OE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE

OIIIEI-OAOIIEIAI*IEE OIIAA?NEOAO

OEA* AIEIAeEIE? ?AAIIAE*

OAeE 543.25: 541.46 + 615.2/3

AAOA?IIIE?AI?IIE NO?OEOO?E EAA?IA ssE AIAE?OE*I?

?AAAAIOE IA ACIOAI?UOTH*? I?AAI?*I? ?A*IAEIE

Niaoeiaeueiinoue 02.00.02 — aiaeioe/ia oiiiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoeii ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oiii/ieo iaoe

AeIII?IIAO?IANUeE — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

ia eaoaae?? aiae?oe/ii? o?i??

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oeeaaiie Ethaeieea Iaae?aia, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e AI Aeui?

oeiee Oe?a?ie Oaa/oe ?aai Ieaen?eiae/, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeaie Aa?ai

Ai?eniae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aiae?oe/ii? o?i??

?inoeoooo iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?eoeaae/

Ieaenaiae? Iaeneiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aiae?oe/ii? ? o?ce/ii? o?i?? Aea?aeaaii?

iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:

O?ceei-o?i?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. Aiaaonueeiai AI Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 1 » aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.078.01 Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 320005, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Aaaa??ia, 8.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo .

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «25» na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I?i?aee? ?.Ae.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaie

Aiae?oe/ia o?i?y ae??oo? /eneaii? iaoeia?, oaoi?/i?, oaoiieia?/i? oa
aei-eia?/i? i?iaeaie na?oiai? ni?aae?oaeiino?, iino?eii ? i?ia?aneaii
?icaeaa?oueny, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi /ooeeaino?, a oaeiae
aeni?aniino? aiae?co.

Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? ? e?euee?nia aecia/aiiy
acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei o i?iieneia?e i?iaeoeoe??, ia’?eoao
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, iaaeeoeeie oa oa?iaoe??, aaieia??, aaio?i??
oa ?ioa.

A?eueo?noue aeei?enoiaoaaieo e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a a?aeiineoueny aei
neioa-oe/ieo acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, ? oiio aiae?oe/ia o?i?y
ae??oo? oaeiae oae? aaaeeea? i?iaeaie oa?iaoe?? ye aiae?c e?ea?nueei?
noanoaioe?? ia /enoi-oo, a ??ciiiai?oieo e?ea?nueeeo oi?i — ia ai?no
aeoeaiiai a?ieiiiiiaioa. A?a-oiaoth/e oa, ui e?ea?nuee? oi?ie (oaaeaoee,
noniaic??, noiiceoi??? ) ? neeaaeieie aaaaoieiiiiiaioieie nenoaiaie, o
eio?eo a?ieia?/iiaeoeai? ?a/iaeie ci?oai? c ??cieie noiooi?ie oa
aeiiii?aeieie eiiiiiaioaie, ?o aiae?c ? neeaaeiei aaaaoinoaae?eiei
i?ioeanii, yeee aeeth/a? a naaa ?icae?eaiy oe??? noi?o? ia a?oie
eiiiiiaio?a, ?o ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th ? e?euee?nia aecia/aiiy c iio??aiith
oi/i?noth.

Ae??oaiiy ia?ae?/aieo i?iaeai oa?iaoeaaoe/iiai aiae?co iiaeeeaa i?e
aeei?enoaii? aeaeo?io?i?/ieo iaoiae?a aiae?co ( i?yia iioaioe?iiao??y,
iioai-oe?iiao?e/ia ? aiia?iiao?e/ia oeo?oaaiiy), ye? iathoue aeinoaoith
/ooeea?noue, naeaeoeai?noue, aeni?ani?noue ii?yae c a?aeiinii i?inoith
oa aeaoaaith aia?aoo?ith.

Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae aeaeo?io?i?/ieo iaoiae?a aiae?co i?aai?/ieo
?a/iaei caeia? i?yia iioaioe?iiao??y (?iiiiao??y), eio?a oe?iei
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy a?ieia?/ii-aeoeaieo
?a/iaei ca aeiiiiiaith ?iiinaeae-oeaieo aeaeo?iae?a (?NA), ye?
aei??ththoue o?eueee aeoeaio eiioeaio?aoe?th aecia/o-aaieo i?aai?/ieo
eao?ii?a, ui aaaeeeai aeey aea/aiiy o?c?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a.

Ia eaoaae?? aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoa-oo ?ic?iaeththoueny ?NA, /ooeea? aei i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a
acioai?uoth/eo e?ea?nue-eeo ?a/iaei, aea a yeino? aeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaiiai
eiiiiiaioo aeei?enoiaooueny iaei?ic/eii? anioe?aoe i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a
(IE) c aaoa?iiie?ai?iiaie (AIA) no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia . Aea?? AIA o yeino?
aiae?oe/iiai ?aaaaioa ia acioai?uoth/? i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie aecia/a?oueny
oaeeie ??ciiiai?oieie aeanoeainoyie aaoa?i-iie?eiiieaen?a (AIE ), ye
aaeeea iieaeoey?ia iana , aeanoea?noue aei /anoeiaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy AIA,
?iiiiai?ii? aeanoeaino? nieae AIE oa iiaeeea?noue ooai?aiiy
iaei?ic/eiieo niieoe iino?eiiai neeaaeo i?ae AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia oa
aaee-eeie i?aai?/ieie eao?iiaie , aeaoaaecia oa aeinooii?noue oeeo
o?i?/ieo ?aaaaio?a.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeueiei ? aeeaiea eiiieaenia aea/iaiiy ?aaeoe?e
aca?iiae?? AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia c i?aai?/ieie eao?iiaie acioai?uoth/eo
?a/iaei, aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aieeao i?e?iaee AIA oa aecia/oaaiiai
i?aai?/iiai eao?iio c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy aeaii? ?aaeoe?? ye
aiae?oe/ii?, a i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? o yeino? aeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaieo ?a/iaei
(AA?) ?ic?iaeaieo ?NA.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aeeaiea eiiieaenia aea/aiiy ?aaeoe?e aca?iiae?? AIA
no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia c acioai?uoth/eie i?aai?/ieie eao?iiaie, aeyaeaiiy
oa?ae-oa?ieo iniaeeainoae aieeao i?e?iaee AIA oa aecia/oaaiiai
i?aai?/iiai eao?i-ia ia o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i? aeanoeaino? aeaii? ?aaeoe?? ye
aiae?oe/ii?, a i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? — ye aeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaieo ?a/iaei ?NA,
ui ?ic?iaeththoueny.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy oaeeo iaoeiaeo caaaeaiue:

· oai?aoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aaaa aeei?enoaiiy AIA
no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia ye aiae?oe/io ?aaaaio?a a aeaeo?io?i?/ieo iaoiaeao
aecia/aiiy acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei.

· aeyaeaiiy o?i?cio ?aaeoe?? aca?iiae?? i?ae AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia ?
i?aai?/ieie eao?iiaie (IE) acioai?uoth/eo ?a/iaei, a oaeiae
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoe-ainoae i?iaeoeo?a oe??? ?aaeoe?? — iaei?ic/eiieo
?a/iaei iino?eiiai neeaaeo oa c anioe?aoeaiei oa?aeoa?ii ca’yceo i?ae
AIA ? IE,

· aeei?enoaiy ooai?aieo iaei?ic/eiieo anioe?ao?a oeio (IE)nAIA o yeino?
AA? ?NA, iai?ioieo aei i?aai?/ieo acioai?uoth/eo eao?ii?a.

· aea/aiiy aieeao i?e?iaee AIA, i?e?iaee ? ?ici???a IE,?ic/eiiino?
anioe?ao?a ia aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey
i?iaiicoaaiiy ? iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo iaia?aie ?NA,

· aea/aiiy aieeao ??aiiaaaeieo i?ioean?a ia?a?iciiae?eo
iioaioe?aeaecia/oaa-ieo ?ii?a oaeeo ye ?iiiee iai?i, ?iiiee ia?aiin,
aeno?aeoe?y ia iaae? ?iciiae?eo oac iaia?aia ?NA — ?ic/ei, i?e?iaee
iaia?aiiiai ?ic/eiieea (I?) ? iao?eoe? ia oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?iaeiiai
iioaioe?aeo ye aiae?oe/iiai neaiaeo a ?iiiiao-??? aeey ?NA c
iioeiaeueieie aiae?oe/ieie ? aeaeo?iaeieie ia?aiao?aie

· ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo
?a/i-aei o e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao, a?ina?aaeiaeuao ? a i?iieneia?e
i?iaeoeoe?? ca aeiii-iiaith iaoiae?a i?yii? iioaioe?iiao???.
iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai oa aiia?iiao?e/-iiai oeo?oaaiiy c iio??aieie
aiae?oe/ieie ? iao?ieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie.

Iniiaith i?aaenoaaeaii? ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeoe?? i?ae AIA
no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia ? acioai?uoth/eie IE oa aeei?enoaiiy ciaeaeaieo
caeiiii??iinoae a aiae?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? — ?ic?iaoe? no/anieo ? i?inoeo
iaoiaeee aiae?co acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a ca aeiiiiiaith
aeaeo?io?i?/ieo iaoiae?a .

Aeey oni?oiiai ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaie
aeei?enoai? o yeino? aiae?oe/iiai ?aaaaioa AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia c
??cieie oeaio?aeueieie aoiiaie ( P, Si, Ga ) , a a?aeiia?aeii ? c ??ciei
ca?yaeii AIA.

Canoinoaaiiy no/anieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy (OO-,
aeaeeia, ?*-, ssI?- niaeo?ineii?y, aeaeo?io?i?/iee aiae?c ),
?aoaeuei?noue a iaaiai?aii? aeinoaoi?o ca ianyaii, eia?/ii ca’ycaieo oa
a?aeoai?thaaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeicaieythoue aaaaeaoe
io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaa?oioiaaieie oa ?aaeueieie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe

Aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii aeei?enoaiiy AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia ye aiae?-oe/ieo
?aaaaio?a a aiae?c? acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. Aei oeueiai AIA
no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia nenoaiaoe/ii aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a aiae?c? ye aiae?oe/i?
oi?ie ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue aeaiaio?a, ye? iiaeooue aoiaeeoe a neeaae
AIA ye oeaio?aeuei? aoiie -eiiieaeniooai?thaa/? aai e?aaiaee.

I?iaaaeai? aeeaie? ? eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeoe?e aca?iiae?? i?ae
AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia c acioai?uoth/eie i?aai?/ieie iio?aeieie
?i?aeacieo, oaiio?a-c?io oa aianoaoeeaie, a oaeiae i?iaeoeo?a oeeo
?aaeoe?e — iaei?ic/eiieo niieoe iino?eiiai neeaaeo? c anioe?aoeaiei
oa?aeoa?ii ca’yceo iaoiaeaie OO-aeaeeii? oa ?*-niaeo?ineii?? oa
aeaeo?io?i?/ieie iaoiaeaie aiae?co.

Aia?oa aea/aii oiiae neioaco ? neioaciaai? iia? iaei?ic/eii? niieoee c
caaaeueiith oi?ioeith (IE)nAIA, aea IE — i?aai?/i? eao?iie iio?aeieo
?i?aeacieo, oaiio?ac?io ? aianoaoee?a , AIA — PMo12O403- SiMo12O404-
GaMo2W10O405- ? aeine?ae-aeai? ?o o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici???a ? ca?yaeo IE ? AIA.

Aia?oa ocaaaeueiaii caaaeaiiy c aeei?enoaiiy iaei?ic/eiieo anioe?ao?a
(IE)nAIA ye aeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaieo ?a/iaei (AA?) i?e eiino?othaaii? ICE ,
iai-?ioieo aei acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a ? i?iaaaeai? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiai-aeaoe?? c iioei?caoe?? ? i?iaiicoaaiiy neeaaeo iaia?ai ?NA a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici?-??a ? ca?yaeo IE ? AIA, a oaeiae pic/eiiino?
anioe?ao?a a I?-ieanoeo?eaoi?ao.

Aea/aiiy aieeao ?yaeo ??aiiaaaeieo i?ioean?a ( ?iiiee iai?i, ?iiiee
ia?aiin ? aeno?aeoe?y) ia ia?a?iciiae?e iioaioe?aeaecia/oaaiiai ?iio ia
iaae? ?iciiae?eo iaia?aia ?NA — ?ic/ei ia aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA
aeicaieeei aia?oa aeyaeoe ei?aeyoe?ei? caeaaeiino? i?ae ia?aiao?aie
ia?ae?/aieo ??aiiaaaeieo i?ioean?a oa iioeiaeueieie aiae?oe/ieie ?
aeaeo?iaeieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?ic?iaeaieo ?NA.

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii iiooe iie?ia?ieo iao?eoeue ieanoeo?eiaaieo ?NA .
Iieacaii, ui a?ae?aooeaetheicia iao?eoey, ii??aiyii c eeane/iith
iie?a?i?eoei-?eaeiith ia? aeeoa?aioethth/ee aieea ia naeaeoeai?noue ?NA.
Oaeiae anoaiiaeaia iayai?noue noia?iiai aieeao e?iaoe/ieo ? ??aiiaaaeieo
oaeoi??a ia?aiino oa ia?a?iciiae?eo ?ii?a ia iaae? oac (iaia?aia ?NA —
?ic/ei) ia aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa-?enoeee ieanoeo?eiaaieo ?NA, a
naeaeoeai?noue ? ooieoe??th aeno?aeoe?eiiai (aiaeiee ?ic/ei — I?) oa
?iiiiai?iiiai (aiaeiee ?ic/ei — AA?) ?iciiae?e?a IE.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? iia? iaia?aii? ieanoeo?eiaai? ?NA, iai?ioi? aei
eao?ii?a acioai?uoth/eo e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a ?i?aeacieueiiai,
oaiio?aceiiaiai ?yae?a oa aianoaoee?a, aea ye AA? aeei?enoai?
anioe?aoeai? niieoee oeeo i?aia?ao?a c aiae?oe/iei ?aaaaioii — AIA
PMo12O403- , ui iathoue caaeia?euei? aeaeo?iaei? oa aiae?oe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Iaaaaeai? aia?oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?iaiicoaaiiy neeaaeo
iaia?aie ?NA a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici??o oa ca?yaeo IE , AIA , i?e?iaee
oa ?ic/eiiino? AA? a aiae? oa I?, i?e?iaee iao?eoe? iaia?aie ?NA.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe

I?aaenoaaeai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue c
aeei?enoaiiy AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia o yeino? aiae?oe/ieo ?aaaaio?a ia
acioai?uoth/? IE noa-ee iniiaith aeey eiie?aoieo aiae?oe/ieo ?ic?iaie
i?aeoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy.

?ic?iaeai? iia? aenieinaeaeoeai? ? /ooeea? ?NA ia acioai?uoth/?
i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie ( iiiaae 20 ?a/iaei) oa caniae e?euee?niiai
aecia/aiiy i?aai?/ieo ea-o?ii?a iaoiaeaie i?yii? iioaioe?iiao???,
iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai ? aiia?iiao?e/-iiai oeo?oaaiiy a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao,
a?ina?aaeiaeuao no?/ieo aiaeao, i?iien-eia?e i?iaeoeoe??. ?ic?iaeai?
iaoiaeeee e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy acioai?uoth/eo e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a
ca nai?ie aiae?oe/ieie oa iao?ieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia?aaeuothoue
?nioth/? oa?iaeiiaei? iaoiaeeee. Ia a?aei?io a?ae inoaii?o cai?iiiiiaai?
iaoiaeeee aeni?ani?, /ooeea? ? naeaeoeai?, aeicaieythoue aecia/aoe
aeoeaiee a?ieiiiiiaio a ie?ai?e iaeeieoe? e?ea?nueei? oi?ie.

Iaoiaeeee e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy aiaiea?ao (?iaeioa?a), aa?ienaiiio
(oaiienaiiia), eio?? ? iiaeie e?ea?nueeeie ?a/iaeiaie, aiia?iiao?e/iei
oeo-?oaaiiyi aaaaeai? a i?iaeoe oei/aniaeo oa?iaeiiaeieo noaoae ia
aeaye? e?ea?-nuee? oi?ie: oaaeaoee ? ii?ioie ?iaeioa?a, noiiceoi??? oa
oaaeaoee oaiienaiiia.

Iaoiaeeea aiia?iiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy eainioee?i?a a aeno?aeo? a??eiai
ia?oeth ai?iaaaeaeaia a aiae?oe/io i?aeoeeo AO «Eoaieoa?i»aeey
aiae?oe/iiai eiio?ieth ai?noo eainioee?i?a a e?ea?nuee?e oi?i? —
ia?oeaaiio ieanoe??.

?ic?iaeai? niiniae e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy noie ia?eioe/ieo ?a/iaei o
?ineeiieoeuee?e i?iaeoeoe?? ( ia?eioe/ie/ieo caniaao ?ineeiiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy) iaoiaeaie ?iiiiao??? oa aiia?iiao???,noaaeai? oeaio?ii
aenia?oii-e?ei?-iae?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAN Oe?a?ie ? ai?iaaaeaeai? a
aiae?oe/io i?aeoeeo niaoeeaai?aoi??? AEA OIAN Oe?a?ie ia
I?eaei?i?ianuee?e cae?cieoe?.

E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy aeeneiooai?thaaii? aeiaaaee EA-4584 aeaeo?ie?oo
oeeieoaaiiy iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy a aaeueaai?/ieo
?ic/eiao ? no?/ieo aiaeao ai?iaaaeaeaii a aiae?oe/io i?aeoeeo
eaai?aoi??? aeaeo?iinaaeaeaiiy AeAeO c i?iaaaeaiiyi iao?ieia?/ii?
aoanoaoe??.

Iia? iaoiaeeee e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy i?ii?eiiacieo (O?EO) a ?ic/eiao
aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o oa a aaoa?eia?ieo i?aia?aoao »
Aneioe?i», »Aneio?o» oaeiae aacothoueny ia aeei?enoaii? AIA PMo12O403-
ye aiae?oe/iiai ?aaaaioo a a?aa?iao?e/iiio oa aeaeo?io?i?/iiio iaoiaeao
aiae?co.

Caaaeii, ?acoeueoaoe ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aeei?enoaiiy
AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia a aiae?c? acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei
aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c iioei?caoe?? oa
ni?iuaiiy aenia?eiaioo i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo ?NA oa aeeiiaiith eiie?aoieo
caaea/ oa?iaiae?co — e?euee?niiio aecia/aiith a?iaeoeaieo ?a/iaei o
a?ina?aaeiaeuao oa ??cieo e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao. A?eueo?noue anoaiiaeaiieo
o ?iaio? iieiaeaiue iiaea aooe ?iciianthaeaeaii ia aiae?oe/io o?i?th
an?o acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a

Aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue iaoeia? ?aea?, iinoaiiaea ? i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo,
aea?? ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaia aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia ?iaioe,
?ic?iaea iieiaeaiue, ui aeianaii ia caoeno ,?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iniiai? aeniiaee i?iaaaeaii
aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaaiai?thaaeenue c iaoeiaei eiinoeueoaioii
i?ioani?ii, ae.o.i. Oeeaaiie E.I.

Iaoa??aee eaiaeeaeaonueei? aeena?oaoe?? Oea/a A.?. aeei?enoai? eeoa a
iaeyaeia?e /anoei? aeieoi?nueei? aeena?oaoe??.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, iaea?aeai? i?e o/ano? aaoi?a ia an?o noaae?yo ?iaioe.
*anoeia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea aeeiiaia i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eaiaeeaeaonueeeo
aeena?oaoe?e Iaoan?ii? ?.I, Aeooiai? I.?.,

iaoeiaei ni?aea??aieeii eio?eo aenooiaa aaoi?, a oaeiae
eaiaeeaeaonueei? aeena?oaoe?? Ea?aiae??ai? I.?., iaoeiaei ea??aieeii
yei? aoa aaoi?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
Anani-thciiio nai?ia?? «Oeiey, no?iaiea e i?eiaiaiea eci- e
aaoa?iiieeniaaeeiaiee» (Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1990), ia Ananithciiio
*oaa?anueeiio nai?ia?? c o?i?? eiiieae-nieo niieoe (I?inuee, 1990), ia
Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei
(Iineaa, 1991) , I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii aeno?aeoe?? i?aai?/ieo
?a/iaei «Isecos’92» (Ai?iiaae, 1992), 17-e Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c
i?aaii/iii oiiii (Oa?e?a,1995),14-e Oe?a?inueeie eiioa?aioei? c
iai?aaii/ii? oiii? (Eeia,1996), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c aiae?oe/ii?
o?i?? (Iineaa, 1997), 4-e I?ae-ia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «O?aioe?y oa
Oe?a?ia, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997 ),
I?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? «IAOI. Eiiaa?n?y»
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997), 6-e Ana- Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c
aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? (Oaeai?iae, 1998), iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo AeAeO
(1989-1998 ?.?.).

Ioae?eaoe??

Ii iaoa??aeai aeena?oaoe?? iaae?oeiaaii 1 iiiia?ao?th, 25 noaoae,
io?eiaii 4 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 364 noi??ieao ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 6
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nienea oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e (362 iacae), oa
aeiaeaoeo. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 41 ?enoieaie ? i?noeoue 79 oaaeeoeue.

A 1 ?icae?e? aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooa ieoaiiy aoaeiae ? aieiaieo
aeanoeainoae aaoa?iiie?ai?ii?a no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia oa iiaeeea?noue ?o
aeei?enoaiiy a aiae?c? acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. A ae?oaiio
?icae?e? iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia’?eoe aiae?co oa
aia?aoo?a, ui aoee aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii i?e aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe. ?icae?e 3 i?enay/aiee aea/aiith ?aaeoe?e aca?-iiae?? i?aai?/ieo
eao?ii?a acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei c aaoa?iiie?-ai?iiaie
no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia ca aeiiiiiaith no/anieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ?icae?eao 4-5 iaaaaeai? aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
?ic?iaeaieo ?NA, iai?ioieo aei i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a oa ?o caeaaei?noue
a?ae ?yaeo oaeoi??a. a oaeiae aieea i?e?iaee iao?eoe? oa oaeeo
??aiiaaaeieo oaeoi??a, ye ?iiiee ia?aiin, ?iiiee iai?i oa aeno?aeoe?y ia
naeaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaieo aeaeo?iae?a. Caaaeii, a ?icae?eao 1-5
?aoaeueii iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? aaoa?iiie?ai?ii?a no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia ye
aiae?oe/iiai ?aaaaioa ia acioai?uoth/? i?aai?/i? ?a/i-aeie, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie, i?eaaaeaieie o ?icae?e? 6. Inoaii?e
?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?oe/iiio aeei?enoaiith ?aaeoe?e aca?iiae??
aaoa?iiie?ai?ii?a c eao?iiaie acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. A
aeiaeaoeo aei aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? aeai? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo iaoiae?a aiae?co, aeai? ii iao?ieia?/i?e aoanoaoe??, aeai?
eaaioiai-o?i?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooii iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeueiinoue aiae?co acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo
?a/iaei, aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aaoa?iiie?ai?ii?a no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia
ye aiae?oe/ieo ?aaaaio?a, aecia/aia iaoa aeena?oaoe??, a oaeiae
iaaaaeai? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe.

A ?icae?e? 1 iiaeaiee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c ieoaiue aoaeiae ? iniiaieo
aeanoeainoae aaoa?iiie?eiiieaen?a no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia oa ?o aeei?enoaiith a
aiae?c? acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. Ia iniia? aeaieo iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo-?e oa c o?aooaaiiyi aeanieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a
neioaco oa aea/ai-iy aeanoeainoae aaoa?iiie?eiiieaen?a iienai?
oa?aeoa?i? aeanoeaino? ? aoaeiaa AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia, iaaaaeai?
?nioth/? eeaneo?eaoe?? AIA , a oaeiae aeai? ii /anoeiaiio a?aeiiaeaiith
AIA.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ?iiiiai?iiei aeanoeainoyi nieae
aaoa?i-iie?eeneio no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia oa ?o aiae?oe/iiio aeei?enoaiith a
?iiiiao???. Nie? aaoa?iiie?eeneio ? ?iiiiai?iieeaie c eao?iiiith
ooieoe??th, a aoaeiaa AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia iaaaaeo? aoaeiao i?e?iaeieo
iaoa??ae?a oeaie?o?a. Oaeei /eiii ? ia?niaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiy
?iiiiai?iieo aeanoeainoae nieae aaoa?iiie?eiiieaen?a ye a aiae?c?
i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a, oae ? i?e aea/aii? oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue aeieeiaiiy ?
i?e?iaee iaia?aiiiai iioaioe?aeo ?NA , iai?ioieo aei i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a
c AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia a yeino? i?ioe?ii?a. Aeooaeuei?noue oaeiai
aeei?enoaiiy AIE no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae i?aeoe/ii
iiaiith a?aenooi?noth ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i caeiiii??iino? ?iiiiai iai?io
i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a ia nieyo AIE.

C ?ioiai aieo ieenethaaeueii- a?aeiiai? aeanoeaino? AIE ? ?o
ni?iiiaei?noue aei noao?iiao?e/iiai inaaeaeaiiy aaeeeeo i?aai?/ieo
eao?ii?a iaoiiaeththoue iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia
ye aiae?oe/iiai ?aaaaioo a aeaeo?io?i?/ieo iaoiaeao aiae?co —
iioaioe?iiao???, iiey?ia?ao?? oa aiia?iiao???.

Aaeaea ii?aeiaiiy ?aaeoe?? inaaeaeaiiy i?ae AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia c
i?aai?/-ieie iniiaaie ? iayai?noue aoaeoeaiiai aiae?oe/iiai neaiaeo —
a?aie/iiai no?oio i?e aeaeo?io?i?/iiio a?aeiiaeaii? AIA aeicaieythoue
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aiia?iiao?e/ia oeo?oaaiiy a aiae?c? acioai?uoth/eo
i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. A oie aea /an, ia caaaeath/e ia yai? ia?aaaae
aeei?enoaiiy AIA a aiae?c? i?aai?/-ieo eao?ii?a, a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? aeai? ii nenoaiaoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith aeei?enoaiiy
AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia.

Aeanoeaino? AIA ooai?thaaoe niieoee ye c iai?aai?/ieie oae ? c
i?aai?/-ieie eao?iiaie, eio?? iaei?ic/eii? a aiae? ? aeia?a — a
i?aai?/ieo ?ic/eiieeao, a oaeiae ?o ?iiiiai?ii? aeanoeaino?
aeicaieythoue aeei?enoiaoaaoe AIA nooeoo?e Eaa?ia ye aenieiiieaeoey?i?
i?ioe?iie aeaeo?iaeii-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei a ?iiiiao???.

Cie?aia, a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? iienai? ?NA ia iniia? AIE, ye? iai?ioi?
aei iai?aai?/ieo ?ii?a, a aeei?enoaiiy AIE a ?iiiiao?e/iiio aiae?c?
acio-ai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, iniaeeai e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a,
iineoue aeiaaeeiaee oa?aeoa?,a?aenooi? nenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo caeiiii??iinoae caeaaeiino? aeaeo?iaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?NA
a?ae ??cieo oaeoi??a (o oiio /ene? ? i?e?iaee AIA ), a?aenooi?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo ?iiinaeaeoeaii? iaia?aie.

Oaeei /eiii, aeei?enoaiiy AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia ye aiae?oe/iiai ?aaaaioo
ia acioai?uoth/? i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie a aeaeo?io?i?/ieo iaoiaeao aiae?co (
aiia?iiao?e/ia ? iioaioe?iiao?e/ia oeo?oaaiiy, ?iiiiao??y ) ?
ia?niaeoeaiei ? iaiao?aeiei iaoeiaei iai?yieii.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? i?iaeaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae iecueeeie
aiae?oe/ieie ( /ooeea?noue, naeaeoeai?noue, aeni?ani?noue),
iao?ieia?/ieie oa aeiiii?/ieie ( aeaoaaecia, oiene/i?noue, i?inoioa )
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iaoiaeee aiae?co i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny a aiae?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? .

A ?icae?e? 2 iaaaaeaii iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia’?eoe aiae?co oa
aia?aoo?a, ui aoee aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii i?e aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe.

Aeey oni?oiiai ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? caaaeaiue
aoee aeei?enoai? ye no/ani? ?ino?oiaioaeuei? iaoiaee aiae?co, oae ?
eeane/i? o?i?/i? iaoiaee aiae?co aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?a/iaei ? neeaaeieo
??aiiaaa, ui niinoa??aaeenue i?e aca?iiae?? i?ae oeeie ?a/iaeiaie.

Aei??thaaiiy iioe/ii? aonoeie ? ?a?no?aoe?y niaeo??a iiaeeiaiiy
i?iaiaeeeeny ia niaeo?ioioiiao?ao NO-16,-26, Specord M-40. ?*- niaeo?e
?a?no?oaaee ia niaeo?iiao?? UR-20 ( ?ioa?aae /anoio 450-2000 ni-1 ,
oaaeaoee c KAr ), Specord M-80. Niaeo?e ssI?-1I ?a?no?oaaee ia
niaeo?iiao?? «Tesla», a ?ic?aooiee ca?yae?a aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie ia
aoiiao acioo aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?aai?/ieo niieoe oa ?o ?ici??e i?iaiaeeee
eaaioiai-o?i?/iei iaoiaeii ii i?ia?ai? PM3 PCMODEL PI (3.2).

Aeey ?a?no?aoe?? aeaeo?iaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeei?enoiaoaaee
aeaeo?io?i?/io eii??eo:

Ag, AgCl, Aeineiaeaeoaaiee Iaia?aia 1* 10-3 I AgCl,Ag

KNl (ian) ?ic/ei ?NA ?ic/ei IE KNl (ian)

A?N yei? aeii?thaaee ca aeiiiiiaith oeeo?iaiai iiiiia?o ?-130.

Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? e?ea?nuee? ?a/iaeie iiiaeacieueiiai ?yaeo:
eeio?eiacie (aeeoaiie-(2-oei?oaiie)-1-iiiaeacieieiaoai), aioiiacie (
oaiie -(4-aeeoaiie)-1-iiiaeacieieiaoai), aeeaacie
(2-aaicieaaiciiiaeaciea aiae?ioei?eae), oiiiaeacie
(1-(2-aoeenoeueoiiieaoee)-2-iaoee-5-iio?iiiiaeacie), iao?iiiaeacie
(1-(b-ieniaoee)-2-iaoee-5-iio?iiiiaeacie); oaiio?aceiiaiai ?yaeo:
ai?iacei (2-oei?-10-(3-aeeiaoeeai?iii?ii?e) oaiio?aceia a?ae?ioei?eae),
aoaia?acei (2-oei?-10-3-[1-(b-ien?aoee)
i?ia?ac?i?e-4]-i?ii?e-oaiio?aceia a?ae?ioei?eae ), aoiicei
(a?ae?ioei?eae aoeeiaiai ao??o
(-10-3-ii?oie?ei?i-i?ii?eoaiio?acei?e-2)-ea?aai?iiai? eeneioe),
iiiaoeacei (10-b-[1,4-ae?acia?oeeeei-(4,3,0) iiiai?e-4]
i?ii?ii?e-2-oei?oaiio?aceia ae?a?ae?i-oei?eae); a oaeiae acioai?uoth/?
aianoacoth/? i?aia?aoe: aianoacei ( aoeeiaee ao?? ia?a-ai?iiaaicieii?
eeneioe), iiaiea?i ( ae?aoeeai?iiaoeeiaiai ao??o ia?a-ai?iiaaicieii?
eeneioe a?ae?ioei?eae), o?eiaea?i
(2,4,6-o?eiaoee-N,N-ae?aoeeai?iiaoeaoai?e?aeo a?ae?ioei?eae); a oaeiae
?o anioe?aoeai? niieoee c 12-iieiaaeaiioinoi?iith aaoa?iiieieeneioith
H3PMo12O40 x26H2O, 12-iie?aaeaiie?aii??aith aaoa?iiie?eeneioith
H4SiMo12O40. x14H2O oa 2-iie?aaei-10-aieueo?aiiaae??aith
aaoa?iiie?eeneioith H5GaMo2W10O40 . xH2O.

?icae?e 3. Aea/aiiy ?aaeoe?e aca?iiae?? eao?ii?a acioai?uoth/eo
i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei c aaoa?iiie?ai?iiaie no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia

Aiae?oe/ia o?i?y ae??oo? aaaeeea? i?iaeaie oa?iaoeaaoe/ii?
i?iieneiaino? oae? ye: aiae?c e?ea?nueeeo noanoaioe?e ia /enoioo,
aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo e?ea?nueeeo oi?i ia ai?no aeoeaiiai a?ieiiiiiaioo,
a oaeiae aiae?oe/iee eiio?ieue ai?noo e?ea?nueei? ?a/iaeie a a?ieia?/ieo
ia’?eoao, ye a i?ioean? ?? iaeiie/aiiy, oae ? a i?ioean? ?? iinooiiaiai
aeaaaeaiiy ?c aeeaiai i?aai?cio (oa?iaeie?iaoeea).

Aeey ae??oaiiy oeeo i?iaeai iaiao?aeia aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo /ooeeaeo
? naeaeoeaieo iaoiae?a aiae?co, a oie /an ye a?eueo?noue ?nioth/eo
oa?iaeiiaeieo iaoiae?a aiae?co e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei aaco?oueny ia
eeneioii-iniiaiiio oeo?oaaii? a iaaiaeieo na?aaeiaeuao,
i?o?eoiiao?e/iiio oeo?oaaii?, OO-niaeo?ineii??, ye? iathoue aeaye?
iaaeie?ee — ia aiae?c iio??aii 0,10-0,15 a e?ea?nueei? noanoaioe??,
aeei?enoaiiy oiene/ieo ?aaeoea?a, neeaaei?noue aeayeeo noaae?e aiae?co
(aeno?aeoe?y, iaaiaeia oeo?oaaiiy), ui ia aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe
e?euee?nia aecia/aiiy aeoeaiiai a?ieiiiiiaioo a iaei?e iaeeieoe?
e?ea?nueei? oi?ie — aieiaii? aeiiae oa?iaiae?co.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei ?
aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi, yea iiaeia ae??oeoe i?e aeei?enoaii? ?aaeoe?e
aca?iiae?? AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia c i?aai?/ieie acioai?uoth/eie
eao?iiaie a aeaeo?i-o?i?/ieo iaoiaeao aiae?co.

Aea/aia aca?iiae?y ia?ae?/aieo a?oi e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei c AIA
no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia PMo12O403- , SiMo12O404- , GaMo2W10O405-
iaoiaeaie OO-, ?*-, ssI?-niaeo?ineii??.

Acioai?uoth/? i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie aeia?a iiaeeiathoue a OO-iaeano?
niaeo?a, ui iia’ycaii c iayai?noth a ?o no?oeoo?ao o?eoeeee?/ii? p —
aeaeo?iiii? nenoaie ( oaiio?aceiiaee oeeee ) , a oaeiae ?cieueiaaieo oa
eiiaeainiaaieo p- aeaeo?iiieo nenoai o aianoaoee?a oa iio?aeieo
?i?aeacieo.

OO-niaeo?e iiaeeiaiiy ?ic/ei?a AIA oinoi?o, e?aii?th oa aae?th
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iayai?noth ?ioaineaii? nioae iiaeeiaiiy a iaeano?
207-220 ii, iaoiiaeaii? aeaeo?iiiei ia?aiinii c i?a?oaeae, eieae?ciaaieo
ia?aaaaeii ia aoiiao eenith ia aoii iaoaeo e?ioeaaeo ca’yce?a I=Ia ( Ia
— Ii, W ) ? iaio ?ioaineaieo nioa ia?aiino aeaeo?iia ii i?noeiaeo
ca’yceao I-Ia-I a iaeano? 260-280 ii, 320-330 ii, ui ? oa?aeoa?iei aeey
AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia.

OO-niaeo?e niieoe ia?ae?/aieo i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a c AIA PMo12O403-
aiaeia?/i? niaeo?ai iiaeeiaiiy aeo?aeieo ?aaaaio?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
iaci?ii?noue o?iiioi?ii? nenoaie i?e ia?aa?ao ?aaeoe?? ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
anioe?aoeaiee oa?aeoa? aca?iiae??. A oie aea /an aeey niaeo??a
iiaeeiaiiy niieoe oeeo i?aia?ao?a c AIA SiMo12O404- ,GaMo2W10O405-
niinoa??aa?oueny a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae caeiio aaeeoeaiino?. I?e/iio,
a?aeoeeaiiy oei a?eueoa, /ei a?eueoa cia/aiiy iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo AIA,
oiaoi anioe?aoeaiee oa?aeoa? ca’yceo ia?aoiaeeoue a ci?oaiee c
eiaaeaioiei.

Oaeei /eiii, niieoee i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a c AIA PMo12O403- iathoue
yne?aai ae?aaeaiee aeaeo?inoaoe/iee oa?aeoa? ca’yceo a ii??aiyii? c AIA
SiMo12O404- , GaMo2W10O405- , ye? iathoue cia/ii a?eueoee iaaaoeaiee
ca?yae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?*-niaeo??a i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a c AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia
aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeaye? aeniiaee:

— oa?aeoa?enoe/i? nioae eieeaaiue Ia=I ? Ia-I-Ia a iaeano? 1100-400
ni-1 caa??aathoueny, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaci?ii?noue no?oeoo?e AIA a
neioaciaaieo niieoeao (IE)3 PMo12O40 , (IE)4 SiMo12O40 , (IE)5
GaMo2W10O40 , aea IE-i?aai?/i? eao?iie acioai?uoth/eo ?a/iaei —
iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo, oaiio?aceio ? aianoaoee?a,

— caa??aathoueny oa?aeoa?enoe/i? nioae aaeaioieo eieeaaiue ca’yce?a N=N
a?iiaoe/iiai oeeeeo, a nioae eieeaaiue N-N iacia/ii ci?uothoueny o
iecueei-/anoioio iaeanoue , ui iaoiiaeaii aca?iiae??th a?eueii? ia?e
aeaeo?ii?a aoiia acioo c aaeaioieie d- i?a?oaeyie Ii AIA ca
aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?iei iaoa-i?ciii.

O oie aea /an aeey anioe?ao?a i?aai?/iiai eao?iia iao?ii?aeacieo c AIA
a OO- oa ?*-niaeo?ao niinoa??aathoueny a?aeiia?aei? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae
aaeeoeaiino? a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? ?I oa ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? nioae
iiaeeiaiiy N=N , ui iiaeia iiynieoe i?aeaeuaiei iiey??coth/ei aieeaii
iaeiai ca ?ici??aie eao?iia iao?ii?aeacieo (a 1,5-2 ?ace iaioiai ca ?io?
i?aai?/i? eao?iie) ia aaeeeee ai?ii aaoa?iiie?eeneioe ? ooai?aiiyi
ca’yceo i?oei?oiai ca aeaeo?inoaoe/iee.

— ?ioaineai?noue nioa aaeaioieo eieeaaiue ca’yce?a N-N ? Na?ii-N
ciaioo?oueny i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae niieoe (IE)3 PMo12O40 aei niieoe
(IE)4 SiMo12O40 ? (IE)5 GaMo2W10O40 , ui iiaeia iiynieoe ca?eueoaiiyi
iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo AIA.

On? acioai?uoth/? i?aai?/i? i?aia?aoe inaaeaeothoueny AIA no?oeoo?e
Eaa?ia c ooai?aiyi iaei?ic/eiieo no?eeeo anioe?ao?a. Iaoiaeii
aiia?i-iao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy (ca no?oiii a?aeiiaeaiiy Ii(VI) AIA)
aecia/aii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?aaaoth/eo eiiiiiaio?a IE ? AIA. Iaiao?aeii
a?aei?oeoe, ui aeayeee aieea ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy IE:AIA ia? cia/aiiy
iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo AIA. sseui i?aeoe/ii an? acioai?uoth/e i?aai?/i?
?a/iaeie aca?iiae?thoue c AIA PMo12O403- o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 3 : 1, oi
i?e ia?aoiae? aei AIA c a?eueoei iaaaoeaiei ca?yaeii SiMo12O404-, GaMo2W
10O405- aeaye? iio?aei? oaiio?aceiiaiai ?yaeo (aoaia?acei, iiiaoeacei)
ci?iththoue ca?yae naiai i?aai?/iiai eao?iia a?ae «+1» aei «+2». Oea
iiaeia iiynieoe ca?eueoaiiyi iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo AIA oa i?aeaeuaiiyi
neee aeaeo?inoaoe/ii? aca?iiae?? AIA c IE (oaaeeoey 1).

Oaeei /eiii, iaei?ic/eii? niieoee c anioe?aoeaiei oa?aeoa?ii o?i?/iiai
ca’yceo oeio (IE)nAIA ? ia?niaeoeaieie aeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie
(AA?) i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?NA , iai?ioieo aei aecia/oaaieo i?aai?/ieo
eao?ii?a. Oiio aoee ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee neioaco AA?, ye? aeicaieythoue
io?eioaaoe o?i?/ii /eno?, e?oiiie?enoae?/i? inaaee anioe?ao?a (oaae.1)

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oace i?i i?ioii?caoe?th iniiaiiai aoiia acioo a
iieaeoeao iio?aeieo oaiio?aceio, ?i?aeacieo oa aianoaoee?a, ui ?
i?e/eiith ooai?aiiy no?eeeo i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a, aoee i?iaaaeai?
eaaioiai-o?i?/i? ?ic?aooiee ca i?ia?aiaie ?I 3 ? ?N IIDEL ?? (3,2) , a
oaeiae ssI?-1I niaeo-?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?ae?/aieo i?aai?/ieo
niieoe.

Ia ?enoieo 1 i?eaaaeaia iieaeoea e?ea?nueeiai i?aia?aoo a?oiiacieo, aea
aecia/aii oeaio? i?ioii?caoe?? oa ?ic?aoiaai? ca?yaee aeaeo?iiii?
aonoeie ia aeueoa?iaoeaieo aoiiao acioo. sse aeaeii ?c ?enoiea 1,
iaaeeeoeiaee

Oaaeeoey 1.

Oiiae neioaco aeaeo?iaeii-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei ?NA

? Iana iaaaaeee (a)

ii AA? IE: V (ie) 2 .10-3 I

AIA IE — AIE, — I5GaIi2W10I40

1 (Ai?iac?i)3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,2132 0,4586 —

2 (Amin)4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,2843 0,4258 —

3 (Amin)5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,3550 — 100,0

4 (Aoaia?acei) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,2861 0,4586 —

5 (Etap) 2SiMo12O40 2:1 0,1908 0,4258 —

6 (Etap)5(GaMo2W10O40)2 5:2 0,4769 — 200,0

7 (Iiiaoeac?i) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,2921 0,4586 —

8 (Non) 2SiMo12O40 2:1 0,1947 0,4258 —

9 (Non) 5(GaMo2W10O40)2 5:2 0,4869 — 200,0

10 (Aoiic?i) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,2781 0,4586 —

11 (Etm) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,3708 0,4258 —

12 (Etm) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,4635 — 100,0

13 (Iiaiea?i) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,1635 0,4586 —

14 (Nov) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,2280 0,4258 —

15 (Nov) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,2725 — 100,0

16 (Aianoac?i) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,0990 0,4586 —

17 (Anest) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,1320 0,4258 —

18 (Anest) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,1650 — 100,0

19 (Niaeaii) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,2277 0,4586 —

20 (Sovk) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,3036 0,4258 —

21 (Sovk) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,3795 — 100,0

22 (O?eiaea?i) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,1707 0,4586 —

23 (Trim) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,2276 0,4258 —

24 (Trim) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,2895 — 100,0

25 (Ae?aacie) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,1467 0,4586 —

26 (Dib) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,1956 0,4258 —

27 (Dib) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,2445 — 100,0

28 (Eeio??iacie) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,2069 0,4586 —

29 (Clotr) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,2748 0,4258 —

30 (Clotr) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,3435 — 100,0

31 (A?oiiacie) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,1862 0,4586 —

32 (Bif) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,2484 0,4258 —

33 (Bif) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,3105 — 100,0

34 (Iao?ii?aeacie) 3?Ii12I40, 3:1 0,1026 0,4586 —

35 (Metr) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,1368 0,4258 —

36 (Metr) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,1715 — 100,0

37 (T?i?aeacie) 3?Ii12I40 3:1 0,1482 0,4586 —

38 (Tin) 4SiMo12O40 4:1 0,1976 0,4258 —

39 (Tin) 5GaMo2W10O40 5:1 0,2470 — 100,0

aeaeo?iiiee ca?yae i???aeeiiaiai aoiio N (-0,12) nooo?ai aeua, i?ae ia
i??ieueiiio aoii? N (+0,27) , ui iaeiicia/ii na?ae/eoue i?i i?ioiioaaiiy
i???aeeiiaiai aoiio N a iieaeoe? a?oiiacieo. Aiae?c ssI?-1I — niaeo??a
nie? Bif.HCl oa Bif-iniiae oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeniiaie i?i
i?ioiioaaiiy i???aeeiiaiai aoiio N — niinoa??aa?oueny cnoa neaiaeo 1I a
iaeanoue 8,82 i.ae. aeey nie? Bif.HCl o ii??aiyii? c neaiaeii 1I a
ssI?-1I — niaeo?? Bif-iniiae — a iaeano? 7,62 i.ae, ui ni?aiaaea? c
?ic?aooieiaeie aeaieie. Iiae?ai? aeniiaee aoei c?iaeaii oaeiae aeey
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo a?oi e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei — ai?iaceio oa iiaiea?io.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeniiae?a ii i?ioiioaaiith aeueoa?iaoeaieo aoii?a
acioo aoee c?iaeai? ?ic?aooiee ii iaoai?cio i?ioiioaaiiy iio?aeieo
?i?aeacieo ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie II?AN, aa?n?y 7.

Iieaeoee e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei ?i?aeacieueiiai ?yaeo i?noyoue a nia?
?i?aeacieueiee oeeee c aeaiia aoiiaie acioo. A?aeiii, ui ia?a aeaeo?ii?a
a aoii? acioo a iiceoe?? 3 ia i?eeia? o/ano? a noi?yaeaii?, iaaeath/?
iieaeoe? ioeeaio?euei? aeanoeaino?. Aeai? eaaioiai-o?i?/iiai ?ic?aooieo
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui i?ioiioaaiiy iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo ia?aaaaeii
a?aeaoaa?oueny ii aoiio N a iiceoe?? 3. Aea aeey eeio??iacieo ?
a?oiiacieo iiaeeeaa oaeiae aeueoa?iaoeaia i?ioiioaaiiy ii acioo a
iiceoe?? 1 , oae ye a oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiceoeaiee ca?yae i?aai?/iiai
eao?iio noaa?e?co?oueny ?-aeaeo?iiieie oia?aie neiao?e/ii ?icoaoiaaieo
aaicieueieo e?eaoeue. ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie ii oaieio?
ooai?aiiy i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a. A oie aea /an ?ic?aoiaai? aia?a??
ooai?aiiy a?iioaoe/ieo eao?ii?a iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo c ca?yaeii +2
ia?aaeuothoue cia/aiiy

aia?a?e ooai?aiiy iaeiica?yaeieo i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a a 3 — 3,5 ?ace, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oaco i?i ooai?aiiy no?eeeo iaeiica?yaeieo i?aai?/ieo
eao?ii?a i?e aeenioe?aoe?? aeaieo e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei o eeneeo aiaeieo
?ic/eiao.

Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii, ui aieeaa? ia ni?iiiaei?noue acioai?uoth/eo
i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei ooai?thaaoe no?ee? i?aai?/i? eao?iie ? i?ioie?oe/i?
aeanoeaino? ia?ae?/aieo ?a/iaei o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao Iaie i?iaaaeaii
OO-niaeo?iiao?e/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo,
oaiio?aceio

oa aianoaoee?a a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? ?I ia i?aaeiao iayaiino?
i?ioie?oe/ieo ??aiiaaa. Aiae?c OO- niaeo??a aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a ia?ae?/aieo
?a/iaei a ?ioa?aae? ?I 1,0 — 13,0 aeicaieea ?ic?aooaaoe i?ioie?oe/i?
eiinoaioe ii aeaiei OO-niaeo?ineii?? , a?ao?/iei oa ?ic?aooieiaei
iaoiaeaie aeey iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo oa aianoaoee?a. Aeinoaoiuei aaeee?
cia/aiiy eiinoaio i?ioii?caoe?? (Ei?io. = 10-2 — 10-3) iio?aeieo
?i?aeacieo oa aianoaoee?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue noeeuei?noue oeeo ?a/iaei
aei i?ioii?caoe??, ?nioaaiiy a ?ic/eiao a aeaeyae? no?eeeo eao?iiieo
oi?i ? aei ooai?aiiy iaei?ic/eiieo anioe?ao?a c AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia.

A iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? c aiae?co acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei
?iiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? aoaeue-ye? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aai
eeaneo?eaoe?y inaaeaeoaa/?a-i?ioe?ii?a ia IE i?e neioac? AA?. Iaea?eueo
/anoi

A?oiiacie

Summary of PM 3 calculation

Version 7.00

Iae 1. ssI?-1I-niaeo?e : 1 — a?oiiacie a/o (n?eue), 2 — a?oiiacie
(iniiaa) oa ca?yae aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie ia aoiiao N a iieaeoe?
a?oiiacieo.

aeei?enoiaothoueny oae? a?ae?ioiai? inaaeaeoaa/? ye oao?aoai?eai?ao
iao??th,o?ei?o?ioaiie, aeeoai?eien?ioeoiaa eeneioa, o?eieo?eien?aaicie
(OIAN), eao??enoeueoao oa ?io? niaoeeo?/i? i?aai?/i? ?aaaaioe, ye?
ooai?ththoue c IE iano?ee? anioe?aoe neeaaeo 1:1 a i?aai?/iiio
na?aaeiaeu? oa iathoue a?eueo aenieo ?ic/eii?noue a aiae? : 10-3-10-5
iieue/e o ii??aiyii? c 10-5-10-6 iieue/e aeey (IE)nAIA. Aaaeeeaith
ia?aaaaith AIA ? eiai aaeeeee ?ici?? (aei 5 A), ui i?eaiaeeoue aei
??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo ii anueiio AIA oa ni?ey?
aoaeoeai?e aca?iiae?? ia’?iii? no?oeoo?e AIA c aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeie IE c
caaaeueiei cieaeaiiyi iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? aei oaeiai nooiaith, ui
ooai?th?oueny iaei?ic/eiiee no?eeee anioe?ao, Oeei AIA aea?aeii
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ia?ae?/aieo aeua inaaeaeoaa/?a, ye? ia iathoue
iiae?aii? no?oeoo?e ? inaaeaeothoue IE i?e aaeeeiio iaaeeeoeo
inaaeaeoaa/a, eao?iiiiai?iieee, ui ooai?ththoueny, ia caaaeaee
inaaeaeothoueny, ?o o?aaa aeno?aaoaaoe, aiie iano?ee? ? /anoi iathoue
ia?ai?iiee neeaae.

Oaeei /eiii, AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia (a ia?oo /a?ao ?Ii12I403- ) aoee
ia?ai? o yeino? aiae?oe/iiai ?aaaaioo ia acioai?uoth/? IE a
aeaeo?io?i?/ieo iaoiaeao aiae?co inoaii?o.

?icae?e 4. Aea/aiiy aeaeo?iaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?iiinaeaeoeaieo
aeaeo?iae?a, iai?ioieo aei iio?aeieo oaiio?aceio oa aianoaoee?a.

Aea/ai? aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA, iai?ioieo aei IE
oaii-o?aceiiaeo iio?aeieo oa aianoaoee?a, a neeaae iaia?aie eio?eo aoee
aaaaeai? iaei?ic/eii? anioe?aoe oeia (IE)nAIA, aea AIA ?Ii12I403-,
SiMo12O404-, GaMo2W10O405-. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ooieoe?y A = f (-lg Ci)
e?i?eia a ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e 10-2-10-5 iieue/e, a iaoee
a?aaeothaaeueiiai a?aoeeo ciaioo?oueny i?e ia?aoiae? aei i?ioe?iio AA? c
a?eueoei iaaaoeaiei ca?yaeii, aai ae /ooeea?noue aeaeo?iae?a
ciaioo?oueny a ?yaeo ?NA ia iniia? i?ioe?ii?a ?Ii12I403- > SiMo12O404- >
GaMo2W10O405- ( oaae.2)

Oaaeeoey 2

?aa?an?eiee aiae?c a?aaeothaaeueieo a?ao?e?a ?NA, iai?ioieo aei
iio?aeieo oaiio?aceio

AA? a b
Sa2 Sb2 r

(Amin)3?Ii12I40 145,33 57,0 1,15
3,59 0,9997

(Amin)4SiMo12O40 128,83 55,5 2,02
6,28 0,9993

(Amin)5GaMo2W10O40 140,33 55,0 2,31
7,18 0,9991

(Etap) 3?Ii12I40 143,83 58,5
0,28 0,89 0,9998

(Etap) 2SiMo12O40 137,00 55,0
1,73 5,38 0,9995

(Etap)5(GaMo2W10O40)2 114,00 54,0 1,73
5,39 0,9995

(Non) 3?Ii12I40 158,83 54,5
0,28 0,89 0,9999

(Non) 2SiMo12O40 132,83 53,5
1,44 4,49 0,999

(Non) 5(GaMo2W10O40)2 121,00 51,0 1,73
5,39 0,9994

(Etm) 3?Ii12I40 140,33 60,0
0,58 1,79 0,9999

(Etm) 4SiMo12O40 159,16 58,5
0,29 0,89 0,9999

(Etm) 5GaMo2W10O40 119,30 56,0 1,15
3,59 0,9997

Cieaeaiiy /ooeeaino? iia’ycaia ?c ciaioaiiyi ai?noo AA? a iaia?ai? ?NA,
oae ye ?ic/eii?noue anioe?ao?a c i?ioe?iiaie SiMo12O404- ? GaMo2W10O405-
o iaia?aiieo ?ic/eiieeao iaioa i?ae a AA? c ?Ii12I403- . Anoaiiaeaii
oaeiae, ui e?ooecia aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe?? ?NA caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae
i?e?iaee ? ca?yaeo AIA, aea ? a?ae aeanoeainoae IE oa ?aaeoe??
na?aaeiaeua. Oae, iai?eeeaae, i?e ci?iaii? ?I ?ic/eio aoiiceio iaoee
aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe?? ?NA ciaioo?oueny i?iii?oe?eii aaee/ei? ?I (iae.2)
? a neeueiieeneiio na?aaeiaeu? ?NA i?aoeth? ye aeaeo?iae, cai?ioiee aei
aeaioca?yaeiiai eao?iio (S = 30 mB/aeaeaaea), ui iiaeia iiynieoe
i?ioiioaaiiyi aoii?a acioo ii?oieeiiaiai oeeeeo oa ?i?iia?oie a iieaeoe?
aoiiceio.

C ?ioiai aieo i?e?iaea aecia/oaaiiai i?aai?/iiai eao?iio oaeiae aieeaa?
ia iniiai? aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA, a oiio /ene? ? ia
naeaeoeai?noue. Oae ?ic/eii?noue AA? (?Ae — ?iiiee aeiaooie ?ic/eiiino?
aecia/aii aeaeo?io?i?/ieie iaoiaeaie — aiia?iiao?e/ia oa
iioaioe?iiao?e/ia oeo?oaaiiy , i?yia eii-aeoeoiiao?e?y) ciaioo?oueny ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ?ici???a IE ? ei?aeth? c oaeeie aeaeo?iaeieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?NA ye ieaeiy iaaea aecia/aiiy Ni oa iioaioe?iiao?e/i?
eiao?oe?aioe naeaeoeaiino? Ei/jiio , a oaeiae «/an aeeooy»
ieanoeo?eiaaieo iaia?ai. A oaaeeoe? 3 iaaaaeai? aeaeo?iaei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA c AA? oeio (IE)3?Ii12I40 a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?e?iaee
IE.

Iae.2. Caeaaei?noue A a?ae ?N e?ea?- Caeaaei?noue e?ooecie

nueeiai i?aia?aoo aeey ?NA aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe??

ia:1-iiiaoeacei, 2-ai?iacei ?NA ia ia aoiicei a?ae

3-aoaia?acei, 4-aoiicei. ?I: 1;2;3;4;5;6.

Oae ye ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?NA iaoiiaeaia ?iiiei ia?aiinii ca?yaeo, ne?ae
/aeaoe, ui naeaeoeai?noue iaia?aie ?NA iiaeiiy caeaaeaoe a?ae
?iiiiai?iieo aeanoeainoae AA? a nenoai? ?ic/ei — iaia?aia. A ca’yceo c
oeei aea/aii

Oaaeeoey 3

Aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?e?iaee IE

AA? Ni, iieue/e (oai?.?ic- Ni, iieue/e t,
i?nyoe? Ei/jiio

?aoiaaia ?c ?Ae AA?) (aenia?ei.) (/an
aeeooy)

(NH4) 3?Ii12I40 5,25.10-5
1,40.10-4 3-4 10-1

[N(C4H9)] 3?Ii12I40 2,88.10-5 5,20.10-5
4 10-1

(Anest) 3?Ii12I40 2,43.10-6
2,30.10-5 4-5 10-1-10-2

(Nov) 3?Ii12I40 6,47.10-7
1,10.10-5 4-5 10-1-10-2

(Trim) 3?Ii12I40 4,26.10-7
7,20.10-6 5 10-2

rOK : (NH4)+ < N (C4H9)+ < Anest+ < Nov+ < Trim+ ?iiiee iai?i e?ea?nueeeo i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a ia 12-iie?aaeioinoao? aiii?th (IOA) (NH4)3?Ii12I40 ? ni?anoaaeai? io?eiai? ?iiiiai?ii? ia?aiao?e oa iioaioe?iiao?e/ia naeaeoeai?noue iaia?ai ?NA. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?iiiee iai?i IE ia IOA caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o no?oeoo?e ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeinoaoiuei aenieeie cia/aiiyie eiao?oe?aioo ?iiiiai ?iciiae?eo Kd (oaaeeoey 4). Oaaeeoey 4 Ei?aeyoe?y oaeoi??a ?iciiae?eo ? eiao?oe?aio?a naeaeoeaiino? ?NA, iai?ioiueiai aei ai?iaceio Aecia/oaaiee ?ii, i Caaaaeath/ee ?ii, j Amin+ (Kd = 710,2) Etap+ Etm+ Non+ oaeoi? ?iciiae?eo K = Kd j/Kd i 1,12 0,06 0,03 Kd (?iiiiai iai?io) 795,3 34,5 19,9 KiioAmin+/ j+ 0,20 0,05 0,02 Iaea?eueo iiaii ia IOA iai?ithyoueny ?ii aoaia?aceio, a?aeiia?aeii Etap+ aeyaey? iaea?eueoee caaaaeath/ee aieea ia aeaeo?iaeio ooieoe?th ?NA Amin+. Oaeei /eiii. ia naeaeoeai?noue ?NA aieeaathoue ye i?e?iaea IE, oae ? AIA. Naeaeoeai?noue ?NA a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?e?iaeeAIA iaaea? a ?yaeo:?Ii12I403-> SiMo12O404->GaMo2W10O405-.

C ?ioiai aieo, ?icaeyaeath/e iaia?aio ?NA ye aeno?aeoe?eio nenoaio
iioaioe?aeaecia/oaaiiai eao?iio ia iaae? ?iciiae?eo aiaea — iaia?aiiee
?ic/eiiee (I2I — I?) aaeaeinue ciaeoe caeaaei?noue i?ae aieiaieie
aeaeo?iaeieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?NA oa aeno?aeoe?eieie eiao?oe?aioaie
?iciiae?eo IE a nenoai? I2I — I? (oaaeeoey 5).

Oaeei /eiii, io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aiaeia?th o
iiaaaeeioe? ieanoeo?eiaaii? (??aeeiii?) iaia?aie ?NA oa aeno?aeoe?eii?
nenoaie, ui aeicaiey? ni?iaiicoaaoe aea?? iaia?aiiiai ?ic/eiieea. Oae
aeey iiaiea?io (r = 13,40 A), o?eiaea?io( r= 12,73 A), oa iio?aeieo
oaiio?aceio (r=12-15 A), e?auei ieanoeo?eaoi?ii ? ao??e ooaeaai?
eeneioe, a aeey aianoaceio (r= 10,33 A) iio??aai ieanoeo?eaoi? c
iieaeoeaie a?eueoiai ?ici??o — OAO.

Ioaea, aeyaeaii ?yae oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ye ia aeaeo?iaei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA, iai?ioieo aei IE, oae ? ia aiae?oe/i? oa
aenieoaoaoe?ei? yeino? ?ic?iaeaieo ?NA. Aeey io?eiaiiy ?NA c aeia?eie
aeaeo?iaeieie ia?aiao?aie e?aua aeei?enoiaoaaoe a yeino? AA? ?iii?
anioe?aoe IE c AIA ?Ii12I403-, aea i?e iio?aa? iiaeeea? aa??thaaiiy
aeanoeainoae AA? ca ?aooiie ci?ie oeaio?aeueiiai aoiio AIA, ci?ie
ca?yaeo AIA ca ?aooiie red-ox aeanoeainoae inoaii?o.

Oaaeeoey 5

Cia/aiiy aeno?aeoe?eieo eiao?oe?aio?a ?iciiae?eo IE ? ?o aieea ia
aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA, iai?ioi?o aei aianoaoee?a

Aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee

I? Ae I2I/I? Ni, iieue/e S mB /aeae Kiio
Anest/Nov Kiio Anest/ Trim

ICE(Anest+)

AeIO 42 2,0.10-5 46
0,09 0,23

AeAO 150 8,0.10-6 48
0,07 0,11

OEO 222 5,1.10-6 53
0,04 0,09

OAO 1011 2,2.10-6 57
0,04 0,06

?NA (Nov+)
Kiio Nov/Anest Kiio Nov/Trim

AeIO 665 1,0.10-6 56
0,01 0,45

AeAO 285 5,2.10-6 52
0,03 0,51

OEO 199 1,1.10-5 48
0,05 0,68

OAO 233 6,2.10-6 50
0,05 0,70

?NA (Trim+)
Kiio Trim/Anest Kiio Trim/Nov

AeIO 1108 0,8.10-6 57
0,01 0,02

AeAO 479 4,1.10-6 54
0,02 0,02

OEO 342 2,1.10-5 43
0,04 0,03

OAO 377 5,5.10-6 48
0,03 0,02

?icae?e 5 Aea/aiiy aeaeo?iaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?iiinaeaeoeaieo
aeaeo?iae?a, iai?ioieo aei iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieueiiai ?yaeo.

Na?aae oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue iioeiaeuei? aeaeo?iaei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA aeii?iaioieie ? i?e?iaea AA?, iaia?aiiiai
?ic/eiieea–ieanoeo?eaoi?a oa aecia/oaaieo ?a/iaei. A oie aea /an aieea
i?e?iaee iie?ia?ii? iao?eoe? iaia?aie ia aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA
? iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiei.

Aeine?aeaeaii noeoiiee aieea i?e?iaee iao?eoe? (iie?a?i?eoei?eaeii? –
IAO, a?ae?aooeaetheicii? – AOe) oa ai?noo AA? a iaia?ai? ia aeaeo?iaei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?NA,iai?ioieo aei IE ?i?aeacieueiiai ?yaeo, ui aeicaieeei
c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

— caeaaei?noue aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe?? a?ae eiaa?eoio eiioeaio?aoe?? IE
aeey ?NA c

IAO oa AOe iaia?aiaie e?i?eia a ?ioa?aae? n *10 –5 — m * 10-2
iie/e;

— aa?oiy iaaea e?i?eiino? iaea?eueoa o iaia?aiao, iane/aieo AA? ?
caeaaeeoue

a?ae i?e?iaee IE, ciaiooth/enue a ?yaeo Dib + > Tin + > Clotr + ” Bif +
, ui

ei?aeth? c? ca?eueoaiiyi a?ae?ioiaiino? IE;

— iaoee aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe?? aeecueeee aei Ia?ino?anueeiai aeey
iaia?ai, iane-

/aieo AA?;

— ?NA, iaia?aie yeeo iane/ai? AA? (0,25 – 0,50% AA?) iathoue iaeee
ae?aeo

iioaioe?aeo (2-5 iA/aeiao) oa a?eueoee /an aeeooy (2-4 i?nyoe?a).

Caaaeii ?NA c IAO ? AOe iaia?aiaie, iath/? iiae?ai? aeaeo?iaei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee a?ae??ciythoueny ca naeaeoeai?noth (iae. 3).

Iae.3. Naeaeoeai?noue ?NA, iai?ioiueiai ia ae?aacie.

a) IAO iaia?aia; a) AOe iaia?aia.

Caaaaeath/ee aieea ia ?NA iai?ioi? aei IE ?i?aeacieo aoei aea/aii ia
iio?aeieo noeueoai?eai?aeiiai, oaiio?aceiiaiai ?yae?a oa ?yaeo
aianoaoee?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui aeey IAO iaia?aie
oa?aeoa?i? ieae/? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a naeaeoeaiino?, a AOe iaia?aia
aea? cia/aiiy EiioDib+/Eat+ a?eueo aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? ca iaeaaei?noth IE
iaaiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ?yaeo. Aeey i?aia?ao?a iaeiiai
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ?yaeo eiao?oe??ioe naeaeoeaiino? iathoue aeecuee?
cia/aiiy ca aeeeth/aiiyi iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe
aaeeeith ??cieoeath o ni?iiiaeiino? oeeo IE aeno?aaoaaoenue I?.

C ?ioiai aieo ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ?iiio naeaeoeai?noue ?NA iiaeia
io?eiaoe, aea/ath/e ia?aiin ?ii?a /a?ac iaia?aio aai ?o ?ooii?noue. A
ca`yc-eo c oeei aoei aecia/aii /enea ia?aiino eao?ii?a e?ea?nueeeo
i?aia?ao?a ia?ae?/aieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?yae?a /a?ac IAO oa AOe iaia?aie
?NA, iai?ioi?o aei aeeaacieo, aiae?oe/iei iaoiaeii oa iaoiaeii
aeaeo?i?oo?eii? neee (A?N).

Oae ye iaoeee eao?iiii? ooieoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?NA aeecuee? aei
Ia?ino?anueeiai, oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui ia?aiin ca?yaeo e??cue iaia?aie
?NA cae?enith?oueny iaeaea iiai?noth ca ?aooiie IE. Aea iaa?oue aeey
aeia?a ?ic/eiiiai a aiae? IE aeeaacieo a iaia?aiao iane/aieo anioe?aoii
(Dib)3?Ii12O40 tDib < 1, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iiaeeea?noue /anoeiaiai ia?aiino oiea ai?iiaie. Aecia/ai? /enea ia?aiino ai?ii?a tCl- =0,02-0,03 , t ?Ii12O403- = 0,07-0,13. Io?eiai? cia/aiiy ia?aiino IE ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?yae?a /a?ac iaia?aio, iane/aio AA? (Dib)3?Ii12O40 (oaae.6), aoei aeei?enoaii aeey ?ic?aooieo o?ainii?oiiai eiao?oe??ioo naeaeoeaiino? (Etr = t Kat + / t Dib+ ), yeee aoei ii??aiyii c eiao?oe??ioaie iioaioeiiiao?e/ii? naeaeoeaiino? iaia?aie ?NA (iae.4). Ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae eiao?oe??ioaie o?ainii?oii? oa iioai-oe?iiao?e/ii? naeaeoeaiino? IAO oa AOe iaia?ai ?NA oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeniiaie i?i ae?oa?aioeoth/ee aieea AOe iaia?aie ia ?iiiee o?ainii?o IE Oaaeeoey 6 Cia/aiiy /enae ia?aiino eao?ii?a e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a, aecia/aieo iaoiaeii A?N E?ea?nueeee i?aia?ao t Kat + IAO t Kat + AOe E?ea?nueeee i?aia?ao t Kat + IAO t Kat + AOe Iao?ii?aeacie O?i?aeacie Aeeaacie Eeio??iacie A?oiiacie Iiaiea?i 0,06 0,32 0,93 0,91 0,86 0,15 0,17 0,34 0,81 0,48 0,56 0,30 Ii?noeueoacie Aoacie Ooaeacie Aoaia?acei Ai?iac?i 0,17 0,11 0,60 0,63 0,76 0,25 0,36 0,50 0,48 0,45 Iae.4. Ei?aeyoe?y i?ae Epoti/j ? E o? aeey ?NA ia aeeaacie. 1) IAO- oa 2) AOe - iaia?aii? iao?aoe?. /a?ac iaia?aio. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe ioeeaio?eueieie aeanoeainoyie iie?ia?o a?ae?aoa oeaetheice, eio?? iaoiiaeai? iayai?noth aoii?a eenith, ni?iiiaeieo aei ooai?aiiy aiaeiaaeo ca`yce?a c aoiiii aiaeith IE o a?eueo?e nooiai?, i?ae aoiie oei?o a IAO. Oae ye naeaeoeai?noue ?NA aecia/a?oueny ??aiiaaaeiei ?iciiae?eii aecia/oaaieo ?ii?a i?ae ?ic/eiii oa oacith iaia?aie ?NA, aoei aea/aii aeno?aeoe?th IE a n?noai? I2I – I? (ae?aoo?eooaeao), a oaeiae ?iiee iai?i IE ia iie?aaeioinoao? aiii?th (IOA): eiao?oe??ioe ?iciiae?eo – kext oa Ed a?aeiia?aeii. Oae ye i?e aeno?aeoe?? aoei aeei?enoaii ?ic/eiiee–ieanoeo?eaoi? – ae?aoo?eooaeao, oi ??cieoey a aeno?aeoe?ei?e ni?iiiaeiino? iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia eeoa i?e?iaeith IE: ?ici??aie oa ca?yaeii /anoie, iayai?noth a?ae?ioiaieo aai a?ae?io?eueieo cai?niee?a. Oiio aenia?eiaioaeuei? aaee/eie kext aoee ii??aiyi? c aeno?aeoe?eieie eiao?oe??ioaie EA, ?ic?aoiaaieie ca ??aiyiiyi Ai?ia oa ii iaoiaeo Eoci?oeiaa. A oaaeeoe? 7 i?eaaaeai? ?ic?aooieia? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? eiao?oe??ioe ?iciiae?eo IE a nenoai? I2I – AeAO : EA oa Eext a?aeiia?aeii, a oaeiae iaeneiaeueiee ae?aiao? IE, io?eiaiee ca ?acoeueoaoaie eaaioiai-o?i?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a ? cia/aiiy DU, Qi - ?ic?aooieiai? ??cieoe? aia?a?e a?ae?aoaoe?? oa nieueaaoaoe?? IE; ieoiiiai ca?yaeo IE a?aeiia?aeii. Oaaeeoey 7 ?ic?aooieia? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo IE a nenoai? I2I – AeAO. IE dmax, A r,A D U, eAeae/I kext Qi kA Met 6,64 3,32 29,72 0,09 29,3 5,02 10-6 Kl 9,64 4,82 20,47 4,56 14,0 2,24 10-4 Dib 10,27 5,13 19, 0,17 20,0 3,72 10-4 Tin 10,42 5,21 18,94 0,20 22,5 4,21 10-4 Nov 10,69 5,35 18,48 0,05 18,5 5,07 10-4 Am 11,64 5,82 16,99 0,85 15,5 9,02 10-4 Nor 11,85 5,93 16,67 0,28 26,1 1,07 10-3 Ft 12,89 6,45 15,32 0,43 16,0 1,85 10-3 Bif 13,39 6,70 14,73 13,29 15,0 2,37 10-3 Etaz 14,13 7,07 13,98 1,07 22,6 3,22 10-3 Etap 14,21 7,11 13,90 1,31 16,9 3,33 10-3 Aiae?c oaaeeoe? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui caaaeii eiao?oe??io ?iciiae?eo i?iii?oe?eii c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi ?aae?ono r IE , iaeiae aiiiaeueii aenie? cia/aiiy Eext aeey IE Clotr + ? Bif + ? a?aeiia?aeii iecuee? cia/aiiy ieoiiiai ca?yaeo ia oeeo eao?iiao na?ae/aoue i?i ?o cia/io a?ae?ioiai?noue ? aenieo ni?iiiaei?noue aei aeno?aeoe??. A?aeiia?aeii (iae.3) IE eeio??iacieo oa a?ooiacieo iathoue iaea?eueoee caaaaeath/ee aieea ia ?aaioo ?NA, iai?ioiiai aei aeeaacieo. Oaeei /eiii, i?ae iioaioe?iiao?e/iith naeeeoeai?noth ?NA oa aeanoeainoyie IE aeno?aaoaaoenue I? niinoa??aa?oueny /?oea ei?aeyoe?y (oaaeeoey 9), ui aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe ye neeaae iaia?aie ?NA, oae ? ?? naeaeoeai?noue. sse iiaeaeue ?iiiiai?iiiai ?iciiae?eo IE aea/aii ?o ?iiiee iai?i ia 12 – iie?aaeioinoao? aiii?th (IOA) (oaaeeoey 8). A?aeiia?aeii aei io?eiaieo aeaieo, iai?i IE ia IOA caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici???a iieaeoe oa ?o no?oeoo?e. Oaeei /eiii ia?ao?ae aei a?eueo e?oiieo IE aaaea aei i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioo ?iciiae?eo (Ed ) oa naeaeoeaiino? ?iiiai iai?io. Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiai aeniiaeo aoei ceiino?oeiaaii ?NA c oaa?aeith aaoa?iaaiiith iaia?aiith, yea i?noeea anioe?ao Oaaeeoey 10 Caeaaei?noue Ed a?ae no?oeoo?e i?aai?/iiai eao?iio oa eiai ?iiiiai ?aae?ono Eie.i?aia?ao No?oeoo?ia oi?ioea r,A Kd Iao?iiiaeacie 3,32 76,9 Eeio?eiacie 4,82 187,6 Aeeaacie 5,13 210,3 Oiiiaeacie 5,21 701,2 Aioiiacie 6,70 235,3 (Clotr)3PMo12O40 ye eao?iiiiai?iiee ? aeine?aeaeaio eiai iioaioe?iiao?e/io naeaeoeai?noue (oaaeeoey 9). I?yiie?i?eiee oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? lg K Clotr+ / Kat+ - lg Ed c r = 0,9737 na?ae/eoue i?i aea??eia?noue ?iiiiai iai?io ia IOA ? i?aeoaa?ae- Oaaeeoey 9 ?acoeueoaoe ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co ei?aeyoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae lg K iio ?NA a?ae lg kext oa lg K d i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a Ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue a b S a2 S b2 r lg KiioClotr+/Kt+ = a . lg kext + b 1,26 0,31 0,04 0,11 0,9881 (oiiiaay iaia?aia) lg KiioClot+/Kat+ = a . lg kext + b 1,14 -1,06 0,01 0,02 0,9437 lg KiioTin+/Kat+ = a . lg kext + b 1,12 -0,05 0,03 0,05 0,8999 lg KiioDib+/Kat+ = a . lg kext + b 1,19 -0,17 0,03 0,05 0,8834 lg KiioClotr+/Kat+ = a . lg Kd + b a?aoioiaa inaaeiaa iaia?. 2,40 -6,96 0,22 0,65 0,9737 YAA = (Clotr)3PMo12O40 aeo? i?i aianie ?iiiiiai?iiiai i?ioeano a caaaeueio naeaeoeai?noue ieanoeo?eiaaiiiai ?NA. Ocaaaeueithth/e ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia ?NA cai?ioieo aei IE ?i?aeacieueiiai ?yaeo c iaia?aiaie ??cieo oei?a: ieanoeo?eiaaii? - oiiiai?, ieanoeo?eiaaii? c AA? oa inaaeiai? c AA? (iae.5) iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeey oiiiai? oa inaaeiai? iaia?aie iioaioe?iiao?e/ia naeaeoeai?noue ?NA ci?ith?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae cia/aiue kext oa K d a?aeiia?aeii. A oie aea /an naeaeoeai?noue ieanoeo?eiaaii? iaia?aie c AA? aecia/a?oueny noiith aeno?aeoe?eiiai oa ?iiiiiai?iiiai ?iciiae?e?a IE, ye? ? aecia/aeueieie oaeoi?aie naeaeoeaiino? ?NA. Aeey oiiiaeo iaia?ai caeaaei?noue lg K i/j pot - lg kext , oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?eueoei eiao?oe??ioii ei?aeyoe?? (r = 0,9881) o ii??aiyii? c r aeey ?NA c AA?, ui iiaeia iiynieoe aieeaii AA? ia ?iiiiai?iiee ?iciiae?e aecia/oaaieo i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a. Iae.5. ?yaee naeaeoeaiino? ?NA c ??cieie oeiaie iaia?ai . a) ieanoeo?eiaaia oiiiaa iaia?aia; a) ieanoeo?eiaaia c AA?; a) inaaeiaa c AA?. Oaeei /eiii io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? oa oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ii aeei?enoaiith AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia a yeino? aiae?oe/iiai ?aaaaioo ia acioai?uoth/? IE oa aea/ai? caeiiii??iino? ii caeaaeiino? aeaeo?iaeieo oa?ae-oa?enoee ?ic?iaeaieo ?NA a?ae ?yaeo ia`?eoeaieo oaeoi??a aeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe naeaeoeai?noue oa /ooeea?noue ?NA aei aoaeue-yeiai N-ai?uoth/iai IE oa iioei?coaaoe neeaae iaia?aie. ?icae?e 6 Aiae?oe/ia aeei?enoaiiy ?aaeoe?e aca?iiae?? aaoa?iiie?ai?ii?a c eao?iiaie acioai?uthth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. Aeai?, io?eiai? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?aaeoe?e i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a c AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia oa aeanoeainoae iaei?ic/eiieo anioe?ao?a, ui ooai?ththoueny, a oaeiae aea/ai? caeaaeiino? aeaeo?iaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?NA a?ae neeaaeo iaia?aie oa i?e?iaee IE aoee aeei?enoai? a aiae?oe/ieo oe?eyo. ?ic?iaeai? ieanoeo?eiaai? ?NA aeey aecia/aiiy iio?aeieo oaiio?aceio, ?i?aeacieo oa aianoaoee?a c IAO oa AOe iaia?aiaie; aeey aiae?co iaeeo ia`?i?a i?ia cai?iiiiiaai? oaa?aeieiioaeoi? aeaeo?iaee oeio iie?eoiai AA? ae?ioo. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaiiy iaei?ic/eiieo anioe?aoeaieo niieoe acioai?uoth/eo IE c AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia: PMo12O403-, SiMo12O404-, GaMo2W10O405- ye AA?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao i?e?iaee AIA o ?ie? i?ioe?iia a AA?, a oaeiae e?eueeino? AA? a iaia?ai? aeicaieeee i?iaiicoaaoe iioeiaeueiee neeaae iaia?aie ?NA. sse iioeiaeueiee i?ioe?ii AA? cai?iiiiiaaiee AIA 12- iie?aaeaiioinoi?ii? aaoa?iiie?eeneioe PIo12O10 3- . C ?ioiai aieo ?aaeoe?y aca?iiae?? IE c AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia aoea aeei?enoaia a yeino? aiae?oe/ii? i?e aiia?iiao?e/iiio aecia/aii? acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei c iiey?ia?ao?/iith ?iaeeeaoe??th e?aiee aea?aaeaioiino? ii oieo aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy Ii a AIA. E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a oaiio?aceiiaiai ?yaeo iioaioe?iiao?e/iei iaoiaeii. ?ic?iaeaii ?NA, iai?ioi? aei iio?aeieo oaiio?aceio (ai?iacei, aoaia?a-cei, iiiaoeacei, aoiicei), ye? iathoue iaoee aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe??, aeecueeee aei oai?aoe/iiai (55-58 iA/aeaeaaea) a iaeano? eiioeaio?aoe?e n.10–5 - 10– 2 iieue/e. Ae?aeo iioaioe?aeo - ± 3-5 iA/aeiao, ?iai/ee ?ioa?aae pH 2-7, /an aeeooy ?NA – 85-90 ae?a. ?ic?iaeai? aeaeo?iaee aeinoaoiuei aea??eiao aecia/athoue iio?aei? oaiio?aceio a ??cieo e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao, a /ooeea?noue ?NA aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe i?yiee iioaioeiiiao?e/iee aiae?c a iaei?e iaeeieoe? e?ea?nueei? oi?ie aac iiia?aaeiueiai a?aeae?eaiiy caaaaeath/eo ?a/iaei. Ca aeiiiiiaith ceiino?oeiaaieo ?NA ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee i?yiiai iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy iio?aeieo oaiio?aceio a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao: aecia/aiiy ai?iaceio a aiioeueieo ?ic/eiao ?iiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii oa ia?aa??ea i?aa?eueiino? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oeyoii ni?anoaaeaiiy c ?acoeueoaoaie oioiiao?e/ii? iaoiaeeee (oaae.10). Aeece?noue iaea?aeaieo na?aaei?o ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaeeea ??cieoey o aeia??thaaeueieo ?ioa?aaeao oa iaioa cia/aiiy na?aaeiueiai eaaae?aoe/iiai Oaaeeoey 10 ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy ai?iaceio o aeaeyae? noanoaioe?? iaoiaeaie i?yii? iioaioe?iiao??? oa oioiiao?e/iei (n = 10, ? = 0,95). Iaoiae Aaaaeaii, ia Ciaeaeaii, ia S2 S Sr ?iiiiao??y - 50,00 49,94 ± 0,86 1,06 1,03 0,02 Oioiiao??y 50,00 49,70 ± 1,82 4, 71 2,17 0,04 a?aeoeeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i i?aaeeuei?noue oa a?eueo aenieo a?aeoai?thaai?noue ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co, io?eiaieo ?iiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii. E??i oiai, ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ai?iaceio ?iiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ia?aaeuo? ii /ooeeaino? oa naeaeoeaiino? oa?iaeiiaeio oeo?eiao?e/io iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ai?iaceio. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy aoaia?aceio iaoiaeii i?yii? iioai-oe?iiao???. Anioe?ao aoaia?aceio c IOE aeei?enoiaoaaee ye AA? ?NA. Cai?iiiiiaaiee ?NA ia? iaoee aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe?? aeecueeee aei oai?aoe/iiai (58,5 iA) a ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e 4. 10-5 - 10-2 iieue/e i?e cia/aiiyo ?I = 1-6. Ae?aeo iioaioe?aeo - ±1-3 iA ca aeiao. Naeaeoeai?noue ?NA ia aoaia?acei aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiai aeey aecia/aiiy aoaia?aceio o noi?o? c ?ioeie ?a/iaeiaie. Iaoiaeeea ai?iaiaaia ia oaaeaoeao aoaia?aceio, iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe a?ae??ciythoueny aeia?eie iao?ieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (Sr=0,01) . ?NA, iai?ioiee aei iiiaoeaceio ia iniia? eiai anioe?aoo c PMo12O40 3- ia? aeia?? aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee: e?ooecia aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe?? A = f (?N) aei??aith? 54 iA/aeaeaaea a ?ioa?aae? e?i?eiino? 10–2 - 10–5 iieue/e, ae?aeo iioaioe?aeo ± 5iA/aeiaa, ?ioa?aae ?I 1,0-6,0, /an ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?NA – 80-85 ae?a. Aeaeo?iae ia iiiaoeacei aeei?enoaii i?e aiae?c? oaaeaoie ?iiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii (o ± d =100,60 ± 1,9 % ; S r = 0,02) oa iioaioe?iiao?e/iei oeo?oaaiiyi (o ±d =100, 10 ± 1,8 % ; S r = 0,01) i?e ? = 0,95; n = 5. Ia iniia? anioe?aoo aoiiceio c PMo12O40 3- ?ic?iaeaiee ?NA aeey i?yiiai iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aoiiceio a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao. Iaoee aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe?? ?ic?iaeaiiai ?NA aei??aith? 60 iA a ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e 10–2 - 2 .10–5 iieue/e. ?iai/ee ?ioa?aae ?I aocueeee : 5-6. ?NA ia aoiicei aeicaiey? aea??eiai aecia/aoe eiai a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao. Iaoiaeeea i?yiiai iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aoiiceio ai?iaiaaia ia aiioeueieo ?ic/eiao oa ia? caaeia?euei? iao?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee (o ±d =100, 40 ± 2,4 % ; S r = 0,02 i?e ? = 0,95; n = 5). Aeyaeai? ei?aeyoe?? e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a eieiieiaiai (Kd) oa oiieioa?iaiai (h) aa??aio?a ?iiiiai iai?io iio?aeieo oaiio?aceio ia 12- iie?aaeioinoao? aiii?th oa ?ioaineai? caaa?aeaiiy o?iiaoia?ai aoee aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? cania?a ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a oaiio?aceiiaiai ?yaeo iaoiaeii inaaeiai? o?iiaoia?ao??. Caaaeii iaoiaeeee e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy iio?aeieo oaiio?aceio iioaioe?iiao?e/iei iaoiaeii oa ca aeiiiiiaith inaaeiai? o?iiaoia?ao?? caaeiaieueiythoue aeiiaai oa?iaoeaaoe/iiai aiae?co e?ea?nueeeo oi?i. E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy aianoaoee?a iioaioe?iiao?e/iei iaoiaeii. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee i?yiiai iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aianoaoee?a ca aeiiiiiaith ?NA c IAO iaia?aiith, aea ye AA? aeei?enoai? anioe?aoe PMo12O40 3- c i?aai?/ieie eao?iiaie aianoaoee?a, a ye iaia?aiiee ?ic/eiiee-ieanoeo?eaoi? - ae?ieoeeooaeao ? ae?aooeeooaeao. ?NA, iai?ioi? aei IE aianoaoee?a, iathoue aeaeo?iaeio ooieoe?th c iaoeeii S = 56-58 iA/aeaeaaea a ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e aeey iiaiea?ia (Nov+ )-10–5 -10– 2 iieue/e, o?eiaea?ia – 8.10 –6 – 1.10 –1 iieue/e, niaea?ia - 5 .10 –6 – 1.10 –1 iieue/e, aianoac?ia - 10–5 - 10– 1 iieue/e c /anii a?aeeeeeo ?NA 60 – 90 nae a iaeano? iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e (10–6 - 10–5 iieue/e ) ? 30 – 40 naeoiae a iaeano? 10–4 - 10– 1 iieue/e. Iioaioe?ae ?NA iino?eiee ia i?ioyc? 2 – 3 aiaeei, i?ney /iai niinoa??aa?oueny ae?aeo a iaaeao ± 2 iA/aeiao. *an aeeooy iaia?ai ?NA – 8 – 10 i?nyoe?a, a ?iai/ee ae?aiacii ?I ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ?NA 3,0 – 9,0. Oaeei /eiii, ?NA iai?ioi? aei aianoaoee?a, iathoue aeinoaoiuei noaa?eueio aeaeo?iaeio ooieoe?th, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii noanoe/iith ia?iaeith aeaieo a?aaeothaaeueieo a?aoee?a aeey ?ic?iaeaieo ?NA. Iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aeniea oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy – noaiaea?oia a?aeoeeaiiy neeaaea? 0,56 iA aeey ae?aiaciio 10–5 - 10– 1 iieue/e ? 0,65 iA aeey a?eueo iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e. Iioaioe?iiao?e/i? eiao?oe??ioe naeaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaeaieo ?NA a?aeiinii oaeeo caaaaeath/eo ?a/iaei ye aiaeuea?i, iaiaaa?ei, Na2CI3 , NH4Cl neeaaeathoue 10 –4 - 10 – 2 , ui na?ae/eoue i?i aeinoaoiuei aenieo naeaeoeai?noue ?NA ? iiaeeea?noue ?iiiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aianoaoee?a a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao o i?enooiino? caaaaeath/eo eiiiiiaio?a (oaae.11). ?acoeueoaoe e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy iiaiea?io ? o?eiaea?io ?iiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ni?anoaaeai? c ?acoeueoaoaie ?o aeno?aeoe?eii – oioiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy. Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i i?aaeeuei?noue aiae?co aianoaoee?a ca aeiiiiiaith ?NA. Aaaeeeaith oiiaith aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee a oa?iaoeaaoe/iiio aiae?c? ? e?euee?nia aecia/aiiy a?ieiiiiiaioo a iaei?e iaeeieoe? e?ea?nueei? oi?ie. Aeey oeueiai aoea i?iaaaeaia iao?ieia?/ia ioe?iea ?iiiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy iiaiea?io iaoiaeii aei???thaaiiy iaaaaeee (ae?eaioii? /anoeie ?ic/eio). Iiae?aiei /eiii aoea ioe?iaia i?aaeeuei?noue Oaaeeoey 11 E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy aianoaoee?a a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao (n = 5; ? = 0,95) Iao?iei- Iiaiea?i, Aaeaea?i, Iaaanoac?i, O?eiaea?i, Niaea?i a?/i? oa?ae- noanoaioe?y oaaeaoee oaaeaoee aii. ?ic- aii. ?ic- oa?enoeee ( Anest+) ( Anest+) /ei 1% /ei 1% Aaaaeaii, ia 10,0 25,0 30,0 10,0 10,0 Ciaeaeaii, 10,1 ±0,1 24,9 ±0,2 30,0 ±0,1 10,0 ±0,1 10,0 ±0,1 o ±d, ia Sr 0,020 0,013 0,011 0,010 0,010 iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy iiaiea?io c aeei?enoaiiyi ?NA a aiioeueieo ?ic/eiao. ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co na?ae/aoue, ui ?iiiiao?e/ia aecia/aiiy iiaiea?io a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao ii oi/iino? caaeia?eueith? anoaiiaeaiiei ii?iaoeaai ? iaoiaeeea ? i?aaeeueiith ia i?eeiyoiio ??ai? cia/iino?. Iaoiaeeea ?iiiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy iiaiea?io ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaieo ?NA i?ioiaea ai?iaaoe?th a aiae?oe/i?e eaai?aoi??? AAO "Aei?i?ioa?i". E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo iioaioe?iiao?e/iei iaoiaeii a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao. ?ic?iaeai? ieanoeo?eiaai? ?NA aeey aecia/aiiy eeio?eiacieo, a?oi-iacieo, aeeaacieo oa o?i?aeacieo c IAO ? AOe iie?ia?ieie iao?eoeyie ? oaa?aei-eiioaeoi? aeaeo?iaee oeio iie?eoiai ae?ioo aeey aiae?co iaeeo ia'?i?a i?ia. ?ic?iaeai? ?NA iathoue iaoee aeaeo?iaeii? ooieoe?? aeecueeee aei oai-?aoe/iiai (54-58 iA/aeaeaaea) a ?ioa?aae? eiioeaio?aoe?e 3.10–5 – 5.10–2 iieue/e c ae?aeoii iioaioe?aeo ±4 iA/aeiaa. ?iai/ee ?ioa?aae ?I 1-5. *an ooieoe?iioaaiiy 80-90 ae?a aeey IAO iao?eoeue ? 40-45 ae?a aeey AOe iao?eoeue. Eiao?oe??ioe naeaeoeaiino? ?NA aei caaaaeath/eo ?a/iaei (iaiaaa?ei, aiaeuea?i, NH4+, KBr) neeaaeathoue a?ae 10–1 – 10–3 a?aeiia?aeii, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe i?yiee iioaioe?iiao?e/iee aiae?c aac iiia?aaeiueiai a?aeie?aieaiiy aeiiii?aeieo oa noiooi?o ?a/iaei a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao (oaae.12). ?ic?iaeai? oaa?aeieiioaeoi? ?NA oeia iie?eoiai ae?yoo caaacia/othoue aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee no?aei? c ia?aiao?aie iaia?aieo ?NA ? aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe aiae?c a iaeeo ia`?iao i?ia (2-3 ie ?ic/eio). ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ?iiiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo iathoue aeia?? aiae?oe/i? (iaaea aecia/aiiy 2 . 10–4 iieue/e) oa iao?ieia?/i? (Sr = 0,02-0,03) oa?aeoa?enoeee oa caaeiaieueiythoue aeiiaai aiae?co e?ea?nueeeo oi?i. Oaeiae iaaaaeai? iaoiaeeee ia?aaeuothoue ii /ooeeaino? oa naeaeoeaiino? oa?iaeiiaei? oeo?eiao?e/i? oa. niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? iaoiaeeee, aeicaieythoue oieeaoe aaeeaaiiy oiene/ieo Oaaeeoey 12 Aecia/aiiy eeio??iacieo oa a?oiiacieo a e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao E?ea?nueea Oei Iao?eoey Aaaaeaii, ia Ciaeaeaii, o ±d,ia S r oi?ia ?NA ?NA Eeio?eiacie, iaia. IAO 100,0 99,55 + 1,52 0,02 (oaaeaoee) AOe 100,0 100,62 + 1,28 0,02 Eeio?eiacie, iaia. IAO 34,50 34,45 + 0,48 0,02 (1%-e aii.?ic/ei) AOe 34,5 4,72 + 0,41 0,03 A?oiiacie, oaa?ae. IAO 15,50 15,50 + 0,46 0,04 (1%-ia iacue) eiio. AOe 15,50 15,46 + 0,82 0,06 Eeio?eiacie, oaa?ae. IAO 17,20 17,19 + 0,69 0,04 (1%-ia iacue) eiio. AOe 17,20 7,23 + 0,87 0,07 oa eaoeeo ?aaaaio?a, oa aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aiaeeco iaei??? iaeeieoe? e?ea?nueei? oi?ie E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy. ?aaeoe?th aca?iiae?? acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a c AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia 3 Eat+ + PMo12O40 3- ® (Kat)3 PMo12O40 ? a aiae?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ii ??ciiio: c iaeiiai aieo iaei?ic/eiee i?iaeoeo ?aaeoe?? aoa aeei?enoaiee ye AA? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo ?NA, a c ?ioiai aieo iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?aaeoe?th a oeo?eiao???, o?enoth/e e?aieo aea?aaeaioiino? oei aai ?ioei o?ceei-o?i?/iei iaoiaeii, aai a a?aa?iao???. Aiae?c i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy aaco?oueny ia ?aaeoe?? inaaeaeaiiy c iiey?ia?ao?/iith ?iaeeeaoe??th e?aiee aea?aaeaioiino? ii oieo aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy aoii?a Ii a AIA. Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaea aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy ?ic?iaeai? iaoi-aeeee e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy aaeeei? a?oie acioai?uoth/eo e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei: aoii?th, oaiacaiaio, aiaiea?aa (?iaeioa?a), ae?ienaiiia, ae?iaae?iea, aianoaoee?a, iio?aeieo oaiio?aceia oa ?i?aeaciea a noanoaioe?? oa ??ciiiai?oieo e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny aenieith /ooeea?noth (10 –5 - 10 – 6 iieue/e), i?inoioith aenia?eiaioo, aeia?ith a?aeoai?thaai?noth ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ii nai?i iao?ieia?/iei oa aiae?oe/iei oa?aeoa?enoeeai ia?aaaaeathoue a?aeii? oa?iaeiiaei? iaoiaeeee ia ia?ae?/ai? e?ea?nuee? ?a/iaeie oa aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe e?euee?nia aecia/aiiy a iaeeieoe? e?ea?nueei? oi?ie. Iaoiaeeee e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy aiaiea?ao (?iaeioa?a) oa aa?ienaiiio (oaiienaiiia), eio?? ? iiaeie e?ea?nueeeie ?a/iaeiaie iienai? a i?iaeoao oei/aniaeo oa?iaeiiaeieo noaoae ia e?ea?nuee? oi?ie oeeo i?aia?ao?a. Iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy aea/aii oa?iaeie?iaoeeo iaeiie/aiiy oa iinooiiaiai aeaaaeaiiy aa?ienaiiio ?c aeeaiai i?aai?cio o neai?iooe? e?ia? e?ieae. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aeei?enoaii a oa?iaoeaaoe/iiio aiae?c? oa a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Caii??cueeiai iaaee/iiai ?inoeoooo. Oaeiae ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy noie eaini?oeei?a a aeno?aeo? no?o/eiaiai ia?oeth, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a ia?oeaaiio ieanoe??, iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy, yeee ai?iaaaeaeaii a aiae?oe/io i?aeoeeo AAO "Eoaieo?ioa?i". Iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy ?ic?iaeai? iioeiaeuei? oiiae e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy ooia?oeeaeo i?ii?eiiacie (O?EO), yeee ai?iaiaaii a aiae?c? aaoa?eia?ieo oi?i. Oaeiae iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy aiae?co?oueny ai?no aeanoeiooai?thth/i? aeii?oee EA – 4584 a aeaeo?ie?oao oeeieoaaiiy oa a no?/ieo aiaeao. Oey iaoiaeeea ai?iaiaeaeaia a i?aeoeeo eaai?aoi??? aeaeo?iinaaeaeaiiy AeAeO, a oaeiae i?iaaaeaii iao?ieia?/io aoanoaoe?th e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy EA-4584. Ia caiiaeaiiy aenia?oii-e?ei?iae?noe/iiai oi?aae?iiy IAN Oe?a?ie ia I?eaei?i?ianuee?e cae?cieoe? aoee ceiino?oeiaai? ?NA ia aeaye? acioai?uoth/? ia?eioe/i? i?aia?aoe ? ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy oeeo ?a/iaei ca aeiiiiiaith i?yii? iioaioe?iiao??? oa iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy. Iaoiaeeea aoanoiaaia OeEE i?e AEO IAN Oe?a?ie oa cai?iaiaeaeaia a i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino? niaoeeaai?ioi??? AEA IAN ia I?eaei?i?ianuee?e cae?cieoe?. Oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii a?aa?iao?e/i? iaoiaeeee e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy a?oiiacieo, eeio??iacieo, i?ii?eiiacieo , ai?o?aceio a aaoa?eia?ieo e?ea?-nueeeo oi?iao oa aeayeeo ooia?oeeaeieo caniaao, aea a yeino? inaaeiai? oa aaaiai? oi?ie aeei?enoaii anioe?aoe oeio (IE)n AIA. AENIIAEE 1.Oai?aoe/ii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaia aeei?enoaiiy aaoa?iiie?ai?ii?a no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia a yeino? aiae?oe/ieo ?aaaaio?a a aeaeo?i-o?i?/ieo iaoiaeao aiae?co acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. 2.Aia?oa neioaciaai? iaei?ic/eii? niieoee acioai?uoth/eo e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei oaiio?aceiiaiai ?yaeo, iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo ? aianoaoee?a c AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia PMo12O40 3-, SiMo12O40 4-, GaMo2W10O40 5-. Iaoiaeaie OO-, ?*-, ssI?- niaeo?ineii?? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iayai?noue ia?aaaaeii ?iiiianioe?aoeaiiai ca'yceo a oeeo niieoeao.. Aeaeo?io?i?/ieie iaoiaeaie aecia/aia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy AIA: IE ? ?Ae ?ic/eiiino? neioaciaaiieo niieoe oeio (IE)nAIA. 3.Aia?oa iaea?aeai? anioe?aoe (IE)nAIA aeei?enoai? a yeino? AA? iaia?aiieo ?NA, cai?ioieo aei i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a iio?aeieo oaiio?aceio, ?i?aeacieo ? aianoaoee?a. 4.Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue aieiaieo aeaeo?iaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?NA a?ae i?e?iaee AIA ? IE a AA?. sse iioeiaeueiee aiae?oe/iee ?aaaaio ia acioai?uoth/? IE aea?aiee AIA 12-iie?aaeioinoi?ii? aaoa?iiie?eeneioe PMo12O40 3-. 5.Aea/aii ?iiiee iai?i IE oaiio?aceiiaiai oa ?i?aeacieueiiai ?yae?a ia iie?aaeioinoao? aiii?th ? aeyaeaia ei?aeyoe?y cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a ?iciiae?eo ?iiiiai iai?io c eiao?oe??ioaie aeaeo?iaeii? naeaeoeaiino? ?NA. 6.Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao i?e?iaee iaia?aiiiai ?ic/eiieea- ieanoeo?eaoi?a, iao?eoe? oa ??aiiaaaeieo i?ioean?a aeno?aeoe?? , ?iiiiai iai?io ? ia?aiina ca?yaeo ia oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?iaeiiai iaia?aiiiai iioaioe?aeo ye aiae?oe/iiai neaiaeo a ?iiiiao???, ui aeicaiey? i?aeae?aoe iioeiaeueiee neeaae iaia?aie ?NA ? i?iaiicoaaoe ?o aeaeo?iaei? aeanoeaino?. 7.Iieacaii, ui naeaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaieo ieanoeo?eiaaieo ?NA ? neeaaeiith ooieoe??th e?iaoe/ieo oa aia?aaoe/ieo oaeoi??a, ye? iaoiiaeththoue ?iiiee o?ainii?o iioaioe?aeaecia/ath/eo ?ii?a ? ?o aeno?aeoe?th ia iaae? ?iciiae?eo "aiaeiee ?ic/ei – iaia?aia ?NA". 8.?ic?iaeai? iia? IAO ? AOe iaia?aie ?NA, iai?ioi? aei aianoaoee?a, iio?aeieo ?i?aeacieo oa oaiio?aceio, ye? iathoue aeaeo?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeecuee? aei oai?aoe/ieo, ? aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe e?euee?nia aecia/aiiy oeeo i?aia?ao?a a noanoaioe?? ? ??cieo e?ea?nueeeo oi?iao iaoiaeii i?yii? iioaioe?iiao??? ? iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy. 9.Ia iniia? ?aaeoe?? aca?iiae?? i?ae acioai?uoth/eie IE ? AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia (PMo12O40 3-, SiMo12O40 4-, GaMo2W10O40 5-) ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy IE iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy ii oieo aeaeo?ia?aeiiaeaiiy AIA, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny aeni?ani?noth, i?inoioith ? aeinoaoi?ie aiae?oe/ieie oa iao?ieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. 10.I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aeei?enoaiith AIA no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia a yeino? aiae?oe/iiai ?aaaaioa ia acioai?uoth/? i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie ? ii aieeao ?yaeo oaeoi??a ia aeaiio aiae?oe/io ?aaeoe?th aeicaieythoue ia eeoa ?ic?iaeyoe iia? aeaeo?io?i?/i? iaoiaeeee aiae?co aeine?aeaeoaaieo IE, aea e i?iaiicoaaoe oa iioei?coaaoe e?euee?nia aecia/aiiy ?ioeo acioai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ?iaioao: 1. Oea/ A.?. Aaoa?iiie?ai?iie, ye aiae?oe/i? ?aaaaioe ia acioai?uoth/? i?aa-i?/i? ?a/iaeie: Iiiia?ao?y. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aeae-ai AeAeO, 1995. –196 n. 2. Oea/ A.E., Oeuaaiie E.I. Enneaaeiaaiea ainnoaiiaeaiey ?aciieeaaiaeiuo aaoa?iiieeeiiieaenia aaeeey // Eii?ae. oeiey.- 1982.-O.8.-?7.-N.756-760. 3. Oeuaaiie E.I., Oea/ A.E., Ia?ia E.I. I iieeaaeiaieueo?aiiauo aaoa?i-iieeneiyo aaeeey // AE. iai?aai. oeiee.- 1986.- O.31. - ?9.- N.2279-2282. 4. Oea/ A.E., Oeuaaiie E.I. Enneaaeiaaiey ?aaeoeee ainnoaiiaeaiey 12–ii-eeaaeiaaeeaoa // AE. iai?aai. oeiee.-1987.- O.32.- ?1.- N.63-66. 5. Oea/ A.?., Oeiioaiei I.A. E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy aoaia?aceio iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy // Oa?iaoe. aeo?iae – 1988.- ?2. – n. 79. 6. Oea/ A.?., I?yo?i I.? ., Oeiioaiei I.A. E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy iiiaoeaceio iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy. // Oa?iaoe. aeo?iae.- 1989.- ?2.- N. 47-50. 7. Aeooiaa I.E., Oea/ A.E., Oeuaaiie E.I. Eiiinaeaeoeaiue yeaeo?iae ia aie-iacei e aai yeaeo?iaeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee. //AE. aiaeeo. oeiee.-1991.- O. 46.-?7.-N.1330-1334. 8. Iaoaneia E.I., Oea/ A.E., Oeuaaiie E.I., Eiiuoei A.A. Eniieueciaaiea eiiinaeaeoeaiiai yeaeo?iaea i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iiaieaeia, niaeaeia e o?eiaeaeia // AE. aiaeeo. oeiee.- 1992.- O.47.- ?4.- N.710-714. 9. Aeooiaa I.E., Oea/ A.E., Oeuaaiie E.I., Ea?aiaeaaa E.A. Caaeneiinoue yeaeo?iaeiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiinaeaeoeaiuo yeaeo?iaeia io i?e?iaeu yeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaiiai aauanoaa // AE. aiaeeo. oeiee.-1993.-O.48.-?4.-N.663-669. 10. Oea/ A.E., Iaoaneia E.I., Oeuaaiie E.I. Eiee/anoaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeeiaae?iea iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/aneiai oeo?iaaiey // Oei. oa?i. aeo?iae.- 1993.-?3.-N. 62-65. 11. Aeooiaa I.E., Oea/ A.E., Oeuaaiie E.I. Eiiiiao?e/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia oaiioeaceiiaiai ?yaea // AE. aiaeeo. oeiee.- 1994.- O.49.-?9.-N. 1025-1028. 12. Oeuaaiie E.I., Oea/ A.E. Aaoa?iiieeniaaeeiaiey – aiaeeoe/aneea oi?iu n ?aaoee?oaiuie naienoaaie // Aanoiee AeAO.-1995.-?1.-N. 63-83. 13. Oea/ A.?., Ea?aiae??aa I.?. E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy eeio??iacieo iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?oaaiiy // Oa?iaoe. aeo?iae.-1996.-?5-6.-N.86-88. 14. Ea?aiaeaaaa I.E., Oea/ A.E. Eiiiiaiaiiua iaia?aiiua ?aaiiaaney e naeaeoeaiinoue yeaeo?iaeia, ia?aoeiuo e i?iecaiaeiui eieaeaciea // Oe?. oei. aeo?iae.-1997.-O.63.-?4.-N. 72-76. 15. Aeooiaa I.E., Oea/ A.E., Oeuaaiie E.I., Oiaeueieeiaa E.E. Aiaeec oaii-oeaceiiauo i?aia?aoia iaoiaeii inaaei/iie o?iiaoia?aoee // AE. aiaeeo. oeiee.-1997.-O.52.-?3.-N. 264-267. 16. Oea/ A.E., Iooee I.A. Eiee/anoaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea i?iieeiiaciea (OEEO) iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/aneiai oeo?iaaiey // Aa?ioeiey.-1997.-?6.-N. 77-79. 17. Oeuaaiie E.I., Aeoieeei A.A., Oea/ A.E. Iniaaiiinoe ?aaeoeee ia?aci-aaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey aaoa?iiieeeiiieaenia iiaea?oiiu aaeeey. Eeaa, 1996.-55 n., Aeai. AEIO ?2198-OE-96. 18. Naaaaeaaaa I.I., Oea/ A.E., Aeooiaa I.E., Oeuaaiie A.I., Eaii O.A. Eiii-naeaeoeaiue yeaeo?iae ia ie?eeaie?ii e aai yeaeo?iaeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee // AE. aiaeeo. oeiee.-1997.-O.52.-?10.-N. 1110-1112. 19. A.n. 1427299, NNN?. Niinia eiee/anoaaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey iiiaoeaceia // Oea/ A.E., Oeiioaiei I.A., A?ioiaue O.A., I?yoei I.?. // Cayaeaii 13.03.1987 ? 4228602. 20. A.n. 1455869, NNN?. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey aeae?ioei?eaea 1-iaoee 3,4 (2,2 aeeiaoee – 4 – ienioao?aaeae?iaaiciea) – eiaeiea (2,3-N) ie?eaeeia (aiai-ea?aa) //I?aoei I.?., Oeiioaiei I.A., A?ioiaue O.A., Oea/ A.E. // Cayaeaii 6.04.1987, ? 4240791. 21. A.n. 1749813, NNN?. Ninoaa iaia?aiu eiiinaeaeoeaiiai yeaeo?iaea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aeeiaae?iea. // Oeuaaiie E.I., Oea/ A.E., Iaoaneia E.I., Iaeueoeaaa A.A. // Cayaeaii 18.12.1989., ? 4771048. 22. A.n. 1783404, NNN?. Niinia eiee/anoaaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey noiiu eainaeoeeiieaeia a yeno?aeoa no?o/eiaiai ia?oea aonoii // I?yoei I.?., Oea/ A.E., Aieiaeei A.A., Aeaaeuoaa A.A., Eoeaoiaa I.Ae. // Cayaeaii 16.10.1990, ?4880330. 23. Oei/aniaee iaoaio Oe?a?ie ?95083 a?ae 15.08.1995. Niinia eiee-/anoaaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey aiaiea?aa // Oea/ A.E., Oeuaaiie E.I., Naaaaeaaaa I.I. 24. Ea?aiaeaaaa I.E., Oea/ A.E., Aeooiaa I.E., Oeuaaiie E.I., Iooee I.A. Aeeyiea eiiiiai ia?aiina e i?e?iaeu iao?eoeu ia yeaeo?iaeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ENY, ia?aoeiuo e i?iecaiaeiui eieaeaciea. // AE. aiaeeo. oeiee.-1998.-O.53.-?6.-N. 619-625. 25. Ea?aiaeaaaa I.E., Oea/ A.E., Aeooiaa I.E., Eaii O.A., Iaeueoeaaa A.A. Aeeyiea ?aaiiaaniuo ia?aiao?ia ia naeaeoeaiinoue ENY. // A?niee AeAeO.-1998.-?2.-N. 64-68. 26. Naaaaeaaaa I.I., Oea/ A.E., Aeooiaa I.E., Oeuaaiie E.I. Eiee/anoaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea aiaiea?aa a eaea?noaaiiuo oi?iao n i?eiaiaieai ENY. // Aii?inu oeiee e oeioaoiieiaee.-1998.-?1.-N. 18-20. 27. Ea?aiaeaaaa I.E., Oea/ A.E., Aeooiaa I.E., Eaii O.A., Ea?aiaeaaa E.A. Eco/aiea oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia naeaeoeaiinoue ieanoeoeoee?iaaiiuo eiiinaeaeoeaiuo yeaeo?iaeia. // Aii?inu oeiee e oeioaoiieiaee.-1998.-?2.-N. 19-22. 28. Oea/ A.E., Ea?aiaeaaaa I.E.,Aeooiaa I.E., Eaii O.A., Iaeueoeaaa A.A. Eiee/anoaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeoiiaciea iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/aneiai oeo?iaaiey // A?niee AeAeO.-1998.-?2.-N. 56-60. 29. Iooee I.A., Oea/ A.E., Ea?aiaeaaaa I.E., Aeooiaa I.E. Yeaeo?ioeie- /aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea naienoaa oaa?aeieiioaeoiuo eiiinaeaeoeaiuo yeaeo?iaeia, ia?aoeiuo e i?iecaiaeiui eieaeacieueiiai ?yaea – eeio?eiaciea e aeoiiaciea.// AE. aiaeeo. oeiee.-1998.-O.53.-?12.-N.1282-1285. 30. Oea/ A.E., Ea?aiaeaaaa I.E. Eiee/anoaaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeoiiaciea iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/aneiai oeo?iaaiey.// Oe?.oei.aeo?iae.-1998.- O.64.- ?12.- N.120-122. 31. Ea?aiae??aa I.?., Oea/ A.?., Aeooiaa I.?., A?acaeoe I.C., Oeoaiiaa I.I. E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy iao?ii?aeacieo iaoiaeii aiia?iiao?e/iiai oeo?o-aaiiy .// Iaaee/i? ia?niaeoeae.-1998.-?1.- N.17-18. 32. Oea/ A.?., Aeooiaa I.?., Oeeaaiie E.I., Ea?aiae??aa I.?. Aaoa?iiie?ai?iie ye aiae?oe/i? ?aaaaioe ia acioai?uoth/? ?a/iaeie a aeaeo?io?i?/ieo iaoi-aeao aiae?co. // Oac. aeii. 17-i? Oe?. eiioa?aioe?? c i?aai?/ii? o?i??.- Oa?e?a.-1995.-O.2.-N. 499. 33. Oea/ A.?., Oeeaaiie E.I., Ea?aiae??aa I.?., Iooee I.A. Aaoa?iiie?ai?iie no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia – aiae?oe/i? ?aaaaioe a aeaeo?io?i?/ieo iaoiaeao aiae?-co i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, ui i?noyoue acio // Oace aeiiia. ia Anaoe?. eiioa-?aioe?? c aiae?o. o?i??.-1998.-Oaeai?iae.-N .143. 34. V.I. Tkach, L.P. Tsyganok, O.V. Muchik, O.O. Sagadeeva, Y.M.Loshkaryov. Application of ion-selective electrodes in determination of nitrogen – con-taining bioactive compounds.// Eurosensors XII, (Southampton),-1998.-Code 4.3.4.33. Tsiganok L.P., Tkach V.I., Vishnikin A.B., Maltseva G.V. Perspectives of using the Keggin heteropolyanions in analysis. // Internat. Congress of Analyt. Chemistry.-1997.-Miscow.-Vol.1.-P.59. 35. Aeoe?e?i A.A., Oeeaaiie E.I., Oea/ A.?., Aeooiaa I.?., Ea?aiae??aa I.?. Aea/aiiy ?aaeoe?e ooai?aiiy, neioaco oa no?oeoo?e aaoa?iiie?eiiieaen?a aae?th (111). // Oe?. eiioa?aioe?y c iai?aai?/ii? o?i???.-Ee?a.-1996.-N. 188. 36. Oea/ A.E., Ea?aiaeaaaa I.E., Naaaaeaaaa I.I. Eiio?ieue niaea?aeaiey i?aa-ie/aneeo aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo aauanoa a ?aaeueiuo iauaeoao n iiiiuueth iaoiaeia eiiiiao?ee e aiia?iiao?ee.//Iaoa??aee 4-? i?aeia?iae. eiioa?aioe?? "O?aeoe?y oa Oe?a?ia, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae, Aei?i?i-iao?ianuee, 1997.-o.2.-O.2.-N. 120-123. 37. Tkach V.I., Loshkaryov J.M., Sagadeeva O.O., Glukhova O.I., Tsyganok L.P., Karandeeva N.I. Quantitateve determination of the brightenes LV-4584 in the cold galvanising electrolyte and sewage.// NATO Science Programs and Cooperation partners (ARW) "Conversion and ecology", Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine, 1997.-P. 107. Aiioaoe?y. Oea/ A.?. Aaoa?iiie?ai?iie no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia ye aiae?oe/i? ?aaaaioe ia acioai?uoth/? i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith aeieoi?a o?i?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.02 – aiae?oe/ia o?i?y, - Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999 ?. Iaa?oioiaaia aeei?enoaiiy aaoa?iiie?ai?ii?a no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia ye aiae?-oe/iiai ?aaaaioo ia acioai?uoth/? i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie oa canoinoaaiiy iaei-?ic/eiieo anioe?ao?a, ui ooai?ththoueny, ye aeaeo?iaeii-aeoeaii? ?a/iaeie i?e ?ic?iaoe? /ooeeaeo ?iiinaeaeoeaieo aeaeo?iae?a (?NA), cai?ioieo aei aecia-/oaaieo i?aai?/ieo eao?ii?a. Iaaaaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?iaiicoaaiith neeaaeo iaia?aie ?NA a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici???a ? ca?yaeo i?aai?/iiai eao?iio, aaoa?iiie?ai?ii?a, i?e-?iaee oa ?ic/eiiino? aeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaii? ?a/iaeie a aiae? oa a iaia?aieo ?ic/eiieeao-ieanoeo?eaoi?ao, i?e?iaee iao?eoe? oa aieeao oaeeo ??aiiaaaeieo i?ioean?a ye ?iiiee iai?i, ?iiiee ia?aiin oa aeno?aeoe?y ia ia?a?iciiae?e iioaioe?aeaecia/oaaiiai ?iio ia iaae? ?iciiae?eo iaia?aie ?NA – ?ic/ei. ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen /ooeeaeo, aeni?anieo iaoiaeee aecia/aiiy acio-ai?uoth/eo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei a oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo oi?iao, ia'?eoao iaaei-eeuiueiai na?aaeiaeua oa a i?iieneia?e i?iaeoeoe?? iaoiaeaie iioaioe?iiao??? oa aiia?iiao???. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaoa?iiie?ai?iie no?oeoo?e Eaa?ia, ?iiinaeaeoeai? aeaeo?iaee, acioai?uoth/? i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie, ?iiiiao??y, aiia?iiao??y. Summary Tkach V.I. The heteropolyanions of Keggin structure as analytical reagents to the nit-rogen-containing organic substances. Dissertation for the degree of doctor of chemical science on spesiality 02.00.02 - analytical chemistry. The Ukrainian State chemical-technological university. The employment of Keggin structure heteropolyanions as analytical reagent to nitro-gen-containing organic substances and application of formed undersoluble associated com-pounds as electrode-active substances for developing of sensitive ion-selective electrodes, that are reversed to determined organic cations was substantiated. Practical recommendation for prognosis of membrane content for ionselective elect-rodes (ISE) depending on size and charge of organic cations, heteropolyanions, nature and the solubility of electrode-active substances in water and membrane solvent-plastificator, matrix nature and effect of ion exchange, ion transfer and ion extraction to the border of membrane section of ISE-solution were applied. The complex of sensitive, express methods determination of nitrogen-containing organic in pharmaceutical forms were developed by pothentiometry and amperometry. Eey words: heteropolyanions of Keggin structure, ionselective electrodes, nitrogen-containing substances, ionometry, amperometry. Aiiioaoeey Oea/ A.E. Aaoa?iiieeaieiiu no?oeoo?u Eaaaeia eae aiaeeoe/aneea ?aaaaiou ia acioniaea?aeauea i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.02 - aiaeeoe/aneay oeiey. Oe?aeineee Ainoaea?noaaiiue oeieei-oaoiieiae/aneee oieaa?neoao, Aeiai?iiao?iane. Eco/aii acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaie/aneeo eaoeiiia (IE) acioniaea?aeaueo ea-ea?noaaiiuo aauanoa - i?iecaiaeiuo oaiioeaceia, eieaeaciea e aianoaoeeia n aaoa?iiieeaieiiaie (AIA) no?oeoo?u Eaaaeia PMo12O403-, SiMo12O404-, GaMo2W10O405- iaoiaeaie OO-, EE-, ssI?-niaeo?ineiiee i?eaiaeyuaa e ia?aci-aaieth iaei?anoai?eiuo onoie/eauo annioeeaoia oeia (IE)nAIA, eioi?ua i?aaeeiaeaii eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa yeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaiuo aauanoa i?e ?ac?aaioea eiiinaeaeoeaiuo yeaeo?iaeia (ENY), ia?aoeiuo e enneaaeoaiui i?-aaie/aneei eaoeiiai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu aeaiiay ?aaeoeey acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo IE e AIA eniieueciaaia a ea/anoaa aiaeeoe/aneie i?e aiia?iiao?e/aneii e a?aaeiao?e/aneii ii?aaeaeaiee acioniaea?aeaueo i?aaie/aneeo eaoeiiia a eaea?noaaiiuo e aaoa?eia?iuo oi?iao, iauaeoao ie?oaeauae n?aaeu. Onoaiiaeaia caaeneiinoue iniiaiuo yeaeo?iaeiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ac?a-aioaiiuo ENY io i?e?iaeu AIA e IE a yeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaiii aauanoaa iaia?a-iu. Enneaaeiaai eiiiue iaiai acioniaea?aeaueo IE eieaeacieueiiai e oaiioeace-iiaiai ?yaeia ia 12-iieeaaeioinoaoa aiiiiey, /oi iicaieeei auyaeoue ei??aey- oeeth iaaeaeo eiyooeoeeaioaie ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiiiiai iaiaia e eiyooeoeeaioaie iioaioeeiiao?e/aneie naeaeoeaiinoe ?ac?aaioaiiuo ENY. Enneaaeiaaiu oaeaea caeiiiia?iinoe aeeyiey i?e?iaeu iaia?aiiiai ?anoai-?eoaey -ieanoeoeeaoi?a (yoe?u ooaeaaie eeneiou, o?ee?aceeoinoao, o?eaooee-oinoao) e oaeeo ?aaiiaaniuo i?ioeannia, eae yeno?aeoeey, eiiiue iaiai e eiiiue ia?aiin iioaioeeaeii?aaeaeythueo IE ia oi?ie?iaaiea yeaeo?iaeiiai iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea eae aiaeeoe/aneiai neaiaea a eiiiiao?ee, /oi iicai-eyao auae?aoue iioeiaeueiue ninoaa iaia?aiu ENY e i?iaiice?iaaoue eo yeaeo-?iaeiua naienoaa. Oaeaea enneaaeiaaii noiia?iia aeeyiea i?e?iaeu iaia?aiiie iao?eoeu e niaea?aeaiey yeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaiiai aauanoaa a iaia?aia ia yeaeo-?iaeiua oa?aeoea?enoeee ENY, /oi iicaieeei naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu: ENY n iieeaeieeoei?eaeiie e aeae?aooeaeetheiciie iao?eoeaie , eiay iiaeiaiua yeaeo-?iaeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee (eeiaeiinoue e iaeeii yeaeo?iaeiie ooieoeee E=f(pC) ?ac-ee/athony ii naeaeoeaiinoe i?e iieiii ianuuaiee iaia?aiu ENY yeaeo?iaeii-aeoeaiui aauanoaii - 0,25-0,50%. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee oaeaea naeaeaoaeueno-aotho i oii, /oi aeey iieeaeieeoei?eaeiie iaia?aiu oa?aeoa?iu aieaa ieceea cia/aiey iioaioeeiiao?e/aneeo eiyooeoeeaioia naeaeoeaiinoe, a aeae?aooeae-etheiciay iao?eoea a iaia?aia ENY aeaao cia/aiey Kpoti/j aieaa aeeooa?ai-oee?iaaiiua ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe IE e ii?aaeaeaiiiio ooieoeeiiaeueiiio ?yaeo. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eioi?iaoeey ia eiiiie naeaeoeaiinoe ENY iieo/aia i?e eco/aiee eiiiiai ia?aiina IE /a?ac iaia?aiu ENY. Ii?aaeaeaiu /enea ia-?aiina IE ?acee/iuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ?yaeia /a?ac iaia?aio ENY ianuuaiioth yeaeo?iaeiiaeoeaiui aauanoaii (IE)nAIA , eioi?ua auee eniieueciaaiu aeey ?an/aoa o?ainii?oiiai eiyooeoeeaioa naeaeoeaiinoe (Ktr = tkat+/ti+)/. Ei??aeyoeeiiiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo eiyooeoeeaioaie o?ainii?oiie e iioaioeeiiao?e/aneie naeaeoeaiinoe oaeaea iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aeeooa?aioee?othuaa aeeyiea aeae?aooeaeetheiciie iao?eoeu ia eiiiue o?ainii?o IE /a?ac iaia?aio ENY. Enneaaeiaaiea yeaeo?iaeiiai iiaaaeaiey ENY n oiiiaie, ieanoeoeoee?i-aaiiie e oaa?aeie inaaei/iie iaia?aiaie iicaieeei naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi naeaeoeaiinoue ?ac?aaioaiiuo ENY n ieanoeoeoee?iaaiiuie iaia?aiaie ii?aaeaeyaony noiiie yeno?aeoeeiiiiai e eiiiiaiaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiee IE ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea iaia?aia ENY-?anoai?. Eco/aiiua caeiiiia?iinoe ?aaeoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey aaoa?iiieeaieiiia no?oeoo?u Eaaaeia n IE acioniaea?aeaueo aeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa iicaieeee oai-?aoe/anee e yenia?eiaioaeueii iainiiaaoue i?eiaiaiea AIA no?oeoo?u Eaaaeia a ea/anoaa aiaeeoe/aneeo ?aaaaioia a aiaeeca acioniaea?aeaueo IE e ?ac-?aaioaoue ieanoeoeoee?iaaiiua ENY, iaeaaeathuea aeinoaoi/iie /oanoaeoaeueiin-oueth e naeaeoeaiinoueth e enneaaeoaiui acioniaea?aeauei i?aaie/aneei eaoeiiai. Oaeaea ?ac?aaioaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?iaiice?iaaieth ninoaaa iaia?ai ENY a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a e ca?yaea IE e AIA, i?e?iaeu e ?anoai-?eiinoe ia?acothueony annioeeaoia a aiaea e a iaia?aiiuo ?anoai?eoaeyo, i?e-?iaeu iao?eoeu e aeeyiey ?aaiiaaniuo i?ioeannia eiiiiai iaiaia, yeno?aeoeee e eiiiiai ia?aiina iioaioeeaeii?aaeaeythuaai IE ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea oac iai-a?aia ENY-?anoai?. ?ac?aaioai ?yae /oanoaeoaeueiuo, yeni?anniuo iaoiaeee ei-ee/anoaaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey acioniaea?aeaueo IE a oa?iaoeaaoe/aneeo oi?iao e a i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee iaoiaeaie iioaioeeiiao?ee e aiia?iiao?ee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaoa?iiieeaieiiu no?oeoo?u Eaaaeia, eiinaeaeoeaiua yeae-o?iaeu, acioniaea?aeauea i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa, eiiiiao?ey, aiia?iiao?ey.

Похожие записи