo??oi?i nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii ?aa?iio.
Oeae aeo ia neanoaaa iiai?noth iciaee aea?aeaaiino? a E?aiaa?aaei?e
Oe?a?i?.

A aeiaeaoeao aecia/ai? iaeaaaeeea?o? aeaoe a aeeoo? oa ae?yeueiino? ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai (?c cacia/aiiyi noii?aieo, oaeeo, ui iio?aaothoue
ooi/iaiiy ? anoaiiaeaieo aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii), a oaeiae iniiai?
ianaeaii? ioieoe oa /an ia?aaoaaiiy a ieo aaoueiaia.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO IAOEIAEO I?AOeUe

1. Oe?a?inueea eicaoeueea aea?aeaaa a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVII—XVIII no.:
ei?aeiie, ianaeaiiy, i?aai. — E.: Iniiae, 1996. — 224 n.

2. Aaoueiai ?aai Nei?iiaaenueeee. — E.: ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie, 1998. — 207 n.

3. Eeane — noaie oa ?o aaiethoe?y ia E?aiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? a ia??iae
i?ciueiai oaiaeae?cio // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae, 1985. — ?3. —
N. 71-80.

4. Iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo oi?a?ae? ? i?noeaaeo ?eie?a ia
Oe?a?i? o XVIII no. // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae, 1986. — ?8. — N.
17-18.

5. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ooai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie (XVIII
no.) // Ia?iaeia oai?/?noue oa aoiia?ao?y, 1988. — ?1. — N. 28-38.

6. Ci?ie a nioe?aeuei?e no?oeoo?? naeyinoaa E?aiaa?aaeii? e
Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie o XVIII no. // ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy.
A?o/eciyia ?noi??y. — E., 1989. — Aei. 15. — N. 70-76.

7. Aeaeueoee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeiino? ? iinooiiaa ia?a?inoaiiy
?? o ao?aeoacio iaoe?th (ae?oaa iieiaeia XVII—XVIII no.) // ?aaeyinueea
oeiea, 1990. — ?1. — N. 22-26.

8. ?icaeoie aeaiaio?a eai?oae?cio a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, aa?a?ieo
a?aeiineiao ? i?iieneiaino? oa ?o aieea ia aeiiii?/io ni?euei?noue
ia?iaeiino? // Oe?a?inueea ia?iaei?noue: ia?ene nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
? aoiiiie?oe/ii? ?noi???. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1990. — N. 165-176.

9. Oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? oa?eoi??? o XVIII no. Ci?ie a
ia?iaeiianaeaii? // Oe?a?inueea ia?iaei?noue: ia?ene
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ? aoiiiie?oe/ii? ?noi???. — N. 98-109.

10. Ci?oeiaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a — aaaeeeaa oiiaa ia?a?inoaiiy
ia?iaeiino? a ao?aeoacio iaoe?th // Oe?a?inueea ia?iaei?noue: ia?ene
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ? aoiiiie?oe/ii? ?noi???. — N. 176-189.

11. ?aai Nei?iiaaenueeee // ?noi??y Oe?a?ie a iniaao IX—XVIII no. — E.:
Oe?a?ia, 1993. — N. 359-365.

12. I?aai a Oe?a?inuee?e eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa? (ae?oaa iieiaeia
XVII—XVIII no.) — E.: ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, 1994. — 48
n.

13 ?aai Nei?iiaaenueeee // Aieiaea?? aaoueiainueei? aoeaae. — E.: Aa?oa,
1994. — N. 403-417.

14. Aaiethoe?y nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e naeyinoaa E?aiaa?aaeii? oa
Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie (ae?oaa iieiaeia XVII—XVIII no.). — E.: ?inoeooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, 1994. — 107 n.

15. Aea?aeaai? ei?aeiie Oe?a?ie oa ?o iinooiiaa e?ea?aeaoe?y iai?ee?ioe?
XVII—XVIII no. // ?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai na?aaeiueia?//y: eicaoeueea
aeiaa. Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue: O 2-o /. — E., 1995. — *. 1. — N. 50-71.

16. Caeiaooee ? ao?aoe nithco c oea?yie // ?noi??y Oe?a?ie: iiaa
aa/aiiy: O 2-o o. — E.: Oe?a?ia, 1995. — O. 1. — N. 219-244.

17. Aaoueiai ?aai Nei?iiaaenueeee ? caii?iaeoe? (1708—1722 ??.) //
Caii?icueea eicaoeoai a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi???, eoeueoo?? oa
iaoe?iiaeuei?e naiina?aeiiino?. Iao-ee i?aei. iaoe. eiio. — Ee?a —
Caii??aeaey, 1997. — N. 87-102.

18. E?ea?aeaoe?y eicaoeueei? aea?aeaaiino? // ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — E.:
Aeueoa?iaoeae, 1997. — N. 114-125.

19. sse caii?iaeoe? a Iao?a ? “aieueiino?” aeai?thaaee // Ee?anueea
Noa?eia, 1997. — ?5. — N. 12-23.

20. Ieaoe?anueea N?/ (1711—1728 ??.) // Eicaoeuee? N?/? (ia?ene c
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa XVI—XIX no.). — Ee?a — Caii??aeaey,
1998. — N. 132-148.

21. Iie?oe/iee ii?o?ao aaoueiaia ?aaia Nei?iiaaenueeiai //
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueia a?eia oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo na?aaeeie XVII no.:
iie?oeea, ?aeaieia?y, a?enueeiaa ienoaoeoai. — E.: Aaiaca, 1998. — N.
161-175.

22. A?enueeiaa ae?yeuei?noue aaoueiaia ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai (1708—1722
??.) // Noi??iee ai?iii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Ca. iaoe. noaoae. — Aei. 2. —
E.: ?inoeooo ?no??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. N. 77-102.

23.Aaoueiai ?aai Nei?iiaaenueeee // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae,
1998. — ?6. — N. 77-102.

24. Iniiai? aoaie aeeooy ? oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a
?aaia Nei?iiaaenueeiai // ?noi??y Oe?a?ie, 1999. — ?7 (119). — N. 5.

25. Aaoueiai ?. Nei?iiaaenueeee — iie?oe/iee ae?y/ // ?noi??y Oe?a?ie,
1999. — ?12 (124). — N. 1-3.

AIIOAOe??

Ao?ae?e I. ?. Aaoueiainueea aeaaea a Oe?a?inuee?e eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa?
ia?oi? /aa?o? XVIII no. (ia i?eeeaae? ae?yeueiino? ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai).
— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aeine?aeaeaiiyi
ooieoe?e aaoueiainueei? aeaaee ia oa?eoi??? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ui
aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae ca oea?thaaiiy Iao?a ?. O
i?aoe? aena?oeaii ieoaiiy i?i oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aea? aeui?
ca ?aiaii iniae a Aaoueiaiuei?. C’yniaaii yeeie iaoiaeaie aieiaea?
aoeaae i?aaioa caa?aaoe aaoiiii?th aaeeeiai ?aa?iio oa eiai oe?e?ni?noue
o oa?eoi??aeueiiio a?aeiioaii?. Oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aioo??oiy oa ciai?oiy
iie?oeea aaoueiaia ?. Nei?iiaaenueeiai ca oyaeeeo oioae?oa?ieo oiia
?in?enueei? iiia?o??, eiai o/anoue o a?eiao ? iioiaeao ia /ie?
eicaoeueeeo iiee?a i?ioe iiaeiiaeaaeoe?a Iieueu?, Oo?a//eie, E?einueeiai
oainoaa oa Oaaoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa eiioeaioe?y ioe?iee iinoao? ?.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai ye aea?aeaaiiai ? a?enueeiai ae?y/a a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Oe?a?inueea eicaoeueea aea?aeaaa, aaoueiai, iie?oe/ia
aeaaea, nioe?aeueia ae?oa, noni?euei? noaie, aaoiiii?y.

Hurzhiy O. I. Hetman authority in Ukrainian Cossack State in the first
quarter of XVIII century (on the example of I. Skoropads’kyj activity).
— Manuscript.

Thesis for Doctor’s of History Degree on speciality 07.00.01 — History
of Ukraine. — Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine. — Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis is the first, in domestic historiography, investigation of
the Hetman authority functions on the territory of Ukrainian lands,
which were in the structure of Russian state in reign of Peter I. The
problems of forming the public idea of supreme official person in Hetman
orb are elucidated in the paper. It is cleared up the methods by means
of which the Master of mace aspired to preserve the autonomy and
territorial integrity of the vast region. The domestic and foreign
policy of Hetman I. Skoropads’kyj in severe totalitarian conditions of
Russian monarchies, his participation in wars and campaigns at the head
of Cossack regiments against magnates of Poland, Turkey, Crimean Khanate
and Sweden is characterized. A new conception for the appreciation of
I.Skoropads’kyj’s personality as a politician and military man in the
history of Ukraine is suggested.

Key words: Ukrainian Cossack State, Hetman, Political Autority, Sonial
Elite, Public Estate, Autonomy.

Ao?aeee A. E. Aaoiaineay aeanoue a Oe?aeineii eacaoeeii ainoaea?noaa
ia?aie /aoaa?oe XVIII a. (ia i?eia?a aeayoaeueiicoe E. Nei?iiaaeneiai).
— ?oeiienue.

Aeenca?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Einoeooo enoi?ee Oe?aeiu
Iaoeeiiaeueiie Aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu. — Eeaa, 1999.

Ee/iinoue aaoiaia E. Nei?iiaaeneiai aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie inoaaaeanue
iaaeinoaoi/ii enneaaeiaaia a ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie enoi?eia?aoee.
A iae i?aiaeaaeaee noauaeoeaii-iaaaoeaiua ioeaiee aai
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A ?aaioa aea aia?aua
inouanoaeaia ananoi?iiiyy oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaeaiey iaeaaeaoaey aoeaau
Oe?aeiu ia iniiaaiee aeoaieiai aiaeeca aeieoiaioia oiai ia?eiaea, a
oaeaea eco/aiey aioo?aiiae neooaoeee a no?aia neaicue i?ecio aiaoieo
oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua aa iaoneaaeeaaee. Niaoeeaeueii inaauai aniaeo i
oi?ie?iaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae aunoae ii ?aiao ia?niiu a
Aaoiaiueia. Iieacaii eaeeie iaoiaeaie E. Nei?iiaaeneee no?aieeny
nio?aieoue aaoiiiieth aieueoiai ?aaeiia e aai oeaeinoiinoue a
oa??eoi?eaeueiii ioiioaiee. Aiaeece?oaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
aeayoaeueiinoue aaoiaia a oyaeaeuo oioaeeoa?iuo oneiaeyo oea?ecia,
o/anoea a aieiao e iioiaeao ai aeaaa eacaoeeeo iieeia i?ioea aaeueiiae
Iieueoe, Oo?oeee, E?uineiai oainoaa e Oaaoeee. Inaauaiu o?aae/aneea
no?aieoeu acaeiiioiioaiee E. Nei?iiaaeneiai, Iao?a ? e caii?iaeoeaa.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaeaaeaoaey aoeaau
/aoei i?ineaaeeaaeenue oaeea aeaaiua oaiaeaioeee, iai?aaeaiiua i?aaeaea
anaai ia, ai-ia?auo, nio?aiaiea a naiae iniiaa eacaoeeiai ono?ienoaa;
ai-aoi?uo, caueoo iaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania a aeiiiie/aneie noa?a;
a-o?aoueeo, i?ae?auaiea ?ac?ooaiey aii?oaeaiiuo nee. A yoi
i?aaeoniao?eaaei ineaaeaiea iieeoe/aneie aeanoe naiiaea?aeaaey a
i?aaeaeao Oe?aeineiai eacaoeeiai ainoaea?noaa.

Auyniaii, /oi ia i?aaeaiea E. Nei?iiaaeneiai i?eoeanue iaeioi?ay
noaaeeecaoeey (ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei enoi?e/aneei ia?eiaeii, oae
iacuaaaiie ?oeiie) a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, eioi?ay niinianoaiaaea
cia/eoaeueiiio ?acaeoeth oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee. Iaeiaei
onoaiiaeaiea Iao?ii ? (i?eaeeceoaeueii n 1714 a.) iiiiiieee ia i?iaeaaeo
iiiaeo oiaa?ia ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe, ia?aie/aiea ei i?aa e auaiae
oe?aeineiai eoia/anoaa i?eaaee e nai?a/eaaieth ioiineoaeueii iacaaeneiie
oi?aiaee ianaeaiey Eaaiaa?aaeuey, Neiaiaeaiueiu e Caii?iaeuey.
Ianoie/eaia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea yoiio aaoiaia a oao iieeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo
ia aeaee caiaoiuo iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

A iaeanoe iicaiaeueiuo ioiioaiee E. Nei?iiaaeneee i?iyaee naay oeie/iui
i?aaenoaaeoaeai nia?aiaiiie aio nioeeaeueiie yeeou. I?e iai i?iecioei
“?acaaca?eaaiea” iniiaiiai caiaeueiiai oiiaea Aaoiaiueiu.

Eiie?aoiua enoi?e/aneea iaoa?eaeu iicaieeee naeaeaoue iiiai
i?eioeeieaeueiuo ooi/iaiee ioiineoaeueii aeia?aoee iaeaaeaoaey aoeaau,
ii?aaeaeeoue yoaiu oi?ie?iaaiey aai iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Oe?aeineia eacaoeeia ainoaea?noai, aaoiai, iieeoe/aneay
aeanoue, nioeeaeueiay yeeoa, iauanoaaiiua nineiaey, aaoiiiiey.

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