IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

I?I?NOA?NOAI AOA?EUeII? I?IIENEIAINO?

A?AeAe?EAIIss O?CEEI-OAOI?*IEO A??IE*EO I?IAEAI AeIIAOeUeEIAI
O?CEEI-OAOI?*IIAI ?INOEOOOO ?i.I.I.AAEE?IA

AEeoeueiiie Aeieo?i Ii?naeiae/

OAeE 622.831

AAIIAOAI?*IA IAA?OIOOAAIIss NIINIAO OI?AAE?IIss NOAIII A??IE*IAI IANEAO
I?E UEOIA?E A?Ae?IAOe? E?OOEO AOA?EUeIEO IEANO?A

05.15.11.-«O?ce/i? i?ioeane a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa»

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?aeae?eaii? o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO?
IAIO ?i. I.I.Aaee?ia

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aee?aeoi? Aeiiaoeueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
aoa?eueiiai ?inoeoooo AeiiAOA?

A?yaeouee TH.A.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, canooiiee aee?ae-oi?a NEOA ?inoeoooo
aaioao-i?/ii? iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)

Nio?enueeee E.E.

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aaaeo/ee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?o-iee Iae??anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo c aaciaee ?ia?o a a??ie/?e
i?iieneiaino? (IaeIAe?)

Einoe?y A.ss.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — aea?aeaaia i?aei?e?inoai “Eiiieaeniee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ? i?iaeoii-eiino?oe-oi?nueeee ?inoeooo c i?iaeai
Oeaio?aeueiiai ?aeiio Aeiiaano” (AeiiIAe?), i. Ai?e?aea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «22» ea?oiy 1999 ?. o 12 aiaeei ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee E11.1184.02 o A?aeae?eaii? o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo
a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? IAIO ?i.I.I.Aaee?ia ca aae?anith: 340114,
aoe.?.Ethenaiao?a, 72.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? A?aeae?eaiiy OOAI
AeiiOO? IAIO ?i. I.I.Aaee?ia ca aae?anith: 340114, aoe. ?.Ethenaiao?a,
72.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «19» aa?aciy1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee, eaiae. oaoi. iaoe

?.?.I?oaeaiei

ANOOI

Aeooaeue?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??.

Ia oaooao Oeaio?aeueiiai ?aeiio Aeiiaano, ia yeeo ?ic?iaey?oueny
eien?aia aoa?eey, eiiieaenii-iaoai?ciaai? aeai? a iniiaiiio iaeaaeiai?
ueoiaeie aa?aaaoaie 1AIU ? 2AIU, ui caaacia/o? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia EIA a
1,3-1,5 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae ia iieioeiao eaao. Ia oaooao AI
“A?oaiaoa?eey” ia`?i aeaeiaooeo c oaeeo aeai?a neeaaea? a?ey 32%. ?acii
c oei, a inoaii? ?iee ciaioeeinue na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
ueoeaee aea?e aei 100 o. I?e/eia a oneeaaeiaieo a??ie/iaaieia?/ieo
oiiaao a?ae?iaee aoa?eueieo ieano?a, a ia?oo /a?ao o i?aeaeuaieo
aaee/eiao oeneo ia e??ieaiiy ae?iaie, a oaeiae o ciaioaii? no?eeino?
aieiaeo ii??ae. A ca’yceo c oeei aaeeeith i?iaeaiith caeeoa?oueny
caaacia/aiiy aenieoaoaoe?eii? caeaoiino? e??ieaiiy aoaeanioneieo oa
aaioeeyoe?eieo ia/ae ia aanue /an ?o neoaeae, ine?eueee naia ia
a?aeiia?aei?noue ?o ia?iao??a oneeaaeiaiei aaiiaoai?/iei oiiaai i?eaiaea
aei ia?aae/aniiai ?oeioaaiiy oa ?aiiioo. Caniae e??ieaiiy ia/ae, ye?
ca?ac canoiniaothoueny, ia caaacia/othoue iaiao?aeii? aenieoaoaoe?eii?
yeino?. ?aea ?ioaineaiee iiooe iiaeo iaoa??ae?a aeey e??ieaiiy ia/ae oa
eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue, ui caaania/othoue iaiao?aei? ia?aiao?e
i?aeaeaoeeaino? oa iano/i? caeaoiino? e??ieaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeathoue
oiiaai ?o iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aaeeeee ia’?i iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oeueiio
iai?yieo aeeiiaiee oaeeie a?aeiieie eieaeoeaaie, ye AeiiIAe?, ?AOI IAIO,
AIAeI?, AeAeOO oa ?io., ye? cai?iiiioaaee aeey e??ieaiiy ia/ae ye
niaoe?aeuei? iaoai?ciaai? naeoe??, oae ? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iaoaeaa?
noiyee oa eiino?oeoe?? c aaoiio. Ia?niaeoeaieie ? oaeiae niiniae
aeoeaii? ae?? ia a??ie/ee ianea, ye? caaacia/othoue aeaaii?e?iiee aeey
e??ieaiiy ae?iaee ?aaeei iaaaioaaeaiiy, oiio ui aeicaieythoue ci?ieoe
iai?oaeaiii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai ioi/oth/iai ae?iaeo a??ie/ee ianea.
Oe?ieee ?icaeoie io?eiaa niin?a oi?aae?iiy noaiii ianeao ca ?aooiie
iiia?aaeiueiai caieiaeaiiy aoa?eueiiai ieanoa aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei (IA?), yeee canoiniao?oueny ye aeey
caiia?aaiiy aaciae?iai?/iei yaeuai, oae ? ye niin?a oi?aae?iiy a??ie/ei
oeneii o i?aeaioia/eo oa i/enieo ae?iaeao. Aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy oeueiai
iaoiaeo oa ?icoe?aiiy iaeano? eiai canoinoaaiiy aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy
aaioeeyoe?eieo ? aoaeanioneieo ae?iaie iaiao?aeii aea/aiiy
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aoa?eueiiai ieanoa, iniaeeai a oiiaao
a?ae?iaee caeeaeaieo ieano?a, oa aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a aaii?oai?/ieo
i?ioean?a o iaaeieeoiueiio ianea?.

Oiio oaia aeana?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, yea ni?yiiaaia ia ae??oaiiy
i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie i?e ueoia?e a?ae?iaoe? e?ooeo
ieano?a, ? aeooaeueiith.

Ca’ycie oaie aeena?oaoe?? c ieaiii iaeoai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ?inoeoooo.
Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ca’ycai? c ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? IAIO (?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? oaie 0197O008905) oa c ?iaioith “Aeine?aeaeaiiy
ci?oaieo i?oaeii-ieanoe/ieo caaea/ aeaoi?ioaaiiy ai?cio?iiieo na?aaeiaeu
oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy a iaoai?oe? a??ie/eo ii??ae” (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
0194O022566).

Iaoith ?iaioe ? iaa?oiooaaiiy niiniao oi?aae?iiy
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiei noaiii a??ie/iai ianeao iaaeiei aaioeeyoe?eieo
oa aoaeanioneieo ia/ae ueoiaeo aa?aaao?a, yeee caaacia/o? ?o
i?aeo?eiaiiy ia aanue ia??iae aenieoaoaoe??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe noi?ioeueiaai? ianooii? caaea/?:

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a iaaeiei aaioeeyoe?eieo oa
aoaeanioneieo ia/ae i?e o?aaeeoe?eieo niiniaao ?o e??ieaiiy ? ioi?iie c
iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy ?o iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?ie aaciiane/aiino? e?ooiai aoa?eueiiai ieanoa oa oeneo
aaco a iueiio i?e eiai aeaaacaoe?? a??ie/eie ?iaioaie ocaeiaae
aeecueeieaaea/eo ieano?a ? i?iaaaeaii? aeanieo ieanoiaeo ae?iaie.

?ic?iaea aiae?oe/ieo iaoiae?a aea/aiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
oa aaciiane/aiino? e?ooiai aoa?eueiiai ieanoa, ye? aeicaieythoue
aecia/eoe ia?aiao?e niiniao aeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy iei.

?ic?iaea niiniao aeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiei noaiii
e?ooiai ieanoa iaaeiei i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, yeee aaco?oueny ia eiai
iiia?aaeiueiio caieiaeaii? aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie IA? oa a?aoiao? ci?ie
aaciaiai oeneo o aoa?eueiiio ieano? a oiiaao i?ae- ? iaae?iaee.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?? c iaoith aecia/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeiino? i?eeiyoeo ia?aiao??a a??ie/iaaieia?/iei oa
a??ie/i-oaoi?/iei oiiaai ? aecia/aiiy ?? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?.

?aeay ?iaioe iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? anoaiiaeaieo iniaeeainoae ci?ie
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aoaeaii?iaeiiai ianeao iaaeiei ueoiaiai
aeaith oa ci?ie oeneo aaca o ?ic?iaey?iiio aoa?eueiiio ieano? i?e
a?ae?iaoe? eiai o na?o? ieano?a aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?iao??a niiniao
ioi?iie aaioeeyoe?eieo ia/ae, yeee aaco?oueny ia o?ceei-o?i?/i?e ae?? ia
aoa?eueiee ieano.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. A aeena?oaoe?? aoa aeei?enoiaaiee eiiieaeniee
iaoiae, yeee aeeth/a? a naaa: aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo
i?aeo?eiaiiy ia/ae i?e ueoia?e a?ae?iaoe? e?ooeo ieano?a, iiia?aaei?e
iaae?iaoe? oa i?ae?iaoe? ieanoa c iaoith ci?ie eiai
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio, aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, eaai?aoi?i?
oa oaooi? aenia?eiaioe, ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee, ?ic?iaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueio
ia?aa??eo iaoiaeo o?ceei-o?i?/ii? ae?? ia aoa?eueiee ieano c iaoith
noai?aiiy oiia ioi?iie ia/ae ? aecia/aiiy eiai aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeianaii ia caoeno, ?o iiaecia:

I?e a?aeoiae? ueoiaiai aa?aaaoo a?ae iiioaaeii? ia/? ia e?ie iaaaeaiiy
iniiaii? iie??ae? anoaiiaeaii, ui a iaea?eueo aeaoi?iiaai?e /anoei?
aoa?eueiiai ieanoa (niieo/aiiy aoaeaioneii? ia/? c aeai?i)
o??ueioaao?noue aoa?eey c?inoa? a 2,0-2,5 ?ace.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e oi?aae?ii? noaiii aoa?eueiiai ieanoa a?ey ia/? ca
aeiiiiiaith eiai caieiaeaiiy ?ic/eiaie IA? a?aeiini? ci?uaiiy aieiaeo
ii??ae a ieiuei? iaieanooaaiiy ciaioothoueny a 1,4 ?ace, a ocaeiaae
ii?iae? a 1,1 ?ace.

Aiaeia?/ii anoaiiaeaii oa aenia??iaioaeueii ioe?iaii aoaeo
ia?a?iciiae?eo iai?oaeaiue a ianea? a?ey aaioeeyoe?eii? ia/?, yeee
caaacia/o?oueny a?ae?iia?iaeith ieanoa. I?e oeueiio, iaeneioi eiiiiiaio
iai?oaeaiue ia?ai?uo?oueny a aeeaeio ianeao ia a?aenoaiue c 1,4 aei 2,8
i.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy oa a??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ca?aii ?acoeueoao?a
aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
aoaeaii?iaeiiai ianeao iaaeiei ueoiaiai aeaith c aenia?eiaioaeueieie
aeaieie cai???a ia i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo ae?eueieoeyo niinoa?aaeaiue;
canoinoaaiiyi ai?iaiaaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, i?eeaae?a oa
aia?aoo?e ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue aeine?aeiith
ia?aa??eith ia oaooao.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe i?noeoueny o anoaiiaeaii? iniaeeainoae
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a??ie/iai ianeao a?ey ueoiaiai aeaith,
ye? aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe iaoai?ci aeaoi?ioaaiiy e??ieaiiy
aaioaeyoe?eieo oa aoaeanioneieo ia/ae, a oaeiae o aecia/aii?
aaciiane/aiino? aoa?eueiiai ieanoa i?e eiai i?ae?iaoe? a?ey i?aeaioia/eo
ae?iaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe i?noeoueny a ?ic?iaoe? niiniao ioi?iie
ieanoiaeo i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie i?e ueoia?e a?ae?iaoe? e?ooeo ieano?a,
yeee aaco?oueny ia iiia?aaeiueiio ?icaaioaaeaii? aoaeaii?iaeiiai ianeao
ca ?aooiie caieiaeaiiy eiai aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie IA?.

?aae?caoe?y aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue oa?eoee a ea??aieoeoai “Eiiiuethoa?i? aa??aioe ianii?o?a
oi?aae?iiy iie??aeath oa e??ieaiiy eaa ieano?a c eooaie iaae?iiy a?eueoa
35(”, yea caoaa?aeaeaia I?iaoaeai?iiii Oe?a?ie oa ocaiaeaeaia
Aea?aeiaaeyaeioi?iii?aoe? (1998?.)

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo ?aaeao AI
“A?oaiaoa?eey”, AeiiIAe?, A/aieo ?aaeao ?IEII ?AI, ?III IAIO, AOOAI
AeiiOO? IAIO (1981-1998??.), Ananithci?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
iieiaeeo a/aieo oa oao?aoe?a aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? (1983?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, a oiio
/ene? 2 eieae, 2 a?ioo?e, 5 noaoae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e ?c 100 iaeiaioaaiue oa i?noeoue:
81 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 54 ?enoie?a, 13 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

A ?acoeueoao? aaeeeiai ia’?io aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa eiino?oeoi?nueeeo
?ia?o, ye? aeeiiai? eieaeoeaaie a/aieo oa oao?aoe?a EA?,
AeiiAe?I?iaoaeaiaoa, AeA?, AeI?, AIAeI?, AeiiAOA?, ?AAe ?i.
I.I.Nei/einueeiai oa ?io., aoea noai?aia aoaeoeaia oaoi?ea aeey ?ic?iaee
e?ooeo oa e?ooiiioeeeo aoa?eueieo ieano?a Oeaio?aeueiiai ?aeiio Aeiiaano
– iaoai?ciaaia e??ieaiiy oa aa?aaaoe (“Aeiai?“, EAAe, IEO, EAO, AEAe oa
?io.), a oaeiae ueoia? aa?aaaoe (AU, AIU, AEAe, EU oa ?io.), ui
i?ecia/aeenue aeey a?ae?iaee ieano?a oe?ieeie nioaaie ocaeiaae iaae?iiy.
Aeine?aeaeaiiyie O.I.Aineiai?aa, A.O.Aoeaoa, A.A.Eaio?aa,
TH.I.Iaeuei?/oea, A.A.Aaneeue?aa, I.I.Aeeoaaa, A.O.Eo?iiniaa,
?.?.Ieoaeaiea, ?.O.?aaiiaa, A.A.A?eiueiaa, N.N.A?aaueiie?ia,
I.I.Oaiiaaea, ?.A.THaeai?ia iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? ia?aiao?e e??ieaiiy
oeeo ae?iaie oa ?aoe?iiaeuei? niiniae ioi?iie, a oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaiee
?yae ia?niaeoeaieo cania?a ?o e??ieaiiy. Oea aeicaieeei o 70-80-? ?iee
caaacia/eoe aenieee ??aaiue iaoai?caoe?? a?ae?iaee e?ooeo ieano?a
Aeiiaano, eiee a ??e i?aoethaaei aei 60-70 ueoiaeo aeai?a. ?acii c oei,
?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaeie a??ie/eo ?ia?o, yea aaea ia?aaa?oo? a?aei?oeo
1000 i, oneeaaeieeenue oaeiae a??ie/iaaieia?/i? oiiae ?ic?iaey?ieo
ieano?a, ??cei iia??oaa noai e??ieaiiy i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie, ui noaei
i?e/eiith aaa??e oa cieaeaiiy oaii?a iinoaaiiy eaa. Oiio aoee
cai?iiiiiaai? iia? iaoa??aee aeey e??ieaiiy ae?iaie – ieeoe c aaoiio oa
i?aeo?eioth/? eiino?oeoe?? c ieo, iaoaeaa? noiyee oa niaoe?aeuei?
naeoe??, a oaeiae nooe?euei? eeo? nioae oinoia?ino oa ?io? cai?iieee
oeaiaioo. Ia aeaeue, /a?ac oaoiieia?/i? oa aeiiii?/i? (iiaei?iae/aiiy
iaoaeo, oeaiaioo oa aeao?oeeo oinoia?ino) i?iaeaie oe? ia?niaeoeai?
??oaiiy aeae? noaae?? oaooiiai aenia?eiaioo ia i?oee.

?acii c oei, ye iieaco? aiae?c ?ia?o A.Ae.Aeaen??aa ?.I.Iaoooiaa,
A.O.Aoeaoa, A.N.Ao?/aeiaa, A.O.Ae?oi?, A.A.Aeiia?aaeiaa,
E.O.Naieoeueeiai, A.I.Ci??ia, E.E.Nio?enueeiai, TH.A.Aiiaea?aiea,
I.I.Cai?ueea, I.I.Eaaoeia, A.A.Iaceiei, A.I.A?oaiiiiaa, I.N.Eocueiaiea,
A.ss.Einoe??, A.I.Coaiaa oa ?io., ??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeo?eiaiiy a??ie/eo
ae?iaie ia aaeeeeo aeeaeiao iiaeeeai ca ?aooiie iai?aaeaii? ci?ie
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aoaeaii?iaeiiai ianeao. Oea iiaeeeai
cae?enieoe ye ca aeiiiiiaith ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a – iiia?aaei? i?ae-
oa iaae?iaee iai?/aii? aei a?ae?iaee ae?eueieoe? aoa?eueiiai ieanoa, a
oaeiae eieaeueieo iaoiae?a, ye? aacothoueny ia ae?? ia i?eeiioo?io
ae?eueieoeth a??ie/iai ianeao. O no/anieo oiiaao iaea?eueo i?eeiyoeie
aeey aei?iaaaeaeaiiy ? eieaeuei? iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy noaiii a??ie/iai
ianeao, iniaeeai niiniae eiai iiia?aaeiueiai caieiaeaiiy.

Aeeiiaiee aiae?c aeicaieea noi?ioethaaoe iaoo oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy aenia??iaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoee aeei?enoai? ye
ai?iaiaai? iaoiaee aeey aecia/aiiy aaee/ei oa oaeaeeinoae caeeaeaiiy
aieiaeo ii??ae a a??ie/eo ae?iaeao ca aeiiiiiaith eiioo?ieo ?aia??a, oae
? i?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeeea, yea aeicaieeea aecia/eoe ia o?eueee ci?uaiiy
ii??ae ia eiioo?? oa a aeeaei? ianeao, aea ? oaeaee?noue aacia?aeaea/?
aoa?eueiiai ieanoa ia ??ciiio a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae ae?iaee.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aoa?eueiiai ieanoa aoee
aeei?enoai? iaoiaee AeiiOO? oa IaeIAe? naeniiaeonoe/iiai ciiaeoaaiiy, a
oaeiae iaoiaeeea AeAeOO, yea aaco?oueny ia ?aae?iciiaeoaaii? oio??a.

Aenia??iaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a a??ie/iai oeneo o
i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaeao, ye? ioi/othoue ueoiao ae?eueieoeth, a oaeiae
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio e?aeiai? /anoeie aoa?eueiiai ianeao
cae?enithaaeenue ia ueoiaeo ae?eueieoeyo ia oaooao ?i. TH.I.Aaaa??ia,
?i. A.?.Eai?ia, “Eiiniiieaoeue”, ?i. A.E.?oiyioeaaa AI “A?oaiaoa?eey”.

Aeeaeia a??ie/eo ?ia?o neeaaeaea 800-1000 i, eoo iaae?iiy a?ae 46( aei
68(, iie??aey ??-??? eeano c eean?o?eaoe?? AeiiIAe? – AIAeI?, oiaueia
ieanoa – a?ae 1,1 aei 2,0 i. Ieanoe a?ae?iaeyeenue ueoiaeie aa?aaaoaie
oeio AIU 1 ? 2 oeii?ici???a.

Iniaeea?noth oaoiieia?? ueoiai? a?ae?iaee e?ooeo ieano?a ? oa, ui iaeia
ae?iaea – aaioeeyoe?eia i?/ue i?iaiaeeoueny iaeii/anii c aeaeiaooeii
aoa?eey o aeai? ? e??ieaiiy cae?enith?oueny c iaaaeeeei cai?ciaiiyi a?ae
iueiai, a ae?oaa ae?iaea – aoaeanioneia i?/ue iiaaoo?oueny a?ae?aco
i?ney i?ioiaeaeaiiy aeaith. Oaeei /eiii, iaeia ? oaae ae?iaea
ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae ae??th ciie aieeao i/eniiai aeaith, a oaeiae ciie
IAO, yea oi?io?oueny a??ie/eie ?iaioaie ia aa?oiueiio aoaae? oeueiaiae
ieanoa, oa cii IAO a?ae non?aei?o ieano?a. A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo
cai???a aaee/ei oa oaeaeeinoae caeeaeaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? oa i?aeioae a
ia/ao iaea?eueo? oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? o aaioeeyoe?eieo ia/ao (4,6
ii/aeiao) cao?eniaai? ia aa?oi?e oa ieaei?e /anoeiao aeeiii/iiai noiaia,
ye? ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae ae??th cii IAO. A?aecia/aii i?aeaeuai? oaeaeeino?
caeeaeaiiy ia a?aenoai? 5-10 i ca ueoiaei aeai?i, ye? oaeaeei caanathoue
c eiai a?aeaeaeaiiyi.

O aoaeanionei?e ia/? iaea?eueo? oaeaeeino? caeeaeaiiy (aei 4,30-4,65
ii/aeiao) cao?eniaai? a cii? iii?iiai oeneo iiia?aaeo i/eniiai aeaith,
yea a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiaueie ieanoa oa aeanoeainoae ii??ae iie??ae?
neeaaea? 15-25 i. C ?icaeoeii a??ie/eo ?ia?o ocaeiaae ieanoa, eiee
?ici??e ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o ocaeiaae i?inoyaaiiy neeaaeathoue a?eueoa
100-150 i oa c a?aeoiaeii ueoiaiai aa?aaaoo a?ae aaioeeyoe?eiiai
ai?eciioo ia 50-60 i, ui a?aeiia?aea? e?ieo iaaaeaiiy iniiaii? iie??ae?
ocaeiaae iaae?iiy, cao?eniaai? iaea?eueo? oaeaeeino? caeeaeaiiy.
I?e/iio, o aoaeanionei?e ia/? aiie a 1,4-3,3 ?ace aeu?, i?ae o
aaioeeyoe?ei?e.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeeee AIAeI? aoee aeeiiai? cai??e aaee/ei a?aeiiniiai
ci?uaiiy ii??ae iie??ae? oa i?aeioae o ia/ao. Ia ?en. 1 i?aaenoaaeai?
a?ao?ee ci?uaiiue iie??ae? a?aeiinii i?aeioae o aaioeeyoe?ei?e ia/? a
i?ioean? a?aeoiaeo ueoiaiai aa?aaaoo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui e??i ci?uaiiy
ocaeiaae ii?iae? aieia? ii?iaee ci?uothoueny iaeia a?aeiinii iaeii?
ocaeiaae iaae?iiy ieanoa oa ocaeiaae i?inoyaaiiy o iai?yieo ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o. Eooe ci?uaiiy iie??ae? a?aeiinii i?aeioae aeinyaathoue
cia/aiue 4,5-5,0(, ui ii?ooo? ?aaeei ?iaioe e??ieaiiy oa oiiae
i?aeo?eiaiiy ia/ae.

?en. 1. A?ao?ee a?aeiiniiai ci?uaiiy aieiaeo ii??ae a ieiuei?
iaieanooaaiiy o. ?i. Aaaa??ia, m3, 950 i;

Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo naeniiciiaeoaaiiy aoei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
iai?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio e?aeiai? /anoeie aoa?eueiiai ieanoa
iiia?aaeo ueoiaiai aeaith oa ia iaae? c aaioeeyoe?eiith i?/’th.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui o iiioaaei?e i?o? /a?ac o?eaaeo ae?th ciie iii?iiai
oeneo ciia a?aeaeeio neeaaea? 1,0-1,5 i, a ?? iaeneioi ciaoiaeeoueny ia
a?aenoai? a?ae aeaith iiiaae 4,0-4,5 i.

C ii/aoeii i/enieo ?ia?o oa aeoiae? aa?aaaoo c aa?oiuei? ciie IAO
a?aeaeei ??cei ciaioo?oueny (aei 0,5-0,7 i), a iaeneioi ciie iii?iiai
oeneo ia?ai?uo?oueny aeeae/a aei aeaith ? aaioeeyoe?eii? ia/? (aei
2,5-3,0 i). A?ae?aco i?ney ae?iee aoa?eey ciia a?aeaeeio i?aeoe/ii ia
niinoa??aa?oueny, a iaeneioi iii?iiai oeneo ?icoaoiao?oueny ia a?aenoai?
2,5 i.

Cai??e o??ueioaaoino? aoa?eueiiai ieanoa a e?aeia?e /anoei? ca
aeiiiiiaith ?aae?iciiaeo eiino?oeoe?? AeI? aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe
iayai?noue ciie o??uei c ?ioaineai?noth 10-12 i-1 a iiioaaei?e i?o?, yea
i?ine?aeaeo?oueny ia aeeaei? aei 3,5 i oa ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei caanaiiy.
?acii c oei, ia niieo/aii? aoaeanioneii? ia/? c ueoiaei aeai?i
caa??aa?oueny a?eueoa o??ueioaao?noue o c??aiyii? c na?aaeeiith ueoiaiai
aeaith ?, iniaeeai, c eooeii. I?e a?aeoiae? aeaith ia 50-60 i a?ae
aaioeeyoe?eiiai ai?eciioo aiia neeaaea? 8,0-10,0 i-1. Aoa?eueiee ieano
aoa noeeueiee aei aeneiaiiy, ui a naith /a?ao noaei i?e/eiith iaaaeaiiy
ieaei?o oa??a iie??ae? oa caaae?a ia/?.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a??ie/iai
ianeao i?e ueoia?e ae?ioe? oa eiai aaiethoe?? ci?ie ?ici???a ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o aoei aeeiiaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
i?oaeiiieanoe/ii? iiaeae? ai?cio?iiiiai ianeao, yea aoea cai?iiiiiaaia
aeaae. I.N.Eiiiaeai?ainueeei oa I.I.Eaaoeiei.

Ia ?en. 2 i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a iai?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio a??ie/iai ianeao a?ey aaioeeyoe?eii? ia/?, ye c iiia?aaeiuei
caieiaeaiei ieanoii aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie IA?, oae ? aac caieiaeaiiy. C
iaaaaeaieo a?ao?e?a ne?aeo?, ui caieiaeaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei ia?ai?uaiiy
iaeneioi?a ii?iaeueieo oa aeioe/ieo iai?oaeaiue ia 0,5-1,0 i a aeeaeio
ianeao oa a aa?o iie??ae?. Oea ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith no?eeino? ieaei?o
oa??a iie??ae? oa ia?aoeiaeaeo? ?o ?oeioaaiith, ui i?aeaeuo?
aenieoaoaoe?eiee noai ae?iaee.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co aenia?aiaioaeueieo oa aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
cai?iiiiiaaia ?ic?aooieiaa noaia (?en. 3), yea iiynith? oa?aeoa?
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue a a??ie/iio ianea? i?e ueoia?e
ae?ioe? ia iaae? c aaioeeyoe?eiith i?/’th.

a)

a)

?en. 2. ?iciiae?e eiiiiiaioe iai?oaeaiiy (xye/(H:

a) aei caieiaeaiiy; a) i?ney caieiaeaiiy.

?en. 3. Aaii?oai?/ia noaia.

sse ne?aeo? c noaie, ci?ia iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a?ey ia/?
iiaeeeaa, aai ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy aei?noeino? iiaaeaieo ii??ae, aai
ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aoa?eueiiai ieanoa. sseui
ia?oo oiiao aeeiiaoe aeey aeaith, ui iino?eii ia?ai?uo?oueny,
iaiiaeeeai, oi iaaeaiiy aoa?eueiiio ieanoo ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae
oe?eeii iiaeeeai cae?enieoeA?aeiiee iaoiae ioi?iie i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaie
(AeiiOO? IAIO, AIAeI? oa AeAeOO), yeee aaco?oueny ia iiia?aaeiueiio
caieiaeaii? aoa?eueiiai ieanoa aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie IA?. I?iiiio?oueny
canoinoaaiiy eiai ? aeey noai?aiiy ieanoe/ii? ciie o aoa?eueiiio ieano?
a?ey aaioeeyoe?eii? ia/? c iaoith ?? ioi?iie.

Iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie niiniao iaai?oaiiy ?ic/ei?a IA? o aoa?eueiee ieano
?: aeiaaeeia iaai?oaeueii? naa?aeeiaeie oa aeiaaeeia ?? aa?iaoecaoe??,
oene iaai?oaiiy, ia’?i oa oaii iiaea/? ?ic/eio. Aeey caaacia/aiiy
aoaeoeaiiai caieiaeaiiy ieanoa oa caiia?aaiiy eiai ?ic?eao oene
iaai?oaiiy iiaeiai aooe aeinoaoi?i, uia ?ic/ei ?iciianthaeaeoaaany /a?ac
i?e?io??ueie oa iio?aieya o i?e?iii?e, ye? neeaaeathoue aei 80% ii?iaiai
ia’?io aoa?eey. Oea iiaeeeai i?e aeeiiaii? aeayeeo oiia, a oiio /ene?:
aaee/eia oeneo ?ic/eia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe oene aaco o ii?iaiio
i?inoi?? oa caaacia/eoe ?icaeoie o??uei.

Ia?iaea e?ooeo ieano?a cae?enith?oueny o ieno?aeiiio ii?yaeeo (??aeoa o
aeno?aeiiio), i?e/iio, ia?oeie a?ae?iaeythoueny caoeni? ieanoe. I?e
oeueiio cae?enith?oueny ?icaaioaaeaiiy noi?aeiiai ieanoa a?ae
iai?oaeaiue oa a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai aeaaacaoe?y.

Aeey aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iino? ci?ie aaciaeeiai?/iiai noaio aoa?eueiiai
ieanoa i?ney a?ae?iaee caoeniiai ieanoa a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie
oiaueie ii??ae i?aeieanoy oa e?eueeino? ?o oa??a aoea neeaaeaia
ei?aeyoe?eia aaaaoioaeoi?ia iiaeaeue, a ye?e aoee a?aoiaai? no?oeoo?a
ii??ae, ye e?eueeino? ieiuei ?icoa?oaiiy nne ianeao ia 1 i oiaueie (I).
C oe??? iiaeae? aoei aeaaaeaii ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? aeey aeaoi?iaoe?e
?icoe?aiiy ii?iaeiiai ianeao i?ney eiai iaae?iaee a caeaaeiino? a?ae
e?eueeino? ieiuei ?icoa?oaaiiy oa oiaueie i?aeieanoy o aeaeyae?:

(1)

aea ( – aeaoi?iaoe?? ?icoe?aiiy ianeao ia a?aenoai? I (i) a?ae i?aeioae
iaae?iaeaiiai ieanoa i?e iiaeeea?e e?eueeino? oa??a ?icoa?oaaiiy
ii?iaeii? oiaueie nne ia oe?e ae?eueieoe?.

Aeey oiia Oe?Ae eiao?oe??ioe ??aiythoueny a=1,4; (=0,8.

A ?acoeueoao? noi?niiai aiae?co aenia??iaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i caeeoeiaee
oene aaco a ieano? (?i) a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiaueie ii??ae i?aeieanoy
io?eiaia caeaaei?noue o aeaeyae?

(2)

aea A=31,5 – noaoenoe/iee eiao?oe??io;

((ne, I) – aeaoi?iaoe?? ?icoe?aiiy i?e aeai?e e?eueeino? ieiuei
?icoa?oaaiiy oa o?eniaai?e oiauei? (%).

C oi?ioee (2) aoee aeeiiai? ?ic?aooiee aeey caeeoeiaiai oeneo aaco o
ieano? i?ney eiai iaae?iaee, ye c ae?eueieoeue aeine?aeaeaiue, oae ?
aeey ?ioeo ieano?a Oe?Ae. ?ic?aooieia? aaee/eie aeinoaoiuei aeecuee? aei
oaeoe/ieo, ui aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe oi?ioeo (2) aeey ?ic?aooie?a.

I?iaaaeaiiy ae?iaee ocaeiaae ieanoa i?eaiaea aei aeiaeaoeiai?
aeaaacaoe?? aoa?eueiiai ieanoa a ia’?i? a?ey eiioo?a ae?iaee.
Aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye? aeeiiai? ii iao?e iaoiaeeoe?, anoaiiaeaii, ui
ci?uaiiy aoa?eueiiai ieanoa oa aaciaeae?eaiiy c iueai a?ey eiioo?a
ae?iaee caana? c nooiaiai a?aeaeaeaiiy a aeeaeio ianeao (?en. 3).

Aeey aecia/aiiy aaee/eie oeneo iaai?oaiiy ?ic/ei?a a ieano io?eiaia
oi?ioea, a ye?e o?aoiaaia ci?ia oeneo aaca a ieano? i?e a?ae?iaoe?
caeeaeaieo ieano?a oa ci?ie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ianeao.
Aeiaaeeia aa?iaoecaoe?? naa?aeeiaeie iiaeiia aooe ia iaioith aeiaaeeie
ciie o??ueioaaoono? aoa?eey a?ey eiioo?a ae?iaee, oiaoi ia iaioa 3,5 i.

Ia ueoiaeo ae?eueieoeyo ieano?a l3 oa m3 ia oaoo? ?i. TH.I.Aaaa??ia aoea
cae?eniaia aenia??iaioaeueia ia?aa??ea niiniao. Aoea ia?iaeaia e?aeiaa
/anoeia aoa?eueiiai ianeao c aieo aaioeeyoe?eii? ia/?. Naa?aeeiaeie
ao?eeeny aeiaaeeiith 6 i /a?ac 6 i ocaeiaae iaae?iiy. Aoaeoeai?noue
niiniao ia?aa??thaaeanue c aaea/ei oa oaeaeeinoae caeeaeaiiy aieiaeo
ii??ae, a oaeiae c ci?uaiue aoa?eueiiai ieanoa ia eiioo?? oa
?ioaineaiino? aaciaeae?eaiiy.

O c??aiyii? c iiia?aaeiueith nioaith aaee/eie oa oaeaeeino? caeeaeaiiy
ii??ae ciaioeeenue o 1,4 ?ace, ?ioaineai?noue aaciaeae?eaiiy noaea
a?eueo ??aiii??iith oa ciaioeeanue o 2 ?ace. Ca /an aenieoaoaoe??
ia?ae??ieaiiy ia/? ciaioeeinue c 45% aei 8%.

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?e oeueiio neeaea 15082,6 a?i. ia iaeio i?/ue.

AENIIAEE

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaaeaii iiaa ??oaiiy aeooaeueii? iaoeiai?
caaea/?, yea i?noeoueny o anoaiiaeaii? iniaeeainoae ci?ie
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a??ie/iai ianeao a?ey ueoiaiai aeaith oa
ioi/oth/eo eiai ae?iaie a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaith a?ae?iaeaiiino?
ieanoa ocaeiaae i?inoyaaiiy oa iaae?iiy, aieeao a??ie/eo ?ia?o c
non?aei?o ieano?a c iaoith iaa?oiooaaiiy niiniao ioi?iie aaioeeyoe?eieo
oa aoaeanioneieo ia/ae, yeee aaco?oueny ia oi?aae?ii?
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiei noaiii a??ie/iai ianeao ca aeiiiiiaith
iiia?aaeiueiai caieiaeaiiy aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie IA?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui /a?ac iniaeeaee oa?aeoa? aeaoi?ioaaiiy ii??ae iie??ae?
i?e a?ae?iaoe? e?ooeo aoa?eueieo ieano?a ueoiaeie aa?aaaoaie, e??ieaiiy
ioi/oth/eo ueoiaee aea?e ae?iaie ciaoiaeeoueny a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao
iaaaioaaeaiiy aaea i?e a?aeoiae? i/enoieo ?ia?o ia 50-60 i a?ae
aaioeeyoe?eiiai ai?eciioo. Aiae?c aeina?aeo ?ia?o oaoo Oeaio?aeueiiai
?aeiio Aeiiaano oa aeine?aeaeaiue aaaeo/eo iaoeiaeo onoaiia aeicaieea
aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie – noai?aiiy niinia?a oi?aae?iiy
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiei noaiii a??ie/iai ianeao ia iaae? c ae?iaeith,
ye? aeicaieyoue cieceoe ?iia??i?noue ?oeioaaiiy ieaei?o oa??a ii??ae
iie??ae? oa aoa?eueiiai ieanoa ia iaae? c e??ieaiiyi ae?iaee.

Oaooi? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeeiiai? ia 6 aenia?eiaioaeueieo ae?eueieoeyo,
aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? i?iyao a??ie/iai oeneo a ia/ao, ye?
i?noyoueny a ianooiiiio. Iaea?eueoa ?ioaineaia caeeaeaiiy aieiaeo ii??ae
a ia/ao a?aeaoaa?oueny a ciiao IAO oa iii?iiai oeneo iiia?aaeo aeaith:
oaeaeeino? caeeaeaiiy ca?eueoothoueny aei 4,0 ii/aiaeeio aai a 2,4 ?ace
o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie ae?eueieoeyie. I?e/iio, a ieiuei? iaieanooaaiiy
ii?iaee iie??ae? a?aeiinii i?aeioae ocaeiaae iaae?iiy oa i?inoyaaiiy o
a?e ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o ia eoo aei 5(.

?ici??e ciie iii?iiai oeneo iiia?aaeo ueoiaiai aeaith oa c aieo
aoa?eueiiai ieanoa aecia/athoueny oaeaee?noth ia?iaee oa ?ici??aie
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o. sseui a iiioaaei?e i?o?, yea ciaoiaeeoueny o cii?
IAO oa i?e o?eaaeiio iiioaae? iaeneioi iii?iiai oeneo ciaoiaeeoueny ia
a?aenoai? aei 6,0 i a?ae iaae? ieanoa, oi i?e i?aoethth/iio aa?aaao?
iaeneioi iaaeeaea?oueny ia a?aenoaiue aei 2,5-2,8 i. C aieo
aaioeeyoe?eii? ia/? iaeneioi ?icoaoiao?oueny ia a?aenoai? aei 3,5 i.
Iaea?eueoiai cia/aiiy ciia iii?iiai oeneo aeinyaa? ia niieo/aii? aeaith
c aoaeanioneiith i?//th i?e a?aeoiae? aeaith ia 50-60 i a?ae iiioaaeii?
ia/?, oiaoi i?e aeinyaiaii? e?ieo iaaaeaiiy iniiaii? iie??ae?. Ooo
e?aeiaa /anoeia ieanoa iaea?eueo o??ueioaaoa – 8,0-12,0 iaeeieoeue ia 1
i, ui a 2,0-2,5 ?ace a?eueoa, /ei o aaioeeyoe?ei?e ia/?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i/eni? ?iaioe ocaeiaae noi?aeieo ieano?a i?eaiaeyoue aei
?icoa?oaaiiy ii??ae i?aeieanoy, ci?ie ?o o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae,
a oaeiae o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aoa?eueiiai ieanoa oa
cieaeothoue oene aaco a ieano? aei ??aiy 0,5 IIa. Cai?iiiiiaaia
?ic?aooieiaa oi?ioea aeey eiai aecia/aiiy oa aeeiiaii c??aiyiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo oa oaeoe/ieo aeaieo c e?eueeio oaooiieano?a.
Aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye? aeeiiai? ca iaoiaeeeith aaoi?a, anoaiiaeaia
caeaaei?noue i?ae aaiiaoai?/ieie i?ioeanaie iaaeiei ae?iaee oa
aacia?aeaea/ath aoa?eueiiai ieanoa.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia
aaiiaoai?/ia noaia aeey ioe?iee iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
a??ie/iai ianeao a?ey aaioeeyoe?eii? ia/?, ia i?aenoaa? yei? ?ic?iaeaiee
oa aenia??iaioaeueii ai?iaiaaiee a oaooieo oiiaao niin?a ioi?iie ia/ae,
ui aaco?oueny ia iiia?aaeiueiio caieiaeaii? ieanoa aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie
IA?.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a ioi?iie ia/ae, yeee aaco?ony ia ci?i?
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aoa?eueiiai ieanoa ia iaae? c ae?iaeith
ca ?aooiie eiai caieiaeaiiy aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie IA?. ?ic?aooiee, ui
aeeiiai? ca ?ic?iaeaiith aaiiaoai?/iith noaiith c canoinoaaiiyi
i?oaeii-ieanoe/ii? iiaeae?, aeicaieeee aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? ci?ie
iai?oaeaiue a a??ie/iio ianea? ia eiioo?? – caieiaeaiiy e?aeiai? /anoeie
ia i?ioyc? 6–8 i ia?ai?uo? iaeneiaeuei? aeioe/i? oa ii?iaeuei?
iai?oaeaiiy a aeeaeio ianeao.

A ?acoeueoao? aenia??iaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee niiniao anoaiiaeaii, ui
ci?uaiiy aieiaeo ii??ae a ia/? ciaioeeenue o c??aiyii? c ?ai?o
cai??yieie, ui aeicaieeei a?ae?iaeoe ueoiao nioao aac ?aiiioo e??ieaiiy.
Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo neeaaea? iiiaae 15 oeny/ a?eaai ia iaeio i?/.
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aa?eoee a aaeocaaee ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/iee aeieoiaio:
“Ea??aieoeoai c neeaaeaiiy ianii?o?a…”

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a ?iaioao

Aii?inu oi?aaeaiey ai?iui aeaaeaieai ia oiieeo e?oouo ieanoao Aeiiaanna
/A.A.Aeaenaiae?ia, A.A.Aenaiia, I.A.Aeuoaa, I.A.Oaiiaae, A.E.Ieoaeaiei,
TH.A.Ieaaiue, A.E.Eo?eoeui, TH.A.Eeoaeiia, Y.A.Ai?enaiei,
Ae.I.AEeoeaiie,– Aeiiaoee: Eaaaaeue, 1998. — 288 n.

?ac?aaioea ianii?oia oi?aaeaiey ai?iui aeaaeaieai n eniieueciaaeai
eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee. / I.A.Oaiiaae, I.A.Aeuoaa, Y.A.Ai?enaiei,
Ae.I.AEeoeaiie, A.E.Eo?eoeui, A.A.Eaaoei, TH.A.Eeoaeiia, TH.A.Ieaaiue,
A.E.Ieoaeaiei / Iiae ?aae. I.A.Oaiiaaea. Aeiiaoee. — 1998. -118 n.

AEeoeaiie Ae.I. I aaciaeeiaie/aneii ninoiyiee e?ooiai ieanoa i?e
i?iaaaeaiee iaeeii/iie au?aaioee. // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. –1984. -?7. –N. 34.

Aeaenaaa A.Ae., Ieoaeaiei A.E., Ai?enaiei Y.A., AEeoeaiie Ae.I.
Oi?aaeaiea ninoiyieai ai?iiai ianneaa i?e ueoiaie io?aaioea oaieueiuo
ieanoia // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. –1999. -?2. –N. 13-14.

Iiaua iaoiaeu ai?ueau n aacii i?e i?iaaaeaiee iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo
au?aaioie. / Ae?oie A.O., Aieueoeineee I.E., Aieueoeineee E.I.,
Aeiii?ieeia O.A., AEeoeaiie Ae.I., Eioen E.I., Eaca?aa A.O., Ieeieei
A.E., ?oaeineee A.A., Oanoiiaeia A.A. –I.: OeIEYEoaieue, 1981. -40 n.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea niiniaia e n?aaenoa ai?ueau n aiacaiiuie aua?inaie
aaca, oaey e ii?iaeu. / Ae?oie A.O., Aieueoeineee E.I., Aeieaiaa I.I.,
Caa?aa E.A., Caieiae/ E.I., Eioen E.I., Oanoiiaeia A.A., Aieueoeineee
I.E., Ieeieei A.A., ssaeieia A.N., AEeoeaiie Ae.I. –I.: OeIEYEoaieue,
1981. -41 n.

AEeoeaiie Ae.I Aaiaoaie/aneea i?ioeannu i?e io?aaioea e?oouo ieanoia
ueoiauie aa?aaaoaie / Oeceei-oaoie/aneea i?iaeaiu ai?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
–Aeiiaoee: IOOAI, -1998. –N. 38-43.

Oiaeaa A.E., AEeoeaiie Ae.I. Aacinoaoe/aneia ninoiyiea iaae?aaioaiiie
oieue ai?iuo ii?iae, aiauathuae aaciiiniue oaieueiue ieano, n o/aoii aa
eeoieiai-iiuiinoiie oa?aeoa?enoeee // Caaea/e ?oaeie/iie ay?ieiaee i?e
iiaecaiiie ?ac?aaioea iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. –I.: Einoeooo i?iaeai
eiiieaeniiai inaiaiey iaae? AI NNN?, 1985. –N. 32-41.

AEeoeaiie Ae.I., Ai?enaiei Y.A., Oaaeioia N.I. Iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey ianneaa ai?iuo
ii?iae a ie?anoiinoe i?ecaaieiiai i?ino?ainoaa ueoiaiai aa?aaaoa /
Oeceei-oaoie/aneea i?iaeaiu ai?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. –Aeiiaoee: IOOAI,
-1998. –N. 20-31.

Aaoi?nueeee aianie: iinoaiiaea caaea/? [1,4], nenoaiaoecaoe?y io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a [5,6], aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae [8], aiae?c aieeao
oaeoi??a [2,9].

Caeiaoaa/ AEeoeueiiie Ae.I.

Aiioaoe?y

AE?oeueiiie Ae. I. Aaiiaoai?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy niiniao oi?aae?iiy noaiii
a??ie/iai ianeao i?e ueoia?e a?ae?iaoe? e?ooeo aoa?eueieo ieano?a. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.11 — O?ce/i? i?ioeane a??ie/iai ae?iaioeoaa. —
A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? IAIO ?i.
I.I.Aaee?ia. Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? ae??oaia aeooaeueia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia caaea/a –
iaa?oioiaaiee oa ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a ioi?iie ia/ae ueoiaeo aa?aaao?a,
yeee aaco?oueny ia o?aooaaii? i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a?ey
ae?iaee i?e a?ae?iaoe? ieanoa, a oaeiae ci?i? aeanoeainoae ieanoa oa
oeneo aaco a iueiio i?e a?ae?iaoe? noi?aeieo ieano?a. A iniia? niiniao
iieyaa? aeoeaia oi?aae?iiy noaiii a??ie/iai ianeao i?e a?ae?iaoe?
aoa?eueiiai ieanoa aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie IA?. Aenia??iaioaeueia ia?aa??ea
niiniao aeicaieeea i?aeoaa?aeeoe eiai aoaeoeai?noue oa a?aeiia?aei?noue
eiai ia?aiao??a a??ie/ia?ieia?/iei oiiaai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ueoia? aa?aaaoe, ia/?,oi?aae?iiy noaiii a??ie/iai
ianeao.

Aiiioaoeey

AEeoeaiie Ae.I. “Aaiiaoaie/aneia iainiiaaiea niiniaa oi?aaeaiey
ninoiyieai ai?iiai ianneaa i?e ueoiaie io?aaioea e?oouo oaieueiuo
ieanoia” — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.11 — Oece/aneea i?ioeannu ai?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa.-
Ioaeaeaiea oeceei-oaoie/aneeo ai?iuo i?iaeai AeiiOOE IAIO ei.
A.A.Aaeeeia. Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia niaa?oainoaiaaieth niiniaia oi?aaeaiey
ninoiyieai ai?iiai ianneaa a ie?anoiinoe ia/ae i?e ueoiaie auaiea e?oouo
oaieueiuo ieanoia. A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony niinia eciaiaiey
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey ianneaa a ie?anoiinoe ieanoiaie
au?aaioee, iniiaaiiuo ia iaaiaoaiee aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia
iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiuo aauanoa (IAA).

Eaeay ?aaiou caeeth/aaony a eniieueciaaiee onoaiiaeaiiuo iniaaiiinoae
eciaiaiey iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey oaeaii?iaeiiai ianneaa
a ie?anoiinoe ueoiaiai caaiy e eciaiaiey aeaaeaiey aaca a
?ac?aaaouaaaiii oaieueiii ieanoa i?e aai iaae?aaioea aeey iainiiaaiey
ia?aiao?ia niiniaa io?aiu aaioeeyoeeiiiuo ia/ae, iniiaaiiiai ia
oeceei-oeie/aneii aicaeaenoaee ia oaieueiue ieano.

Oeaeueth ?aaiou yaeyaony iainiiaaiea iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia oi?aaeaiey
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiui ninoiyieai ai?iiai ianneaa a ie?anoiinoe
aaioeeyoeeiiiuo e oaeanioneiuo ia/ae ueoiauo aa?aaaoia, iaania/eaathueo
eo iiaeaea?aeaiea ia aanue ia?eiae yenieoaoaoeee.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaee ?aaiou auee ?aoaiu neaaeothuea iao/iua e
i?aeoe/aneea caaea/e:

auiieiaii enneaaeiaaiea aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia a ie?anoiinoe ia/ae
i?e ueoiaie auaiea e onoaiiaeaiu eo iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe;

auiieiaii enneaaeiaaiea eciaiaiey naienoa e?aaaie /anoe e?ooiai
aaciianuuaiiiai ieanoa a oneiaeyo aeeyiey ai?iuo ?aaio ii niaaeiui
ieanoai;

enneaaeiaaia n i?eiaiaieai aiaeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia aiciiaeiinoue
oi?aaeaiey iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiui ninoiyieai ai?iiai ianneaa a
ie?anoiinoe ia/ae i?e ia?aaioea oaey ?anoai?aie IAA;

?ac?aaioai e yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?ai ia oaooao niinia ia?aaioee
oaieueiiai ieanoa ?anoai?aie IAA aeey io?aiu ia/ae e ii?aaeaeaia aai
yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue.

Aeey yenia?eiaioia auei ioia?aii 6 o/anoeia ia oaooao II “A?oaioaieue”,
iai?oaeiaaiiuo ueoiauie aa?aaaoaie e io?aaaouaathuea oaieueiua ieanou
iiuiinoueth io 1,15 aei 1,8 i ia aeoaeiao aei 1000 i n e?iaeyie ?-?V
eeanna ii eeanneoeeaoeee AeiiIEE, o.a. a iaeaieaa i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo
oneiaeyo.

A aaioeeyoeeiiiuo ia/ao iai?oaeiaaeenue iaaethaeaoaeueiua noaioeee aeey
caia?ia aaee/ei naeeaeaiey aieiauo ii?iae, a oaeaea ii niaoeeaeueii
?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeea caeeaaeuaaeenue aaci?aia?iua noaioeee.

Enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeaieaa eioaineaii aeaoi?ie?oaony
e?aiue ia/ae a aa?oiae e ieaeiae /anoyo io?aaaouaaaiie iieinu, aaea
nei?inoe a 1,5-2,2 ?aca auoa, /ai ia inoaeueiii i?ioyaeaiee ia/e.
I?e/eia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a oneiaeyo io?aaioee naeeaeaiiuo ieanoia
io e?aaauo /anoae oi?ie?othony ciiu iiauoaiiiai ai?iiai aeaaeaiey. E?iia
oiai, neacuaaaony e aeeyiea ai?iuo ?aaio ii nianoaaiiiio ieanoo: ia
i?ioyaeaiee aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea (aieaa 10 eao) oaieueiue ieano iiae
aaioeeyoeeiiiui ai?eciioii iaoiaeeony a CIAAe io e?aaaie /anoe aa?oiaai
ai?eciioa.

A oaeanioneiie ia/e nei?inoe e aaee/eiu naeeaeaiee auoa a 1,5-2,0 ?aca
ii n?aaiaieth n aaioeeyoeeiiiie, i?e/ai onoaiiaeaii i?e aeinoaoi/iii
?acaeoee ?aaio ii i?inoe?aieth (iau/ii 2-3 iieinu) i?ienoiaeeo ?aceia
oaaee/aiea naeeaeaiey i?e iooiaea caaiy ia 50-60 i io aaioeeyoeeiiiiai
ai?eciioa, o.a. ia oaa ia?ooaiey iniiaiie e?iaee.

Niauaiea aieiauo ii?iae a ieineinoe ieanoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony niauaieai
e?iaee ioiineoaeueii ii/au, eae ii iaaeaieth ieanoa, oae e a noi?iio
au?aaioaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa ni nei?inoyie i?eia?ii a 2,0-2,5 ?aca
iaiueoa, /ai ii ii?iaee.

Ciiu IAAe aeeytho e ia ninoiyiee e?aaaie /anoe oaieueiiai ieanoa. Oae a
iiioaaeiie ieoa, oaieue ?acaeo o?aueiaie — aei 10-12 ia 1 i, ciia
ioaeeia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia 1,5 i, a iaeneioi iii?iiai aeaaeaiey
iaoiaeeony ia oaeaeaiee ieiei 6,0 i io caaiy. N ia/aeii io?aaioee iieinu
e auoiaea ueoa ec ciiu IAAe eciaiyaony e ninoiyiea oaieueiiai ieanoa ia
a?aieoea n caaiai e ia/ueth: ciia ioaeeia oiaiueoaaony aei 0,5-0,7 i i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii i?eaeeaeaiee iaeneioia iai?yaeaiee ia ?annoiyiea aei 3,0
i io e?iiee ieanoa. Ii oe?eia ueoiaiai caaiy iaeaieaa ioaeao oaieue ia
nii?yaeaiee n oaeanioneiie ia/ueth: caeanue e ioaeei oaey e
o?aueiiaaoinoue auoa a 2,0-2,5 ?aca, /ai ni noi?iiu aaioeeyoeeiiiie.

Io ninoiyiey oaieueiiai ieanoa caaenyo oaeaea aeaoi?iaoeey aai e?aaaie
/anoe e aaee/eia aaciioaea/e. Anee a iiioaaeiie ia/e niauaiey e?aaaie
/anoe oaieueiiai ieanoa auee ii?yaeea 11-16 ii, oi i?e iooiaea ueoiaiai
aa?aaaoa ia 23 i niauaiey oiaiueoeeenue aei 10 ii. I?e yoii o?iaaiue
aaciauaeaeaiey inoaeny ii?yaeea 1,2-1,4 e/iei n iaiaoeaoaeny
oaiaeaioeeae e caoooaieth ai a?aiaie.

Iineieueeo aeaaeaiea aaca a oaieueiii ieanoa aeeyao ia auai? aaee/eiu
aeaaeaiey iaaiaoaiey ?anoai?ia IAA, auee auiieiaiu aiaeeoe/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey aacinoaoe/aneiai ninoiyiey oaieueiiai ieanoa a oneiaeyo
aai iiae- e iaae?aaioee.

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia yenia?eiaioaeueiuo e aiaeeoe/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaia aaiiaoaie/aneay noaia aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
ia?aiao?ia i?iyaeaiee ai?iiai aeaaeaiey a ie?anoiinoe ia/e e ii?aaeaeaiu
ia?aiao?u niiniaa io?aiu, iainiiaaiiiai ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii oaeaaeiaiee
ieanoa ?anoai?aie IAA.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?iaa?ea niiniaa io?aiu ia/ae i?iaaaeaia ia 2 ueoiauo
o/anoeao e iiaeoaa?aeeea yooaeoeaiinoue – ninoiyiea ia/ae oeo/oeeinue,
oiaiueoeeny iauai eo ia?ae?aieaiey, /oi iicaieeei iieo/eoue
yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo a ?an/aoa ia iaeio ia/ue aieaa 15 oun. a?eaai.

Summary

Zhitlyonok D. M. Geomechanical study of the method for rock mass
codition control under tonnel shield working of steep coal seams. —
Manuscript.

The thesis submitted for a candidate of technical science degree in the
field 05.15.11 — Physical processes in mining — The Department of
Physico-Technical mining problems DonPTI, Ukrainian National Academy of
sciences. Donetsk, 1999.

An urgent scientific and technical problem is solved in the
dissertation: the way of protection of tonnel-shield cut-through based
on the account of geomechanical processes occurring in a vicinity of
working under seam mining as well as modification of the seam features
and gas pressure therein due to neighboring seam mining has been argued
and developed. A principle of the way consists in intense control of the
rock mass condition using treatment of the coal seam with surfactants
water solution. Experimental testing of the way has allowed to confirm
its efficiency and compliance of its parameters with mining and
geological conditions.

Key words: tonnel shields, cut-throwing, rock mass condition control.

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