Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

I?i?noa?noai aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie

A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai Aeiiaoeueeiai
o?ceei-oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo

?i. I.I. Aaee?ia

Aoaa?a Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/

OAeE 622.273

AAIIAOAI?*IA IAA?OIOOAAIIss ?AOe?IIAEUeIEO OAOIIEIA?*IEO NOAI
A?Ae?IAEE E?IOeAAEO Ae?EUeIEOeUe AEEIII*IEO NOIAI?A IA ?IOAINEAII
II?OOAIEO Ae?EUeIEOessO OAOOIEO IIE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.15.02. — I?aecaiia ?ic?iaea ?iaeiaeu

ei?enieo eiiaeei

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa c?iaeaia o Aea?aeaai?e oieaeeiaia?e eiiiai?? “Aeiiaoa?eey”,
I?i?noa?noaa aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Aeaenaiae?ia Na?a?e Ieeieaeiae/

Aeiiaoeueeee Aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?i?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Aiiaea?aiei TH??e Aaneeueiae/

Aeiiaoeueeee Aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, aeaeai.

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Eocueiaiei Ieeieae Naiaiiae/

A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? ?i. I.I. Aaee?ia
IAI Oe?a?ie oa I?iaoaeai?iio

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:

Aeiiaoeueeee aoa?eueiee ?inoeooo (AeiiAOA?), a?aeae?e e??ieaiiy

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “22” eeiiy 1999 ?. o 12 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.11.184.02 o A?aeae?eai?
o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? ?i. I.I. Aaee?ia IAI Oe?a?ie
ca aae?anith: 340114, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. ?ice Ethenaiao?a, 72

N aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? A?aeae?eaiiy
o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? ?i. I.I. Aaee?ia IAI Oe?a?ie
ca aae?anith: 340114, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. ?ice Ethenaiao?a, 72.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “19”/a?aiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.11.184.02

eaiae. oaoi. iaoe I?oaeaiei ?.?.

CAAAEUeIA AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. O ii?ooaieo oaooieo iieyo ?aaoey?ia ieaioaaiiy
a??ie/eo ?ia?o ca’ycaia c iaaieie o?oaeiiuaie. Oea aeieea? oiio, ui
i???ioaoe?y ei?aeii?a oaooieo iie?a cae/ii i?ea’yco?oueny aei
aaieia?/ieo ii?ooaiue. O oie aea /an i???iooaaiiy i?aeaioiaethth/eo
ae?iaie i?ea’yco?oueny aei aeaiaio?a caeyaaiiy ieanoo, oaeeo ye
i?inoyaaiiy aai iaae?iiy. ??cieoey o i???ioaoe?? ae?ieiaeo noiai?a oa
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie i?eiooo? caeeoaoe a?ey inoaii?o aoa?euei?
oe?eeee ??cii? iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie (o?eeooieeiai?, o?aiaoe??aeaeii? oa
?io?). A?ae?iaeoe o iaeaooiueiio oe? oe?eeee i?iaiico?oueny caaaaeeei
?c-ca ?oiuei? iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie. sse ?acoeueoao ao?a/a?oueny aei 20%
i?aeaioiaeaieo caian?a. Nai? oe?eeee ? eiioeaio?aoi?aie a??nueeiai
oeneo. Ca?aene aeieeathoue aeiaeaoeia? i?iaeaie: iia??oaiiy noaio
iie??ae? i/enieo aeai?a i?e ?o ?iaio? o aaciina?aaei?e aeecueeino? o
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie; iia??oaiiy noaio naieo i?aeaioiaethth/eo
ae?iaie. Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaia oe?eee?a iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie o
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie neeaaeia oa aaaaoia?aiia. Ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy,
uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai c oi/ee ci?o aaiiaoai?ee iiaiiai aai /anoeiaiai ?o
aeeiaiiy, ?c a?aooaaiiyi aeacaieo i?iaeai, ? aaaeeeaa iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeia
caaea/a.

?nio? aaaaoi aa??aio?a ieaioaaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o i?e aei?iaoe? e?ioeaaeo
/anoei ae?ieiaeo noiai?a oa ae?eueieoeue o ii?ooaieo eiiaeeiao. Iaeiae
aiae?c iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e cana?ae/ea, ui i?ooi ia aiae?coaaa
oe? ieaioaaiiy c aaiiaoai?/ii? oi/ee ci?o. Acaaae? ?ic?iaeaia oaeoeea
?icai?ioo eiiieaen?a, oi/ ?oi? ia?aiao?e i?ye ia i?ea’ycai? aei i?iya?a
a??nueeiai oeneo. A?aeiii, ui o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy oe?eeea
i?aeaeuo?oueny o eiai ieie? ??aaiue eiioeaio?aoe?? a??nueeiai oeneo.
Iaeiae e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? ?oiy caeaaei?noue a?ae eiie?aoiiai
ieaioaaiiy oa eiai ia?aiao??a ia aeine?aeaeoaaeeny. ?acii c oeei, ye
cana?ae/o? i?aeoeea, i?iyae a??nueeiai oeneo i?e aeiii?aoethaaii?
e?aeiaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo ae?eueieoeue ci?iththoueny o e?eueea ?ac?a o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ieaioaaiiy ui canoiniao?oueny oa eiai ia?aiao??a.

Ca`ycie aeena?oaoe?? c ieaiaie iaoeiai? ?iaioe. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
aeeeaaeai? o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aoee i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii i?e
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ia oaoo? oa neii?aeeiiaai? c aeeiiaiiyi
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o, ui aeeiiothoueny o AeiiAeOO, e
i?enay/ai? aea/aiith aaiiaoai?/iiai noaio iie??ae? o i/eniiio aeai? i?e
a?ae?iaeaii? ieano?a o neaaeeo aieiaeo ii?iaeao (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
oaie 0198U002310).

Iaoith ?iaioe ? iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo noai
a?ae?iaee e?ioeaaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo noiai?a ia neeueii ii?ooaieo
/anoeiao oaooieo iie?a.

?aeay ?iaioe neeaaea?oueny o a?aooaaii? eiiieaeno aca?iiaieeaiaeo
aaiiaoai?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue
aoaeoeai?noue aeeiaiiy caian?a o neeaaeieo oiiaao ieaioaaiiy a??ie/eo
?ia?o i?e a?ae?iaoe? /anoei ae?ieiaeo noiai?a, ui aaciina?aaeiuei
i?eieeathoue aei i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie.

Caaea/a aeine?aeaeaiue: 1) Aeae?eeoe iniiai? aa??aioe ieaioaaiiy
a??ie/eo ?ia?o i?e aei?iaoe? e?aeiaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo iie?a o ii?ooaieo
eiiaeeiao oa i?iaanoe ?oi?e aaiiaoai?/iee aiae?c c oi/ee ci?o
ia?a?iciiae?eo a??nueeiai oeneo. 2) ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaeniee e?eoa??e
ioe?iee ?aoe?iiaeueiino? aei?iaee e?aeiaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo
ae?eueieoeue, yeee iaeii/anii a?aoiaoaaa ae a) ao?aoe i?aeaioiaeaieo
caian?a, a) noai iie??ae? o i/enieo aeaiyo oa a) noai i?aeaioiaethth/eo
ae?iaie. 3) I?iaanoe i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo ?aoe?iiaeueieo aa??aio?a
aei?iaee e?ioeaaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo ae?eueieoeue o ii?ooaieo oaooieo
iieyo oa c?iaeoe ?o oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? oe?e?
aeei?enoaiee eiiieaeniee iaoeiaee i?aeo?ae ?c canoinoaaiiyi ianooiieo
iaoiae?a: aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iya?a a??ie/iai oeneo o iaoo?ieo oiiaao ca
aeiiiiiaith eiiieaenieo niinoa?aaeieoeueeeo noaioe?e oa a?ae?aae?/ieo
aeao/ee?a, eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy ?iciiae?eo iai?oaeaiue o ianea?
a??nueeeo ii??ae, iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy oa
aeiiii?/iee aiae?c aa??aio?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

1. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie iai?oaeaiiai noaio a??ie/iai ianeao
i?e aei?iaoe? e?ioeaaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo ae?eueieoeue, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny oei, ui na?aaei? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo eiioeaio?aoe??
iai?oaeaiue iiia?aaeo eaae ca i??ith ?? iinoaaiiy ci?iththoueny a?ae
1,64 i?e a?aeoiae? iiiaeeiiei? eaae aa?oiueiai ieanoo a?ae ei?aeiio
ae?ieiaiai noiaia aei 3,15 i?e iaeaooaaii? eaae, ui i?eieea? aei ?ai?oa
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o c ?icai?iaiiyi ia ei?aeii ?aa?iiaeueii? ciie
?icaaioaaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio na?aaei?e e?ioeaaee i?e??no eiao?oe??ioo
eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue o cii? i?aeo?eiaiiy i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie
ci?ith?oueny a?ae 0,01 i?e a?aeoiae? iiiaeeiiei? eaae aa?oiueiai ieanoa
aei 0,35 i?e o?iioaeuei?e iaae?iaoe? eaaith ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o c iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae in? i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie.

2. Ia iniia? c?noaaeaiiy ae?th/eo iai?oaeaiue o iie??ae? c ?? i?oei?noth
oia?oa iieacaii, ui e?auee e?eoa??e no?eeino? iie??ae? o i/eni?e
ae?iaoe? (2,19) niinoa??aa?oueny i?e o?iioaeuei?e iaae?iaoe? ae?iaie
iiiaeeiieith eaaith c iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae ?ic??cii? ia/? oa i?e
a?aeoiae? iiiaeeiiei? eaae aa?oiueiai ieanoo (1,83). Aa??aioe a?aeoiaeo
eaa aeathoue e?au? iieacieee no?eeino? iie??ae?, i?ae aa??aioe iaeao?a
eaa.

3. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaeniee e?eoa??e, ui ocaaaeueith? o?e
naiino?ei? eiiiiiaioe: iiaiioe aeeiaiiy e?aeiai? /anoeie ae?ieiai?
ae?eueieoe?, no?eeino? iie??ae? o i/eniiio aeai? oa no?eeino?
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. Oeae e?eoa??e aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey ioe?iee
oaoiieia?? a?ae?iaee oe?eee?a oa e?ioeaaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo noiai?a oa
iie?a i?e a?euei?e i???ioaoe?? ?o ei?aeii?a. Iaea?eueo e?aueie
aa??aioaie ca eiiieaeniei e?eoa???i ne?ae aeciaoe o a?oi? aaaeaiiy ?ia?o
ia iaeiiio ieano? – aa??aioe a?aeoiaeo eaa c ?icai?oaiiyi oa aa??aioe
?iaioe iiiaeeiieeie eaaaie. O a?oi? aaaeaiiy ?ia?o ia noi?aeieo ieanoao
e?aueie ca eiiieaeniei e?eoa???i ? aa??aioe o?iioaeueii? iaae?iaee
eaaith o ethaiio iai?yi?.

4. Anoaiiaeaia iniaeea?noue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy /anoeiaeo e?eoa???a
?aoe?iiaeueiino? aei?iaee e?ioeaaeo ae?ieiaeo ae?eueieoeue, ui
a?ae??ciy?oueny ?oiueith noia?a/i?noth oa neeaaeiei aca?iiniieo/aiiyi,
eiee i?e aenieiio cia/aii? eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th (a?eueoa 60-70%)
ie?ai? neeaaeia? eiai iiaeooue iaoe aaee/eio ieae/a 50%. Oiio aea??
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo iiaeiai ae?iaeyoeny c o?aooaaiiyi eiie?aoii?
neooaoe??, aeeth/ath/e aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue. Anoaiiaeai? ca’ycee
i?ae ie?aieie oa eiiieaeniei e?eoa??yie ?aoe?iiaeueiino? i?ecia/ai? aeey
iia?aoeaiiai ??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue oa aeinoia??i?noue iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ?ino?oiaioaeueieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie ca noaiii iie??ae? o
i/enieo aeaiyo oa noaiii a??ie/eo ae?iaie o iaoo?ieo oiiaao, iiceoeaieie
?acoeueoaoaie canoinoaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia oaooao AeOE “Aeiiaoa?eey”
oa caaeia?eueiith ca?aei?noth ?ic?aoiaaieo ??cieie iaoiaeeeaie
iai?oaeaiue (i?iya?a a??nueeiai oeneo) c oaooieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie o
iaaeao 25%.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a i?noeoueny o anoaiiaeai?
aaee/eie eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th ?aoe?iiaeueiino? a?ae?iaee e?ioeaaeo
/anoei ae?ieiaeo ae?eueieoeue oa eiai neeaaeiaeo /anoei, canoiniaaieo
aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ieaioaaiue aaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o i?e
a?ae?iaoe? ii?ooaieo oaooieo iie?a.

?aae?caoe?y aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaia ia oaoo?
“I?aaeaiii-Aeiiaanueea ?1” o aeaa aoaie: 1) i?e nooi?i/ao?e aei?iaoe?
ae?ieiaiai noiaia 19-? cao?aeii? eaae ieanoa n11 aeey a?eueo iiaiiai
aeaeiaoaaiiy aoa?eey o i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie c caa?aaeaiiyi
no?eeino? inoaii?o; 2) i?e iaae?iaoe? no?aeieo iieueiaeo oo?ae?a
ai?eciioo 480 i 51-th no?aeiith eaaith. A iaio aeiaaeeao i?iaaaeaeaia
aeaeiaoaaiiy /anoeiai (ia?oee aeiaaeie) aai iiai?noth (ae?oaee)
oe?eee?a, ye? aoee i?ecia/ai? nii/aoeo aeey ioi?iie i?aeaioiaethth/eo
ae?iaie, c caa?aaeaiiyi no?eeino? inoaii?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
iaaiai?thaaeeny oa io?eiaee i?aeo?eieo ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii
aaiiaoai?oe? “Ground Control in Mining” (Golden Colorado, NOA, 1996),
i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Oeaeaeaiue a??ieea 98, 99” (Iineaa, 1998,
1999), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “A??ie/?
i?iieneia?noue oa iaoea ia ii/aoeo III oeny/ie?ooy” (Ae/aanuee, 1999).
Ie??i oiai, ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aae AeOE “Aeiiaoa?eey” oa “Iaaeia?aaeaoa?eey”, a/ai?e
?aae? AeA?, a oaeiae ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo AeiiAeOO ii
?icaeyaeo cae?i/aieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o.

Ioae?eaoe?? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? o 6-o noaoyo
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iaoeiaeo aeo?iae?a.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe: aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue anooi, aeniiaee, 5 ?icae?e?a, 3
aeiaeaoee. I?eaaaeaia o oi?i? ?oeiieno ia 186 noi?. oaenoo e ai?uo? 51
?enoiie ia 45 noi?., 8 oaaeeoeue ia 20 noi?. oa 27 noi?. aeiaeaoe?a, a
oaeiae nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 124 iaeiaioaaiue.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? iiaeyeo i?ioani?o Iaceiei ?.?. ca eiinoeueoaoe?? oa
aeiiiiiao i?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? oa i?iaaaeaii? eiii’thoa?iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy ?iciiae?eo a??nueeiai oeneo, a oaeiae ?iaeaia?o ?aaiiao
?.?. ca aeiiiiiao o i?iaaaeaii? oaooieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue
oa ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a. Aaoi? aeneiaeth? oaeiae aeeaieo aaey/i?noue
?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/iiio ia?niiaeo oaooe «I?aaeaiii-Aeiiaanueea ?1» ca
ni?eyiiy i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ii?ooaieo oaooieo iieyo i?aaeeueia ieaioaaiiy i/enieo ?ia?o
i?iaaaeaeoaaoe aeoaea aaaeei ?c-ca ??cii? i???ioaoe?? i?aeaioiaethth/eo
ae?iaie oa ei?aeii?a oaooieo iie?a (aai ?o /anoei). Oiio i/eni? aeai?
i?aeoiaeyoue aei aieiaieo ae?iaie ia i?ae i?yiei eooii. I?e aei?iaoe?
oaeeo ae?ieiaeo noiai?a a?ey i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie caeeoathoueny
ioi?iii? oe?eeee iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie (o?eeooieeiai?, o?aiaoe??aeaeii? oa
?ioi?). O oeeo oe?eeeao ao?a/athoueny cia/i? caiane aoa?eey. Ie??i
oeueiai oe?eeee ? eiioeaio?aoi?aie a??nueeiai oeneo, yeee o naith /a?ao
i?eaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy noaio iie??ae? o i/enieo aeaiyo. Caaaeyee
oeueiio aiaeaoaa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy aeaaeiooai?aiiy o i/eniiio aeai?,
i?aeaeuaiiy o?aaiaoecio, cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? iinoaaiiy i/eniiai aeaith
oa caaaeueia cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, a oaeiae iaiaa?oioiaaii
caeeoa?oueny aoa?eey o oe?eeeao.

Aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ianoeeoaaiiy ae?ieiaeo noiai?a oa
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie aeei?enoiaothoue ??ci? iao?aaeeoe?ei? niiniae
?iaioe eiiieaen?a. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e cana?ae/ea, ui
iaea?eueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy caeiaoee: ?icai?oaiiy eiiieaeno ia 180(,
iiai?io eiiieaeno ia aecia/aiee eoo, nooi?i/aoa nei?i/aiiy oa
ia?iuoaaiiy eaae. Aiie canoiniaothoueny ia o?eueee o e?a?iao NIAe, aea e
oaeiae ca ei?aeiiii. Aea o i?ioean? aei?iaee e?ioeaaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo
noiai?a aeieea? eiiieaen noia?a/ieo i?iaeai, ye? caaaaeathoue aeai?o
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo aei?iaee. Oae c oi/ee ci?o iiaiioe aeeiaiiy
caian?a ne?ae i?aaiooe aei?iaeoe ae?ieiao ae?eueieoeth iiai?noth. Iaeiae
oea noia?a/eoue aaiiaoai?/iei aeiiaai, ca?aeii c yeeie iio??aii
caaacia/eoe no?ee?noue iie??ae? o i/enieo aeaiyo oa no?ee?noue
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. Iaeiith c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ? i?iaeaia no?eeino?
iie??ae? o i/eniiio aeai?. C?iaeaiee iaeyae iaoeiai? oa oaoi?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e cana?ae/ea, ui ia no?ee?noue iie??ae? aieeaa? aaaaoi
oaeoi??a. ?o aea/aiith i?enay/aii aaaaoi ?ia?o oaeeo ?inoeooo?a, ye ?AN
?i. Nei/einueeiai, AeiiAeOO, IAAO, IAeAO, EAeAO, NAeAO oa ?io?.

A?aei?/a?oueny, ui i?e ?iaio? eaa o i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie
aaiiaoai?/ia nenoaia ciaoiaeeoueny o neeaaeiiio iai?oaeaiiio noai?, yeee
i?ooi ie?aii ia ?icaeyaeaa. O ca’yceo c oeei aoei ae??oaii i?iaanoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaiiai noaio a??nueeeo ii??ae, ae?iaeoe e?eoa???
ye?: 1) iaea?eueo iiaii oa?aeoa?ecoaaee no?ee?noue iie??ae? o i/eniiio
aeai? i?e ?iaio? inoaiiueiai o i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie; 2)
aena?oethaaee ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue aaaeaiiy ?ia?o c oi/ee ci?o no?eeino?
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie oa 3) a?aoiaoaaee aeioe?euei?noue caeeoaiiy
aoa?eey o oe?eeeao.

Aeey ae??oaiiy oeiai eiiieaeno i?iaeai iio??aii ciaoe ?aaeueiee
iai?oaeaiee noai ianeao. Aeey eiai aea/aiiy aoei ia?aia eiii’thoa?ia
iiaeaethaaiiy ia iniia? aeai?eoi?a I.I. Cai?ueea oa E. Sinha,
aeinoia??i?noue yeeo ia?aa??aia i?e caoeno? aeieoi?nueeeo aeena?oaoe?e
oa yeei i?eoaiaiia aeia?a ca?aei?noue c iaoo?ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie.

O ?acoeueoao? aiae?co iiaeeeaeo, a oaeiae oaeeo, ye? /anoi
canoiniaothoueny o i?aeoeoe?, noai aei?iaee e?ioeaaeo ae?eueieoeue, aoee
aeae?eai? 16 oeiiaeo aa??aio?a ieaioaaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o (?en. 1). Oaea
?o aaeeea e?euee?noue iaoiiaeaia ??cieie niiniaaie a?ae?iaee e?ioeaaeo
/anoei ae?ieiaeo noiai?a o i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie, ui i?ieaeai?
ane?ae ca ?icaaioaaeoaaeueiith eaaith. Aiie aoee ocaaaeueiai? oa
ca?oiiaai? ianooiiei /eiii. Ia?o? /ioe?e iia’ycai? c ?icai?oaiiyi eaae
aeey aaeaioaoe?? aei iaia?iaiaeeeoey?iiai aca?ii?icoaooaaiiy
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie oa e?i?? i/eniiai aeaith. Ooo aeae?eythoue
a?aeo?ae oa iaeao, i?e/iio a?ae?iaea eaae i?iaaaeaeo?oueny ye iiiaeeiiea
aai ye eaaa, ui i?eieea? aei ?ai?oa ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o. Ae?oaa
/aoa??ea aa??aio?a ioiieth? ieaioaaiiy c? nooi?i/aoei nei?i/aiiyi eaae
(aaeee? oa iae? noiaeeiee, ye? /ano?oa ca ana i?ea’ycai? aei i?ny/iiai
oa aeaii?ny/iiai nei?i/aiiy eaae). O?aoy /aoa??ea aa??aio?a ioiieth?
ieaioaaiiy c iaeaoii eaae ia ?ai?oa ?icaaioaaeaio ?aa?iiaeueio ciio, o
ye?e i?aeo?eiothoueny i?aeaioiaethth/? ae?iaee, oa a?aeoiaeii eaa a?ae
ia?. Ia?aoo? inoaiiy a?oia aa??aio?a ioiieth? ieaioaaiiy c ianooiiith
iaae?iaeith ae?iaie. Cacia/eii, ui ?io? iiaeeea? aa??aioe iiaeooue aooe
ocaaaeueiai? oaeei /eiii, ui aeeaathoueny o oie /e ?ioee aa??aio c
aeae?eaieo iaie. Iai?eeeaae, oaeee /anoeiaee aeiaaeie, ye a?ae?iaeaiiy
e?ioeaaeo ae?eueieoeue c oi?ioaaiiyi iaae?oae ae?iaie aeainoi?iii?o
oe?eee?a ? aa?n??th (a?eueo eaaeith aai oyaeeith) iaeiiai c ia?oeo 12
aa??aio?a, ye?nii ia a?ae??ciyth/enue a?ae ieo. Oaeei /eiii, ia?ai?
aa??aioe ?icaeoeo ?ia?o ioiieththoue iniiai? iiaeeea?
i?inoi?iai-ieaioaaeuei? ??oaiiy i?e a?ae?iaeaii? e?ioeaaeo ae?eueieoeue,
ye ia iiiaeeiieeo ieanoao, oae ? o naeo?.

Aeey on?o aea?aieo aa??aio?a aoee i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee iai?oaeaiiy o
ianea? ca i??ith iinoaaiiy i/eniiai aeaith. I?e oeueiio o?enoaaeeny
iai?oaeaiiy iiia?aaeo i/eniiai aeaith ca i??ith eiai iinoaaiiy, a oaeiae
o cii? ?icoaooaaiiy i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. Ia ?en. 2 iaaaaeai?
i?eeeaaee e?ioeaaiai i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiae?eo eiao?oe??ioo iai?oaeaiiy
uiaei aa??aio?a i?ny/iiai nei?i/aiiy eaae ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o (aa??aio 6), oa o?iioaeueii? iaae?iaee ae?iaie eaaith
aeuaeaaea/iai caeeaeaiiai ieanoo, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o,
c iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae ?ic??cii? ia/? (aa??aio 16). O i?ioean?
ia?a?aooaaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo ca i??ith iinoaaiiy i/eniiai aeaith
anoaiiaeaii, ui o caoeneo?iiio oe?eeeo aa??aioo 6 eiao?oe??io
eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiiy aeinyaa? cia/aiiy 3,9 o o?e e?aeia?e /anoei?
oe?eeea, ui c on?o noi??i ioi/aia ae?iaeaiei i?inoi?ii. O na?aaei?e
/anoei? a?i aei??aith? 3,2 oa iaaea? aei cia/aiiy 2,6 o ?aeii?
c’?aeiaiiy oe?eeea oa ianeao aoa?eey. Oaeei /eiii, iaa?oue o iaaeao
oe?eeea niinoa??aathoueny ci?ie i?iyao a??nueeiai oeneo. Oea o naith
/a?ao aieeaa? ia noai iie??ae? oa i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie o ioi/aii?
oe?eeea. O aa??aio? 16 o i?noe? iaae?iaee ciie ?icaaioaaeaiiy
niinoa??aa?oueny caaaeueia cieaeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiiy iicaaeo
aeaith o iaaeao 15-20% (c 1,1 aei 0,8-0,9) ii c??aiyiith c
iaiaae?iaeaiith ae?eueieoeath.

Aeai? on?o ?ic?aooie?a o ianooiiiio aoee ia?iaeai? oa aeei?enoai? aeey
?ic?iaeaiiy ie?aieo e?eoa???a uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiino? a?ae?iaee oe?eee?a.
Onueiai oaeeo e?eoa???a aoei o?e.

O yeino? ia?oiai aoa ia?aiee e?eoa??e, ui ia? aeae a?aeiioaiiy i?oeiino?
ii??ae, ui ai?uothoue, aei ae?th/eo o ianea? iai?oaeaiue. I?ney
?ic?aooieo no?eeino? iie??ae? aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui e?aua (a?eueo aeua)
cia/aiiy e?eoa??th i?eoaiaiia iiiaeeiieei eaaai. Ca?aene aeo?ea?, ui
i?noey, ui i?eieeathoue aei i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie oa iathoue neaaeo
iie??aeth, iio??aii a?ae?iaeyoe iiiaeeiieeie eaaaie, c a?aeoiaeii ?o
a?ae i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. Ca ?ioeie ??aieie oiiaaie aa??aioe
a?aeoiaeo eaa aeathoue a?eueo aeua cia/aiiy e?eoa??th no?eeino?. Oaeei
/eiii, o neaaeeo ii?iaeao ne?ae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeei?enoiaoaaoe
nooe?eueio nenoaio ?ic?iaee, a ia noiaiiao.

Ae?oaee e?eoa??e ?aoe?iiaeueiino? a?ae?iaee oe?eee?a o i?aeaioiaethth/eo
ae?iaie aoa i???ioiaaiee ia ?icaeyae no?eeino? naieo ae?iaie. sse
a?aeiii, i?e aaaeaii? ?ia?o o oaeeo ae?iaie (o oiio /ene? ? i?e
iaae?iaoe?) ?oi?e noai ia? cia/ii iia??ooaaoeny. Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei
cia/ieo aeiiii?/ieo caeoe?a. I?yi? caeoee iaoiiaeai? iaiao?aei?noth
i?iaaaeaiiy o ae?iaeao aeiaeaoeiaeo ?aiiioieo ?ia?o. Iia?/i? caeoee
iia’ycai? c oei, ui i/eni? aeai?, ui ianeoaiaothoueny oeeie ae?iaeaie,
?c-ca ciaioaiiy ia?a??co inoaii?o ia io?eiathoue aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino?
iiaio?y aeey i?ia?o?thaaiiy, a oaeiae ia a ciic? a iiaiiio ianyc?
aeaeaoe caeiaooa aoa?eey. Oaeei /eiii e?eoa??e ?aoe?iiaeueiino? ca
no?ee?noth i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie aoa oiiaii iiae?eaiee ia aea?
neeaaeia?. O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo ca niaoe?aeueiith i?ia?aiith aoea
?ic?aoiaaia aeey eiaeiiai aa??aioo caaaeueia e?euee?noue ia?ae??ieaiue
oa i?ae?eaaiue, a oaeiae aeo?aoe ia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ca iioi/iee ia??iae.
Iia?/i? caeoee ciaoiaeeeeny ianooiiei /eiii. sse a?aeiii
i?aeaioiaethth/? ae?iaee ianeoaiaothoue e?eueea i/enieo aeai?a.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e a?aeii? caeaaeiino? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i/eniee aea?e a?ae
noaio i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie, ? iiaeeea?noue ?ic?aooaaoe ao?aoe
aeaeiaoaaiiy i?e iia??oaii? noaio inoaii?o. I?e oeueiio caeoee aoee
no?oeoo?iaai? ca oaoii ae?iaie, oiaoi ?ic?aoiaai? ie?aii ii eiaei?e c
ae?iaie: eiiaae??iiio iioeeo, aaioeeyoe?eiiio iioeeo oa aeiiii?aeiiio
o?aeieeo.

Aeae? aoee i?aenoiiaai? i?yi? oa iai?yi? caeoee ii eiaeiiio aa??aioo.
Aaee/eia caeoe?a e i?eeiaeanue ca e?eoa?ie ?aoe?iiaeueiino? ca
no?ee?noth i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie i?e a?ae?iaeaii? oe?eee?a. sse
aa/eii oeae e?eoa??e eiiieaenii a?aoiao? i?iaeaie a?ae iia??oaiiy noaio
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o, ui iniaeeai
aeooaeueii o iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao. Aoee oaeiae aecia/ai? ieoii?
caeoee, ui a?aeiinyoueny ia 1 iiaiiiee iao? i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. O
oaaeeoe? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a uiaei on?o aa??aio?a. sse ie
aa/eii c oaaeeoe? ?o aaee/eie iiaeooue aeinyaaoe 30 a?a/i.i oa a?eueoa.

sse o?aoth neeaaeiao e?eoa??th aoei i?eeiyoi caeoee a?ae caeeoaiiy
aoa?eey o ioi?iiieo oe?eeeao. Aiie ioe?ithaaeeny ca oe?iith aoa?eey ui
caeeoa?oueny. sse a?aeiii oe?ia aoa?eey neeueii ci?ith?oueny o
caeaaeiino? a?ae eiai yeino?: cieuei?noue, iayaiino? n??ee, aieiaino? oa
?i. Aeey iiaeeeaino? ii??aiyiiy aeey on?o aa??aio?a aoei i?eeiyoa
aoa?eey c oiaa?iith oe?iith ui aei??aith? 45,87 a?eai?/ oiiio.

Oaaeeoey

Ieoii? caeoee a?ae iia??oaiiy noaio i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie

Iiia? noaie

Iaeiaioaaiiy noaie Ieoii? caeoee, a?a/i.i

1 A?aeo?ae iiiaeeiiei? eaae c ?icai?oaiiyi 14,3

2 A?aeo?ae eaae, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o, c ?icai?oaiiyi
26,7

3 Iaeao iiiaeeiiei? eaae c ?icai?oaiiyi 12,3

4 Iaeao eaae, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o, c ?icai?oaiiyi 23,5

5 Uii?ny/ia nei?i/aiiy iiiaeeiiei? eaae 3,8

6 Uii?ny/ia nei?i/aiiy eaae, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o 5,7

7 Aeaii?ny/ia nei?i/aiiy iiiaeeiiei? eaae 4,7

8 Aeaii?ny/ia nei?i/aiiy eaae, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o 10,3

9 Iaeao iiiaeeiiei? eaae aeuaeaaea/iai ieanoo 5,2

10 Iaeao eaae aeua eaaea/iai ieanoo, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o 2,0

11 O?iioaeueia iaae?iaea iiiaeeiieith eaaith c iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae in?
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie 28,8

12 O?iioaeueia iaae?iaea eaaith, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o, c
iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae in? i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie 32,0

13 A?aeo?ae iiiaeeiiei? eaae aa?oiueiai ieanoa 0

14 A?aeo?ae eaae aa?oiueiai ieanoa, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o
2,0

15 O?iioaeueia iaae?iaea ae?iaie iiiaeeiieith eaaith c iaeei a?aeoiaeii
a?ae ?ic??cii? ia/? 26,7

16 O?iioaeueia iaae?iaea ae?iaie eaaith, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o, c iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae ?ic??cii? ia/? 26,7

I?e aaaeaii? ?ia?o ia iaeiiio ieano? (ia?o? a?n?i aa??aio?a) ioe?ioe?
i?aeeyaaee oe?eeee, ui caeeoathoueny o cii? ?icaaioaaeaiiy, o ye?e
?icoaoiaai? i?aeaioiaethth/? ae?iaee. I?e aaaeaii? ?ia?o ia caeeaeaieo
ieanoao (aa??aioe 9–16) aei iae?eo i?eeiaeiny aoa?eey, ui caeeoa?oueny o
ioi?iiieo oe?eeeao ?icoaoiaaieo ia aa?oiueiio ieano?. ?ic?aooiee
iieacaee, ui aoa?eey o oe?eeeao iiaea aooe caeeoaiei ia noio aei 2 iei.
a?eaaiue. Aoee aecia/ai? oaeiae ieoii? caeoee ia 1 iiaiiiee iao? eaae. O
?acoeueoao? ?ic?aooie?a aeaeii, ui aiie iiaeooue aeinyaaoe aaee/ei 10,5
oen.a?a/i.i eaae. Oaeei /eiii ie aa/eii, ui caeoee a?ae caeeoaiiy
aoa?eey o oe?eeeao iiaeooue cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaoe caeoee a?ae iia??oaiiy
no?eeino? ae?iaie.

Ia inoaiiueiio aoai? aecia/aiiy ia?aaaae canoinoaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai
aa??aioo aoa io?eiaiee eiiieaeniee e?eoa??e ?aoe?iiaeueiino?.
Canoiniaaiee eiiieaeniee e?eoa??e ca iaoiaeii ?aiaiaeo noi, yeee
ii?ioaaany oaeei /eiii. Ii eiaeiiio c ?ic?aoiaaieo e?eoa???a iaeiaioa
eiai cia/aiiy i?eeiaeiny ca 0%, a iaea?eueoa ca 100%. Cia/aiiy inoaii?o
?acoeueoao?a i?iii?oe?eii ia?a?aoiaoaaeeny ia oeae ?ioa?aae. Iio?i a
eiaeiiio aa??aio? noioaaeeny i?ioeaioi? cia/aiiy ca eiaeiei ie?aiei
e?eoa???i. O oeeo i?ioeaioieo iieacieeao iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy i?eeiaeiny
ca 100%, a iaea??oa — ca 0%. Inoaii? ?acoeueoaoe ia?a?aoiaothoueny o
i?ioeaioi? cia/aiiy a?aeiinii e?auiai (100%). A iiaenoieo io?eio?oueny
eiiieaeniee e?eoa??e ?aoe?iiaeueiino? canoinoaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai
niiniao a?ae?iaee oe?eee?a o i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie – ?en. 3. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae aa?aioo? ??aiioe?ii?noue a?aooaaiiy ye on?o aaiiaoai?/ieo, oae
? aeiiii?/ieo eiiiiiaio eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th.

I?e aeai?? oa ?ic?aooieo ie?aieo e?eoa???a oa eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th
aaeaeiny ae?iaeoe i?aeo?ae, ui aeicaiey? c ??cieo eoo?a ci?o ioe?ieoe o?
/e ?io? aa??aioe a?ae?iaee oe?eee?a o i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaeao. Ie
aa/eii noia?a/i?noue oa neeaaei?noue i?iaeaie, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny. Oae,
iai?eeeaae, aa??aio 10 ia? iaeei c iaee?aueo /anoeiaee e?eoa??e
?aoe?iiaeueiino? ca no?ee?noth ae?iaie, aea aeoaea iecueeee noia?iee
e?eoa??e (?en. 3). Iaaiaee, aa??aio 15 ia? iecueeee e?eoa??e no?eeino?
ae?iaie, aea iaeia c iaea?eueoeo cia/aiue noia?iiai e?eoa??th (?en. 3).

I?iieneiaa ia?aa??ea niinia?a aei?iaee oe?eee?a aoa?eey aoea i?iaaaeaia
ia oaoo? “I?aaeaii-Aeiiaanueea ?1” i?e aei?iaoe? ae?ieiaeo noiai?a 19-?
cao?aeii? eaae oa 51-? no?aeii? eaae.

O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo ?iaioe aaeeny ia ieano? n13. Eaaa, ui a?ae?iaeyea
ae?ieiaee noiai, iaeaooaaeany ia eiiieaen i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. Eoo
i?ae ni?yioaaiiyi ?ooo eaae oa a?nnth i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie
aei??aithaaa 40(. Aeoiaey/e c iaiao?aeiino? caa?aaeaiiy eiiieaeno
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie oa aeeiaiiy iaeneiaeueii? e?eueeino? aoa?eey c
oe?eee?a aoa ia?aiee aa??aio aei?iaee ae?ieiaiai noiaia c ?ioa?aaeueiei
nei?i/aiiyi i/eniiai aeaith. Oeae aa??aio caaacia/oaaa aa?i? iieacieee
ii e?eoa??th no?eeino? i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. I?e ?iaio? eaae ??
aeiaaeeia aoea nooi?i/aoi ciaioaia c 215 i aei 125 i e aeae? aei 115 oa
90 i. ??cia aaee/eia ciaioaiiy eaae aoea coiiaeaia ??cieie
oaoiieia?/ieie o?oaeiiuaie, aei yeeo a ia?oo /a?ao o?aaa a?aeianoe
neeaaei? oiiae i?aeo?eiaiiy caeeoaii? /anoeie eaae. I?e aei?iaoe?
ae?ieiaiai noiaia aoee i?iaaaeaeai? cai??e i?e?inoo a??nueeiai oeneo o
oe?eeeo ca aeiiiiiaith a?ae?aae?/ieo aeao/ee?a. ?oi? ?acoeueoaoe
iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 4. Aiie iieacaee aeinoaoith ca?aei?noue c i?iaaaeaiei
iiia?aaei?i iiaeaethaaiiyi oe??? neooaoe?? c oi/i?noth aei 25%. O
?acoeueoao? aei?iaee ae?ieiaiai noiaio ii oe?e iaoiaeeoe? aeiaeaoeiai
aoei aeaeiaooi 15 oen. oiii aoa?eey oa caa?aaeaiee aocie
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie.

O ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo i?iaaaeaia iaae?iaea 51-th no?aeiith eaaith
no?aeiiai iieueiaiai ae?aiaaeiiai oa no?aeiiai iieueiaiai eiiaae??iiai
oo?ae?a ai?. 480 i o ei?aeii?a aeaio aeec’thieoeaieo ii?ooaiue. Aea??
oeueiai aa??aioo iaoiiaethaaany ae?th/ei noaiii aeiiii?ee oaooe.
Aieiaiei i??i?eoaoii o oeueiio aeiaaeeo aoea iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeia
aeeiaiiy n11, ui ? iaea?eueo iiooaeiei (1,7 i). Ao?aoe aoa?eey o
oe?eeeao ia oeueiio ieano? iaea?eueo iii?oi? oa aieth/? aeey oaooe.
Ie??i oiai, o oeueiio aeiaaeeo aoei aaaeeeaei caaacia/eoe no?ee?noue
iie??ae? o i/eniiio aeai?, yea neeueii aaeeeany o i?eaea?eiee i?ino??.

Aa??aio 11 caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeao aaee/eio iaea?eueo
i?ei?eoaoiiai /anoeiaiai e?eoa??th ca ao?aoaie aoa?eey (100%),
aeinoaoiuei aeia?a cia/aiiy /anoeiaiai e?eoa??th ii aeaaeao iie??ae?
(a?ey 60%) oa iia?eueia cia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai e?eoa??th (a?eueo 50%).
Oiio e aoa i?eeiyoee aa??aio ieaioaaiiy 11, o i?aenoieo /iai aoei
ae??oaii iaae?iaeoe iaa?no?aeuei? oo?aee ai?. 480 i iiiaeeiieith 51
eaaith. Caaaeyee cia/i?e a?aeaeaeaiino? iaa?no?aeueieo oo?ae?a a?ae
ieanoo o oeueiio i?noe? (27-30 i) /anoeiaee e?eoa??e ca no?ee?noth
ae?iaie aoa ca?eueoaiee aei aeinoaoiueiai cia/aiiy, i?i ui na?ae/aoue
?ino?oiaioaeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca eiiaa?aaioe??th ii eiioo?o ae?iaie o
i?ioean? ?oiuei? iaae?iaee. Eiiaa?aaioe?y aie?a ae?iaie aoea ciaaaaeaii
iaeith, a caeeiaiiy ia ia?aaeuoaaei 0,5 i, oa aei??aithaaei o
na?aaeiueiio 150-250 ii. Oaeei /eiii, ?ioaa?aeueiee eiiieaeniee e?eoa??e
o oeueiio aeiaaeeo aoa ca?eueoaiee aei 78%, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ia?aiee
aa??aio ye aeoaea aaeaeee. O ?acoeueoao? iaae?iaee aeiaeaoeiai aeeiyoi
60 oen. oiii aoa?eey, i?e caaacia/aii? no?eeino? oo?ae?a.

AENIIAEE

O aeena?oaoe?? io?eiaiee iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee eiiieaeniee e?eoa??e
?aoe?iiaeueiino? aei?iaee e?aeiaeo /anoei ae?ieiai? ae?eueieoe? o
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie, ia i?aenoaa? yeiai ae??oaia aeooaeueia
iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeia caaea/a aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo noai
aaaeaiiy i/enieo ?ia?o iiaeeco i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie uiaei
i?aeaeuaiiy iiaiioe a?ae?iaee i?aeaioiaeaieo caian?a a oiiaao ii?ooaieo
oaooieo iie?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio:

1. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iiaeeeaeo oaoiieia?/ieo noai aoei aeae?eaii
o?noiaaeoeyoue aa??aio?a ieaioaaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o, ui caaacia/othoue
aenieo nooi?iue iiaiioe aeeiaiiy caian?a i?e a?ae?iaeaii? ii?ooaieo
ae?ieiaeo iie?a ia oaooao iioeeiai iaae?iiy.

2. Aea?ai? aa??aioe ?icaeoeo a??ie/eo ?ia?o aoee i?aeaeai? aeaoaeueiiio
aaiiaoai?/iiio aiae?co uiaei aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo noai
a?ae?iaee e?ioeaaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo noiai?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui na?aaei?
cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue iiia?aaeo eaae ca
i??ith ?? iinoaaiiy ci?iththoueny a?ae 1,37 i?e o?iioaeuei?e iaae?iaoe?
ae?iaie iiiaeeiieith eaaith c iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae ?ic??cii? ia/? aei
3,15 i?e iaeao? eaae, ui i?eieea? aei ?ai?oa ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o c
?icai?oaiiyi ia ei?aeii ?aa?iiaeueii? ciie ?icaaioaaeaiiy. Na?aaei?e
i?e??no eiao?oe??ioo eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue o cii? i?aeo?eiaiiy
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie ci?ith?oueny a?ae 0,1 i?e a?aeoiae?
iiiaeeiiei? eaae aa?oiueiai ieanoo aei 0,35 i?e o?iioaeuei?e iaae?iaoe?
eaaith, ui i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o c iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae in?
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie.

3. C?noaaeaiiy ae?th/eo iai?oaeaiue o iie??ae? c ?? i?oei?noth iieacaee,
ui e?auee e?eoa??e no?eeino? iie??ae? niinoa??aa?oueny i?e o?iioaeuei?e
iaae?iaoe? ae?iaie iiiaeeiieith eaaith c iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae ?ic??cii?
ia/?, oa aei??aith? o na?aaeiueiio 2,19. O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo e?aueie
? aa??aioe aaaeaiiy ?ia?o iaeeiieeie eaaaie o iaaeioi?eaiiio ianea? oa
aa??aioe a?aeoiaeo eaa.

4. Aiae?c aeo?ao ia i?aeo?eiaiiy i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie, ui
iiiaaeathoue o ciio aieeao noi?aeii? eaae, cana?ae/o? i?i oa, ui i?yi?
caeoee a?ae iia??oaiiy noaio i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie ci?iththoueny ii
aa??aioai a?ae 0 i?e a?aeoiae? iiiaeeiiei? eaae aa?oiueiai ieanoo aei 32
a?eaaiue ia iiaiiiee iao? i?e o?iioaeuei?e iaae?iaoe? eaaith, ui
i?eieea? aei ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o, c iaeei a?aeoiaeii a?ae in?
i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. Ieoii? caeoee a?ae ao?ao aoa?eey o oe?eeeao
iaaaaaoi a?eueo? a?ae aeo?ao ia i?aeo?eiaiiy ae?iaie oa aeinyaathoue
10,5 oen. a?eaaiue ia iiaiiiee iao? i/eniiai aeaith.

5. Ca eiiieaeniei e?eoa???i e?auei na?aae ia?oeo ainueie aa??aio?a ?
a?aeo?ae eaae c ?icai?oaiiyi, yea i?aoeth? o iaaeioi?eaiiio ianea?.
Na?aae inoaii?o aa??aio?a e?aueie ca eiiieaeniei e?eoa???i ? o?iioaeueia
iaae?iaea eaaith o ethaiio iai?yieo.

6. O i?aenoieo i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaeaeiny ?ic?iaeoe i?aeo?ae
aei eiiieaenii? ioe?iee oaoiieia?? a?ae?iaee oe?eee?a oa e?ioeaaeo
/anoei ae?ieiaeo noiai?a oa ae?eueieoeue i?e a?euei?e i???ioaoe?? ?oi?o
ei?aeii?a. O oe?e ?iaio? aia?oa iieacaia noia?a/i?noue /anoeiaeo
e?eoa???a ?aoe?iiaeueiino? aei?iaee e?ioeaaeo /anoei ae?ieiaeo
ae?eueieoeue oa ?oi? neeaaeia aca?iiniieo/aiiy. Oea ia? aaeeea i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, ai ca neeaaeieo no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiia oaeoe/i? i??i?eoaoe
iiaeooue /anoi ci?ithaaoeny (oe?ie ia ??ci? ia?ee aoa?eey, iayai?noue
?aca?ao ?iai/i? neee oa ?io?). Oiio aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo
iiaeiai i?iaiaeeoeny c o?aooaaiiyi eiie?aoii? neooaoe??. ?ic?iaeai?
/anoeia? oa eiiieaeniee e?eoa??? ?aoe?iiaeueiino? i?ecia/ai? ye?ac aeey
iia?aoeaiiai ??oaiiy oaei? i?iaeaie.

7. Oaooieie ?ino?oiaioaeueieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii nooi?i/aoa
i?aeaeuaiiy iii?iiai oeneo o oe?eeeo, ui aei?iaey?oueny, i?e
nooi?i/aoiio nei?i/aii? eaae. I?e oeueiio eiioeaio?aoe?y iii?iiai oeneo
ca?eueoeeany o 1,5 ?ace i?e iaaeeaeaii? eaae aei i?noey cai??o ia 10 i,
a iio?i, i?ney nei?i/aiiy eaae 90 i oa ioi?ieaiiy aeoyaiooiai oe?eeea
?iai/ith /anoeiith eaae, eiioeaio?aoe?y ca?eueoeeany o 2,5 ?ace. Aeaii?
oaooieo cai???a oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia?a?iciiae?eo a??nueeiai
oeneo ni?aiaee c oi/i?noth 25%, ui ? na?ae/aiiyi aeinoia??iino?
aeniiae?a, ui io?eiai? ia i?aenoaa? i?eeiyoi? aaiiaoai?/ii? iiaeae?.

8. O i?iieneiaeo oiiaao i?iaaaeaia ia?aa??ea aa??aioo nooi?i/aoi?
aei?iaee ae?ieiaiai noiaia ia ieanoo n13 oa ai?iaaaeaeaia ieaioaaiiy
a??ie/eo ?ia?o c iaae?iaeith iieueiaeo oo?ae?a o ei?aeiio
aeec’thieoeaiiai ii?ooaiiy ia ieano? n11. ?acoeueoaoe i?iieneiai?
ia?aa??ee i?aeoaa?aeeee aenieo aoaeoeai?noue oeeo ieaioaaiue, oiio ui,
aoei aeiaeaoeiai aeaeiaooi a?aeiia?aeii 15 oen. oa 60 oen. oiii aoa?eey.
I?e oeueiio caaacia/aia caaeia?eueia no?ee?noue iniiaieo iaa?no?aeueieo
oo?ae?a ai?. 480 i oa aeaio iioeeeo ae?iaie, i?aeaeuaia oiiaeia?aeaea/a
iniiaieo nii?oae oa iaeaaeiaiiy, i?aeaeuaia aaciaea ?ia?o ca ?aooiie
ciyooy eiioeaio?aoe?e a??nueeiai oeneo o naeo? ieano?a. Caaaeueiee
i?eaooie a?ae ?aae?caoe?? aeuaaeacaieo ieaioaaiue aei??aith? 2145 oeny/?
a?eaaiue.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1) Iaceiei A.A., Aeoiaaaoeeee A.A., A?yaeouee TH.A., Aoaa?a I.E.
E?eoa?ee onoie/eainoe ii?iae e?iaee a i/enoiii caaia// Oaieue Oe?aeiu.
-1996. -?8. -N. 20-23.

2) Aoaa?a I.E., Eaaiia E.A. Aeeyiea nei?inoe inaaeaiey ii?iae ia
auaaeiia?aciaaiea a i/enoiuo caaiyo// Ecaanoey Aeiiaoeeiai ai?iiai
einoeoooa. –1997. -?1(5). -N. 8-10.

3) Aoaa?a I.E., A?yaeouee TH.A., Iaceiei A.A. I?iaiic onoie/eainoe
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie e?iaee a neiaeiuo ai?ii-aaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo//
Oaieue Oe?aeiu. –1997. -?4. -N. 15-17.

4) Aoaa?a I.E., Eaaiia E.A. Auai? ?aoeeiiaeueiuo niiniaia aei?aaioee
oeaeeeia a neiaeiuo ai?ii-aaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo// Ecaanoey Aeiiaoeeiai
ai?iiai einoeoooa. –1997. -?2(6). -N. 5-9.

5) Aoaa?a I.E., Eieiieaoe A.A., Neeiei A.A., Ua?aaeia A.A., Cayaeeueneee
A.E. Eiiieaeniia ?aoaiea io?aaioee auaii/iuo noieaia e iaania/aiey
onoie/eainoe au?aaioie ioo?i eo iaae?aaioee// Ecaanoey Aeiiaoeeiai
ai?iiai einoeoooa. –1999. -?1(9). -N. 38-41.

6) Aoaa?a I.E., E?anueei I.E. Ieieiecaoeey iioa?ue oaey iiaeaioiaeaiiuo
caiania a ia?ooaiiuo oaooiuo iieyo// Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey ai?iuo
oaoiieiaee a ia/aea o?aoueaai ouny/aeaoey. –Ae/aane: AeAIE. –1999.
–n.152-153.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o ioae?eaoe?yo. O noaoo? [1] cai?iiiioaaa
a?aoiaoaaoe iieiaeaiiy oa?o a?aeiinii iie??ae? ieanoo i?e aecia/aii?
e?eoa??th no?eeino?, a oaeiae c?iaea ?ic?aooiee e?eoa??th oa eiai aiae?c
uiaei oeiiaeo oiia. O noaoo? [2] c?iaea iaa?oiooaaiiy i?noey i?iaaaeaiiy
?ino?oiaioaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue o 2-e no?aei?e eaa? ieanoo N13, a
oaeiae i?ia?a aiae?c io?eiaiiai e?eoa??th no?eeino? iie??ae?. O noaoo?
[3] c?iaea iinoaiiaeo caaea/?, aea?? oa iaa?oiooaaiiy ii/aoeiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? uiaei ?ic?aooieo ?iciiae?eo e?eoa??th no?eeino? ii??ae o
22-e no?aei?e eaa?, oa i?ia?a aiae?c ?ic?aooie?a. O noaoo? [4]
iaa?oiooaaa eiiieaeniee e?eoa??e ?aoe?iiaeueiino? a?ae?iaee e?aeiaeo
/anoei ae?ieiaeo noiai?a, c?iaea ?aiaeoaaiiy oa aiae?c io?eiaieo
cia/aiue e?eoa??th uiaei iniiaieo aa??aio?a. O noaooyo [5] oa [6]
aaoi?ii iaa?oioiaaia i?noea i?iieneiai? ia?aa??ee ?ic?iaeaieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa iaa?oioiaai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? aa??aioe a?ae?iaee e?aeiaeo
/anoei ae?ieiaeo noiai?a.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aoaa?a I. ?. Aaiiaoaii/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo
noai a?ae?iaee e?ioeaaeo ae?eueieoeue ae?ieiaeo noiai?a ia ?ioaineaii
ii?ooaieo ae?eueieoeyo oaooieo iie?a. -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.02 – I?aecaiia ?ic?iaea ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo
eiiaeei. –A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo a??ie/eo i?iaeai AeiiOO? ?i.
I.I. Aaee?ia IAI Oe?a?ie. Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai a?ae?iaee oe?eee?a ui i?eieeathoue aei
eai?oaeueieo i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. O ?iaio? ?icaeaa?oueny iai?yiie
ia a?ae?iaeo oe?eee?a ui i?eieeathoue aei cii ?icaaioaaeaiiy
eai?oaeueieo i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie. I?e oeueiio i?iiiiothoueny ??ci?
niiniae a?ae?iaee oeeo oe?eee?a. I?iaaaeaeo?oueny aaiiaoai?/iee aiae?c
cai?iiiiiaaieo niinia?a, ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. Ia
eiai iniia? anoaiiaeththoueny e?eoa??? ?aoe?iiaeueiino? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oiai /e ?ioiai niiniao: ii no?eeino? iie??ae? o i/eni?e ae?iaoe?; ii
no?eeino? eai?oaeueieo i?aeaioiaethth/eo ae?iaie; ii ao?aoai aoa?eey o
oe?eeeao. I?iaaaeaia aei?iaoaaiiy aeaio i?iaaaeaeaieo niinia?a ia oaoo?
“I?aaeaiii-Aeiiaanueea ?1”.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oe?eee, ae?ieiaee noiai, no?ee?noue, eiii`thoa?ia
iiaeaethaaiiy.

SUMMARY

Bugara M. I. Geomechanical foundation of optimal technologies for mining
of marginal parts of longwall panel in faulted coal seams. -Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree by speciality 05.15.02 – Underground
extraction of deposits. –Branch of physical and technical mining
problems DonFTI by name A.A. Galkin, National academy of science of
Ukraine. Donetsk, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to the problem of mining pillar adjoin to
development working. Different layouts have been proposed to extract
these pillars. Geomechanical analysis has been accomplished by computer
simulation to assess all the layouts. A complex criterion was developed
to choose optimal layout. This criterion is based upon stability of the
roof, on stability of the mains and on the loss of coal in pillar. This
criterion gives possibility to make estimation of different technologies
for mining of marginal sections of longwall panels. Two of the
technologies has been implemented at coal mining “South-Donbass ?1”.

Key words: coal pillar, mining panel, stability, computer modeling.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aoaa?a I. E. Aaiiaoaie/aneia iainiiaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo
noai io?aaioee eiioeaauo o/anoeia auaii/iuo noieaia ia eioaineaii
ia?ooaiiuo o/anoeao oaooiuo iieae. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.02. – Iiaecaiiay ?ac?aaioea ianoi?iaeaeaiee
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. –Ioaeaeaiea oeceei-oaoie/aneeo ai?iuo i?iaeai
AeiiOOE ei. A.A. Aaeeeia IAI Oe?aeiu, Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai io?aaioee oeaeeeia i?eiueathueo e
iiaeaioaaeeaathuei au?aaioeai. ?anniao?eaathony eae aa?eaiou aaaeaiey
?aaio ia iaeiii ieanoa (ia?aay a?oiia), oae e ia niaaeiuo ieanoao
(aoi?ay a?oiia). I?aaeeaaathony ?acee/iua niiniau io?aaioee aeaiiuo
oeaeeeia. I?e yoii oeacuaaaony, /oi i?e aaaeaiee ?aaio a oaeeo ciiao
ii?iaeu iaoiaeyony a neiaeiii iai?yae?iiii ninoiyiee. Aicieeatho
?acee/iua aeiiieieoaeueiua i?iaeaiu: oooaeoaiea onoie/eainoe e?iaee a
i/enoiii caaia e iioa?y onoie/eainoe iiaeaioaaeeaathueie au?aaioeaie.
I?iecaiaeeony aaiiaoaie/aneee aiaeec i?aaeeiaeaiiuo niiniaia, n
iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey. A ea/anoaa iniiaiie i?ia?aiiu
aeey ?an/?oia i?eiyoa oniaa?oainoaiaaiiay i?ia?aiia i?io. I.I. Cai?ueea,
iicaieythuay i?ineaaeeaaoue eciaiaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiey iai?yaeaiee a
ianneaa a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey ai?iuo ?aaio. Ia iniiaa iiaeaee?iaaiey
onoaiaaeeaathony e?eoa?ee ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe i?eiaiaiey oiai eee eiiai
niiniaa: ii onoie/eainoe e?iaee; ii onoie/eainoe iiaeaioaaeeaathueo
au?aaioie; ii iioa?yi oaey a oeaeeeao.

Ii e?eoa?eth onoie/eainoe e?iaee eo/oeie i?eciathony a ia?aie a?oiia –
aa?eaiou aaaeaiey ?aaio ii nieioiie nenoaia ?ac?aaioee, ai aoi?ie a?oiia
– aa?eaiou, i?e eioi?uo au?aaioee ia iaae?aaaouaathony. Ii e?eoa?eth
onoie/eainoe iiaeaioaaeeaathueo au?aaioie eo/oeie yaeythony aa?eaiou
eioa?aaeueiiai nie?auaiey eaau i?e aei?aaioea auaii/iiai noieaa e iaeao
eaau auoaeaaeauaai ieanoa, i?eiueathuae e au?aaioaiiiio i?ino?ainoao.
?ann/eoaiu oauoee io inoaaeaiey oaey a io?aiiuo oeaeeeao. Ia iniiaa
e?eoa?eaa onoie/eainoe e?iaee, iiaeaioaaeeaathueo au?aaioie e iioa?e
oaey auaiaeeony eiiieaeniue e?eoa?ee ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe i?eiaiaiey
aa?eaioia. Ii eiiieaeniiio e?eoa?eth eo/oeie yaeythony aa?eaiou iooiaea
iaeeii/iie eaau n ?acai?ioii (ia?aay a?oiia) e o?iioaeueiie iaae?aaioee
au?aaioie iaeeii/iie eaaie n iaeui iooiaeii io ?ac?aciie ia/e (aoi?ay
a?oiia).

I?iaaaeaii ii?iaiaaiea aeaoo i?aaeeaaaaiuo niiniaia ia oaooa
“THaeii-Aeiiaanneay ?1”. A ia?aii neo/aa i?iaaaeaia nooiai/aoay
aei?aaioea 19-e caiaaeiie eaau. Ai a?aiy ?aaiou eaau a? aeeeia auea
nooiai/aoi oiaiueoaia n 215 i aei 125 i e aeaeaa aei 115 e 90 i. ?aciay
aaee/eia nie?auaiey eaau auea iaoneiaeaia ?acee/iuie oaoiieiae/aneeie
o?oaeiinoyie. I?iaaaeaiiua caia?u iieacaee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueioth
noiaeeiinoue iieo/aiiuo i?e iiaeaee?iaaiee ?acoeueoaoia n oaooiuie
iaaethaeaieyie. Oi/iinoue ninoaaeea aei 25%. I?e aei?aaioea
aeiiieieoaeueii aeiauoi ieiei 15 oun. oiii oaey. Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo
ninoaaee 471,7 oun. a?eaai, i?e oaaee/aiee oiiaeiioaea/e ninoaaeaoae
15,1 oun. a?eaai. Ai aoi?ii neo/aa i?iaaaeaia oniaoiay iaae?aaioea 51-e
ainoi/iie eaaie ainoi/iuo iieaauo oo?aeia ai?eciioa 480 i. I?e
i?iaaaeaiee ia?aie/aiiiai eiee/anoaa ia?ii?eyoee iiaeaioaaeeaathuea
au?aaioee oaeaeinue nio?aieoue a oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiii ninoiyiee. I?e
i?iaaaeaiee iaae?aaioee aeiiieieoaeueii aeiauoi ieiei 60 oun. oiii oaey.
Iauee yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo ninoaaee 1672,9 oun. a?eaai. Aeinoeaiooi
oaaee/aiea oiiaeiioaea/e, ninoaaeaoaa 60,6 oun. a?eaai.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey ?aaiou iieo/ai iao/ii iainiiaaiiue eiiieaeniue
e?eoa?ee ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe aei?aaioee e?aaauo /anoae auaii/iiai o/anoea o
iiaeaioaaeeaathueo au?aaioie. ?aoaia aeooaeueiay iao/ii-i?eeeaaeiay
i?iaeaia auai?a ?aoeeiiaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo noai aaaeaiey i/enoiuo
?aaio aaeece iiaeaioaaeeaathueo au?aaioie. I?e yoii iieo/aiu neaaeothuea
iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou:

1) onoaiiaeaii, /oi eo/oeie ii e?eoa?eth onoie/eainoe e?iaee,
o/eouaathuaio iai?yaeaiey aeaenoaothuea aia?aaee aeaeaeouaainy i/enoiiai
caaiy, yaeythony o?iioaeueiay iaae?aaioea au?aaioie e aa?eaiou iooiaea
eaa io iiaeaioaaeeaathueo au?aaioie;

2) eo/oeie ii e?eoa?eth onoie/eainoe iiaeaioaaeeaathueo au?aaioie,
o/eouaathuaio eciaiaiea iai?yaeaiee a eo ie?anoiinoyo, yaeythony
aa?eaiou iooiaea iaeeii/iie eaau aa?oiaai ieanoa e eioa?aaeueiiai
nie?auaiey eaau i?e a? iiaeoiaea e au?aaioeai;

3) oaeaeueiua iioa?e io inoaaeaiey oaey a io?aiiuo oeaeeeao aeinoeaatho
10,5 oun.a?a./i.i eaau e cia/eoaeueii i?aauoatho iioa?e io oooaeoaiey
ninoiyiey iiaeaioaaeeaathueo au?aaioie, eioi?ua aeinoeaatho cia/aiey 30
a?a./i.i;

4) ?ac?aaioai iiaeoiae ii eiiieaeniie ioeaiea aa?eaioia io?aaioee
oeaeeeia o iiaeaioaaeeaathueo au?aaioie. Ii yoiio e?eoa?eth eo/oei
n?aaee ia?auo ainueie aa?eaioia yaeythony iooiae eaau n ?acai?ioii,
?aaioathuae a iao?iiooii ianneaa. N?aaee inoaeueiuo aa?eaioia eo/oeie ii
eiiieaeniiio e?eoa?eth yaeyaony o?iioaeueiay iaae?aaioea eaaie a ethaii
iai?aaeaiee;

5) iieacaia i?ioeai?a/eainoue eiiiiiaio, ninoaaeythueo eiiieaeniue
e?eoa?ee ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe aei?aaioee eiioeaauo /anoae auaii/iuo
o/anoeia. Iaeneiaeueiue e?eoa?ee ia iaycaoaeueii oi?ie?oaony
iaeneiaeueiuie aaee/eiaie aai ninoaaeythueo e iaiai?io.

6) oaooiua eino?oiaioaeueiua iaaethaeaiey iiaeoaa?aeeee aeinoiaa?iinoue
i?iaaaeaiiuo ?an/?oia a i?aaeaeao 25%, i?e yoii onoaiiaeaii nooiai/aoia
oaaee/aiea iii?iiai aeaaeaiey a cauaieyaiii oeaeeea i?e nooiai/aoii
nie?auaiee eaau. I?e i?iaa?ea a oaooiuo oneiaeyo aeaoo i?aaeeiaeaiiuo
aa?eaioia aeiiieieoaeueii aeiauoi 15 e 60 oun. oiii oaey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeaeee, auaii/iue noiea, onoie/eainoue, eiiiuethoa?iia
iiaeaee?iaaiea.

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