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Геомеханічні основи розробки і вибору комбінованих способів кріплення вертикальних стовбурів у структурно неоднорідних породах: Автореф. дис… д-ра т

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I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIA A??IE*A AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

EAA?O A?eoi? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 622.831+622.25:550.8.07.08

AAIIAOAI?*I? INIIAE ?IC?IAEE ? AEAI?O

EIIA?IIAAIEO NIINIA?A E??IEAIIss

AA?OEEAEUeIEO NOIAAO??A O NO?OEOO?II

IAIAeII??AeIEO II?IAeAO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.15.04 – “Oaooia ? i?aecaiia aoae?aieoeoai”

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aaioaoi?/ii? iaoai?ee (?AOI) IAI Oe?a?ie ?
o?ano? “Aeiiaoeueeoaooii?io?aeea”

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeaaeai?e Aeaaeai?? a??ie/eo iaoe Oe?a

?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?AOI IAI
Oe?a?ie ONA*AIEI Ai?en Ie?iiiae/.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeaaeai?e AAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? OTH?EssI ?aoo? A?iaiaeiae/,

aieiaa i?aae?iiy a?aee?eoiai aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa
i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iee o?ano “I?aoaooaooiaoae”

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

CAAeI?IAEI?E Ieaen?e Ieoaeeiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith oaooiiai ? i?aecaiiiai aoae?aieoeoaa
E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IA?*AANUeEEE Eaii?ae sseiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ia?eoaeaea??? Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Eiiieaeniee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?
oaoiieia?/ii-eiino?oeoi?nueeee ?inoeooo ii i?iaeaiai Oeaio?aeueiiai
?aeiio Aeiiaano I?i?noa?noaa aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie (i.
Ai?e?aea).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “26 ” __03______ 1999 ?. i _14__ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.080.04 i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320027, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 27, i?. E.
Ia?ena, 19).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 320027, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee –
27, i?. E. Ia?ena, 19.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_23__” __02_______ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieo. oaoi. iaoe
A.I. ?i?iei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Noai oa aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Caaea/a aa?aioiaaiiai caaacia/aiiy
Oe?a?ie aoa?eeyi, yea ? aieiaiei aia?aiiin??i, iio?aao? aoae?aieoeoaa
iiaeo ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo aoa?eueieo oaoo. Iaea?eueo aaaiiith
caaea/ath a oeueiio ieai? ? nii?oaeaeaiiy ? iiaeeaeaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a – eai?oaeueieo a??ie/eo ae?iaie, a?ae aenieoaoaoe?eii?
iaae?eiino? yeeo caeaaeeoue ?eoi?/i?noue oa aeiiii?/i?noue ?iaioe oaoo.
Cia/ia ciaioaiiy inoaii?i /anii ianya?a ? oaii?a i?io?aeee noiaao??a
noaei i?e/eiaie a?aenoaaaiiy o i?aeaioiaoe? iiaeo ai?eciio?a,
?aeiino?oeoe?? aoa?eueieo oaoo o ?aioaaaeuei? oa?i?ie, oneeaaeiaiiy noai
?o i?ia?o?thaaiiy oa i?aecaiieo o?ainii?oieo nenoai. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y
nii?oaeaeaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a noaaeoue ?yae i?iaeai, ?c yeeo iaeia c
aaaeeeaeo oea i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iino?, oaoiieia?/iino? ? iaae?eiino?
?o e??ieaiiy.

I?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui ia aeeaeyenue ia iaai? oaoi?/i? aeinyaiaiiy o
oeueiio, e??ieaiiy noiaao??a caeeoa?oueny iaoa??aei- e o?oaeii?noeei,
iaeii?iaeoeoeaiei ? ia? cia/io aoae?aaeueio aa?o?noue. Aa?o?noue
nii?oaeaeaiiy noiaao??a neeaaea? 30-50% aa?oino? a??ie/eo ae?iaie oaooe,
a aeo?aoe ia iaoa??aee aeey e??ieaiiy ia?aaeuothoue 70-80% ?o aa?oino?.
Iaoiiaeaii oea oei, ui c ia?aoiaeii a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia aeeaeio aei
500-1300 i cia/ii iia??oeeenue oiiae ?o i?iaaaeaiiy, o ca’yceo c oeei
i?iaeoia iano/a caeaoi?noue e??ieaiiy i?aeaeuaia a 2 ?ace, aeo?aoe
iaoaeo ? aaoiio c?inee a 1,5-2,0 ?ace, o?oaeii?noe?noue ae?inea a 2-2,5
?ace, a i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ciaioeeanue a 1,3-1,8 ?ace. Ia
aeeaey/enue ia cia/i? o?iainia? ? iaoa??aeuei? aeo?aoe ia nii?oaeaeaiiy
noiaao??a, a oiio /ene? ? ia e??ieaiiy, ca?aeii aeaieo IAe?IIOA, iaeaea
48% noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo iathoue aeaoi?iiaaia e??ieaiiy, a 50% ?o
niieo/aiue c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie iio?aaothoue oa?i?iiaiai
?aiiioo. Aaaaeathoue, ui iniiaieie i?e/eiaie aeaoi?ioaaiiy e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a ? neeaaei? iaia?aaeaa/ai? a??ie/i-aaieia?/i? oiiae (32,1%),
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oaoiieia?e e??ieaiiy (33,6%) iniaeeainoyi iaoai?cio
i?iyaeaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo, iaa?aooaaiiy i?aeneeaiiy aieeao no?oeoo?ii?
oa iaoai?/ii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ianeao ii??ae, aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia
noiaao?e c aeeaeiith ?ia?o oa ?io? oaeoi?e. Oaeei /eiii, a oiiaao
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiioaiue a aeiiii?eo, aeao?oeeoo o?iainiaeo
? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, ae??oaiiy iaei??? ?c aaaeeeaeo caaea/
aoa?eueii? aaeoc? – aoae?aieoeoai, iiaeeaeaiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?y
aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a oaoo iiaeii? i?iaiaeeoeny i?e cae?eniaii?
aeoeaii? ?ano?nicaa??aath/i? iie?oeee, ui ciaioeoue ieoiio aaao aa?oino?
e??ieaiiy noiaao??a o nia?aa?oino? aoa?eey. Noai, yeee neeaany o
a?aenoaaaii? nii?oaeaeaiiy noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo a cia/i?e i???
iia’ycaiee ?c aeeni?iii?oe?yie a aeiiii?oe?, ? ae?ae iaeeie e?i?oiaaieie
eai?oaeueieie aeeaaeaiiyie a oaooia aoae?aieoeoai. Iaaenieee ??aaiue
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a iaoiiaeth?oueny ia?o
ca ana iecueeith iaoeiaith iaa?oioiaai?noth i?iaeooaaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa,
?ic?iaie ii oaoi?/iei ? oaoiieia?/iei ??oaiiyi, ui no?eio? ??no
iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, ineaaeaiiyi ae?iaie/i?
aace oaooiaoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e.

Aeeiiaieie a?oioiaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie IAe?IIOA, AIAeI?, AeiiAOA?,
Oe?IAeI?, IAe?AI ?i. I.I. Oaaei?iaa, ?AOI ? AeiiOO? IAI Oe?a?ie, IA?,
OoeI?, IAeA??, Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie, E?eai??cueeei,
Aeiiaoeueeei ? Ee?anueeei oaoi?/ieie oi?aa?neoaoaie, i?iaeoieie
(“Aei?i?iae?i?ioaoo”, “Aeiiae?i?ioaoo”, “I?aaeaiae?i?ioaoo”)
i?aai?caoe?yie noai?aia iaeaaeia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia aaca, yea caaacia/eea
?aaeueiee i?ia?an o i?iaeooaaii?, nii?oaeaeaii? oa aenieoaoaoe?? oaooieo
noiaao??a. Aea caaea/? i?aeaeuaiiy iiaiioe ? aeinoia??iino? aeaieo i?i
e?oieiai-no?oeoo?io ? i?oei?nio iaiaeii??aei?noue ii??ae, ioe?iee ?o
aieeao ia ye?ni? ? e?euee?ni? iieacieee a??nueeiai oeneo, i?iyaeaiiy i?e
oeueiio aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao?e caeeoathoueny eeth/iaeie a
?ice?eoo? iaoai?cio aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ii?iaeiee
ianea” ? iaa?oiooaaii? eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue i?aeaeuaiiy
?o no?eeino?.

Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?o ?ie?a a aaeoc? iaoai?ee
a??nueeeo ii??ae ? i?aecaiieo nii?oae aeicaieythoue ooaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
iiooe ? ?ic?iaea iiaeo ??oaiue ii e??ieaiith oaooieo noiaao??a iiaeii?
cae?enithaaoeny a ia?oo /a?ao ia ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy
iaoa??aeii?noeino? ? iano/i? caeaoiino? e??ieaiiy, aea aieiaiei /eiii,
ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy eiia?iiaaieo ioi?iiieo eiino?oeoe?e noiaao??a, ye?
caaacia/oaaee a caaaeueiinenoaiiee ea?iaaiee aieea ?aaoeyoeaieie
caniaaie ia i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? ii??ae ? e??ieaiiy, iaee a
noaiioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ? iiieaeoaaee ia??aiii??i? aneiao?e/i?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia noiaao?e. Aiae?c noaio oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?? o oeueiio
ieai? iieaco?, ui oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ? ?ic?iaea aaiiaoai?/ieo
iniia noai?aiiy ? oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue canoinoaaiiy eiia?iiaaieo
niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo, ye?
i?ioiaeyoueny o no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ianeaao ii??ae, ? aeooaeueiith
iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith. Ae??oaiith oe??? i?iaeaie, ui ia? aaaeeeaa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ? i?enay/aia oey aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai IAI Oe?a?ie,
I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie, ca oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie ?AOI IAI Oe?a?ie ii
aea?aeathaeaeaoi?e oai? “Iaoeia? iniiae aaoiiaoeciaaiiai eiio?ieth
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o aoaeaii?iaeiiio ianea? i?e
a??ie/i-oaoiieia?/ieo ?iaioao”, ainoai? ? 852 “Aeeiiaoe aaio?ce/io
ae?aaiinoeeo noaio e??ieaiiy ? ii??ae i?eeiioo?ii? ciie aa?oeeaeueieo
oaooieo noiaao??a aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a ii i?aeaeuaiith ?o
no?eeino?”, ca?aeii aei i?ia?ai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo
i?aai?caoe?? ? iaoai?caoe?? oaooiiai aoae?aieoeoaa (IAe?IIOA). Oaooi?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue aaoi?ii i?e aoae?aieoeoa? ? ?aeiino?oeoe??
aoa?eueieo oaoo o Aeiiaan?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea aaiiaoai?/ieo
iniia noai?aiiy oa aeai?o eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo a iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao, caaacia/oth/eo
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iino?, oaoiieia?/iino? ? iaae?eiino? ?o e??ieaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iinoaaeai? ?
ae??oai? oae? caaea/?:

Aeeiiaoe e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/io ioe?ieo oiia aoae?aieoeoaa aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo Aeiiaano c a?aooaaiiyi no?oeoo?ii? ?
i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? aaaaoioa?oaaoiai ianeao a??nueeeo ii??ae.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeeeo oaooieo aaio?ce/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaeoe ea??aieoeoai c ae?aaiinoeee noaio nenoaie
“e??ieaiiy – ii?iaeiee ianea” aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a.

Aeine?aeeoe caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy – ii?iaeiee
ianea” a aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao?ao aoa?eueieo oaoo c a?aooaaiiyi
iaiaeii??aeiino? ianeao ii??ae, oei?a e??ieaiiy, ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a
? aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia e??ieaiiy.

Aeeiiaoe iiaeaethaaiiy aieeao iaiaeii??aeiino? ii?iaeiiai ianeao ia noai
nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ianea” c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
o?eaiaaiiaoai?/ii? aca?iiae?? ia iiaa?oiyo eiioaeoo noiaao? – ianea ?
iiaa?oiyo eiioaeoo ii?iaeieo oa??a.

Aeeiiaoe aaiiaoai?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue
? ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/i? noaie ?aae?caoe?? eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a
e??ieaiiy oaooieo aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a.

Aeeiiaoe oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo ?ic?iaie ii ?acoeueoaoao ?o oaooii?
ia?aa??ee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo.

Iniiaia ?aeay ?iaioe iia`ycaia ?c aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeniiai
caaaeueiinenoaiiiai aoaeoo a?ae aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai aeai?o e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a oa iine?aeiaii? /e ni?eueii? ?aae?caoe?? eiiieaiaioa?ieo
oiiaai ?aaoeyoeaieo cania?a a nenoai? “e??ieaiiy – iaiaeii??aeiee
ii?iaeiee ianea”, ye? caaacia/othoue aeoi? aeaiio??oaaiiy ci?uaiue
ii??ae, i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? i?eeiioo?iiai ianeao ? e??ieaiiy,
ciaioaiiy a?ae oeueiai aaee/eie oa aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao?.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoiaee/iith iniiaith ? eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae,
yeee aeeth/a?: aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeinyaiaiue ii
i?iaeai?; eiia??ii-noaoenoe/iee aiae?c; i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?ieo ?
oaooieo aenia?eiaio?a; aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c canoinoaaiiyi AII ?
aeei?enoaiiyi iieiaeaiue iaoai?ee nooe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua ? i?aecaiieo
nii?oae; oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe, ui caoeuathoueny, ?o iiaecia.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy:

Aaaaoioaeoi?ia ioe?iea ? i?iaiicoaaiiy oiia i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy
aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo Aeiiaano iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii
oaeoe/iei oiiaai ioe?ith?oueny c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaiiai
e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/iiai o?aiaeo, yeee oaaee/ii iia’yco? eiiieaen
iieaciee?a aeanoeainoae oa noaio iaiaeii??aeii? aaaaoioa?oaaoi? oiau?,
ui aiae?oe/ii aecia/a?oueny iioaioe?eiei iieacieeii eiai no?eeino?
iieeaaeaiei a iniiao a?oioaaiiy oiia ? aeai?o ??oaiue ii e??ieaiith
noiaao??a.

Aeiaaio?eaaea aca?iiae?y nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ii?iaeiee ianea”
aecia/a?oueny oeiii, ia?aiao?aie e??ieaiiy oa ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a,
ia? ae?aaeaia i?iyaeaiiy aieeao no?oeoo?ii-i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino?
ii??ae ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaaoeaiei aieeaii ia??aiii??ieo aneiao?e/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao?, ui i?iyaey?oueny a i???ioaoe?? iaeneioi?a
aneiao??? iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue (Ea = 1,2-1,4) a iai?yi?
“iaae?iiy(i?aeeiio” oa??a ii??ae ? c?inoaiiyi ?? nooi?iy ia ae?eyieao c
a?eueo neaaeeie ii?iaeaie, yea ? ? aecia/aeueiith i?e/eiith
aeaoi?ioaaiiy e??ieaiiy, e?eoa??aeueiei iieacieeii aaiiaoai?/iiai noaio
nenoaie, oa aeo?aeiith ?ioi?iaoe??th aeey aeai?o aieea?a c iaoith
ea?oaaiiy iei.

Iaoai?ci aeaoi?ioaaiiy ii?iaeiiai ianeao ai?uoth/iai noiaao? ia
iacae??ieaieo ae?eyieao ia ?aii?o noaae?yo iia’ycaiee c ooai?aiiyi aeaio
cii i?aeaeuaiiai o??ueiiooai?aiiy a oaeeo iaaeao: ia?oa ( 0-0,8 i;
ae?oaa ( 1,2-1,6 i; aeiaaio?eaaea aca?iiae?y nenoaie “e??ieaiiy ( ianea”
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi a?ey noiaao??a aeoeaieo o?eaiaaiiaoai?/ieo
cii: ? ( 1,4-1,6 i; ?? ( 1,8-2,2 i; ??? ( a?eueoa 2,2 i, ui ? iniiaiith
aaiiaoai?/iith ia?aaeoiiaith aeai?o oei?a, ??ai?a oa iine?aeiaiino?
?aae?caoe?? ea?oth/eo aieea?a aeey caaacia/aiiy noaeiai noaio nenoaie.

Aca?iiee aieea aa?oeeaeueiiai noiaao?a ? i?eieeath/i? ai?eciioaeueii?
ae?iaee i?iyaey?oueny a ci?i? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a ii?iaeao
iaae ?o niieo/aiiyi oa a ii?iaeao, ai?uoth/eo inoaiith, ?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eaac?oaeeueiaith ci?iith a ieo iai?oaeaiue i?e
iayaiino? i?i?ioia ia a?aenoai? ??ai?e ae?aiao?o noiaao?a ? ciie eiai
aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao i?eaeecii ??ai?e aeaii ae?aiao?ai, a?aooaaiiyi
/iai aea? aeo?aeio aaco aeey ??oaiue ii e??ieaiith niieo/aiue ae?iaie,
aeai?o eiino?oeoe?? ia?aiao??a ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a.

Aieea /a?aoaaiiy ??ciiiiooaeieo ? ??ciii?oei?nieo ii??ae ia ?o
aca?iiae?th c e??ieaiiyi noiaao?a i?iyaey?oueny a aa??aoe?? ia?aiao??a
ciie iai?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e (ieanoe/iino?) ? ciie e??ieaiiy, ui
ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae ae??th ianeao: ia?aiao?e ia?oi? iae?i?eii caeaaeaoue
a?ae iiooaeiino? aa?noae (neaae? ii?iaee) ? ??aiy iaaaioaaeaiiino?
ii??ae, a ae?oai? – iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eii a?ae oeo aea /eiiee?a.

Canoinoaaiiy eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a c aeei?enoaiiyi
?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a ??cii? i?aeaeaoeeaino? ? aei?noeino?,
eiiieaiaioa?ieo oiiaai ioi?iie noiaao??a, caaacia/o? iie?auaiiy
iieaciee?a noi?nii? ?iaioe ianeao ii??ae ? e??ieaiiy, cieaeo?
eiao?oe??io aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia iueiai aei 1,03-1,07, ui a
noeoiiino? i?aeaeuo? no?ee?noue, aeiiii?/i?noue ? iaae?ei?noue
e??ieaiiy.

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe:

Aia?oa ia iniia? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
aaieiai-aaiiaoai?/i? oiiae i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a
aoa?eueieo oaoo a aaaaoioa?oaaoeo ii?iaeao iaa?oioiaai? eiao?oe??ioe ?o
e?oieiai-no?oeoo?ii? ? i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino?, oaeineiiaeaii c
a?aooaaiiyi ?aieia?/ieo iieaciee?a oi?ioeo ioe?iee i?eaaaeaii? i?oeiino?
neeaaeiino?oeoo?ii? oiau? ii?iaeieo ianea?a; anoaiiaeai? e?euee?ni?
iieacieee eiia??iino? aeaae?a c oaeeie iaaeaie aeey a?aeiia?aeieo
eaoaai??e no?eeino? ii??ae – ? – 0,11-0,47 (f ( 21), ?? – 0,29-0,56 (f (
12), ??? – 0,81-0,92 (f ( 6) – oa oeie noaoenoe/ieo caeiiii??iinoae
iaaaioaaeaiue ii??ae ia e??ieaiiy, ye? iieeaaeaii a iniiao noai?aiiy
e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/iiai o?aiaeo, ui a?oio? i’youe oei?a oiia e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a, ? ? ?o ae?aaiinoe/iith aacith oa aea? iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe
iai?yie aeeoa?aioe?eiiai aeai?o eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue
ioi?iie noiaao??a.

Anoaiiaeaia noeoii?noue iniiaieo ?ioi?iaoeaieo ia?aiao??a noaio
aaiiaoa??ae?a ? iaoa??ae?a eiino?oeoe?e e??ieaiiy oa ?aaoeyoeaieo
aeaiaio?a a oiiaao aeia?aie/ieo ? iicaiaaeiaeo iaoai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue,
ioe?ithaaieo iaoiaeii aaio?ce/ii? ae?aaiinoeee ca aeaeo?iiii?ii, ??aiai
i?e?iaeiiai aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, aiie?ooaeith ?
niaeo?aeueiei neeaaeii a?eueieo eieeaaiue, ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth
na?aaeiaeua, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo a eiiieaen? aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe
iiaee i?aeo?ae aei iia?aoeaii? ioe?iee noiaao??a o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia ? oieeiooe iaiaeiicia/iino? i?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue a oaooieo noiaao?ao.

Anoaiiaeaii ia iniia? oaooieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? niinoa?aaeaiue a
noiaao?ao caeiiii??iino? ? iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy
noiaao?a – ?aaoeyoeaiee aeaiaio – ii?iaeiee ianea”, ye? a?aoiaothoue
aieea no?oeoo?ii? ? i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ii??ae, aaiiaoai?/i? ?
a??ie/i-oaoiieia?/i? oaeoi?e ? aecia/athoue: ye?ni? ? e?euee?ni?
iieacieee oeueiai i?ioeano, ui iia’ycai? c iaaaoeaiith ae??th aneiao???
iaaaioaaeaiue ia e??ieaiiy noiaao?a; iaea?eueo ?iia??i? ciie
i?aeaeuaiiai ??aiy, ye? i?eoaiaii? iai?yieo iaae?iith – i?aeeiio oa??a ?
oiauai c? neaaeeie ii?iaeaie; iniaeeaino? ? e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e cii
aeac?ioaa?aoe?? ii??ae a?ey noiaao??a ? iaae niieo/aiiyie;
eaac?oaeeueiao ci?io ??aiy iai?oa a i?eeiioo?ieo ii?iaeao i?eieeath/i?
aei noiaao?o ai?eciioaeueii? ae?iaee; iayai?noue ca’yceo i?ae
iiooaei?noth aa?noa ii??ae, ?o i?oei?noth ? ?ioaineai?noth aeaae?a o
noiaao?ao, ui aeei?enoaii aeey noai?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?eioeei?a
eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy ? aeai?o iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo
niieo/aiue iniiaiiai e??ieaiiy noiaao??a ? eiiieaiaioa?ieo ?aaoeyoeaieo
aeaiaio?a.

Eiii’thoa?iei iiaeaethaaiiyi ia aac? i?inoi?iai? caaea/? iaoai?ee
a??nueeeo ii??ae aeine?aeaeaii aieea /a?aoaaiiy ??ciiiiooaeieo ?
??ciii?oei?nieo oa??a ii??ae ia noai aeaoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie “e??ieaiiy
noiaao?o – ?aaoeyoeaiee aeaiaio – iaiaeii??aeiee ianea” c a?aooaaiiyi
aca?iiae?? ia iiaa?oi? noiaao? – ianea ? ia iiaa?oi? iiae?eo oa??a aeey
o?ueio oei?a a?aie/ieo oiia: iiaiiai c/aieaiiy, aeaionoi?iiiueiai
eiioaeoo c oa?oyi Eoeiia oa iaeiinoi?iiiueiai aeaaeeiai eiioaeoo,
?acoeueoaoe /iai iieeaaeaii aeey noai?aiiy i?eioeei?a aeai?o ea?oth/eo
aieea?a ? ia?aiao??a ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino?
noiaao??a.

?ic?iaeai? aaiiaoai?/i? iniiae aeai?o oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
eiino?oeoe?? ? ia?aiao?e eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo a no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy i?e ioi?ii?
noiaao??a.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, iniiaieo
aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny noaoenoe/ii cia/eiei
ianyaii eaai?aoi?ieo ? oaooieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ii?aeiaiiyi oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi ai?iaiaaieo iaoiaeee ?
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iieiaeaiue iaoai?ee nooe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua, oai???
eiia??iino?, iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee ? AII, caaeia?eueiith ca?aei?noth
?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
(?ica?aei?noue ia ia?aaeuo? 20%); iiceoeaieie ?acoeueoaoaie ia?aa??ee ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi a ae?iaieoeoai oaoi?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue a
oiiaao aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeo ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo oaoo.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iniia iaoai?ee a??nueeeo ii??ae ? i?aecaiieo nii?oae
uiaei anoaiiaeaiiy iiaeo caeiiii??iinoae aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy
noiaao?a – ?aaoeyoeaiee aeaiaio – iaiaeii??aeiee ianea ii??ae”:

aaaaeai? iia? iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?io ? i?oei?nio
iaiaeii??aei?noue aaaaoioa?oaaoeo ii??ae, ?o no?ee?noue a iaieaiiyo, ye?
iieeaaeai? a iniiao aecia/aiiy iioaioe?eiiai eiao?oe??ioa no?eeino?
ianeao;

anoaiiaeai? iia? caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? ??cieo oei?a e??ieaiiy
noiaao?a c neeaaeiino?oeoo?iei iaiaeii??aeiei ii?iaeiei ianeaii i?e
??cieo aeaeao ea?iaaieo aieea?a ia iueiai;

aecia/aii o?ceei-iaoai?/io nooo?a?noue i?ioean?a aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?
io?eiai? e?euee?ni? iieacieee oi?ioaaiiy cii aeac?ioaa?aoe?? ii??ae ia
iiaeiaaeaieo ae?eyieao e??ieaiiy noiaao??a, ?o niieo/aiiyo ? o
i?eieeath/eo aei ieo ai?eciioaeueieo ae?iaeao;

aeaia iiaa oyaeaiiy c e?euee?niith ioe?ieith aca?iiae?? e??ieaiiy
noiaao?a ?c aa?noaaie ??ciiiiooaeieo ? ??ciii?oei?nieo ii??ae i?e ??cieo
oiiaao ?o iaaaioaaeaiiy oa eiioaeooaaiiy; ?ic?iaeai? aaiiaoai?/i? iniiae
iaa?oiooaaiiy oa aeai?o eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a o
no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao;

aecia/ai? ia?niaeoeae ? iai?yiee iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc?
o?eaiaaiiaoai?ee ? a?aa?neia?aaoeee ii?iaeiiai ianeao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

o aeei?enoaii? e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/iiai o?aiaeo ioe?iee oiia i?io?aeee ?
e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a a Aeiiaan? ye iniiae aeey
i?iaeooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue ii ?o e??ieaiith;

a ?ic?iaoe? “?oeiaiaenoaa ii aaioece/aneie aeeaaiinoeea ninoiyiey
nenoaiu “e?aiue ( ii?iaeiue iannea” aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia (Aeiiieiaiea e
“Iiniaeth ii ainnoaiiaeaieth e?aie e a?ie?iaee aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia.
?Ae. 12.18.073(88”)”, yea caoaa?aeaeaia ia ??ai? aaeoc? ? ? ea??aiei
ii?iaoeaiei aeieoiaioii;

o ?ic?iaoe? “?oeiaiaenoaa ii i?iecaiaenoao ?aaio niiniaii iioneiie e?aie
a oeenio?iiiie ?oaaoea i?e i?ioiaeea aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia oaoo e
nii?oaeaiee iaaeoaieiai caeiaeaiey”, yea caoaa?aeaeaia ia ??ai? aaeoc?;

o ?ic?iaoe? ?icae?e?a “Eino?oeoeee ii ?aiiioo e i?eiaiaieth iaeaa/aiiuo
aeaeia e?aiae n aiea?aie a aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieao. ?Ae. 12.18.089(90”;

o ?ic?iaoe? eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo
oaoo c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a, ye? caoeuai? ?
aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie (1624168, SU, A21D 5/00; 1744260, SU, E21D
7/02);

o ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e ? oaoiieia?/ieo noai canoinoaaiiy eiia?iiaaieo
niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo ?
oe?ieiianooaaiiio ?o ai?iaaaeaeaii? i?e aoae?aieoeoa? ? ?aeiino?oeoe??
noiaao??a oa ?o niieo/aiue c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie, ye?
caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy a 1,15-1,25 ?ace i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ?
iaeii/ania ciaioaiiy a 1,1-1,15 ?ace caaaeueieo aeo?ao;

o ?ic?iaoe? o/aiaiai iin?aieea ca eo?nii “Oaoiieiaey nii?oaeaiey ai?iuo
au?aaioie a neiaeiuo ai?ii-aaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo (niaoeeaeueiua niiniau
no?ieoaeuenoaa)” oa iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aie ii eiai aea/aiith.

?aae?caoe?y aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe:

ea??aieoeoai c aaio?ce/ii? ae?aaiinoeee aeei?enoaia i?e ioe?ioe? noaio
aa?oeeaeueieo noaiao??a ia oaooao: ?i. I.A. Noaoaiiaa (noiaao?e ??
4,5,7,8), “Ci?y”, “Eo?ao?anueea”, “AEiaoiaaee ?oaeiee”,
“E?aniieeiainueea”, “A?eica?nueea”, “Eiiniiieaoeue Aeiiaano”, “I?ia?an”
oa ?i.;

iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e a ?iaioao iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo i?aai?caoe?? ?
iaoai?caoe?? oaooiiai aoae?aieoeoaa (IAeIIIOA);

ia oaoo? ?i. I.A. Noaoaiiaa ai?iaaaeaeai? eiia?iiaai? niiniae e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a ia iniia? niieo/aiiy iiiie?oiiai aaoiio, aiea?iiai e??ieaiiy ?
oaiiiiaaeo, iiaea?eieo iaoaeaaeo iaieiiie, oi?ioaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo u?eei
oa ?i.; ai?iaaaeaeai? ?aae?aeueii-i?aeaeaoeea? oa ai/eiaeaei? e??ieaiiy
ia niieo/aiiyo noaiao??a c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie;

ia oaoo? “Eo?ao?anueea” ai?iaaaeaeaii eiia?iiaaiee niin?a oi?ioaaiiy a
aeeaei? ianeao ii??ae aeaiio??oth/iai e?eueoey ?c canoinoaaiiyi
o?i?/iiai oaiiiiaaeo oa oi?ioaaiiy a?ociiano/i? iaieiiee a?ey eiioo?o
e??ieaiiy noiaao?a ia iniia? iai?aai?/ieo a’yaeo/eo;

ia oaooao “?icneiiyinueea”, ?i. I.I. Eae?i?ia a ciiao i?aeaeuaiiai
a??nueeiai oeneo canoiniaaia i?aeaeaoeeaa e??ieaiiy c aeaoi?iaoe?eieie
oaaie oa aeei?enoaiiyi eiiiainaoi??a ei?ia/aoeo i?ia?aeiee?a;

ia oaoo? “E?aniieeiainueea” i?ae /an i?ioiaeee ae?ea noiaao?a
ai?iaaaeaeaia iioneia e??ieaiiy;

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?? oa oaoiieia?/i? noaie ?o ?aae?caoe?? aeei?enoai? a
i?iaeoao ?inoeooo?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo c aoae?aieoeoaa oa iiaeeaeaiiy
noiaao??a.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaie, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeoaie, aeicaieeei
ciaioeoe eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe ia 10-15%, i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue
i?aoe? ia 15-25%, ciaioeoe aeei?enoaiiy aei?iaiai cae?ciaaoiiiiai
e??ieaiiy, ?icoe?eoe canoinoaaiiy aiea?iiai oa aaoiiiiai ooo/iiai
e??ieaiiy a neeaaeieo aaioaoi?/ieo oiiaao.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai iniaenoiai aianeo a ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a, aeianaieo ia caoeno, iieyaa?: a oi?ioethaaii? i?iaeaie,
iaoe, caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue; noaoenoe/iiio aiae?c?
? iaa?oiooaaii? iieaciee?a no?oeoo?ii-iaoai?/ii? iaiaeii??aeiino?
aaaaoioa?oaaoeo ianea?a ii??ae oa iioaioe?eiiai iieacieea ?o no?eeino? a
iaieaiiyo; ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee ? e?eoa???a aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae??
e??ieaiiy noiaao??a c ii?iaeaie; ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a oaooieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaa?oiooaaii? iiaiai oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci
aeaoi?ioaaiiy ii??ae a?ey noiaao??a oa ?o niieo/aiue c ai?eciioaeueieie
ae?iaeaie; o iinoaiiaoe? aiae?oe/ii? caaea/? ? aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a
eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy; ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?eioeei?a
aeai?o ea?oth/eo aieea?a ia nenoaio e??ieaiiy noiaao??a oa eiino?oeoe?e
eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a ?o ioi?iie; ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue o ae?iaieoeoai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii e??ieaiith a??ie/eo ae?iaie (Iaaeia?aae, 1995),
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii i?iaeaiai ? ia?niaeoeaai inai?iiy
?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997, 1998), ii eiio?ieth
i?e?iaeii-oaoiiaaiieo nenoai (sseoa, 1996; Euea?a, 1996; Ooea, 1996); ii
i?iaeaiai a?ae?iaaiiaoai?ee a a??ie/ee ni?aa? ? aoae?aieoeoa? (Ee?a,
1996), a oaeiae ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii
ia?eoaeaea?nueeiio caaacia/aiith a??ie/eo ?ia?o (Aeiiaoeuee, 1995),
aoae?aaeueiei eiino?oeoe?yi (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1996), e??ieaiith
aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a oaoo (?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1997). Ie?ai? ?icae?ee
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia oaoi?/i?e ?aae? o?anoo
“Aeiiaoeueeoaooii?io?aeea” (Aeiiaoeuee, 1994-1998), iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao
?AOI IAIO Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1996-1998), ia’?aeiaiiio nai?ia??
eaoaae? IAA Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iiooeoaa/ai iioae?eiaaii 35 ?ia?o, o
oiio /ene?: iaeia iiiia?ao?y, noaoo?, aeiiia?ae? – 25, ea??aieoeoaa – 3,
na?aeioeoaa ia aeiaoiaee – 2, oace aeiiia?aeae – 4.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a.
I?noeoue … noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a oiio /ene? … iaethiee,
… oaaeeoe?, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c … iaeiaioaaiue oa …
aeiaeaoe?a.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo aeieoi?o oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o A.I.
Ona/aieo ca oaaao oa oe?ii? ii?aaee i?e aeeiiaii? ?iaioe ? i?aeaioiaoe?
aeena?oaoe??, a oaeiae ni?a?ia?oieeai ?AOI IAI Oe?a?ie oa ?ia?oieeai
o?anoo “Aeiiaoeueeoaooii?io?aeea” ca aeiiiiiao a i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?eiaio?a ? i?iieneiaiio inai?ii? ?ic?iaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. Noai i?iaeaie ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue

Eeth/iaith i?iaeaiith o i?aeaeuaii? aia?aaoe/ii? iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie
ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy aeaeiaooeo aoa?eey, i?e iaeii/aniiio c?inoaii?
eiai eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?, ? i?iaeaia ?ioaineo?eaoe??, iaae?eiino? oa
aeiiii?/iino? aoae?aieoeoaa ? iiaeeaeaiiy oaooieo aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a. Aeeiiaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c aeicaiey? aecia/eoe, ui
i??i?eoaoiith neeaaeiaith oe??? i?iaeaie ? caaea/a iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaee oa oaeineiiaeaiiy niinia?a e??ieaiiy ? ioi?iie
oaooieo noiaao??a. Ii nueiaiaei? o?aaeeoe?eii nii?oaeaeaiith noiaao??a,
?o e??ieaiith i?eoaiaii? cia/ia aoae?aaeueia aa?o?noue,
o?oaeii?noe?noue, cieaeaiiy ianya?a, oaii?a i?io?aeee ? c?inoaiiy
oa?i?i?a aoae?aieoeoaa. Oey oaiaeaioe?y iia’ycaia c aaaaoueia oaeoi?aie,
iniiaieie c yeeo ?: aeeni?iii?oe?? a aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie, ui ni?e/eieee
ciaioaiiy eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue a oaooia aoae?aieoeoai, oneeaaeiaiiy
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia, canoinoaaiiy niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a, ye?
ae/a?iaee naaa ii i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? aeieia?/iino?. Aea aaaiiei ? oa, ui
ia? i?noea iaiaaeaia a?aooaaiiy ci?ie a oiiaao aoae?aieoeoaa ?
aeiaaio?eaaei? aenieoaoaoe?? noiaao??a, iaaeinoaoi? iaoeiaa
iaa?oiooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue ii e??ieaiith
noiaao??a o oeeo oiiaao. A noeoiiino? oea cieaeo? ye?noue i?iaeooaaiiy
oa i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeo?ao i?e aoae?aieoeoa? ?
aenieoaoaoe?? noiaao??a.

Ioaea, i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iino? ? iaae?eiino? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo ? aaaeeeaith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?iaeaiith,
ine?eueee ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaeathoue iaiao?aeio
aaco i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ia?aeiieeaei
aeieacii oeueiai ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? iaoai?ee
a??nueeeo ii??ae, ea?oaaiiy a??nueeei oeneii, ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?e
e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiee aianie o ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ioe?iee oa ea?oaaiiy noaiii
ianeao a??nueeeo ii??ae ? a??nueeei oeneii, a ioaea i?iaeaie ioi?iie
a??nueeeo ae?iaie c?iaeee nai?ie a?aee?eooyie a/ai?: A.?. Aiiaea?aiei,
A.O. Aoeao, A.A. Aeiia?aaeia, A.I. Ci??i, A.A. I?aiye, A.I.
Iioo?a?a, TH.I. Oae?iaiaeee, ?.?. Oaiye?i oa ?io?.

Aaaiia cia/aiiy aeey ae??oaiiy caaea/ ioe?iee aieeao no?oeoo?ii? ?
i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ianeao ii??ae ia no?ee?noue i?iaaaeaieo o
iueiio ae?iaie iathoue ?iaioe A.Ae. Aeaena?aa, TH.A. A?yaeouiai, AE.N.
??aeaiiaa, I.I. Cai?ueea, I.I. E?aoeia, A.A E?aaoey, ?.O. Ic??iaa, E.ss.
Ia?/aanueeiai, I.?. Iiiiia?aiea, A.?. ?ao?iiaa, A.I. ?i?iea, E.A.
?oiiaiaeoa, A.A. O?iiia, Aee. I. *aoiaa, I.I. Oaoaiea, A.?. Oai?ia,
A.I. Oanoaeiaa oa ?i. Cia/iee aieea ia ?ic?iaeo oeiecaoe?e oiia
i?aeo?eiaiiy a??ie/eo ae?iaie oa iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoa???a no?eeino?
ianeao ii??ae iathoue ?iaioe I.N. Aoee/iaa, A.O. Aeooea, A.I. Ae?ooeea,
TH.I. Ea?oaoiaa, A.A. Eeoaeinueeiai, A.ss. Iia?ea, ?.I. Naaeiaaiea, I.I.
I?ioiae’yeiiiaa, A.A. I?ioinai?, A.A. ?aeaanueeiai, A.I. Ona/aiea, A.A.
Oea?eeianueeiai, E.I. Oeo??ii?, A.I. sseainueeiai, caei?aeiiieo a/aieo –
I. Aa?oiia, C. Aaiyanueeiai, Ae. Eiaona, E. Oa?oeaa? oa ?io?.

Cia/i? aianee a ?icaeoie oai?aoe/ii? ? aenia?eiaioaeueii? aaiiaoai?ee,
noai?aiiy cania?a, oaoiieia?e i?io?aeee e??ieaiiy ? aenieoaoaoe??
aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a c?iaeee a/ai?: O.?. Aa?ainii, ?.A.
Aaeeaoia, O.A. Aaea?iei, A.A. Aa??caioeaa, A.I. Ai?eniaaoeue, A.A.
Aoaeiee, I.N. Aoee/ia, TH.I. Aan?eia, I.A. Aa?eooa, A.I. Aeiaa, I.A.
Aoca?a, I.N. Aeieoe?i, A.A. Ae??aai, I.I. Caaei?iaei?e, A.A. Ea?oic?y,
A.ss. E?iei, A.?. E?aa/aiei, A.I. Eicae, ?.A. Eineia, E.A. Eioae?a, A.I.
E?oiaii?eia, I.I. Iaen?iia, ?.A. Iaiaoeue, TH.I. Ia?aoe?n, E.A,
Iia?eiaa, TH.I. Iieuaiei, E.ss. Ia?/aanueeee, A.N. I?iueeianueeee, TH.A.
Iieicia, A.A. I?aaa?, ?.O. I?iyae?i, A.I. ??iei, A.E. Noaaeeia, ?.A.
Oth?eyi, I.A. O?eaoia, I.I. Oio??aa, I.I. Oaoaiei, O.?. ssaiaee?i;
caei?aeiii? a/ai? – I. Aaee, A. A?oo?, Eaaann, O. Eaooea?, O. Ii?, ss.
Oaiia?, I. Ooaeae oa ?i.

Aaeeea caneoaa a ?icaeoie i?iaeaie nii?oaeaeaiiy e??ieaiiy ? ioi?iie
aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a iaeaaeeoue IAe?IIOA, AIAeI?, Oe?IAeI?,
IAe?AI ?i. I.I. Oaaei?iaa.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oe?ieee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei i?iaeaie nii?oaeaeaiiy
aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a, caaea/a ?o aoaeoeaiiai e??ieaiiy ua
aeaeaea a?ae naiai ae??oaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aeicaieea aecia/eoe ?yae aaaeeeaeo ia?aaeoiia oi?ioaaiiy
caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiue. A?aoiaoth/e aenieo ieoiio aaao (30-40%) aieeao
iaia?aaeaa/aiino? a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia ia aeaoi?ioaaiiy e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a, a?aenooi?noue oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaieo i?aeoiae?a ?o ioe?iee,
aecia/aeueiith o i?aeaeuaii? iaae?eiino? i?iaeooaaiiy ? aeai?o niinia?a
e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a ? caaea/a oeiecaoe?? oeeo oiia, canoinoaaiiy
yei? i?aeaeueoue aeinoia??i?noue ? iiaiioo aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino?
aoaeaii?iaeieo oiau, ia?aoeia?ieo noiaao?aie. Ine?eueee ooiaeaiaioaeueia
aeanoea?noue oeeo oiau iia’ycaia c aaaaoioa?oaao?noth, ui aecia/a?oueny
/a?aoaaiiyi ??ciiiiooaeieo ? ??ciii?oei?nieo ii??ae, eeth/iaith ?
ioe?iea no?oeoo?ii? oa i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ii??ae c aecia/aiiyi
iioaioe?eieo iieaciee?a no?eeino? ianeao ye ia a?aeie?aieaieo
ae?eueieoeyo, oae ? ii noiaao?o a oe?eiio. I?e oeueiio noeoiia ioe?iea
ca’yceo i?ae e?oieiai-no?oeoo?ieie ? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie iieacieeaie
ii??ae iiaeiia iaoe ocaiaeaeai?noue c ?o noaiii a a?aeneiiaiiyo oa
iaoai?ciii i?iyaeaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo o ae?iaeao, ye? ?icoaoiaai? a
ieo. Iaaeinoaoiy aea/ai?noue oe??? caaea/?, a oaeiae cia/ia ciaioaiiy
oaooieo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao c?inoath/eo iio?aa ciaiue i?i ye?ni? ?
e?euee?ni? iieacieee iiaeo oi?i i?iyaeaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo a noiaao?ao,
ui i?iaiaeyoueny o no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao, a cia/i?e i??? ?
iaei??th c i?e/ei iaiaaeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioeo ? iianthaeiiai
canoinoaaiiy iiiie?oiiai aaoiiiiai e??ieaiiy, ianyae yeiai neeaaeathoue
85-95%. I?e oeueiio ?io? oeie e??ieaiiy iathoue ae?ae iaiaaeaia
canoinoaaiiy: iiiie?oia ? otha?iaiaa cae?ciaaoiiia – 8-10%, 0,5-1,5%
a?aeiia?aeii, otha?iaiaa iaoaeaaa – 3-5%, aiea?ii-aaoiiia – 2-3%,
aaaaoioa?iaa – 0,5-1%. Iayai?noue ie?aieo /anoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ia iaaea?
iaae?eii? aace aeey aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo niinia?a
e??ieaiiy noiaao??a, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aenieei a?aenioeii (48-60)
aeaoi?iiaaieo noiaao??a, i?e/iio ?c-ca iaa?aeiia?aeiino? oaoiieia?e
e??ieaiiy oeae iieaciee aeinyaa? – 33-43%. I?e oeueiio aeii?ioth/ith
i?e/eiith ?oeioaaiiy e??ieaiiy ? eiai iacaeaoi?noue i?ioeae?yoe
ia??aiii??iei aneiao?e/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia noiaao?e, ye?
aeeeeeathoueny iaiaeii??aei?noth ii??ae oa iaiaeii??aei?noth a?ae
oeueiai i?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ianeao. I/aaeaeia iaiao?aei?noue
ye?nii iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa?oiooaaiiy niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a o
no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeieo ianeaao.

Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy (a?aee?eooy ? 1, Oe?a?ia, ?AOI IAIO)
na?ae/aoue, ui ia?oith eaieith a i?aeaeuaii? no?eeino? noiaao??a iiaeiii
aooe ea?iaaia aeei?enoaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? ianeao ii??ae aeey
cieaeaiiy aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e??ieaiiy oa noai?aiiy eiia?iiaaieo
ioi?iiieo eiino?oeoe?e noiaao??a. Oaeei /eiii, caaaeueiinenoaiiee aoaeo
a nenoai? “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ii?iaeiee ianea” iiaea aooe aeinyaiooee
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei aeai?ii iniiaiiai e??ieaiiy ? canoinoaaiiyi
eiiieaiaioa?ieo (noaiioeiaeueieo) oiiaai niinia?a ? cania?a aeey
?aaoethaaiiy aca?iiae?? ?? aeaiaio?a. Aea/aiiy ii?ooaiiy neiao???
(ia??aiii??i?noue, iaa??aiiaaaeai?noue) aith? iaaaioaaeaiue yaey? niaith
iaoiaee/iee aacen aeine?aeaeaiue, a aaee/eia aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ?
e?eoa???i ioe?iee aaiiaoai?/iiai noaio nenoaie ? aeo?aeiei ia?aiao?ii
aeey aeai?o aeaeo ? iine?aeiaiino? aeeiiaiiy ?aaoeyoeaieo ?
noaa?e?coth/eo ea??aieo aieea?a aeey caaacia/aiiy a?eueo neiao?e/iiai ??
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ??aiii?oei?niiai, ??aiiaaaeiiai noaio. ?ic?iaea ia oe?e
iniia? eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a ciaioeoue canoinoaaiiy
e??ieaiiy aeniei? aa?oino? ? o?oaeii?noeino?, yea /anoi ia caaacia/o?
aenieoaoaoe?eio iaae?ei?noue noiaao??a.

Oaeei /eiii, noai?aiiy iaoeiaeo iniia aaiiaoai?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
?ic?iaee ? aeai?o eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo o no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao yaey?
niaith cia/io iaoeiao ? oaoi?/io i?iaeaio. Ieae/a aena?oeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aecia/athoue ci?no ? nooi?noue ?ic?iaie aaoi?a ii i?iaeai?.

?icae?e 2. Ioe?iea e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/ieo iniaeeainoae nii?oaeaeaiiy
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo oa i?iyaeaiiy a ieo a??nueeiai oeneo

I?aeoeea i?iaeooaaiiy, i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a a
Aeiiaan? na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy iiaiioe oa
aeinoia??iino? aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino? ia?aoeia?ieo ieie oiau ii??ae,
iniaeeaino? ?o iiaiaeaeaiiy o a?aeneiiaiiyo oa aca?iiae?? c e??ieaiiyi.
Aia?oa nenoaiaoeciaaii ? ocaaaeueiaii ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/i? oa aaiiaoai?/i? oiiae nii?oaeaeaiiy noiaao??a c
oi/ee ci?o noeoiii? ioe?iee aca?iica’yce?a i?ae iieacieeaie no?oeoo?ii?
? i?oei?noii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ii??ae aaaaoioa?oaaoeo oiau,
?iia??i?nieie iieacieeaie ?o no?eeino? i?e iaieaiiyo oa iaaaioaaeaiiyo
a??nueeei oeneii.

Aeey ioe?iee /a?aoaaiiy ??ciiiiooaeieo ? ??ciii?oei?noieo oa??a ii??ae
iaa?oioiaaii iieacieee no?oeoo?ii? (Kni) ? i?oei?noii? (Kii)
iaiaeii??aeiinoae ianeao, aiae?oe/i? ae?ace yeeo io?eiai? ia aac?
aiae?co oaeoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a ii aaieia?/ieo ?ic??cao a caeaaeiino? a?ae
ii?aeiaiiy ii??ae ca e?oieia?/ieie ? iaoai?/ieie iciaeaie:

, (1)

aea oi, Ri ( iiooaei?noue ? i?oei?noue i?iaa?noe?a ii??ae a?eueoi?
i?oeiino?.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?ic?iaee ?AOI IAIO (A.O. Aeooei, A.I. Oanoaeia)
oaeineiiaeaii oi?ioeo ?ic?aooie?a i?eaaaeaii? i?oeiino? aaaaoioa?oaaoeo
neeaaeiino?oeoo?ieo oiau ii?iaeieo ianea?a c a?aooaaiiyi e?eueeino?
oa??a, ?o iiooaeiino? ? ??ciii?oeiino?, a oaeiae cieaeaiiy iano/i?
caeaoiino? oaeiai ianeao i?ae aieeaii ?aieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. Aeey
oeiecaoe?? oiia e??ieaiiy noiaao??a caaaeueio oeaeo i?oeiino?
aeine?aeaeaieo ii??ae ?icae?eaii ia i’youe eean?a, iia’ycaaoe ?o c
aaee/eiaie ?aieia?/iiai iieacieea ii??ae (/( (ii A.I. Ona/aiei): ? (
aeoaea i?oei?, Rc > 120 IIa, (/(

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