IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IIIIE?ENOAE?A

IO?IAAAIAAOIA

Ieaen?e TH??eiae/

OAeE 539.12: 530.12

AAIIAO?E*I? IAOIAeE A OAI??ssO OI*EIAEO OA IIAeIAAEAIEO
?AEssOEA?NONUeEEO IA’?EO?A

01.04. 02 — oai?aoe/ia o?ceea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa

o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a IIOe “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee,

Aaiaein ?ai? Aiaoie?eiae/, ?inoeooo oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee IIOe

“Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie,

Iaeaoieinueeee Na?a?e Aieiaeeie?iae/, ?inoeooo oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee IIOe

“Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”,

ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eo

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,

Ceia Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? yaea?ii? o?ceee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ”19” o?aaiy 199_9__?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.169.01 i?e ?inoeooo? iiiie?enoae?a
ca aae?anith: 310001, Oa?e?a-001, i?iniaeo Eai?ia, 60.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie, 310001, Oa?e?a-001, i?iniaeo Eai?ia, 60.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_16” ea?oiy 1999_?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae 64.169.01

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe
Ao?iuaiei E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?icaeoie eaaioiai? oai??? iiey, ui i?ea?a aei
iiaoaeiae ia’?aeiaii? aeaeo?ineaaei? oai??? oa Noaiaea?oii? Iiaeae?,
aecia/ea aieiaio oaiaeaioe?th no/anii? o?ceee aenieeo aia?a?e —
i?aaiaiiy aei oi?o?eaoe?? an?o ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aca?iiae?e. Iaeiae,
iacaaaeath/e ia iaaiee oni?o, aeinyaiooee o oeueiio iai?yieo, ?yae
i?eioeeiiaeo i?iaeai, aei yeeo a?aeiineoueny ? i?iaeaia iiaoaeiae
eaaioiai? oai??? a?aa?oaoe??, noeioeth? iiooee iiaeo o?ce/ieo oai??e,
iecueeiaia?aaoe/ia a?aieoey yeeo aeeth/aea a o naaa ? Noaiaea?oio
Iiaeaeue.

Na?aae oeeo oai??e iaea?eueo ia?oeyth/ei eaiaeeaeaoii ia iiaoaeiao
?aeeii? oai??? an?o aca?iiae?e ? oai??y noia?no?oi, yea oa?a?aea a naaa
aeinyaiaiiy aeoaeueieo iiaeaeae, oai??? aiciiieo ? oa?i?iiieo no?oi,
eiioi?iii? oai??? iiey, noia?neiao??? ? oai??? Eaeooee-Eeaeia. A ?aieao
oe??? oai??? a?aa?oaoe?y i?eoyao?oueny aei ?icaeyaeo c naiiai ii/aoeo,
ine?eueee niaeo? aacianiaeo noai?a caieiaii? no?oie i?noeoue a?aa?oii.
A?eueo oiai, a oai??? aaoa?ioe/ii? no?oie aeiiaa eaaioiai?
ocaiaeaeaiino? oai??? i?ecaiaeeoue aei o?enaoe?? eae?a?iai/ii? a?oie, c
yeith iia’ycai? oaeiae ? eae?a?iai/i? aiciie — iin?? ?ioeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aca?iiae?e.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oe? i/aaeaei? ia?aaaae, oai??y no?oi ana ua aeaeaea a?ae
iiaiiai caaa?oaiiy. Aei /enea ia?ica’ycaieo i?iaeai iaeaaeeoue oa, ui,
ii — ia?oa, aeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaiith ? o?eueee iiaeaeue iiiaeeiiei?
no?oie, ui eaaioo?oueny eeoa ia?oo?aaoeaii (a?eueoa oiai, i?iaeaia
eiaa??aioiiai eaaiooaaiiy noia?no?oie caeeoa?oueny aein? a?aee?eoith) ?
ia a?aeiia iiaoi?ii eaaioiaaia aai ae iieueiaa oai??y no?oi. Iaeiae,
yeui iaiaaeeoeny ?icaeyaeii aacianiaeo iiae no?oie, ui ia? niene aeey
aia?a?e ieae/eo ianooaao no?oiiiai iaoyao, iiaeia iieacaoe, ui
iecueeiaia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeaia ae?y aeey oeeo iiae ni?aiaaea? c ae??th
aeey a?aeiia?aeii? noia?a?aa?oaoe??. Oae? noia?a?aa?oaoe?ei? oai??? ia
iiaeooue aooe ia?aii?iiai?, aea ?o ??aiyiiy iathoue eeane/i? nie?oiii?
?ica’ycee, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue nie?oiiai o iiai?e oai??? no?oi.

Ii-ae?oaa, ??ciyoueny i’youe ocaiaeaeaieo oai??e no?oi, eiaeia c yeeo
iiaea i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia ?ieue ?aeeii? oai???. Ie??i oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i
a?eueoo ?aae?noe/i?noue c oi/ee ci?o oaiiiaiieia?? o??? /e ?ioi? oai???
no?oi, oio?einy a iaoe a?eueo aaaii? i?aenoaae aeey ciaioaiiy ?o /enea.
Iiaeeeai, ui i?e aeoiae? ca iaae? ia?oo?aaoeaiiai iieno ? a?aooaaii?
an?o iaia?oo?aaoeaieo aoaeo?a, i’youe ??cieo oai??e aeyaeyoueny i’youeia
??cieie «iaee//yie» iaei??? e o??? ae o?ceee. Oey ?aei?noue
oi?ioeth?oueny iiaith aeoaeueiinoae: O-aeoaeueiino?, ui i?iyaey?oueny
aaea ia ia?oo?aaoeaiiio ??ai?, a oaeiae S — ? U — aeoaeueiinoae, ye? ?
nooo?ai iaia?oo?aaoeaieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie i?ae oai??yie noia?no?oi.
Oe? o?e oeie aeoaeueiino? caieeathoue ea?oeio ia’?aeiaiiy an?o oai??e
noia?no?oi o iaaeao iaeeiaaeoeyoeaei??ii? I-oai???, iecueeiaia?aaoe/iith
a?aieoeath yei? ? iaeeiaaeoeyoeaei??ia oai??y noia?a?aa?oaoe??.

Aiane?aeie nooo?ai iaia?oo?aaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o I-oai???, aaaeeeaei ?
aea/aiiy nie?oiiieo p-a?ai. Oe? ?icoe?ai? ia’?eoe, ui i?enooi? a
I-oai??? /e a oai??yo no?oi, anioe?ththoueny c eeane/ieie ?ica’yceaie
a?aeiia?aeieo noia?a?aa?oaoe?e. On? a?aie ? aoaeoeaii iaia?oo?aaoeaieie
ia’?eoaie: ?oi? iane (aai iaoya) i?iii?oe?ei? iaa?iai?e noaiai?
eiinoaioe ca’yceo. Aeaye? c oeeo nie?oii?a iiaeia aea/aoe
aaciina?aaeiuei a iaaeao ia?oo?aaoeaii? oai??? ye Aee?eoea (aai D-p) —
a?aie, ye? aeieeathoue i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeanoeainoae
iecueeiaia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaii? ae?? aeey a?aee?eoeo no?oi, ui aeicaiey?
ae?noaoe aaaaoi ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?oith aeeiai?eo, a aeaye? c oeeo
?acoeueoao?a iiaeooue aooe iiaeiaaeai? ia ?io? a?aie ca aeiiiiiaith
aeoaeueiinoae, ui aea? i?ea?ae aiai?eoe i?i oae caaio “?-a?aiio
aeaiie?ao?th», eiee an? p-a?aie ? ??aiii?aaieie ia’?eoaie, ye? iia’ycai?
i?ae niaith ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie aeoaeueiino?. A?eueo?noue a?ai iathoue
iao?ea?aeuei? iecueeiaia?aaoe/i? aoaeoeai? oai???, icia/ai? ia ?oiueiio
na?oiaiio ia’?i?, aea/aiiy yeeo ? ie?aiith i?iaeaiith. Na?aae
??ciiiai?oieo caaea/, ui ?ica’ycothoueny i?e aeine?aeaeaii? oai??e
oi/eiaeo oa iiaeiaaeaieo noia?neiao?e/ieo ia’?eo?a, ne?ae iniaeeai
aeae?eeoe ?icaeoie aaiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a aea/aiiy. Canoinoaaiiy oaeeo
iaoiae?a a oai??? iiaeiaaeaieo ia’?eo?a ? noia?/anoeiie c ?icoe?aiith
noia?neiao???th aeaeyaea? oe?eeii i?e?iaeiei, ine?eueee i?ino?oa ca ana
oai??y oeeo ia’?eo?a oi?ioeth?oueny a oa?i?iao noia?iiaa?oiiue,
aeeaaeaieo a i?eiaa?aeiee i?inoi?iai-/aniaee iiiaiaeae. Ciaiiy
aaiiao?e/ieo, neiao??eieo ? aeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaeiaaeaieo
ia’?eo?a aaaeeeaa aeey aeeaoiai ?icoi?iiy ?oi?o ca’yce?a i?ae niaith,
eio?? aeieeathoue ca ?ici??ii? ?aaeoeoe?? oa anoaiiaeththoueny ??cieie
aeaeaie aeoaeueiinoae, ?o aca?iiae?? c i?inoi?iai-/aniaeie iieyie, a
oaeiae aeey iiooeo oi?ioethaaiue oai???, iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoieo aeey
?ica’yceo i?iaeaie eiaa??aioiiai eaaiooaaiiy.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — iiaoaeiaa iiaeo oi?ioethaaiue oai???
oi/eiaeo oa iiaeiaaeaieo noia?neiao?e/ieo ?aeyoea?nonueeeo ia’?eo?a, a
naia:

· Iiaoaeiaa aea?/? noia?neiao?e/iiai oa?noi?iiiae?aiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iieno noia?-

iieueiaeo iiaeaeae noia?/anoeiie, a?eueieo a?ae i?iaeaie
iane?i/aiii ca?aeieo

neiao??e.

· Iiaoaeiaa oi?iae?cio ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae?? aeey iieno
noia?iieueiaeo ii-

aeaeae noia?/anoeiie ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue ?o aca?iiae?? c
aeaeo?iiaai?oiei

oiiiaei iieai.

· Iaea?aeaiiy ??aiyiue ?ooo, ui iienothoue ciai?oith aaiiao??th
noia?/anoeiie a

oiiiaeo iieyo.

· Iiaoaeiaa aoaeoeaieo ae?e aeey oai??? c naiiaeoaeueieie eae?a?iai/ieie
iieyie,

o oiio /ene? ae?? aeey nie?oii?a I-oai??? c naiiaeoaeueieie
eae?a?iai/ieie iiey-

ie ia ?oueiiio na?oiaiio ia’?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny ianooiieie ?acoeueoaoaie, ui
iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii:

1. A ?aieao aea?/? noia?neiao?e/iiai oa?noi?iiiae?aiiai i?aeoiaeo
iiaoaeiaaia iiaa oi?io-

ethaaiiy aacianiai? N=1 noia?/anoeiee o aei??iino? i?inoi?o —
/ano D=3, 4, 6, a?eueia

a?ae i?iaeaie iane?i/aiii ca?aeieo neiao??e ? oaea, ui
aeicaiey? ia?aoi?ioethaaiiy a

oa?i?iao noia?oa?noi??a, a oaeiae aeiaaaeaia ?? eeane/ia
aea?aaeaioi?noue cae/aei?e eiiii-

iaioi?e aa?n?? noia?/anoeiee A??iea — Oaa?oey.

2. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia ocaaaeueiaia ae?y aeey N=1 noia?/anoeiee o
aei??iino? i?inoi?o —

/ano D=10 c iaca?aeieie neiao??yie, aeaaa?a yeeo caieiooa iica
ianiaith iaieiieith, ?

aeiaaaeaia ?? eeane/ia aea?aaeaioi?noue noia?/anoeioe?
A??iea-Oaa?oey. Iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy,

ui iienothoue ciai?oith aaiiao??th noia?/anoeiee a
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiio oiiiaiio iie?,

o oi?i? iiaeaiiy ioeueiai? e?eaeie.

3. Aia?oa iiaoaeiaaiee ocaaaeueiaiee ooieoe?iiae ae?? aeey
noia?iaia?aie a D=4 i?inoi?? —

/an?, a?eueiee a?ae i?iaeaie iane?i/aiii? ca?aeiino? neiao??e ?
ciaeaeaii iiaiee iaa?? ??a-

iyiue, ye? iienothoue ciai?oith aaiiao??th D=4 noia?iaia?aie.

4. Aeey iiaii? eiaa??aioii? ae?? noia?-i’yoe-a?aie, ui ? nie?oiiii
iaeeiaaeoeyoeaei??ii? I —

oai???, aeiaaaeaia ?nioaaiiy ni?ii?iiai iao?e/iiai i?iaeoi?a o
oa?i?iiieo ia?aoai?ai-

iyo iie?a na?oiaiai ia’?io i’yoe-a?aie oa iieacaii, ui oe?
ia?aoai?aiiy ? eieaeueiith ne-

iao???th i’yoe-a?aiii? ae??.

5. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia ae?y aeey aeoaeueii-neiao?e/ii? o?e-a?aie,
ui ? nie?oiiii oai???

noia?no?oi oeio IIB, ? iiaoaeiaaia aoaeoeaia ae?y oai???
noia?no?oi oeio IIB c o?e — a?ai-

iei aeaea?aeii.

Iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
a?aeiinyoueny aei aaeocae, ui ?ioaineaii aea/athoueny no/aniith
oai?aoe/iith o?ceeith, oaeeo ye I-oai??y ? oai??y noia?no?oi, ? ?
aaciaeie aeey aeeaoiai ?icoi?iiy aaiiao?e/ieo ? neiao??eieo aeanoeainoae
noia?neiao?e/ieo iiaeiaaeaieo ?aeyoea?nonueeeo ia’?eo?a, ?oi?o ca’yce?a
i?ae niaith ca aeiiiiiaith aeoaeueiino?, a oaeiae aeey ?icoi?iiy
no?oeoo?e I-oai???. Aeaia ?iaioa cae?enithaaeanue ca?aeii c oaiaoe/iei
ieaiii IIOe OOO? oa i?iaeoii AeEIO Oe?a?ie ?2.5.1/52 (1997-1998 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 7 ?iaioao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia oai?aoe/ieo nai?ia?ao a OOO? (Oa?e?a),
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeoi?aa?neoao? ? Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aenueeiio
aea?aeoi?aa?neoao?. *anoeia ?acoeueoao?a, ye? a?eoee a aeena?oaoe?th,
aoea i?aaenoaaeaia ia I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Noia?neiao??y oa
eaaioia? neiao???» (Aeoaia, eeiaiue 1994 ?.; Aeoaia, 26 — 30 aa?aniy
1995 ?.; Aeoaia, 2 — 4 a?oaeiy 1996 ?.), ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
«Aeeo?aeoe?y — 95″ (Iiaee Na?o, 7 — 12 aa?aniy 1995 ?.), ia
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai o?ceee aenieeo aia?a?e oa eaaioiai?
oai??? iiey (Caai?ai?iae, 19 — 25 aa?aniy 1995 ?.), oa ia XXXIII
I?aeia?iaei?e ceiia?e oeie? «Aeoaeueiinoue: No?oie ? Iiey» (Ea?ia/, 13
— 22 ethoiai 1997 ?.).

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?eia iniiaiiai oaenoo, aeniiae?a oa nieneo oeeoiaaii?
e?oa?aoo?e, ui i?noeoue 147 iineeaiue ia ia?oiaeaea?aea. Iiaiee ianya
?iaioe neeaaea? 138 noi??iie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aoee aeeiiai? iniaenoi aaoi?ii aai ca eiai
iniiaiiieiaeii? o/ano?.

Aaoi?ia? iaeaaeaoue ianooii? ?acoeueoaoe:

· o ?iaioao [1,2] iiaoaeiaaia iiaa oi?ioethaaiiy ae?? aacianiai? N=1
noia?/anoeiee o aei??iino? i?inoi?o-/ano D=3,4,6, ciaeaeaii neiao???
cai?iiiiiaaii? ae?? e aeiaaaeaia ?? eeane/ia aea?aaeaioi?noue
noia?/anoeioe? A??iea-Oaa?oey.

· o ?iaio? [4] cai?iiiiiaaia ocaaaeueiaia ae?y aeey N=1 noia?/anoeiee,
ciaeaeaii ?? neiao??? oa iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy, ui iienothoue ciai?oith
aaiiao??th noia?/anoeiee a aeaeo?iiaai?oiiio oiiiaiio iie?.

· o ?iaioao [5,6] aeiaaaeaia ?nioaaiiy ni?ii?iiai iao?e/iiai i?iaeoi?o
aeey iiaii? eiaa??aioii? ae?? noia?-i’yoe-a?aie I-oai??? ? c eiai
aeiiiiiaith aeiaaaeaia ?iaa??aioi?noue ae?? noia?-i’yoe-a?aie a?aeiinii
ia?aoai?aiue eaia-neiao???.

?iaioe [3,7] iiai?noth aeeiiai? aeena?oaioii. A?i iniaenoi a?aa o/anoue
a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a on?o ?iaio, a oaeiae o ?o ioi?ieaii? oa
iiaeaii? ia an?o ??aiyo a?o/eciyieo oa caei?aeiieo nai?ia??a,
eiioa?aioe?e, oe?e.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

A anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ieoaiue, ui aea/athoueny, ie?aneaii
no/aniee noai i?iaeai, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny, a?aoiaioiaaia
aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe oa
iaaaaeaii noeneee iaeyae ci?noo aeena?oaoe?? ca ?icae?eaie.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? cai?iiiiiaaia, aeueoa?iaoeaia a?aeiiiio,
oi?ioethaaiiy noia?iieueiai? ae?? oa?noi?iiiae?aii? noia?/anoeiee o D=3,
4, 6 aei??ao i?inoi?o-/ano. Oaaaeaiiy ni?ii?ieo ia?anoaaieo ci?iieo —
oa?noi??a — aeicaiey? o ei?aioe-eiaa??aioiee niin?a ?icae?eeoe a’yc?
ia?oiai oa ae?oaiai ?iaeo ? aeae?eeoe iaca?aei? oa?i?iii? a’yc? ia?oiai
?iaeo, ui aaia?othoue ia?aoai?aiiy eaia-neiao???. Ie??i oeueiai,
oa?noi?e aeicaieythoue oaeiae c?icoi?oe i?e?iaeo aeieeiaiiy
eaia-neiao??? ye ne?aeo a?ae eieaeueii? noia?neiao??? ia na?oia?e
iiaa?oi? iiaeiaaeaiiai noia?neiao?e/iiai ia’?eoo.

A iniia? i?aeoiaeo, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, eaaeeoue eiioeaioe?y
oa?noi?ii? a?aeiia?aeiino?, ui aaciina?aaei?i /eiii aeieea? c
aeanoeainoae iiaea?eii? noia?neiao??? oai???: eii?aeeiaoe noia?i?inoi?o
aeeaaeaiiy (na?oiaiai noia?i?inoi?o) noathoue noia?iieyie ia i?inoi??
na?oiai? iiaa?oi?, a eiiiiiaioe oa?noi??a ?icaeyaeathoueny ye
noia?ia?oia?e ni?ii?ieo eii?aeeiao na?oiaiai noia?i?inoi?o. I?iaeooaaiiy
oa?i?iiieo a’ycae ia oa?noi?i? iai?yiee aeicaiey? o iaca?aeiee niin?a
cae?enieoe ?o ei?aioe-eiaa??aioiee iiae?e ia a’yc? ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai
?iaeo, ui a?aee?eaa? iia? iiaeeeaino? o ?ica’yceo i?iaeaie eiaa??aioiiai
eaaiooaaiiy. Ioaea, o iaaeao oa?noi?iiiae?aiiai aea?/? noia?neiao?e/iiai
i?aeoiaeo eieaeueia oa?i?iiia neiao??y, iaiao?aeia aeey c??aithaaiiy
aiciiieo ? oa?i?iiieo o?ce/ieo noaiai?a naiaiaee iiaeiaaeaiiai ia’?eoo
(noia?-p-a?aie), cai?ith?oueny eieaeueiith noia?neiao???th na?oiaiai
ia’?io noia?-p-a?aie, ? oai??y oi?ioeth?oueny ye noia?iieueiaa oai??y ia
noia?i?inoi?? na?oiaiai eenoa, aeeaaeaiiai a ioiiethth/ee noia?i?ino??.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui niaoeeo?eaoe?y aeacaiiai aeeaaeaiiy, iaiao?aeia
aeey ocaiaeaeaiiy noia?iieueiaiai (ia na?oiaiio eeno?) ? eiiiiiaioiiai
oi?ioethaaiue, i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaaieo o?oaeiiu?a, ui iia’ycai? a ia?oo
/a?ao c? no?oeoo?ith ae??, ui i?noeoue noia?iieueia? iiiaeieee
Eaa?aiaea. ?o oaaaeaiiy caaacia/o? aeeiiaiiy ia iania?e iaieiioe?
aaiiao?iaeeiai?/iiai eiino?aeioo, ui niaoeeo?eo? aeeaaeaiiy na?oiai?
noia?iiaa?oi? a ioiiethth/ee noia?i?ino??. Aeyaey?oueny, ui iiiaeieee
Eaa?aiaea i?noyoue i?iiaaoth/? noaiai? naiaiaee, ye? ii?ooothoue
o?ce/iee ci?no oai???. Aeey onoiaiiy oaeeo noaiai?a naiaiaee iaiao?aeii
oaaaeaiiy iiaeo neiao??e, ui ? iane?i/aiii ca?aeieie. Ioaea, i?e?iaeiei
/eiii aeieea? ieoaiiy i?i ia?aoi?ioethaaiiy aea?/? noia?neiao?e/iiai
i?aeoiaeo a oa?i?iao aeia?a icia/aieo aaiiao?e/ieo ia’?eo?a ia na?oia?e
noia?iiaa?oi? ? a i?inoi?? aeeaaeaiiy, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue ? oa?noi?e
(aai aa?iii?ee) aac Eaa?aiaeaaeo iiiaeiee?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1. ?icae?eo 1 cai?iiiiiaaia aeueoa?iaoeaia aei
a?aeiii? aa?n?y aea?/? noia?neiao?e/ii? ae?? noia?/anoeiee o
i?inoi??-/an? aei??iino? D=3, ui a?ae ii/aoeo aeaeyaea? iaeneiaeueii
“oa?noi?iiiae?aii». Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiaeaeae, cai?iiiiiaaieo ?ai?oa,
oea oi?ioethaaiiy aaco?oueny ia aea?/? noia?neiao?e/iiio ocaaaeueiaii?
ae??, cai?iiiiiaaii? a ?iaioao Oa?aa?a ? Oe?aooaeae? ? ia i?noeoue
noia?iieueiaeo iiiaeiee?a Eaa?aiaea, a, ye iane?aeie, ? iane?i/aiii
ca?aeieo neiao??e. O i?ae?icae?eao 1.2. ? 1.3. i?iiiiiaaia oi?ioethaaiiy
ocaaaeueith?oueny ia aeiaaeie aeueo aei??iinoae D=4, 6, c aeei?enoaiiyi
i?eioeeio iiaea?eii? aiae?oe/iino?, ? aeiaiaeeoueny eiai eeane/ia
aea?aaeaioi?noue eiiiiiaioi?e aa?n?? noia?/anoeiee A??iea-Oaa?oey.

Ia aeaeue, i?iiiiiaaia oi?ioethaaiiy ia i?eionea? iiaoaeiao
noia?/anoeiee a D=10, ui iia’ycaii c iniaeeainoyie ?ioaa?oaaiiy ca
iiaiith i??ith, yea aeeth/a? a niaa ?ioaa?oaaiiy ia o?eueee ca aiciiieie
eii?aeeiaoaie, ui ia?aiao?ecothoue na?oiao iiaa?oith, aea e ca ?o
a?anniaiiaeie noia?ia?oia?aie, a oaeiae c a?aenooi?noth i?inoiai aiaeiao
i?eioeeio iiaea?eii? aiae?oe/iino?, a?aeiiiai a D=4, 6, a D=10, ui ?, a
naith /a?ao, a?aeaeooyi ia?ica’ycaiino? aeaaiuei? i?iaeaie iiaoaeiae N=4
oai??? noia?-yiaa-i?ena iica ianiaith iaieiieith. Iaeiae, ?ica’ycie
i?iaeaie iiaoaeiae ae?? aeey D=10 noia?/anoeiee aac ca?aeieo neiao??e
iiaea aooe aeaiee o ?aieao oae caaiiai «ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae??».

O ?icae?e? 2 cai?iiiiiaaia oi?ioethaaiiy N=1 noia?/anoeiee a oi?iae?ci?
ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae??. A ?aieao oaeiai i?aeoiaeo iiaeeeaa
iiaoaeiaa aea?/? noia?neiao?e/ii? noia?iieueiai? aa?n?? D=10
noia?/anoeiee, a?eueii? a?ae i?iaeaie iayaiino? iane?i/aiii ca?aeieo
neiao??e.

A oi?iae?ci? ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae??, ooieoe?iiae ae?? aeey
oi/eiaeo ? iiaeiaaeaieo ?aeyoea?nonueeeo ia’?eo?a aoaeo?oueny c
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo noia?oi?i, iaiaaia ?iaa??aioieo a?aeiinii
ia?aoai?aiue noia?neiao??? o na?oiaiio i?inoi??-/an?, ? i?iaeoe?e
o?eaaei?a na?oiaiai noia?i?inoi?o ia ei?aioeaa? aa?iii?ee (ci?ii?
?ooiiiai ?aia?a). Ia a?aei?io a?ae cae/aeieo aea?/? noia?neiao?e/ieo
noia?iieueiaeo aa?n?e noia?/anoeiie, noia?no?oi ? noia?iaia?ai,
?ioaa?oaaiiy aaaeaoueny ii aiciiiiio i?aei?inoi?o noia?i?inoi?o
na?oiaiai ia’?io, iaeiae aaaaea?oueny, ui a?aniaiia? noia?ia?oia?e
aiciiieo eii?aeeiao, ui ia?aiao?ecothoue na?oiaee ia’?i, ? ooieoe?yie
inoaii?o. Iaeiae, ine?eueee aa??aoe?y ii iiai?e noia?iiaa?oi?, aeeth/ii
c aa??aoe??th ca a?aniaiiaeie eii?aeeiaoaie, ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaeo
??aiyiue ?ooo, ??aiyiiy ?ooo, ui aeieeaathoue c ooieoe?iiaeo
ocaaaeueiaii? ae??, iiaeooue aooe iioe?ai? ia oaanue noia?i?ino??
na?oiaiai ia’?io. Oaeei /eiii, oea ?ica’yco? i?iaeaio ?icaoaeiae aea?/?
noia?neiao??/ii? oai???, a?eueii? a?ae i?enooiino? iane?i/aiii ca?aeieo
neiao??e.

Ia aeaeue, i?iaeaia eiaa??aioiiai eaaiooaaiiy a oi?iae?ci?
ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae?? caeeoa?oueny ua a?aee?eoith, aiane?aeie
iae?i?eii? ?aae?caoe?? iaca?aeieo neiao??e.

Noia?/anoeiea ? aeia?ith iiaeaeeth aeey aea/aiiy caaaeueieo aeanoeainoae
aaiiao?e/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei iieno noia?neiao?e/ieo iiaeiaaeaieo ia’?eo?a
o ieineiio ? aee?eaeaiiio i?inoi??-/an?, a oaeiae aeey ia?oeo e?ie?a o
iai?yieo aei aea/aiiy iiaeeeaino? eiaa??aioiiai eaaiooaaiiy a ?aieao
ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae??.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1. ?icaeyiooa oi?ioethaaiiy N=1 noia?/anoeiee o
aeia?eueiiio (D=3, 4, 6, 10) i?inoi?? — /an?. I?ae?icae?e 2.1.1.
aeeth/a? a naaa iiaoaeiao ooieoe?iiaeo ocaaaeueiaii? ae?? ? iien Ei?aioe
— aa?iii?/ieo ci?iieo. Neiao??? ae?? ? aeieeaath/? c ia? ??aiyiiy ?ooo
i?iaiae?ciaai? a 2.1.2., aea iieacaii, ui an? neiao??? ?aae?ciaai? o
iaca?aeiee niin?a, ?o aeaaa?a caieiooa, a ??aiyiiy ?ooo ae?eyoueny ia
aeania ??aiyiiy ?ooo, aecia/aeuei? oiiae ianiai? iaieiiee, ? ia oae
caai? ?aio?iii? oiiae, ui anoaiiaeththoue ca’ycie i?ae ?aia?aie o
na?oiaiio noia?i?inoi?? ? ia na?oia?e o?a?eoi??? noia?/anoeiee. A 2.1.3.
aeine?aeaeothoueny oiiae ?ioaa?iaiino? ?aio?iiieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue iica
ianiaith iaieiieith ? aecia/a?oueny iaa?? noia?iie?a aeey iieno N=1
noia?/anoeiee “off-shell». I?ae?icae?ee 2.1.4. ? 2.1.5. i?enay/ai?
aeiaaaeaiith noia?aeeoaiii?oii? ?iaa??aioiino? ae??, ui i?iiiio?oueny, ?
iieno noia?/anoeiee ia iania?e iaieiioe? c aeiaaaeaiiyi eeane/ii?
aea?aaeaioiino? cae/aeiiio eiiiiiaioiiio oi?ioethaaiith N=1
noia?/anoeiee. Ia?aoo?, a i?ae?icae?e? 2.1.6. iaaaaeaia oi?ia ae??
noia?/anoeiee a aiae?oe/iiio aacen? eii?aeeiao na?oiaiai noia?i?inoi?o,
a yeiio i?e?iaeiei /eiii a?aeuaieaia iieiaeia aiciiieo ? iieiaeia
oa?i?iiieo eii?aeeiao. Oaeee aeaeyae ae?? aeaea?oueny aaaeeeaei aeey
iiaeaeueoeo ni?ia iiooeo oeyo?a eiaa??aioiiai eaaiooaaiiy a ?aieao
ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae??.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2. aeine?aeaeo?oueny aca?iiae?y noia?/anoeiee c
iaenaae?anueeei oiiiaei iieai. Aeiiaa caa?aaeaiiy an?o neiao??e a?eueii?
ae?? iaeeaaea?, ye iieacaii a 2.2.1., noaiaea?oi? iaiaaeaiiy ia
noia?iieueiaee aaea?aoiae, a iien ciai?oiuei? aaiiao??? noia?/anoeiee ia
aaaeaaiio oe? aea?oueny o i?ae?icae?e? 2.2.2.. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui
iiaeeea?noue iiaoaeiae noaiaea?oii? i?i?iaeueii? aca?iiae??
noia?/anoeiee c ciai?oi?i iaenaae?anueeei iieai i?yii iia’ycaia c
iacaeaaei?noth ?aio?iiieo oiia ? ??aiyiue ?ooo: oiiae ?ioaa?iaiino?, ui
iaeeaaeathoueny ia ?aio?iii? ca’ycee, ia iiaeii? i?ecaiaeeoe aei
aeeiai?/ieo ??aiyiue. Iaeiae, ye aoaea iieacaii o ianooiiiio ?icae?e?,
oaea neooaoe?y ?aae?co?oueny ia caaaeaee. Ie??i oeueiai, iaiao?aeii
a?aecia/eoe oie oaeo, ui ??aiyiiy, ye? iienothoue ciai?oith aaiiao??th
noia?/anoeiee a oiiiaiio aeaeo?iiaai?oiiio iie?, iathoue aeaeyae oiia
ioeueiai? e?eaeie, ?, ioaea, iiaeooue aooe, i?eiaeii? oi?iaeueii,
?ica’ycai? oi/ii.

O ?icae?e? 3 cai?iiiiiaaia oi?ioethaaiiy N=1 D=4 noia?iaia?aie a
oi?iae?ci? ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae??. N=1 D=4 noia?iaia?aia ?
iaei?ino?oei i?eeeaaeii noia?-p-a?ai c p>1, aeey yei?, o ii??aiyii? c
D=11 noia?iaia?aiith, ?noioii ni?iuo?oueny aiae?c ??aiyiue aaiiao?e/iiai
i?aeoiaeo, o?nii iia’ycaiiai c ocaaaeueiaiei i?eioeeiii ae??. O ?icae?e?
aeei?enoiao?oueny oaoi?ea aaeoi?ieo ? ni?ii?ieo ei?aioeaaeo aa?iii?e, ui
aeicaiey? iiaoaeoaaoe aea?/? noia?neiao?e/iee ooieoe?iiae ae?? aeey
noia?iaia?aie, yeee ia i?noeoue iane?i/aiii ca?aeieo neiao??e
noaiaea?oiiai oa?noi?iiiae?aiiai i?aeoiaeo. E??i oiai, oi?iae?ci
ocaaaeueiaiiai ooieoe?iiaeo ae?? aeicaiey? c??aiyoe a i?aaao e?iaoe/iee
oa aan-coi?i?anueeee /eaie, ine?eueee, ia a?aei?io a?ae noaiaea?oiiai
oi?ioethaaiiy, ooieoe?iiae ae?? iiai?noth iiaoaeiaaiee c
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo oi?i.

Ciaeaeai? ??aiyiiy ?ooo D=4 noia?iaia?aie iathoue aeaeyae ?aio?iiieo
oiia, ui anoaiiaeththoue ca’ycie i?ae ?aia?aie na?oiaiai noia?i?inoi?o ?
noia?i?inoi?o na?oiaiai ia’?io, oa aeeiai?/ieo ??aiyiue ?ooo, ye?
aecia/athoue o?a?eoi??th ?ooo iaia?aie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae ?ioaa?iaiino? ?aio?iiieo oiia
i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?e?iaeiiai iaiaaeaiiy ia noia?iiea ne?ooo ia
noia?i?inoi?? na?oiaiai ia’?ia noia?iaia?aie o aeaeyae? noaiaea?oieo
a’ycie noia?a?aa?oaoe??, a oaeiae i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??aiyiiy ?ooo
noia?iaia?aie, ui i?noeoue “noia?iiea iaoa???” c? ni?iii 3/2. Ciai?oiy
aaiiao??y noia?iaia?aie aecia/a?oueny ??aiyiiyie Aaona oa
Iaoa?niia-Eiaeaoe?, ui aeicaiey? ciaeoe ae?ace aeey e?eaeie
noia?iiaa?oi? a oa?i?iao iaoa??aeueiiai noia?iiey ni?ia 3/2, aeiaanoe,
ui oea noia?iiea ? noia?ia?oia?ii ae?oai? ooiaeaiaioaeueii? oi?ie
iiaa?oi?, ?, caaaeyee oeueiio, caeiaooe iiaiee iien noia?iieueiaiai
oi?ioethaaiiy iaia?aie a oa?i?iao ciai?oiuei? aaiiao???.

?icae?e 4 i?enay/aii aea/aiith eiaa??aioii? ae?? noia?neiao?e/ii?
i’yoe-a?aie I-oai???, i?iiaaoth/i? ia oe? iie?a iaeeiaaeoeyoeaei??ii?
noia?a?aa?oaoe??. sse ? o aeiaaeeo cae/aeieo noia?-p-a?ai ?
Aee?eoea-p-a?ai (ui iaceaathoueny noia?-Dp-a?aiaie), iayai?noue
eieaeueii? oa?i?iiii? neiao??? (eaia-neiao???) ? eeth/iaei
?ia?aae??ioii, ui caaacia/o? ??ai?noue /enae aiciiieo oa oa?i?iiieo
o?ce/ieo noaiai?a naiaiaee.

I?ae?aooiie aiciiieo noaiai?a naiaiaee aeaco? ia iaiao?aei?noue
iayaiino? ia na?oiaiio ia’?iia? i’yoe-a?aie naiiaeoaeueiiai
eae?a?iai/iiai iiey ae?oaiai ?aiao, ui e aoei iniiaiith ia?aoeiaeith ia
oeyoo iiaoaeiae eiaa??aioii? ae?? aeey oeueiai ia’?eoo. Aeiaaee /an
aaaaeaeiny, ui naiiaeoaeuei?noue ianoi?nia c i?inoi?iai-/aniaith
eiaa??aioi?noth, iaeiae iauiaeaaii aoee cai?iiiiiaai? aeae?eueea
oi?ioethaaiue aeey oai??e c naiiaeoaeueieie eae?a?iai/ieie iieyie, ui
iathoue yaio eiaa??aioi?noue.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy yaii? eiaa??aioiino? iaiao?aeii oaiaeeoe aeiaeaoeia?
iiey, i?e/iio, caeaaeii a?ae i?aeoiaeo, ?o /enei aa??th?oueny a?ae
iaeiiai aei iane?i/aiiino?. Iacaaaeath/e ia eeane/io aea?aaeaioi?noue
oeeo oi?ioethaaiue, i?aeo?ae, cai?iiiiiaaiee a ?iaio? Iano?, Ni?ie?ia,
Oii?ia (oae caaiee PST i?aeo?ae), c ?aeeiei aeiaeaoeiaei iieai, ui
aoiaeeoue aei ae?? iaiie?iii?aeueii, caea?oueny iaea?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueiei. Oea iiea ia iana aeeiai?/ieo noaiai?a naiaiaee ? iiaea
aooe aeeeth/aia c ae?? aac ao?aoe ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeeiai?eo nenoaie
oeyoii cae??ieaiiy eae?a?iaee ca aeiiiiiaith aeiaeaoeiaeo eieaeueieo
eae?a?iai/ieo neiao??e, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey PST i?aeoiaeo. I?ney
cae??ieaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? eae?a?iaee, yaii eiaa??aioia ae?y ia?aoiaeeoue
o iaeiaa??aioio ae?th aeey oai??e c naiiaeoaeueieie eae?a?iai/ieie
iieyie. Oaeei /eiii, nie?ath/enue ia PST i?aeo?ae oa ae?th aeey aiciiii?
i’yoe-a?aie, a aeaiiio ?icae?e? aea/aia yaii eiaa??aioia eaia-neiao?e/ia
ae?y aeey noia?-i’yoe-a?aie, i?iiaaoth/i? a D=11 noia?i?inoi?? I-oai???.
Eaia-neiao?e/i?noue oeueiai ia’?eoo i?yii iia’ycaia c ?nioaaiiyi
i?iaeoe?eiiai iia?aoi?a, ui aeicaiey? onoiooe caea? oa?i?iii? noaiai?
naiaiaee ? aeinyaoe ia?eoaoo i?ae aiciiieie ? oa?i?iiieie noaiaiyie
naiaiaee ia iania?e iaieiioe?. O oeueiio ?icae?e? ia/eneaii oeae
i?iaeoe?eiee iia?aoi?, c eiai aeiiiiiaith aeiaaaeaia
eaia-?iaa??aioi?noue ae?? ? ciaeaeai? ??aiyiiy ?ooo noia?-i’yoe-a?aie ia
oe? iie?a iaeeiaaeoeyoeaei??ii? noia?a?aa?oaoe??.

O ?icae?e? 5 iiaeaia ae?y aeoaeueii-neiao??/ii? o?e-a?aie, ui ?
nie?oiiiei ?ica’yceii ??aiyiue, ye? iienothoue D=10 IIB
noia?a?aa?oaoe?th ? iiaoaeiaaia aoaeoeaia ae?y aeey oai??? noia?no?oi
oeio IIB c o?e-a?aiiei aeaea?aeii. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo nie?oiiieo
a?ai IIB oai???, o?e-a?aia, ye aaea iaiaeii?aciai aoei a?aecia/aii a
e?oa?aoo??, ? aeae?eaiith a oiio a?aeiioaii?, ui ?? ae?y caeeoa?oueny
iaci?iiith ca ia?aoai?aiue S-aeoaeueiino?, ui ? neiao???th ??aiyiue ?ooo
D=10 IIB noia?a?aa?oaoe??.

O naith /a?ao, D=10 noia?a?aa?oaoe?y oeio IIB ? iniaeeaith a eiioaeno?
I-oai???, ine?eueee ia ?nio? i?yii? a?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae D=11 I-oai???th
? D=10 noia?a?aa?oaoe??th oeio IIB o aei??iino? i?inoi?o-/ano D=10.
I?e/eia iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaiiaeeeai, ei?enooth/enue noaiaea?oiith
noaiith aei??ii? ?aaeoeoe?? Eaeooee-Eeaeia, aeoyaoe c iae??aeueii? a
D=11 oai??? e??aeueio oai??th a D=10. Iaeiae ?nio? iai?yiee ca’ycie
I-oai??? c oai???th oeio IIB a D=9, aea eaaioia? niaeo?e
eiiiaeoeo?eiaaii? ia aeaiaei??iee oi? I-oai??? ? eiiiaeoeo?eiaaii? ia
eiei oai??? oeio IIB ni?aiaaeathoue. Oaeei /eiii, aaiiao?e/ii, a?oia
neiao??? S-aeoaeueiino? oai??? oeio IIB SL (2, Z) iiaea aooe
i?i?ioa?i?aoiaaia ye iiaeoey?ia a?oia aeaiaei??iiai oi?a ca
oi?i?aeaeueii? eiiiaeoeo?eaoe?? c aeueo aei??iinoae. Oea caoaaaeaiiy
?acii c aaaeaiiyi iaoe i?yia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoaeueiino? c oai???th
oeio IIB a D=10 i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?iioace i?i ?nioaaiiy
aeaaiaaeoeyoeaei??ii? F-oai???, iia’ycaii? c I-oai???th
eiiiaeoeo?eaoe??th ia eiei. A ?aieao oe??? a?iioace oai??y noia?no?oi
oeio IIB iiaea aooe i?i?ioa?i?aoiaaia ye oai??y ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
noia?neiao?e/ieo o?e-a?ai, /ey SL(2, Z) neiao??y aoea a iane?aeeii
“aeaeo?e/ii-iaai?oii?» aeoaeueiino? ia na?oiaiio ia’?i?, c ?iaa??aioiith
a?aeiinii ia?aoai?aiue S-aeoaeueiino? aoaeoeaiith ae??th ia oe? IIB
oai???. Iaeiith c ia?aoeiae o ?icaoaeia? oe??? aoaeoeaii? ae?? ?
iieueiaee ai?no noia?a?aa?oaoe?? oeio IIB, aiciiiee naeoi? yei? i?noeoue
naiiaeoaeueia aioeneiao?e/ia eae?a?iai/ia iiea. sse aaea a?aecia/aeiny
aeua, i?iaeaia iiaoaeiae eiaa??aioieo oai??e c naiiaeoaeueieie
eae?a?iai/ieie iieyie ?ica’ycaia a ?iaioao Iano?, Ni?ie?ia, Oii?ia. Oey
noaia iiaea aooe canoiniaaia aei iieno ye aiciiiiai naeoi?a D=10 IIB
noia?a?aa?oaoe??, oae ? aei iiaoaeiae iiaii? ae?? noia?a?aa?oaoe??
oeueiai oeio.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? PST i?aeo?ae canoiniao?oueny aeey iiaoaeiae
aoaeoeaii? ae?? oai??? noia?no?oi oeio IIB c o?e-a?aiiei aeaea?aeii. sse
iiia?aaei?e e?ie, a i?ae?icae?eao 5.1. oa 5.2. ciaeaeaia ae?y aeey
o?e-a?aie c aeoaeueii-neiao?e/ieie eae?a?iai/ieie iieyie ia na?oiaiio
ia’?i? oeyoii aei??ii? ?aaeoeoe?? ae?? aeey aiciiii? i’yoe-a?aie. Oaea
niaoe?aeueia no?oeoo?a ae?? o?e-a?aie aeeeoo?oueny no?oeoo?ith aiciiiiai
naeoi?o IIB noia?a?aa?oaoe??, ui i?noeoue naiiaeoaeueia aioeneiao?e/ia
eae?a?iai/ia iiea /aoaa?oiai ?aiao, yea i?e?iaeii aca?iiae?? c
o?e-a?aiith ? ia? niaoe?aeuei? neiao???, oa?aeoa?i? aeey oai??e c
naiiaeoaeueieie eae?a?iai/ieie iieyie. Oe? neiao??? iiaeii? aooe
caa?aaeai? i?e aca?iiae?? o?e-a?aie c noia?a?aa?oaoe??th oeio IIB, ui
aaoiiaoe/ii aeiaaa? aeoaeueii-neiao?e/io no?oeoo?o aeey ae?? o?e-a?aie.

O i?ae?icae?e? 5.3. aeaii iaeyae PST i?aeoiaeo aeey iieno aiciiiiai
naeoi?a D=10 IIB noia?a?aa?oaoe??, ui aoiaeeoue o aoaeoeaio ae?th
noia?no?oi oeio IIB, ? ciaeaeaia ae?y, ui iine?aeiaii iieno? aca?iiae?th
o?e-a?aie c aiciiiei naeoi?ii D=10 IIB noia?a?aa?oaoe??.

O Aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaothoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ui ciaeaeai? o
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??:

· Iiaoaeiaaia iiaa oa?noi?iiiae?aia oi?ioethaaiiy noia?iieueiai? ae??
aacianiai? N=1

noia?/anoeiee o D=3, 4, 6 aei??ao i?inoi?o-/ano, aeine?aeaeai? ??
neiao??? ? ??aiyiiy ?ooo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ai?oa ?icaeyiooeo
oi?ioethaaiue, i?iiiiiaaia ae?y a?ae ii/aoeo ia i?noeoue noia?ii-

eueiaeo iiiaeiee?a Eaa?aiaea, a, ye iane?aeie, ? iane?i/aiii ca?aeieo
neiao??e, iia’ycaieo c ?o i?enooi?noth.

· Iieacaii, ui cai?iiiiiaaia oi?ioethaaiiy iiai?noth aea?aaeaioia ia
iania?e iiaa?-

oi? cae/aei?e eiiiiiaioi?e aa?n?? N=1 noia?/anoeiee ? i?eionea?
i?e?iaeia ia?a-oi?ioethaaiiy a oa?i?iao noia?oa?noi??a.

· Cai?iiiiiaaia oi?ioethaaiiy N=1 noia?/anoeiee o oi?iae?ci?
ocaaaeueiaiiai i?ei-

oeeio ae??, a?eueia a?ae i?iaeaie iane?i/aiii ca?aeieo neiao??e, ?
noi?ioeueiaaiee iiaiee iaa?? ??aiyiue aaiiao?e/iiai i?aeoiaeo, ui
iienothoue ciai?oith aaiiao??th noia?/anoeiee ye iica oae ? ia iania?e
iiaa?oi?. Aeiaaaeaia noia?aeeoaiii?oia ?iaa??aioi?noue cai?iiiiiaaii?
ae?? ? aeiaaaeaia

?? eeane/ia aea?aaeaioi?noue cae/aei?e ae?? noia?/anoeiee.

· Aeine?aeaeaia aca?iiae?y noia?/anoeiee c aeaeo?iiaai?oiei oiiiaei
iieai o oi?iae?ci?

ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae?? ? ciaeaeaii iiaiee iaa?? ??aiyiue, ui
iienothoue ciai?oith aaiiao-

??th noia?/anoeiee o oii?.

· Cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueiaiee ooieoe?iiae ae?? aeey D=4 noia?iaia?aie ?
ciaeaeai? ??aiy-

iiy ?ooo noia?iaia?aie ?acii c ??aiyiiyie, ui iienothoue ?? ciai?oith
aaiiao??th.

· Aeey eiaa??aioii? ae?? i’yoe-a?aie I-oai??? ia aeia?eueiiio oe? D=11
noia?a?aa?oaoe??

aeiaaaeaii ?nioaaiiy ni?ii?iiai iao?e/iiai i?iaeoi?a o oa?i?iiieo
(eaia-) ia?aoai?aiiyo iie?a na?oiaiai ia’?io i’yoe-a?aie ? iieacaii,
ui oe? ia?aoai?aiiy ? eieaeueiith neiao???th i’yoe-

a?aiii? ae??.

· Aia?oa iiaoaeiaaia eiaa??aioia aeoaeueii-neiao?e/ia ae?y aeey aiciiii?
o?e-a?aie ? aein-

e?aeaeai? ?? neiao???.

· Iiaoaeiaaia aoaeoeaia ae?y noia?no?oi oeio IIB c o?e-a?aiiei
aeaea?aeii, ui iine?aeia-

ii iieno? aca?iiae?th o?e-a?aie c aiciiiei naeoi?ii D=10 IIB
noia?a?aa?oaoe??.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1. Bandos I., Nurmagambetov A., Sorokin D. and Volkov D. On another
version of the twistor-like approach to superparticles// Ienueia a
AEYOO. — 1994. — o. 60, ?9 . — C. 613-618.

2. Bandos I., Nurmagambetov A., Sorokin D. and Volkov D. Twistor-like
superparticles revisited// Class. Quant. Grav. — 1995. — V. 12 , ?8. —
P. 1881-1891.

3. Nurmagambetov A. A generalized action principle for D=4 doubly
supersymmetric membranes// Proc. Of Xth Workshop on HEP&QFT. —
Zvenigorod (Russia). — 1995. — P. 305-309.

4. Bandos I., Nurmagambetov A. Generalized action principle and
extrinsic geometry for N=1 superparticle// Class. Quant. Grav. — 1997. —
V. 14, ?7. — P. 1597-1621.

5. Bandos I., Lechner K., Nurmagambetov A., Pasti P., Sorokin D. and
Tonin M. Covariant action for the Super-Five-Brane of M-theory// Phys.
Rev. Lett. — 1997. — V. 78, ?23. — P. 4332-4334.

6. Bandos I., Lechner K., Nurmagambetov A., Pasti P., Sorokin D.
and Tonin M. On the equivalence of different formulations of the M
-theory five-brane// Phys. Lett.. — 1997. — V. B408, ?2. — P. 135-141.

7. Nurmagambetov A. Duality-Symmetric Three-Brane and its Coupling
to Type IIB Supergravity// Phys. Lett. — V. B436 (1998), ?3. — P.
289-297.

AIIOAOe?ss

Io?iaaaiaaoia I. TH. ‘’Aaiiao?e/i? iaoiaee a oai??yo oi/eiaeo oa
iiaeiaaeaieo ?aeyoea?nonueeeo ia’?eo?a”. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.02 — oai?aoe/ia
o?ceea. — ?inoeooo iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a, 1998 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?icaeoeo aaiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a a oai???
oi/eiaeo oa iiaeiaaeaieo noia?neiao?e/ieo ?aeyoea?nonueeeo ia’?eo?a. A
aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iai?yiie o aea?/? noia?neiao?e/iiio
oa?noi?iiiae?aiiio i?aeoiae? aei iieno noia?iieueiaeo iiaeaeae
noia?/anoeiie, a?eueieo a?ae i?iaeaie iayaiino? iane?i/aiii ca?aeieo
neiao??e ? ?icaeiaii oi?iae?ci ocaaaeueiaiiai i?eioeeio ae?? aeey iieno
noia?iieueiaeo iiaeaeae noia?/anoeiie oa noia?-?-a?ai. Aeine?aeaeaii
ieoaiiy aca?iiae?? noia?/anoeiie c aeaeo?iiaai?oiei oiiiaei iieai oa
??aiyiiy ?ooo, ui iienothoue ciai?oith aaiiao??th noia?/anoeiie ?
noia?-?-a?ai. Aia?oa aea/aii ae?? aeey oai??e c naiiaeoaeueieie
eae?a?iai/ieie iieyie, o oiio /ene? ae?? aeey nie?oii?a I-oai??? c
naiiaeoaeueieie eae?a?iai/ieie iieyie ia ?oiueiio na?oiaiio ia’?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noia?-?-a?aie, noia?neiao??y, aeoaeueiinoue, I-oai??y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Io?iaaaiaaoia A. TH. «Aaiiao?e/aneea iaoiaeu a oai?eyo oi/a/iuo e
i?ioyaeaiiuo ?aeyoeaenoneeo iauaeoia”. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.02 — oai?aoe/aneay
oeceea.- Einoeooo iiiie?enoaeeia IAI Oe?aeiu, a. Oa?ueeia, 1998 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?acaeoeth aaiiao?e/aneeo iaoiaeia a oai?ee
oi/a/iuo e i?ioyaeaiiuo ?aeyoeaenoneeo iauaeoia, a eiaiii: ?acaeoeth
aeaaaeaeu noia?neiiao?e/iiai oaenoi?iiiaeiaiiai iiaeoiaea e iienaieth
iiaeaeae noia?/anoeoe, naiaiaeiuo io i?iaeaiu i?enoonoaey aaneiia/ii
i?eaiaeeiuo neiiao?ee; ?acaeoeth oi?iaeecia iaiauaiiiai i?eioeeia
aeaenoaey aeey iienaiey aeaaaeaeu noia?neiiao?e/iuo noia?iieaauo
iiaeaeae noia?/anoeoe e enneaaeiaaieth aii?inia eo acaeiiaeaenoaey n
yeaeo?iiaaieoiui oiiiaui iieai; enneaaeiaaieth o?aaiaiee aeaeaeaiey,
iienuaathueo aiaoithth aaiiao?eth noia?/anoeoe e noia?iaia?ai;
iino?iaieth yooaeoeaiuo aeaenoaee aeey oai?ee n naiiaeoaeueiuie
eaeea?iai/iuie iieyie, a oii /enea e aeaenoaee aeey nieeoiiia I-oai?ee n
naiiaeoaeueiuie eaeea?iai/iuie iieyie ia eo ie?iaii iauaia.

I?aaeeiaeaia, aeueoa?iaoeaiay ecaanoiie, aa?ney aeaaaeaeu
noia?neiiao?e/iiai aeaenoaey noia?/anoeoeu a ?acia?iinoyo
i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie D=3,4,6. A ioee/ea io ?aiaa i?aaeeiaeaiiuo
iiaeaeae, aeaiiay oi?ioee?iaea ecia/aeueii auaeyaeeo iaeneiaeueii
oaenoi?iiiaeiaii e ia niaea?aeeo iiiaeeoaeae Eaa?aiaea, a eae neaaenoaea
yoiai, e aaneiia/ii i?eaiaeeiuo neiiao?ee, yaeythueony iaeiei ec
iniiaiuo i?aiyonoaee ia iooe eiaa?eaioiiai eaaioiaaiey oaeeo oai?ee.
Enneaaeiaaiu neiiao?ee e o?aaiaiey aeaeaeaiey i?aaeeiaeaiiiai aeaenoaey
e iieacaii, /oi aeaiiay oi?ioee?iaea eeanne/anee yeaeaaeaioia iau/iie
eiiiiiaioiie aa?nee N=1 noia?/anoeoeu A?eiea-Oaa?oea e aeiioneaao
anoanoaaiiia ia?aii?aaeaeaiea a oa?ieiao noia?oaenoi?ia. Aeey ?aoaiey
i?iaeaiu iino?iaiey aeaaaeaeu noia?neiiao?e/iie noia?iieaaie aa?nee D=10
N=1 noia?/anoeoeu, naiaiaeiie io iaee/ey aaneiia/ii i?eaiaeeiuo
neiiao?ee, i?aaeeiaeaia oi?ioee?iaea D=10 N=1 noia?/anoeoeu a oi?iaeecia
iaiauaiiiai i?eioeeia aeaenoaey, yaeythuaainy neioacii aeaaaeaeu
noia?neiiao?e/iiai oaenoi?iiiaeiaiiai noia?iieaaiai iiaeoiaea e oai?eyi
noia?/anoeoe e noia?-?-a?ai e aaiiao?e/aneiai (?aiiiiiiai) iiaeoiaea e
oai?eyi noia?a?aaeoaoeee e noia?-?-a?ai. Enneaaeiaaiu neiiao?ee e
o?aaiaiey aeaeaeaiey i?aaeeiaeaiiie iiaeaee, aeieacaia
noia?aeeooaiii?oiay eiaa?eaioiinoue aeaenoaey e i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaia aai
eeanne/aneay yeaeaaeaioiinoue eiiiiiaioiie aa?nee noia?/anoeoeu
A?eiea-Oaa?oea. Enneaaeiaaii acaeiiaeaenoaea noia?/anoeoeu n
yeaeo?iiaaieoiui oiiiaui noia?iieai, iieo/aiu ia?aie/aiey ia
iai?yaeaiiinoe iiey a aeaea noaiaea?oiuo naycae oai?ee
noia?-ssiaa-Ieeena e iieo/ai iieiue iaai? o?aaiaiee, iienuaathueo
aiaoithth aaiiao?eth noia?/anoeoeu a oiia. I?aaeeiaeaia oi?ioee?iaea N=1
D=4 noia?iaia?aiu a oi?iaeecia iaiauaiiiai i?eioeeia aeaenoaey, iaeaeaiu
aa o?aaiaiey aeaeaeaiey e iieo/ai iieiue iaai? o?aaiaiee, iienuaathueo
aiaoithth aaiiao?eth noia?iaia?aiu a oa?ieiao noia?iiey iaoa?ee nieia
3/2.

Aeey iino?iaiey yooaeoeaiuo aeaenoaee nieeoiiia I-oai?ee eco/aii
iieiia eiaa?eaioiia aeaenoaea noia?neiiao?e/iie iyoe-a?aiu I-oai?ee,
i?iiaae?othuae a oiia iieae iaeeiiaaeoeaoeia?iie noia?a?aaeoaoeee, e
aeieacaii nouanoaiaaiea nieii?iiai iao?e/iiai i?iaeoi?a a oa?ieiiiuo
(eaiia-) i?aia?aciaaieyo iieae ie?iaiai iauaia noia?-iyoe-a?aiu. Iieo/ai
aeae yoiai i?iaeoeeiiiiai iia?aoi?a, aeieacaiu aai i?iaeoeeiiiua
naienoaa, e n aai iiiiuueth i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii, /oi
eaiia-i?aia?aciaaiey yaeythony eieaeueiie neiiao?eae aeaenoaey
noia?-iyoe-a?aiu. I?aaeeiaeaii eiaa?eaioiia aeaenoaea
aeoaeueii-neiiao?e/iie o?e-a?aiu, yaeythuaeny nieeoiiiui ?aoaieai
o?aaiaiee D=10 IIB noia?a?aaeoaoeee e enneaaeiaaiu aai neiiao?eeiua
naienoaa. Iino?iaii aeaenoaea aeoaeueii-neiiao?e/iie o?e-a?aiu a oiia
iieae D=10 IIB noia?a?aaeoaoeee e iaeaeaii yooaeoeaiia aeaenoaea oai?ee
noia?no?oi oeia IIB n o?e-a?aiiui enoi/ieeii, eioi?ia iineaaeiaaoaeueii
iienuaaao acaeiiaeaenoaea o?e-a?aiu n aiciiiui naeoi?ii D=10 IIB
noia?a?aaeoaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noia?-?-a?aiu, noia?neiiao?ey, aeoaeueiinoue,
I-oai?ey.

SUMMARY

Nurmagambetov A. J. «Geometrical methods in theories of point and
extended relativistic objects”. — Manuscript.

Ph. D. Thesis by speciality 01.04.02 — theoretical physics. —
Institute for Single Crystalls NAS of Ukraine, Kharkiv, 1998.

The dissertation concernes the topics of development of
geometrical methods in theory of point and extended supersymmetric
relativistic objects. It is elaborated a new direction in framework of
doubly supersymmetric twistor-like approach for description of
superfiled models of superparticles, being free from the presence of
infinitly reducible symmetries, and is developed a generalized action
principle for description of superfield models of superparticles and
super-p-branes. There are investigated the problems of superparticles
interaction with electromagnetic background field and is studied
equations of motion, describing external geometry of superparticles and
super-p-branes. For the first time it is studied the actions for
theories with self-dual gauge fields, which in particular involve the
actions for the M-theory solitons, carring the self-dual gauge fields on
its worldvolume.

Key words: super-p-branes, supersymmetry, duality, M-theory.

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