2

?AAII-O?AIE?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAOIAOOE ? AACO

OEE ?EEss IEOAEEIAE*

OAeE 622.276

AAIEIAI-OAOIIEIA?*I? INIIAE I?AeAEUAIIssEIAO?Oe??IOA
AOAEAAIAeIAAEEO*AIIssC AACIEIIAeAINAOIEO ?IAeIAEU

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.15.06 – ?ic?iaeaiaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyaeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

?aaii-O?aie?anuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ? a Oe?a?inueeiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? i?e?iaeieo aac?a (i. Oa?e?a) AeE
“Oe?aacaeaeiaoaaiiy” IAE “Iaooiaac Oe?a?ie”.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiiae?ao ?iiai Ieoaeeiae/, ?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?ic?iaee oa aenieoaoaoe??
iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ca?oa?i TH??e
Ieaenaiae?iae/, AAO “Oe?iaooa”, i. Ee?a, canooiiee aieiae i?aae?iiy;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Iaai?iee
Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/, ?inoeooo aaio?ceee ?i. N.?. Noaaio?ia IAI Oe?a?ie,
i.Ee?a, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaeae??ia TH??e Ae?aiaoiae/,
I?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i.Ee?a, a?oea-i?aceaeaio,
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo iaooiaaciaeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e,
aee?aeoi?.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: AAO “Oe?a?inueeee iaooiaaciaee ?inoeooo”,
i.Ee?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 14 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14.30 ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae20.052.02 a
?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco
ca aae?anith: Oe?a?ia, 284019, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. Ea?iaonueea,
15.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco
(aoe. Ea?iaonueea, 15).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_4__” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A.i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y niaoe?ae?ciaaii?a/aii? ?aaee, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani? Iaa?ioeueeee A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Aeaniee aeaeiaooie iaooe ? aaco a
Oe?a?i? caaacia/o? a inoaii? ?iee iio?aae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa eeoa
ia 10 ? 20% a?aeiia?aeii, ui coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue ia?iuoaaiiy
aeaeiaooeo aoaeaaiaei?a ye ca ?aooiie ?icoe?aiiy ne?iaeiii? aace
iaooiaaciai? i?iieneiaino?, a?aee?eooy oa aaaaeaiiy a ?ic?iaeo iiaeo
?iaeiaeu, oae ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo
aoaeaaiaeiaaeo ?ano?n?a oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy e?ioeaaiai eiao?oe??ioa
aaciiaooieiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ? iioi/iiai a?aeai?o aoaeaaiaei?a c
iaae?.

C aiae?co aeeiai?ee caian?a aaco ? eiiaeainaoo a Oe?a?i?
aeieeaa?, ui iioi/i? caiane ?o iino?eii ca?eueooaaeeny, ii/eiath/e c
1963 ?., ui iia’ycaii c inai?iiyi, a iniiaiiio,
Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei? caiaaeeie. Oa?aeoa?iei aeey Oe?a?ie ? ia eeoa
c?inoaiiy caian?a eiiaeainaoo, aea e iino?eia ca?eueoaiiy a /an?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?iieneiaeo caian?a aaciaiai eiiaeainaoo ? a?eueiiai
aaco, ui noai?eei cia/io ?ano?nio aaco aeey iinoaiiaee ? ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeai i?aeaeuaiiy ye iioi/iiai aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo, oae ?
e?ioeaaiai eiao?oe??ioa eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu.

Neeaaei? aaieiai-i?iieneia? oiiae ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo
iieeaae?a, oe?ieee ae?aiacii aeeaei, oene?a, oaiia?aoo?, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oeth?ae?a ? eieaeoi?nueeeo aeanoeainoae ieano?a, ??cia
noaae?ei?noue ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu — ona oea coiiaeei
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino? niinia?a ? nenoai ?ic?iaee,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??io?a aaci- ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy.
Iacaaaeath/e ia aeineoue aenieo aoaeoeai?noue aeayeeo c ieo, iai?eeeaae
naeee?i?-i?ioeano, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiaeeeaa iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e,
aaeaioiaaieo aei eiie?aoieo aaieiai-i?iieneiaeo oiia aacieiiaeainaoieo
?iaeiaeu c a?aooaaiiyi noaae?? oa ?aaeeio ?o ?ic?iaee.

A iniiaiiio an? a?aeii? niiniae ca?eueoaiiy
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy iiaeia ca?oioaaoe ca oaeeie iai?yieaie:

— i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu ia aeniaaeaiiy;

— i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo;

— aeaeiaooie eiiaeainaoo, ui aeiaa c aaco o ieano?, a
?acoeueoao? iiia?aaeiuei? ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu ia aeniaaeaiiy;

— ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy c iaooiaeo
iaeyi?aie oa eiiaeainaoieo aae?a aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui a Oe?a?i? iiiaae 150 aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu
iathoue i?aeaeuaiee ai?no eiiaeainaoo o ieanoiaiio aac? ? aiie
ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??cieo noaae?yo ?ic?iaee (a?ae aeniaaeaieo iiai?noth
aei ua ia aaaaeaieo o ?ic?iaeo), ? an? i?aenoaae ?icaeaaoe iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a on?o /ioe?ueio iai?yieao.

Aeey Oe?a?ie iaoeia? ?iaioe uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy ?o ia i?aeoeoe? iathoue
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy, ai oea — ca?eueoaiiy aeaniiai
aeaeiaooeo aoaeaaiaei?a o aea?aeaa?, a cia/eoue, ciaioaiiy ??
aia?aaoe/ii? caeaaeiino?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy o?ce/ieo iniia
? caeiiii??iinoae i?ioean?a ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?
iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu o ??cieo aaieia?/ieo,
aaieiai-i?iieneiaeo, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo, oa?iiaa?e/ieo oiiaao caeyaaiiy
iieeaae?a ? noai?aiiy ia oe?e iniia? iiaeo niinia?a i?aeaeuaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy c i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiyi oaoiieia??
?ic?iaee noaiia? aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo.

Iniiai? caaea/?:

— aiae?c e ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo aeei?enoaiiy ?nioth/eo niinia?a
?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu, ni?yiiaaieo ia iaeneiaeueia
aeeo/aiiy aoaeaaiaei?a c iaae?, oa aecia/aiiy ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yie?a
aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei iiaeaeueoiai i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy c a?aooaaiiyi noaio ? no?oeoo?e ?ano?nii? aace;

— aea/aiiy e ocaaaeueiaiiy oa?aeoa?o aieeao aaieiai-i?iieneiaeo ?
o?ce/ieo oiia, e?oieia?/ieo ? oaeoii?/ieo iniaeeainoae, eieaeoi?nueeeo
aeanoeainoae aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a ia aaee/eio eiao?oe??ioa
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a oaoiieia?/iiai aieeao
aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy, a caeaaeiino? a?ae noaio
aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo;

— noai?aiiy iiaeo niinia?a ? nenoai ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy, ia iniia?
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy oaoiieia?e aaieia?/iei, aaieiai-i?iieneiaei ?
oa?iiaa?e/iei oiiaai iieeaae?a;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo, aoaeoeaieo niinia?a ? nenoai
?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a ia ?iaeiaeuao Oe?a?ie c a?aooaaiiyi
?o iioi/iiai noaio;

— noai?aiiy iiaeo niinia?a ?ic?iaee iaooiaeo iaeyi?aie ? eiiaeainaoieo
aae?a iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu ia iniia? ?o caeaaeiino? a?ae
aaieiai-o?ce/ieo oiia ? noaio ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe:

1. Nenoaiaoeciaaii iniaeeaino? aieeao aaieiai-i?iieneiaeo oiia,
aaee/eie caian?a aaco, aeeaeie caeyaaiiy iieeaaeo, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ? eiiaeainaoii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aaco, eieaeoi?nueeeo
aeanoeainoae i?iaeoeoeaiiai ieanoa, ieanoiaiai oeneo, oaiia?aoo?e,
?aaeeio ?ic?iaee ia eiao?oe??io eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy oa ?ic?iaeaii
i?eioeeie ?o a?aooaaiiy i?e aeai?? nenoaie ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoiiai
iieeaaeo, ni?yiiaaii? ia iaeneiaeueia aeeo/aiiy aoaeaaiaei?a c iaae?.

2. C aeei?enoaiiyi caeii?a o?ceee ieanoa ? a?aooaaiiyi aieeao
ye i?iieeiino? ieano?a, oae ? no?oeoo?e ii?iaiai i?inoi?o ?ic?iaeaii
iia? niiniae ?aaoethaaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano ia iniia? aaieia?/ieo
iiaeaeae aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo, ni?yiiaai? ia ca?eueoaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai aaco nooei.

3. Oai?aoe/ii caeeaaeaii iniiae ? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iiao
nenoaio ?ic?iaee c i?aeaeuaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo a aacieiiaeainaoiiio
iieeaae? aei ii/aoeo naeee?i?-i?ioeano (ia aaee/eio aeai?an?? ia ieano),
ui caaacia/o? ?ic?iaeo aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo aac aeiaaeaiiy
eiiaeainaoo o i?eaea?eieo ciiao ? aeai?an?eieo ai?iieao naa?aeeiaei.

4. Aeyaeaii iia? iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaee
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu oeyoii /a?aoaaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano ?
?ic?iaee ia aeniaaeaiiy ia iniia? oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a, ia?aoie?a aaco c
ieanoa a ieano, i?e?iia?aoie?a o no?oeoo?? ii?iaiai i?inoi?o, aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a ?ic?iaee — nooi?i/anoee naeee?i?-i?ioean.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c
i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo oeyoii ia?aioneo aenieiiai??iiai aaco c
aaciaiai iieeaaeo a aacieiiaeainaoiee, nenoaiaoeciaaii i?aeoiaee aei
?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeano i?aeo?eiaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo a aacieiiaeainaoiiio
iieeaae? oeyoii ci?ie oaiio a?aeai?o aaco c iueiai, iaa?oioiaaii
iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy aeniaaeaieo
iieeaae?a ia iniia? oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a eiiaeainaoo, ui aeiaa c aaco o
ieano?, oeyoii ia?aioneo nooiai aaco c noi?iii?o aeaea?ae.

6. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ?ic?iaee eiiaeainaoieo aae?a o
ieano? a oiiaao aiaeiiai??iiai ?aaeeio ? naeee?i?-i?ioeano.

7. Ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie niiniae ?ic?iaee iaooiaeo
iaeyi?aie aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a ia iniia? oeeee?/ii? aenieoaoaoe??
iaooiai? ? aaciai? /anoei iieeaaeo ?aeeiith n?oeith naa?aeeiaei, aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaii ai?iaiaaiee aenia?eiaioaeueii aeueoa?iaoeaiee niin?a
?ic?iaee oiiei? iaooiai? iaeyi?aee, oeyoii ?? ci?uaiiy a
aacieiiaeainaoio /anoeio iieeaaeo e ianooiiiai i?iaaaeaiiy
naeee?i?-i?ioeano a o?e /anoei? ieanoa, aea noi?iiaaia aeaioacia nenoaia
(iaooa ? aac).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie,
ieaiaie, oaiaie:

1. Oai?aoe/i? aeeeaaeee oa noai?ai? iia? oaoiieia?? aeathoue
ciiao nenoaiaoecoaaoe i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ia an?o noaae?yo ? ?aaeeiao ?ic?iaee
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c a?aooaaiiyi ?o aaieia?/ieo,
aaieiai-i?iieneiaeo, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo, oa?iiaa?e/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaii niiniae ?aaoethaaiiy ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo
?iaeiaeu, ni?yiiaai? ia ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy c
iieeaaeo oeyoii: i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy ieano?a aeo?niaiiyi
ne?iai aaco nooei i?e naeee?i?-i?ioean? aeey ??cieo aa??aio?a
aaieia?/ii? iiaeae? iieeaaeo; i?aeiyooy ieanoiaiai oeneo o iieeaae? aei
ii/aoeo naeee?i?-i?ioeano; aeei?enoaiiy nooi?i/anoiai naeee?i?-i?ioeano;
aeei?enoaiiy ia?aioneo aenieiiai??iiai nooiai aaco a aacieiiaeainaoi?
iieeaaee; ?ic?iaee eiiaeainaoieo aae?a a oiiaao naeee?i?-i?ioeano oa
aeoeaii? aiaeiiai??ii? nenoaie.

3. I?aeaioiaeaii ? caoaa?aeaeaii «Oe?aaci?iiii» i?iaeo ?ic?iaee
Eoee/eo?inueeiai iaooiaacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua c iaeaoii iiaeo
oaoiieia?e: i?aeiyooyi ieanoiaiai oeneo aei ii/aoeo naeee?i?-i?ioeano,
ia?aoiaeii ia nooi?i/anoee naeee?i?-i?ioean c ianooiiei ci?uaiiyi
iaooiai? iaeyi?aee a aaciao /anoeio iieeaaeo ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi
naeee?i?-i?ioeano.

4. I?aeaioiaeaii e caoaa?aeaeaii «Oe?aaci?iiii» ? OeE?
I?iaaci?iio (1987 ?.) ei?aeoeae aei i?iaeoo ?ic?iaee
Aa?ac?anueeiai aacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua c ia?aioneii aaco,
cai?iiiiiaai? oaoiieia?? /anoeiai ?aae?ciaai? ia oeueiio ae ?iaeiaeu?.

5. I?aaenoaaeaii iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? «Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie aei
2010 ?.» oa ei?aeoeaao aei ia?.

6. I?e neeaaeaii? ca o/anoth aaoi?a «Aoeano ?iaeiaeu iaooe ?
aaco Oe?a?ie» (Aea?aeeiiaaieia??, Aea?aeiaooiaaci?ii, 1995 — 1998 ??.)
aeei?enoaii aeaye? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaaaeaieo a
aeena?oaoe??.

7. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo, aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa i?iieneiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeo niinia?a ?ic?iaee iaooiaeo iaeyi?aie oa?eoee aei
ieaio ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai? oaoi?ee AeE «Oe?aacaeaeiaoaaiiy» ia 1999 ?.

Iniaenoee aianie. Aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue ?ic?iaee oa ?aea?:

— ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai aaco
nooei aacii ca ?aooiie iiieaeaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo a iecueeii?iieeieo
ieanoao; ?icae?eueia ?ice?eooy aeniei- ? iecueeii?iieeieo ieano?a
ia?oi?aoe??th i?e naeee?i?-i?ioean? [9,17,18,19];

— i?aeiyooy ieanoiaiai oeneo o iieeaae? aei ii/aoeo
naeee?i?-i?ioeano [14,23];

— iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiieia?? nooi?i/anoiai naeee?i?-i?ioeano
[8,15];

— ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy ieanoiaiai aaco nooei aacii
a eiioaeooth/eo iecueei- ? aenieii?iieeieo ieanoao oa o i?e?ino?oeoo??
ii?iaiai i?inoi?o [20,21,22];

— ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c ia?aioneii aaco, iiai?
oaoiieia?? ?ic?iaee iaooiai? iaeyi?aee c ?? ci?uaiiyi o aacieiiaeainaoio
/anoeio iieeaaeo ? iiaeaeueoith ?ic?iaeith a ?aaeei? naeee?i?-i?ioeano
[24,25,26,27,33].

Iaaaaeai? o ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ?ii?nii-o?eueo?aoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae ia i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy oa iaoiaeieia?y ?o
aeei?enoaiiy iiai?noth iaeaaeaoue aeena?oaioo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, io?eiaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?, ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o a?aeiia?aeieo iineeaiiyo o oaeno? aeena?oaoe??, a
oaeiae o nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui caoeuathoueny:

— ?icaoaeiaa i?eioeeiiai iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo canaae i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy aacieiiaeainaoieo ? iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu
oa ?o i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??, ui noaiiaeoue ?ica’ycaiiy e?oiii? i?iaeaie
aea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy;

— ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeo iai?yie?a, ui
caaacia/othoue ?aaoethaaiiy o?iioo aeo?niaiiy ieanoiaiai aaco nooei c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi i?e
naeee?i?-i?ioean?;

— nenoaia ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo c i?aeiyooyi ieanoiaiai
oen-

eo aei ii/aoeo naeee?i?-i?ioeano, ui iiia?aaeaeo? aeiaaeaiiy eiiaeainaoo
o i?eaea?eieo ciiao ? aeai?an?eieo ai?iieao naa?aeeiaei;

— iiaeeo?eaoe?y oaoiieia?? naeee?i?-i?ioeano — nooi?i/anoee
naeee?i?-i?ioean,

ui caaacia/o? ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi
ieanoiaiai aaco

nooei ia ??ai? iae?i- ? i?e?ino?oeoo?e ??ciii?iieeieo
ii??ae-eieaeoi??a;

— caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy oa niiniae ?ic?iaee eiiaeainaoieo aae?a ?
iia? i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee iaooiaeo iaeyi?aie, ni?yiiaai? ia
ca?eueoaiiy aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy c iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu, o
oiio /ene? niin?a ?ic?iaee iaooiai? iaeyi?aee c ?? ci?uaiiyi o
aacieiiaeainaoio /anoeio;

— ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao aaieiai-i?iieneiaeo,
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a aacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua
ia i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??io?a aaci- ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe?
c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo.

Aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
aaco?oueny ia aeo?aeieo aeaieo c eeane/ieo iieiaeaiue
aacia?ae?iaeeiai?ee, iao?io?ceee, o?ce/ii? o?i??, iaoaiaoe/iiai oa
o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy; an? aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia no/ani?e
iia??ai?e eiio?ieueii-?a?no?oth/?e aia?aoo??, aeaea?aea
aaieiai-i?iieneiaeo iaoa??ae?a ai?iaiaai? Aea?aeaaiith eii?n??th ii
caianao. Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue oaeiae
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia cia/iith aeiiii?/iith aoaeoeai?noth a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie o ae?iaieoeoai.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa a oe?eiio aena?oeth? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee
nenoaie i?eioeeiiai iiaeo aaieiai-oaoiieia?/ieo iniia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? aacieiiaeainaoieo ?
iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu, ui iaoiiaeth? ?ica’ycaiiy aaaeeeai?
iaoeiai? ? i?eeeaaeii? i?iaeaie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee aeeeaaeai? o aeiiia?aeyo, iia?aeiieaiiyo e
iaaiai?ai? ia eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, ia?aaeao, ii/eiath/e c 1979 ?.:

— ia XVII i XVIII iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo iieiaeeo o/aieo ?
niaoe?ae?no?a (Iineaa, 1979, 1981);

— ia can?aeaii? Iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?aaee I?iaaci?iio (Iineaa, 1981);

— ia nai?ia?? «Nicaeaiea iiauo aunieiyooaeoeaiuo oaoiieiaee e
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, iaania/eaathueo iiauoaiea ecaea/aiey eiiaeainaoa e
iaooe» (Iineaa, 1988);

— ia ?anioae?eainueeiio iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? «Iai?i aeina?aeii ii
?acoeueoaoao i?iaaaeaieo ?ia?o ii ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? oaoi?/iiio
ia?aica?i?iith a XII i`yoe??/oe? ia ia’?eoao aaciaeaeiaooeo oa
ae?iaeaiiy iai?yie?a ia XIII i’yoe??/eo» (Ee?a, 1990);

— ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «?ac?aaioea e
yenieoaoaoeey aacieiiaeainaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee ia caaa?oathuae
noaaeee» (Oooa, 1990);

— ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «?ac?aaioea aacieiiaeainaoiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee» (E?aniiaea?, 1990);

— ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie ? oeyoe
aia?aicaaacia/aiiy Oe?a?ie» (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1993);

— ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie» (Ee?a,
1994);

— ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie» (Oa?e?a,
1996);

— ia OO Na?oiaiio aaciaiio eiia?an? (Eiiaiaaaai, 1997);

— ia V I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie — 1998»
(Iieoaaa, 1998);

— ia 2-e I?aeia?iaei?e iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe??
i?aoe?aiee?a iaooiai? ? aaciai? i?iieneiaino? (i. *a?ia, Iieueua, 1998);

— ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao a Oe?IAe?aac?, ?OAeOOIAo, Oe?IA?, Oaaaeeinueeiio
AIO, Iieoaanueeiio AIO, Oa?e?anueeiio AIO, AeE «Oe?aacaeaeiaoaaiiy»
IAE «Iaooiaac Oe?a?ie» (1999 ?.).

Aaoi? iaai?iaeaeaiee n??aiith iaaeaeeth AAeIA Oe?a?ie ca ?ic?iaeo iiaeo
oaoiieia?e i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy c ieanoa (1995 ?.) ? ??
i?ai??th OIAA ca ?ic?iaeo oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy c aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu (1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o 37 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo, a oiio /ene? o 20 noaooyo ? oacao aeiiia?aeae oa o 19 iaoaioao
e aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaao.

Caaaeueia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
aeoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? noaiiaeoue 792,1 oen. a?i. I/?eoaaia aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ia
Eoee/eo?inueeiio, Oeiio??anueeiio ? Aa?ac?anueeiio aacieiiaeainaoieo
?iaeiaeuao — o iaaeao 90 iei. a?i. ? a?eueoa — a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii aaaaoi??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy (1980-1999 ??.)
aaoi?a, aeeiiai? a Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?
i?e?iaeieo aac?a ? a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a,
iaaaaeaieo ia 261 noi??ioe?, i?noeoue 18 oaaeeoeue, 43 ?enoiee, 3
aeiaeaoee. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 134 iacae.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo ca oe?ii? ii?aaee ? aeiiiiiao
i?e aeeiiaii? ?iaioe iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioia? aeaaeai?eo Oe?a?inueei?
iaooiaaciai? aeaaeai?? (OIAA), ae-?o oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani?o ?. I.
Eiiae?aoo, aeaaeai?eo OIAA, ae-?o oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani?o A. I.
Aei?ioaieo, aeaaeai?eo OIAA, ae-?o oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani?o A. N. Aieeo,
aeaaeai?eo OIAA, ae-?o aaie.-i?ia?. iaoe I. I. ?noii?io, aeaaeai?eo,
ae-?o oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani?o ?. I. Oa?-Na?e?niao, aeaaeai?eo OIAA, eaiae.
oaoi. iaoe A. N. A?eai?`?ao, /eaio-ei?aniiiaeaioo OIAA, eaiae. oaoi.
iaoe ?. I. Iaoa??ao, /eaio-ei?aniiiaeaioo OIAA ?. N. A?eiaio, eaiae.
oaoi. iaoe E. I. Oieith, eaiae. oaoi. iaoe (Oe?a?ia), ae-?o (O?I) I.
E. Aooi?eiao, eaiae. aaie.-i?ia?. iaoe A. A. Eecaioeth,
eaiae. aaie.-i?ia?. iaoe A. A. Eaaoo?io, /eaio-ei?aniiiaeaioo OIAA,
eaiae. aaie.-i?ia?. iaoe ?. ?. Ai?eniaoeth, I. O. Inoaiaieo, N. I.
Eenaeueia?e, /eaio-ei?aniiiaeaioo OIAA, eaiae. oaoi. iaoe ?. A.
Ioae?iio, A. ?. Ni?aaeo, A. A. Oiiaieo oa ?ioei ni?a?ia?oieeai
Oe?IAe?aaco e ?OAeOOIAo.

Iniaeeaa iiaeyea a?ae aaoi?a aeaaeai?eo OIAA A. I. Aioeueeiio —
ni?aaaoi?ia? aaaaoueio i?aoeue, ia?oiio aenia?oia? iiaeo oaoiieia?e,
iaaaaeaieo o ?iaio?, oa ?i?oe?aoi?ia? ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, iaoo e caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaoe?? aeena?oaoe?? oa ??
caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? aea/aii ?ano?ni? ia?aaeoiiae
i?aeaeuaiiy aacieiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy c ?iaeiaeu Oe?a?ie. C?noaaeaiiy
aeeiai?ee caian?a a?eueiiai aaco oa eiai aeaeiaooeo iieacaei, ui,
iacaaaeath/e ia ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aaciaeo ? aacieiiaeainaoieo
?iaeiaeu ? caian?a aaco, aeaeiaooie a?eueiiai aaco ciaiooaaany: c 62
ie?ae. i3 o 1976 ?. aei 18 ie?ae. i3 o 1998 ?. I?e oeueiio aeyaeeany
/?oea oaiaeaioe?y aei noaa?e?caoe?? eiai aeaeiaooeo ia ia?niaeoeao.
Uiaei caian?a aaciaiai eiiaeainaoo a iaae?ao Oe?a?ie, oi aiie ii/aee
c?inoaoe c 1976 ?. Oea iiynith?oueny a?aee?eooyi a e?a?i? iiaeo
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii eiiaeainaoo [1,2].

Aeaeiaooie aaciaiai eiiaeainaoo, ii/eiath/e c 90-o ??.,
a?aeiinii noaa?e?coaaany ? iaa?oue c 1992 ?. ii/aa ca?eueooaaoeny ca
?aooiie aaaaeaiiy a ?ic?iaeo iiaeo aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c
i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii eiiaeainaoo, a?aee?eoeo ?ai?oa, a oaeiae
canoinoaaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano ia Oeiio??anueeiio oa Eioaeaanueeiio
?iaeiaeuao [3].

Ia ?en. 1 iaaaaeaii aeeiai?eo a?aeiioaiiy i?iieneiaeo caian?a
aaciaiai eiiaeainaoo (e) aei i?iieneiaeo caian?a a?eueiiai aaco (a) ii
?ieao ye o oe?eiio aeey Oe?a?ie, oae ? aeey aieiaiiai
aacieiiaeainaoiaeaeiaoaiiai ?aa?iio — Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueei?
caiaaeeie (AeAeC).

C ?en. 1 aeaeii, ui a?aeiioaiiy q = Qe/Qa ia? /?oeo
oaiaeaioe?th aei c?inoaiiy a /an?. Oae, na?aaei?e ai?no eiiaeainaoo ia
iaeeieoeth a?eueiiai aaco aeey AeAeC ca?eueoeany c 96 a/i3 o 1974 ?. aei
180 a/i3 o 1997 ?.

O AeAeC ciaoiaeyoueny 197 ?iaeiaeu, o o./. 16 aaciaeo, 27
iaooiaeo, 6 aaciiaooiaeo oa iaooiaaciaeo, 49 iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo oa
99 aacieiiaeainaoieo, 148 ?iaeiaeu iathoue i?aeaeuaiee ai?no eiiaeainaoo
o ieanoiaiio aac?. A?aoiaoth/e iaaaaeaia, a oaeiae caaaeueia c?inoaiiy
ai?noo eiiaeainaoo ia iaeeieoeth caian?a ieanoiaiai aaco,
aacieiiaeainaoi? oa iaooiaacieiiaeainaoi? ?iaeiaeua Oe?a?ie iathoue
ni?eyoeea? ia?aaeoiiae ? ?ano?nio aaco aeey iinoaiiaee ?ia?o ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e i?aeaeuaiiy aaci- , iaooi- ?
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii noai i?iaeaie, iaeyae
aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ?ia?o uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy c aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu [4,5,6].

?ic?iaea aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu o ?aaeei? aeniaaeaiiy
ieanoiai? aia?a?? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ia?aoiaeii o ??aeeo oaco a ?ac?
cieaeaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo ieae/a oeneo ii/aoeo eiiaeainaoe??
aoaeaaiaeiaai? noi?o? o?aeoe?e N5I12+.

?ic?iaea aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu i?e aiaeiiai??iiio ?aaeei?
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cauaieaiiyi ieanoiaith aiaeith /anoeie aaco c
eiiaeainaoii i?e aenieeo ieanoiaeo oeneao [7].

I?e ci?oaiiio ?aaeei? ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu
niinoa??aathoueny ye ia?ao?ae eiiaeainaoo o ??aeeo oaco, oae ?
cauaieaiiy aaco c eiiaeainaoii (o oiio /ene? e oiai, ui ia?aeoia o
??aeeo oaco) ieanoiaith aiaeith.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoi- ? aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu aeei?enoiaothoue iaoiaee i?aeo?eiaiiy
ieanoiaiai oeneo ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo ?o ?ic?iaee aai aoi?eii?
iaoiaee aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo, ui aeiaa c aaco o ieano?, ia i?ci?oeo
noaae?yo.

I?aeo?eiaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo a aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaaeao
iiaea cae?enithaaoeny oeyoii caea/oaaiiy a?aenaia?iaaiiai (nooiai)
i?e?iaeiiai aaco (naeee?i?-i?ioean), aiaee (ooo/ia caaiaeiaiiy),
ooo/iiai aoaeaaiaeiaaiai aaco, iaaoaeaaiaeiaaeo aac?a (aoaeaeeneee aac,
acio, aeeiia? e aeoeiii? aace, iia?o?y) oa ii?aeiaiiy iaaaaeaieo
iaoiae?a.

O oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a
oeyoii caea/oaaiiy nooiai aaco aeae?eythoue e?eueea iiaeeo?eaoe?e
naeee?i?-i?ioeano [8,9]:

— iiaiee naeee?i?-i?ioean, eiee a ieano caea/o?oueny aanue
a?aenaia?iaaiee aac ? a i?ioean? ?ic?iaee i?aeo?eio?oueny iino?eiee
ieanoiaee oene;

— /anoeiaee naeee?i?-i?ioean, eiee o ieano caea/o?oueny eeoa
/anoeia a?aenaia?iaaiiai aaco ? ?ic?iaea iieeaaeo cae?enith?oueny c
iiieaeaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo, i?e oeueiio /anoeia aaco iiaea?oueny
niiaeeaa/aa?;

— nooi?i/anoee naeee?i?-i?ioean, eiee aeniaaeaiiy /a?ao?oueny c
iiaiei naeee?i?-i?ioeanii ia caaeaieo ??aiyo ieanoiaeo oene?a;

— naeee?i?-i?ioean c iiia?aaei?i cieaeaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo;

— naeee?i?-i?ioean c iiia?aaei?i i?aeiyooyi ieanoiaiai oeneo;

— ia?aione aenieiiai??iiai nooiai aaco c aaciaeo iieeaae?a o
aacieiiaeainaoi? (iiaeeea? an? aa??aioe, ye i?e naeee?i?-i?ioean?).

Aei iniiaieo oaeoi??a, a?ae yeeo caeaaeeoue eiao?oe??io
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy i?e naeee?i?-i?ioean? ? ye? iiaeia ?aaoethaaoe,
a?aeiinyoueny:

— naia ii nia? iiaeeo?eaoe?y naeee?i?-i?ioeano;

— e?euee?noue ? nenoaia ?ici?uaiiy iaai?oaeueieo ? aeaeiaoaieo
naa?aeeiaei;

— nenoaia ?ice?eooy ieano?a ia?oi?aoe??th;

— ia’?ie caea/oaaiiai nooiai aaco.

Iaea?eueoa ia aoaeoeai?noue naeee?i?-i?ioeano aieeaa?
eiao?oe??io ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi ne?iai aaco nooei, yeee ia? o?e
neeaaeia?: ca ieiuath iieeaaeo, ca ?ic??cii ieano?a, ca
i?e?ino?oeoo?ith ii?iaiai i?inoi?o.

Ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai aaco
nooei aacii — iaeei c ia?niaeoeaieo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? aacieiiaeainaoieo ?
iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo.

Eiio?ieue ca eiao?oe??ioii ioiieaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny ca
aeiiiiiaith aacieiiaeainaoieo ? i?iieneiai-aaio?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
[10,11].

I?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoi- ? aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy iiaea oaeiae
cae?enithaaoeny oeyoii caea/oaaiiy aiaee. ?ic??ciythoue caeiioo?ia,
i?eeiioo?ia, aioo??oiueieiioo?ia iaai?oaiiy aiaee c iaoith i?aeo?eiaiiy
ieanoiaiai oeneo. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?e caea/oaaii? aiaee ia iiaea
aooe iiaiiai caaiaeiaiiy iieeaaeo, oiio ui ooo ii/eiathoue ae?yoe
iaaaoeai? oaeoi?e, aiaeia?/i? ?ic?iaoe? aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo a
oiiaao i?e?iaeiiai aiaeiiai??iiai ?aaeeio.

Ca?aeii c aeine?aeaeaiiyie ?. I. Eiiae?aoa, iaeaoaeoeai?oei ?
caaiaeiaiiy c /anoeiaei i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo, eiee cieaeaiiy
oeneo /anoeiai eiiiaino?oueny caea/oaaiiyi aiaee. O oeeo oiiaao
caeeoeiaa aaciiane/ai?noue ia aeinyaa? naiai e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy, ?
caaacia/o?oueny ye /anoeiaa i?aeo?eiaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo, oae ?
iino?eia o?eueo?aoe?y aaco o ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu? aei aaciaeaeiaoaieo
naa?aeeiaei.

Caaiaeiaiiy i?e ii/aoeiaiio ieanoiaiio oeneo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iecueeeie cia/aiiyie eiao?oe??io?a eiiaeainaoi- ? aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy.
Oae, aeeiiaiee ca o/ano? aaoi?a (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A. N. A?eai?’?aei ?
E. A. Aa?iaiii) i?iaeo ?ic?iaee Oeiio??anueeiai iaooiaacieiiaeainaoiiai
?iaeiaeua (oene ii/aoeo eiiaeainaoe?? aei??aithaaa ii/aoeiaiio
ieanoiaiio oeneia?) ca aa??aioaie naeee?i?-i?ioeano ? caaiaeiaiiy
iieacaa, ui aoaeoeai?oei ? aa??aio naeee?i?-i?ioeano, yeee ? aoa
i?eeiyoee Oeaio?aeueiith eii?n??th c ?ic?iaee I?iaaci?iio N?N? o 1981 ?.

Aiae?c noaio ?ia?o uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy aea?
ciiao noi?ioethaaoe iniiai? i?iaeaie, ye? aeieeathoue i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo:

— aea?? aaaioa aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo ? nenoaie
?ic?iaee caeaaeeoue a?ae aaieiai-i?iieneiaeo, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo,
oa?iiaa?e/ieo, aaia?ao?/ieo, eii’thieoo?ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo oiia e
inoaoi/ii aecia/a?oueny oeyoii c?noaaeaiiy oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo
iieaciee?a ca aa??aioaie ?ic?iaee;

— caaaeueiith aeey an?o iaoiae?a i?aeo?eiaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo ?
i?iaeaia ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy ieano?a aeo?niaiiyi ne?iai
aaco nooei ye iaeiiai c aieiaieo /eiiee?a i?aeaeuaiiy
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy c aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu;

— caaaeueiith ? oaeiae i?iaeaia aeaeiaooeo /anoeie eiiaeainaoo,
ui aeiaa c aaco o ieano?, aai i?iaeaia, ye ia aeiionoeoe aeiaaeaiiy
eiiaeainaoo o ieano?;

— ?ici?uaiiy iaai?oaeueieo ? aeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaei, nenoaia
?ice?eooy ieano?a, ?iai/? oenee ? oenee iaai?oaiiy, ?ai?an?? ? aeai?an??
ia ieano, ia’?ie caea/oaaieo ?iai/eo aaaio?a ? aeaeiaooeo aaco i?e
?ic?iaoe? aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu — oea iniiai? oaoiieia?/i?
ia?aiao?e, yeeie iiaeia ea?oaaoe aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy;

— i?iaeaia i?i?i?caoe?? eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue ia iaeaoooaaiiy
eiii?ani?iiai aai ianiniiai ainiiaea?noaa, cai?ie naeee?i?-i?ioeano
i?e ?ic?iaoe? aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a ia ia?aione aenieiiai??iiai
nooiai aaco.

Cia/ia /anoeia aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu Oe?a?ie aaea cae?i/aia
?ic?iaeith a ?aaeei? aeniaaeaiiy aai ia?aaoaa? o i?ci?e noaae??
?ic?iaee, i?e oeueiio o ii?iaiio i?inoi?? oaeeo ?iaeiaeu iaeiie/aii
aaeee? caiane ?ao?ia?aaeiiai eiiaeainaoo, ui aeiaa o ??aeeo oaco, ? aeey
?iaeiaeu c eiiaeainaoiei oaeoi?ii iiiaae 200 a/i3 aiie iiaeooue
aeinyaaoe 60% ? a?eueoa a?ae ii/aoeiaeo caian?a eiiaeainaoo.

Aiae?c noaio ?ia?o uiaei aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo, ui aeiaa o
ieano?, aea? ciiao noi?ioethaaoe ianooii? iniiai? aeniiaee:

— oe?ieee niaeo? niinia?a aeey aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo, ui aeiaa
c aaco o ieano?, aea? iiaeeea?noue cae?enieoe ?o i?ea’yceo a?aeiinii
eiie?aoieo aeniaaeaieo aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu oeyoii c?noaaeaiiy
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ? aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai niiniao aoi?eiiiai
aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo;

— ye ? i?e i?aeo?eiaii? ieanoiaiai oeneo, aeey an?o niinia?a
aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo, ui aeiaa c aaco o ieano?, caaaeueiith ?
i?iaeaia ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy ieano?a ?iai/eie aaaioaie,
ye? caea/othoue o ieano;

— c iaoith aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo, ui aeiaa c aaco o ieano?,
aeioe?eueii ia i?ci?e noaae?? aeniaaeaiiy aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu
cae?enieoe ?o ia?aaaaeaiiy ia ?aaeei ?iaeiaeu ?aaoeyoi??a ? INA [12,13];

— iaiao?aeii aea/eoe iiaeeea?noue aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo, ui
aeiaa c aaco o ieano?, oeyoii ia?aioneo aenieiiai??iiai aaco c iieeaae?a
c aenieei ieanoiaei oeneii o aeniaaeai? aacieiiaeainaoi? iieeaaee.

Iaeyae oa aiae?c oaeoe/ieo ? i?iaeoieo oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo
iieaciee?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano a Oe?a?i? ia
Iiaio?i?oeueeiio, Oeiio??anueeiio, Eioaeaanueeiio ? Eoee/eo?inueeiio
?iaeiaeuao iieacaa ?o cia/io aoaeoeai?noue.

Aoaeoeai?noue naeee?i?-i?ioeano ia Iiaio?i?oeueeiio ?iaeiaeu?
a?aeiinii iaaaeeea, o ii??aiyii? c aeniaaeaiiyi, ? noaiiaeoue 10 — 12%,
ui iaoiiaeaii /anoeiaei aeniaaeaiiyi iieeaaeo ai?eciioo A-23 aei ii/aoeo
naeee?i?-i?ioeano. Aea i?e oeueiio aeiaeaoeiaee aeaeiaooie
eiiaeainaoo ca aanue ia??iae ?ic?iaee ioe?ith?oueny a ia’?i? 400 — 450
oen. o.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano ia Eioaeaanueeiio,
Oeiio??anueeiio ? Eoee/eo?inueeiio ?iaeiaeuao aeanoue ciiao aeiaeaoeiai
iaea?aeaoe aeecueei 6 iei. o eiiaeainaoo.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co oa aea/aiiy ae?th/eo ? i?iaeoieo
naeee?i?-i?ioean?a ia aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeuao Oe?a?ie ? ca ?oaaaeai
aeyaeaii ?yae i?iaeai, ye? iaiao?aeii ae??ooaaoe i?e ?o ?ic?iaoe? c
i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo:

— i?iaeaia a?aeiia?aeiino? (aaeaeaaoiino?) i?eeiyoi? aeey i?iaeooaaiiy
?ic?iaee aaieiai-i?iieneiai? iiaeae? iieeaaeo eiai oaeoe/iiio
noaiia? c iaoith aeai?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? oaoiieia?? ?ic?iaee;

— i?iaeaia aca?iiae?? aiaeiiai??iiai ?aaeeio ? naeee?i?-i?ioeano oa
?ic?iaea ia oe?e iniia? iiaeo oaoiieia?e aeeo/aiiy eiiaeainaoo c
eiiaeainaoieo aae?a ? iaooiaeo iaeyi?aie;

— i?iaeaia iecueeiai eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai
aaco nooei i?e naeee?i?-i?ioean? ? iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iiaeo
oaoiieia?e eiai ?aaoethaaiiy c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii oai?aoe/i?, aenia?eiaioaeuei?
? i?iieneia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?niaeoeaieo niinia?a ?ic?iaee
aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo.

?ic?iaeaii iia? ? aaeineiiaeaii a?aeii? niiniae ?ic?iaee
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo, ye?
eeaneo?eiaai? ca ?aei?noth oe?eae ? oeyo?a ?o aeinyaiaiiy ianooiiei
/eiii [9,14,15]:

— niiniae ?aaoethaaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano, ni?yiiaai? ia
ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy ieano?a aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai aaco
nooei (Kio) i?e naeee?i?-i?ioean?;

— niiniae aeoeaii? ae?? ia aacieiiaeainaoiee ieano, ui
cieaeothoue ao?aoe eiiaeainaoo o i?eaea?eieo ciiao ? aeai?an?eieo
ai?iieao naa?aeeiaei;

— niiniae i?aeo?eiaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo ca ?aooiie ia?aioneo
aenieiiai??iiai aaco aai aiaee;

— niiniae aei?ic?iaee aeniaaeaieo aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu.

?icaeyiooi aeae?eueea aa??aio?a ?aaoethaaiiy o?iioo aeo?niaiiy
ne?iai aaco nooei c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy Eio a oa?oaaoeo
aacieiiaeainaoieo ieanoao ??cii? i?iieeiino? ia i?eeeaae? aa??aioa
aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae iieeaaeo, ui neeaaea?oueny c aeaio ??ciii?iieeieo
ieano?a, ?icae?eaieo iai?iieeiith (aeeienoith) ia?aoeieith. Iaoith
?aaoethaaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano a ieo ? caaacia/aiiy iaeii/aniiai
i?i?eao nooiai aaco o aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie. Cai?iiiiiaaii
aeae?eueea niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie.

Ia?oee niin?a. I?iiiiothoueny aeaa aa??aioe ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie
ca?eueoaiiy ?ai?an?? oa aeai?an?? ia iecueeii?iieeiee ieano c iaoith
caaacia/aiiy iaeii/aniiai i?i?eao nooiai aaco o aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie
ye ii aeniei-, oae ? iecueeii?iieeiiio ieanoo. Ia?oee aa??aio — oea
aeei?enoaiiy aeai?yaeieo e?oo?a ? iaea?ii? nenoaie aeey iaeii/anii?
?icae?eueii? aenieoaoaoe?? aeaio ieano?a [16]. I?e oeueiio iiaeooue
caaeaaaoeny aoaeue-ye? ?ai?an?? ? aeai?an?? ie?aii ia eiaeiee ieano.
Ae?oaee aa??aio — oea iiia?aaeiy ?ic?iaea iecueeii?iieeiiai ieanoa ia
aeniaaeaiiy c iaoith iiieaeaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo a iueiio ia aaee/eio,
ui caaacia/eoue o iiaeaeueoiio i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaio ieano?a o ?aaeei?
naeee?i?-i?ioeano ??ci? ?ai?an?? ? aeai?an?? oa, ye iane?aeie, i?ecaaaea
aei iaeii/aniiai i?i?eao nooiai aaco a iaio ieanoao o aaciaeaeiaoai?
naa?aeeiaeie [17].

Iaea?aeaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey aaee/eie caaaeaiiai
iiieaeaiiai oeneo (wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy??? ?? ???&? ?MathType??@?
???u?????????»????-?????H?@????H?f???u@th??????C oi?ioee
(1) aeoiaeeoue, ui aeinyaiaiiy iaeiaeiaiai eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy
aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai aaco nooei o aeaio ieanoao iiaeeeaa, yeui
aeeiio?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy:

aea, wmetafile8? ??@???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `@
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy? ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th?????? Aea/aii ? anoaiiaeaii aieea ia
aaee/eio wmetafile8? ??I????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy`???? ???&? ?MathType??0?
???u?????????»????-?????a?@????a?Q???uath??????
Ae?oaee niin?a. O?iio aeo?niaiiy ne?iai aaco nooei ae??aiththoue
iine?aeiaiei aeeth/aiiyi o i?ioean aeo?niaiiy ieano?a nii/aoeo c
iecueeith, a iio?i c a?eueoith i?iieei?noth. I?e oeueiio /an, /a?ac yeee
aei?ice?eaathoue ia?oi?aoe??th a?oio ieano?a c a?eueoith i?iieei?noth o
aeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaeiao, aei??aith? t1 — t2 aai t1 — t3 aai
… t1 — tn , aea t1 — /an aeii?i?eaiiai i?ioiaeaeaiiy nooiai aaco a?ae
iaai?oaeueii? naa?aeeiaeie aei aeaeiaoaii? o iecueeii?iieeiiio
ieano?; t2, t3,… tn — /an aeii?i?eaiiai i?ioiaeaeaiiy nooiai aaco
ii ?ioeo ieanoao c aeuith i?iieei?noth [18].

O?ao?e niin?a . O?iio aeo?niaiiy ne?iai aaco nooei ae??aiththoue
ia iiiaio i?i?eao nooiai aaco o aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie ca ?aooiie oiai,
ui ia aeniei- ? iecueeii?iieei? ieanoe ao?youe ie?ai? n?oee
iaai?oaeueieo naa?aeeiaei.

sseui aecia/eoeny c /anii i?ioiaeaeaiiy nooiai aaco ii
aenieii?iieeiiio ieanoo t1 i?e a?aenoai? i?ae iaai?oaeueieie ?
aeaeiaoaieie naa?aeeiaeiaie L, oi iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe L — a?aenoaiue i?ae
iaai?oaeueieie ? aeaeiaoaieie naa?aeeiaeiaie aeey iecueeii?iieeiiai
ieanoa, yea aecia/a?oueny ?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy:

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? niiniao ne?ae aei ii/aoeo naeee?i?-i?ioeano noai?eoe
iaiao?aeio aenieoaoaoe?eio n?oeo naa?aeeiaei c a?aooaaiiyi oi?ioee (3),
yea neeaaeaoeiaoueny c aeaio ?yae?a iaai?oaeueieo ? iaeiiai ?yaeo
aeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaei [19].

?ic?iaeaii niin?a ? cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio ?ic?iaee, ni?yiiaaio
ia ca?eueoaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy aeey aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae iieeaaeo,
ui neeaaea?oueny c aeaio eiioaeooth/eo ieano?a ??cii? i?iieeiino?,
caeaoieo aaciaeeiai?/ii aca?iiae?yoe.

Aeey caeo/aiiy iecueeii?iieeiiai ieanoa aei naeee?i?-i?ioeano
cai?iiiiiaaii canoinoaaoe eiia?iiaaio nenoaio ?ic?iaee, yea aeeth/a?
oeeee?/ia /a?aoaaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano ? ?ic?iaee ia aeniaaeaiiy.
Nii/aoeo ?ic?iaeythoue aacieiiaeainaoiee iieeaae o ?aaeei?
naeee?i?-i?ioeano i?e iino?eiiio ieanoiaiio oeneia?. I?ney i?i?eao
nooiai aaco o aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie iaai?oaiiy nooiai aaco
i?eieiythoue ? ?ic?iaeythoue iieeaae ia aeniaaeaiiy aeaeiaoaieie
naa?aeeiaeiaie, iiieaeoth/e ieanoiaee oene ia aaee/eio (wmetafile8?
??E???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  A???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy???a?? ???&? ?MathType??
? ???u?????????»????-?????H?V???H?m???u@th??????Aeae?
i?iaeiaaeothoue ?ic?iaeo ?c canoinoaaiiyi naeee?i?-i?ioeano i?e
cieaeaiiio ieanoiaiio oeneia? aei /a?aiaiai i?i?eao nooiai aaco o
aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie. I?ney iiaoi?iiai i?i?eao nooiai aaco o
aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie cae?eniththoue ae?oaee nooi?iue i?ioeano
cieaeaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo. Nooi?i/anoa cieaeaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo iiaea
i?iaiaeeoeny aeae?eueea ?ac?a c ia??iaee/iei canoinoaaiiyi
naeee?i?-i?ioeano ia eiaeiiio nooiai? cieaeaiiy oeneo. Iaaaaeaio
oaoiieia?th cai?iiiiiaaii iacaaoe nooi?i/anoei naeee?i?-i?ioeanii.

O?ce/ia nooue nooi?i/anoiai naeee?i?-i?ioeano iieyaa? a oiio, ui
i?ney i?i?eao nooiai aaco ii aenieii?iieeiiio ieanoo o aeaeiaoai?
naa?aeeiaeie ? ia?aoiaeo ia aeniaaeaiiy iecueeii?iieeiee ieano ii/eia?
?ic?iaeyoeny o aenieii?iieeiee (ieiueiiee ia?aoie), inoaii?e,
a?aeaeath/e nooee aac o aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie, iane/o?oueny ne?ei
aacii, ui ia?ao?ea? c eiioaeooth/iai iecueeii?iieeiiai ieanoa;
eiiaeainaoiee oaeoi? a cii? ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi c?inoa?, ? nenoaia
aioiaa aeey iiaoi?iiai aeei?enoaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano.

Aea/aii iiaeeea?noue ? cai?iiiiiaaii oaoiieia?th ca?eueoaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi o i?e?ino?oeoo?? ii?iaiai i?inoi?o
[21].

Aeey oiai, uia aac o cano?ei?e cii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e ii?iaiai
i?inoi?o aoa ioiieaiee aeo?niaiiyi, iaiao?aeii eiai ia?ai?noeoe aei
ciie o?eueo?aoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith /anoeiaiai cieaeaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo
i?ney i?i?eao nooiai aaco o aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie. Ii noo?, ne?ae
canoinoaaoe nooi?i/anoee naeee?i?-i?ioean. Aaee/eia iiieaeaiiy
ieanoiaiai oeneo coiiaeth?oueny caaeaiith aaee/eiith aeoiaeo eiiaeainaoo
c aaco, ui aeaeiaoaa?oueny. I?ney i?i?eao nooiai aaco eiiaeainaoiee
oaeoi? ??cei iaaea?, iniaeeai o a?eueo iaeii??aeieo iieeaaeao. Uia eiai
i?aeiyoe aei caaeaii? aeiiii?/ii ?aioaaaeueii? aaee/eie, iaiao?aeii
cieceoe ieanoiaee oene aeey ia?ai?uaiiy ne?iai aaco ?c cano?eiiai o
o?eueo?oth/ee ii?iaee i?ino??, a iio?i iiaoi?eoe naeee?i?-i?ioean.
Aaee/eio cieaeaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo wmetafile8? ??E????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
A???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy???a?? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-?????H?V???H?f???u@th??????aea
wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyyA?? ?? ???&? ?MathType??@?
???u?????????»????-?????H?@????H?J???u@th??????
Aeei?enoiaoth/e ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (5) ? oaoiieia?th nooi?i/anoiai
naeee?i?-i?ioeano, iiaeia cia/ii ca?eueoeoe Kio ye o iae?i-, oae ? o
i?e?ino?oeoo?? ieano?a, i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue nenoai ?ic?iaee c
i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo, aeaeiaooe aeiaeaoeiao e?euee?noue
eiiaeainaoo i?e oeo aea aia?aicao?aoao, caaacia/eoe iiia?aaei?e
aeaeiaooie aaco o ia??iae naeee?i?-i?ioeano.

Aea/aii iiaeeea?noue ? cai?iiiiiaaii oaoiieia?th caiia?aaiiy
aeiaaeaiith eiiaeainaoo o ieano? [14,23].

Iaei??th c oiia oeueiai ?:

wmetafile8? ??i????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????aea wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyyA???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th?????? sseui ieanoiaee oene (PIE) a?eueoee,
i?ae (?IE), oi caiia?aaiiy aeiaaeaiith eiiaeainaoo o ieano?
caaacia/o?oueny oiiaith:

wmetafile8? ??-???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` 
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy` ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????aea ? — aeai?an?y ia ieano o aeaeiaoaieo
naa?aeeiaeiao.

Iaeiae, ye i?aaeei, a Oe?a?i? (AeAeC) aeey a?eueoino?
aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a ?c cia/iei ai?noii eiiaeainaoo oa?aeoa?ia
iaea ??cieoey i?ae ieanoiaei oeneii ? oeneii ii/aoeo eiiaeainaoe??. Oea
noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey aeiaaeaiiy eiiaeainaoo o i?eaea?eieo ciiao ?
ai?iieao aeai?an?? aeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaei iaa?oue i?e
naeee?i?-i?ioean?.

Aiae?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (7) aea? iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aeniiaie,
ui caiia?aoe aeiaaeaiith eiiaeainaoo o i?eaea?ei?e cii? iiaeia aeaiia
oeyoaie:

— ia?oee — cieceoe oene ii/aoeo eiiaeainaoe??;

— ae?oaee — i?aeaeueoe ieanoiaee oene a aacieiiaeainaoi?e
nenoai? iieeaaeo.

Ia?oee oeyo i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaee, oiio ui ia iiaeia aieeiooe ia
neeaae aacieiiaeainaoii? nenoaie ii anueiio ia’?io iieeaaeo.

Ae?oaee oeyo — i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo a aacieiiaeainaoiiio
iieeaae? aei ii/aoeo ?ic?iaee — ca iaaieo oiia iiaea aaaaeaoeny oe?eeii
iiaeeeaei. I?e oeueiio ieanoiaee oene o iieeaae? iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe
ia aaee/eio aeai?an?? ia ieano ?, uia aeeiioaaeenue oiiae:

? ?iio ?a ,
(9)

aea ?iio — i?aeaeuaiee ieanoiaee oene.

Oaeei /eiii, nooue niiniao caiia?aaiiy aeiaaeaiith eiiaeainaoo o
i?eaea?eieo ciiao ? ai?iieao aeai?an?? naa?aeeiaei iieyaa? o i?aeiyoo?
ieanoiaiai oeneo aei ii/aoeo ?ic?iaee c iiaeaeueoei aeei?enoaiiyi
naeee?i?-i?ioeano i?e i?aeaeuaiiio ieanoiaiio oeneia?.

Cai?iiiiiaai? oaoiieia?? ye ca?eueoaiiy Eio, oae ? caiia?aaiiy
aeiaaeaiith eiiaeainaoo o ieano? ?aae?ciaaii o i?iaeoiiio aa??aio? aeey
ai?eciioo O-1 Eoee/eo?inueeiai iaooiaacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua [15].

?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui aeei?enoaiiy nooi?i/anoiai
naeee?i?-i?ioeano c i?aeaeuaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo aei ii/aoeo eiai
?aae?caoe?? aeanoue iiaeeea?noue a oe?eiio aeey iieeaaeo ai?eciioo O-1
Eoee/eo?inueeiai ?iaeiaeua ca?eueoeoe eiao?oe??io eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy c
0,29 (i?e ?ic?iaoe? ia aeniaaeaiiy) aei 0,68. I?e cae/aeiiio iiaiiio
naeee?i?-i?ioean? eiao?oe??io eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy aei??aithaaoeia 0,47.
Aeiaeaoeiaee aeaeiaooie eiiaeainaoo caaaeyee iiaei oaoiieia?yi o
ii??aiyii? c? cae/aeiei naeee?i?-i?ioeanii aeey ae?oaiai aeieo
noaiiaeoeia 118 oen. o, a a oe?eiio aeey ai?eciioo O-1 — 270 oen. o.

Ci?io aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo a /an? aeey ae?oaiai aeieo ii
aa??aioao iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 2, c yeiai aeaeii, ui aeaeiaooie eiiaeainaoo
c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeo oaoiieia?e o ia?o? 3 — 4 ?iee aeecueeee aei
cae/aeieo oaoiieia?e, iaeiae o iiaeaeueo? ?iee ?noioii a?ae??ciy?oueny
ye a?ae ?ic?iaee ia aeniaaeaiiy, oae ? a?ae cae/aeiiai iiaiiai
naeee?i?-i?ioeano a 1,8-3 ?ace ca oaeei aaaeeeaei iieacieeii, yeei ?
aeaeiaooie eiiaeainaoo. Cao?eiea aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo ca aa??aioii 1
iia’ycaia ?c caea/oaaiiyi aaco aeey i?aeiyooy ieanoiaiai oeneo.

?en. 2. Ii??aiyiiy aeaeiaooeo eiiaeainaoo c ae?oaiai aeieo
ai?eciioo O-1 Eoee/eo?inueeiai ?iaeiaeua ca ??cieie aa??aioaie ?ic?iaee:

1 — nooi?i/anoee naeee?i?-i?ioean c iiia?aaei?i i?aeaeuaiiyi ieanoi aiai
oeneo; 2 — cae/aeiee naeee?i?-i?ioean; 3 — ?ic?iaea ia aeniaaeaiiy

Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c
i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo oeyoii ia?aioneo aaco [24,25].

Ia?aaaae nenoaie ?ic?iaee c ia?aioneii aaco o ii??aiyii? c
nenoaiith ?ic?iaee a ?aaeei? naeee?i?-i?ioeano iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio:

— cia/ii iaio? eai?oaeuei? cao?aoe ia iaeaoooaaiiy ?iaeiaeua;

— a?aeiaaea? iaiao?aei?noue eiina?aaoe?? cia/ieo caian?a aaco;

— iaia? iio?aae aoaeoaaoe eiii?ani?io noaioe?th.

I?e oeueiio aei iieeaae?a, c yeeo cae?enith?oueny ia?aione aaco,
noaaeyoueny oae? aeiiae:

— iaaaeeeee ai?no eiiaeainaoo o ieanoiaiio aac?;

— aenieee ieanoiaee oene, cia/ii aeuee , i?ae o
aacieiiaeainaoiiio iieeaae?, eoaee cae?enith?oueny ia?aione;

— cia/i? caiane aaco, ui caaacia/o? iaaenieee oaii iiieaeaiiy
oeneo o i?ioean? ia?aioneo.

Ia?aione aenieiiai??iiai aaco iiaea cae?enithaaoenue ye c
aeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaei /a?ac iiaa?oith, oae ? aaciina?aaeiuei o
naa?aeeiaeiao.

Aea/aii aieea aaieia?/ieo caian?a aaco ia aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaee
? iieacaii, ui aiia caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caian?a aaco o
aacieiiaeainaoiiio iieeaae? Q1 ? caian?a aaco o aenieiiai??iiio iieeaae?
Q2. *ei a?eueoa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Q2/Q1, oei aeinyaa?oueny aeua
aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano ?ic?iaee.

Aieea ii/aoeiaeo ieanoiaeo oene?a oaeiae caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?2/?1. *ei a?eueoa oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, oei aeuo
aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaee iiaeia aeinyaoe oeyoii ia?aioneo aaco.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aieea ii/aoeiaeo caian?a ? ieanoiaeo oene?a ?icaeyaeaoe a
eiiieaen? ye ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aiao??a wmetafile8? ??%???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy ??§?? ???&? ?MathType??A
???u?????????»????-?????@????–???u th??????
O?eueo?aoe?eii-?ii?ni? aeanoeaino? iaio iieeaae?a o i?yi?e caeaaeiino?
aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaee, ine?eueee /ei a?eueo? O?A, oei
aai iaioa iio?aaa o naa?aeeiaeiao a nenoai? ?ic?iaee c ia?aioneii, aai
oaeaeoa cae?enith?oueny i?ioean ?ic?iaee.

Aiae?coth/e ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i
iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeano i?aeo?eiaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo o
iieeaae? ca ?aooiie i?aeieanoiaiai ia?aioneo aaco oeyoii ci?ie oaiio
a?aeai?o aaco c iueiai. Iaoith oaeiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?, ia?o ca ana,
caaacia/aiiy a?aeai?o aaco i?e ieanoiaiio oeneia? aeua caaeaiiai,
iai?eeeaae, oeneo ii/aoeo eiiaeainaoe?? [26].

Aea/aii iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy
aeniaaeaieo aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a oeyoii ia?aioneo aaco. Cia/ia
e?euee?noue aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu o AeAeC ?ic?iaey?oueny ia ?aaeei?
aeniaaeaiiy ieanoiai? aia?a??, ? c /anii iinoaia i?iaeaia, ye aeaeiaooe
eiiaeainao, ui aeiaa c aaco o ieano?, ? ye ia aeiionoeoe eiai
iiaeaeueoiai aeiaaeaiiy o ieano? [27,28].

Iaeiei c iai?yie?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ? aeei?enoaiiy
ia?aioneo aaco ca iayaiino? a?aeiia?aeieo aaieia?/ieo aai oaoiieia?/ieo
oiia.

Uiaei aaieia?/ieo oiia — ia?oueny ia oaac? a?aee?eooy iiaiai
aaciaiai iieeaaeo c iacia/iei ai?noii eiiaeainaoo ia a?eueoeo aeeaeiao
i?e ca?ao no?oeoo?iiai ieaio c aeniaaeaiei aacieiiaeainaoiei iieeaaeii
aai a?aee?eooy aaciaiai iieeaaeo iaiiaeae?e a?ae aeniaaeaiiai
aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo.

Oaoiieia?/i? oiiae iiaeooue aooe noai?ai? ooo/ii,
iai?eeeaae, yeui c aeaio aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a iaeei
?ic?iaey?oueny ia aeniaaeaiiy, a ?ioee — o ?aaeei? naeee?i?-i?ioeano.
Oaeee i?eeeaae aaea ia?ii ia Oeiio??anueeiio ?iaeiaeu?, aea iieeaaee
A-16, A-17 ?ic?iaeythoueny ia aeniaaeaiiy, a O-1 — o ?aaeei?
naeee?i?-i?ioeano.

Aeine?aeaeaii iiaeeea?noue iiaoi?iiai aeei?enoaiiy aia?a??
nooiai aaco iieeaaeo, ui i?ieoia noaae?th naeee?i?-i?ioeano, oeyoii
ia?aioneo eiai o aeniaaeai? aacieiiaeainaoi? iieeaaee.

Ia?aione nooiai aaco ? i?aeiyooy oeneo o aeniaaeaieo ieanoao
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeia?iaoaaiiy eiiaeainaoo, ui ?ai?oa aeiaa o ieano?, ?
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo eiai o aacia?e oac?. Iiaoi?ia aeniaaeaiiy
aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo i?ney i?aeiyooy oeneo aai aeniaaeaiiy iaio
iieeaae?a /a?ac aa?oi?e ?noioii ca?eueoeoue e?ioeaaee eiao?oe??io
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy
?icaeyiooi ia i?eeeaae? Oeiio??anueeiai iaooiaacieiiaeainaoiiai
?iaeiaeua, a ?ic??c? yeiai aeae?eaii aeaa iniiai? ia’?eoe ?ic?iaee
A-16+A-17 ? O-1, aac yeeo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iei ai?noii eiiaeainaoo
( iiiaae 400 a/i3). Iieeaae O-1 ?ic?iaey?oueny a ?aaeei?
naeee?i?-i?ioeano, iieeaaee A-16 + A-17 — ia aeniaaeaiiy. Iai?ee?ioe?
naeee?i?-i?ioeano, ca?aeii c i?iaeoii, ieanoiaee oene o iieeaae? O-1
noaiiaeoeia 39,2 IIa, a o aeniaaeaieo iieeaaeao A-16+A-17 — 13,8 IIa.
Ai?no eiiaeainaoo o ieanoiaiio aac? aeniaaeaieo iieeaae?a A-16+A-17
ciaioeoueny aei 46 a/i3. Cia/ia /anoeia ia’?io eiiaeainaoo (69 %
caian?a) o iieeaaeao A-16 + A-17 aeiaaea c aaco o ieano? o aeaeyae?
??aeeie.

Caiane aaco ? ieanoiaee oene o iieeaae? O-1 i?ney
naeee?i?-i?ioeano aeaaeooue ciiao oeyoii ia?aioneo aaco i?aeiyoe
ieanoiaee oene o iieeaaeao A-16+A-17 aei 25,7 IIa. ?ic?aooiee
iieacothoue, ui aeey i?aeiyooy ieanoiaiai oeneo cai?iiiiiaaiei niiniaii
c 13,8 aei 25,7 IIa ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aioneo aaco i?ney
naeee?i?-i?ioeano c iieeaaeo O-1 o iieeaaee A-16+A-17 iio??aii iaeei ??e
(ca oiiae aeei?enoaiiy anueiai oiiaeo naa?aeeiaei) [27].

Ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo a ?acoeueoao? aeia?iaoaaiiy
eiiaeainaoo ieoiiee ai?no eiiaeainaoo o ieanoiaiio ye ia?aiouaiiio, oae
? aeaniiio aac? ca?eueoeoueny c 46 aei 142 a/i3. Ianooiia ?ic?iaea ia
aeniaaeaiiy an??? nenoaie caaacia/eoue aeaeiaooie /anoeie eiiaeainaoo,
ia?aaaaeaiiai o aaciao oaco.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? ai?eciio?a A-16, A-17 Oeiio??anueeiai ?iaeiaeua ia
aeniaaeaiiy eiao?oe??io eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ia e?iaoeue ?ic?iaee
noaiiaeoeia 0,31. Ca ?aooiie ia?aioneo ? iiaoi?iiai aeniaaeaiiy
eiao?oe??io eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ia e?iaoeue ?ic?iaee ioe?ith?oueny
0,41. Oiaoi aeiaeaoeiaee aeaeiaooie eiiaeainaoo noaiiaeoue 10 %.

Oaeei /eiii, naeee?i?-i?ioean ia o?eueee i?aeaeuo?
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy c iieeaaeo, aea a?i i?iaiaeeoueny, aea e aea?
iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoeoe eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ?ai?oa aeniaaeaieo
iieeaae?a ca ?aooiie iiaoi?iiai aeei?enoaiiy aia?a?? nooiai
aenieiiai??iiai aaco oeyoii eiai ia?aioneo.

A ?iaio? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeiiai ia?aioneo, iieacaii
a?aei?aoethaaiiy eiai oaoiieia?? oa aoaeoeai?noue a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oiia i?iaaaeaiiy ia i?eeeaae?

Aa?ac?anueeiai aacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aea/aiith aieeao
aaieiai-i?iieneiaeo oiia, ?aaeei?a ? iiaeo oaoiieia?e ?ic?iaee ia aaci-
? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy.

Aei iniiaieo i?e?iaeieo aaieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia
nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy aaco oa eiiaeainaoo c iaae?, iaeaaeaoue: ?o ii/aoeia?
caiane; aeeaeia ? oa?iiaa?e/i? oiiae iieeaae?a; o?ceei-o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino? ieanoiaiai aaco; oene ii/aoeo eiiaeainaoe?? oa
aacieiiaeainaoia oa?aeoa?enoeea iieeaaeo; eieaeoi?nuee? aeanoeaino?
i?iaeoeoeaieo ieano?a ? nooi?iue ?o e?oieia?/ii? iaeii??aeiino?;
neeaaei?noue aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae ?iaeiaeua oa aeoeai?noue ieanoiaeo
aiae.

3 ?ioiai aieo, ia nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy aoaeaaiaei?a c iaae?
nooo?aee aieea ni?aaeythoue oaoiieia?/i? ? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e,
iniiaieie c yeeo ?: niin?a ?ic?iaee iieeaae?a (aeniaaeaiiy /e c
i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo); u?euei?noue n?oee naa?aeeiaei oa aea??
?ioa?aae?a ?ice?eooy ieano?a; oaii a?aeai?o aaco; ye?noue aoae?aieoeoaa,
?ice?eooy oa inai?iiy naa?aeeiaei; iaae?ei?noue ?o eiino?oeoe??, caoenoo
a?ae ei?ic??; iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaiiy ?ic?iaee ieano?a a oiiaao
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ieanoiaeo aiae; nenoaia i?iieneiaiai cai?o, i?aeaioiaee e
o?ainii?ooaaiiy aaco oa eiiaeainaoo; iayai?noue i?noeaaeo niiaeeaa/?a
iecueeiiai??iiai aaco; eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy oa aenieoaoaoe?ei?
aeo?aoe, anoaiiaeai? oe?ie ia aac ? eiiaeainao.

?icaeyiooi aieea i?e?iaeieo aaieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, yeee aiie
ni?aaeythoue ia nooi?iue aeeo/aiiy aaco oa eiiaeainaoo c iaae?.
A?aoiaoth/e, ui e?ioeaa? eiao?oe??ioe aaci- ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy
ia?aaoaathoue o i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie ii/aoeiaeo caian?a aeey
an?o i?e?iaeieo ?aaeei?a ?ic?iaee, aeae?eaii aeaa aieiai? oaeoi?e
iiceoeaiiai aieeao caian?a ia e?ioeaaa aaci- ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy:

— ia?oee — i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/iee, eiee eiioeaio?aoe?y
i?iieneiaeo ?ia?o a iaeiiio i?noe? i?e oeo aea eai?oaeueieo e
aenieoaoaoe?eieo cao?aoao aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaanoe a?eueoa oaoi?/ieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo ?ia?o, ni?yiiaaieo ia ca?eueoaiiy aaci- ?
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy;

-ae?oaee — aaieiai-oaoiieia?/iee, eiee ? iiaeeea?noue ?icai?iooe
?iaioe ii ieiu? ? ?ic??co aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaiao?aeieo nenoai
?ic?iaee, ni?yiiaaieo ia iaeneiaeueia aacieiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy.

C aiae?co ?ia?o ?. I. Eiiae?aoa aeieeaa?, ui aeeaeia ?
oa?iiaa?e/i? oiiae aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia e?ioeaaa
aacieiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy, i?e iaeiaeiaeo e?ioeaaeo ?iai/eo oeneao
?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu a?eueoa aaco ? eiiaeainaoo aoaea
aeaeiaooi c oeo ?iaeiaeu, aea aeuee ii/aoeiaee ieanoiaee oene.

O?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? ieanoiaiai aaco cia/iith i??ith
aieeaathoue ia e?ioeaaee eiao?oe??io eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy /a?ac
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoaeaaiaei?a iaoaiiaiai ?yaeo, iniaeeai N5+, oiaoi: /ei
a?eueoee o ieanoiaiio aac? ieoiiee ai?no aoaeaaiaei?a N5+, oei iaioee
aoaea eiao?oe??io eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy c ?iaeiaeua.

Aieea eieaeoi?nueeeo aeanoeainoae ieano?a ia eiao?oe??ioe aaci-
? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ?icaeyiooi o aeaio iai?yieao:

— ia?oee — oea aieea i?e ?ic?iaoe? ia aeniaaeaiiy;

— ae?oaee — oea aieea i?e ?ic?iaoe? a oiiaao aiaeiiai??iiai
?aaeeio.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu ia aeniaaeaiiy aieiaiei
iao?io?ce/iei ia?aiao?ii, ui ?noioii aieeaa? ye ia iioi/ia, oae ? ia
e?ioeaaa aacieiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy, ? i?iieei?noue. *ei a?eueoa
i?iieei?noue, oei a?eueo? aoaeooue ? iioi/i?, ? e?ioeaa? eiao?oe??ioe
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy. Aeey aaaaoiieanoiaeo ?iaeiaeu c iecueeith
i?iieei?noth nooo?aeie noathoue a?aae??ioe ii/aoeiaeo ieanoiaeo oene?a;
ia i?ci?e noaae?? ?ic?iaee caeo/athoueny o ae?aioaaiiy ieanoe e ciie c
ii/aoeiaeie ieanoiaeie oeneaie, c?inoathoue caiane, ?ic?aoiaai? iaoiaeii
iaae?iiy ieanoiaiai oeneo, ca?eueoo?oueny oa?i?i ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu.
Iai?eeeaae, Oaaaeeinueea aacieiiaeainaoia ?iaeiaeua: caiane,
i?ae?aoiaai? ia’?iiei iaoiaeii ? caoaa?aeaeai? AeEC N?N? o 1966 ?.,
noaiiaeee 464 ie?ae.i3, a caiane, i?ae?aoiaai? ca iaae?iiyi ieanoiaiai
oeneo ? caoaa?aeaeai? AeEC o 1988 ?., ?noioii ca?eueoeeeny ? iaaeae?
c?inoathoue.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a a oiiaao
aiaeiiai??iiai ?aaeeio aieea eieaeoi?nueeeo aeanoeainoae i?iaeoeoeaieo
ieano?a ia eiao?oe??ioe aaci- ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ??cei c?inoa?. Oea
iia’ycaii c oi?ioaaiiyi caeeoeiai? aaciiane/aiino? o ii?iaiio i?inoi??
ca o?iioii aeo?niaiiy aaco aiaeith.

Aaoi?ii aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii aaanoe iiaee ia?aiao? — eiao?oe??io
ianeaii? aaciiane/aii? ii?enoino? mian, yeee aei??aith?:

mian = m Kc.a,
(10)

aea m — eiao?oe??io caaaeueii? ii?enoino?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeeiai?/ii? ii?enoino? ianeaia aaciiane/aia
ii?eno?noue yaey? niaith oo /anoeio ii?iaiai i?inoi?o, yea ia
ioiieth?oueny iaaiaeiaiiyi i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? aiaee e??cue ii?iaee
i?ino??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ye i?iieei?noue, oae ? ii/aoeiaa
aaciiane/ai?noue i?yii aieeaathoue ia eiao?oe??io ianeaii? ii?enoino?.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aaanoe iiaee eiao?oe??io caeeoeiai?
eiiaeainaoiiane/aiino? ieanoiaiai aaco a iaaiaeiai?e cii? e.c, yeee
aecia/a?oueny ??aiyiiyi:

mian qiio
Kc..a qiio

e.c = =
, (11)

mao qii/
Ka qii/

aea qii/, qiio — ieoiiee ai?no eiiaeainaoo o ieanoiaiio aac? —
ii/aoeiaee ? iioi/iee; mao — aoaeoeaia aaciiane/aia ii?eno?noue.

Neeaaei?noue aaieia?/ii? (oaeoii?/ii?) aoaeiae iieeaaeo i?yii
aieeaa? ia eiao?oe??ioe aacieiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy: /ei neeaaei?oa
oaeoii?ea, oei aaae/a caaacia/eoe aeniea aacieiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy.

Oaoiieia?/i? e oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e oaeiae ?noioii
aieeaathoue ia eiao?oe??ioe aaci- ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy. Iaeia?oa — oea
nenoaia ? niin?a ?ic?iaee iieeaae?a (?aaeeie ?ic?iaee: i?e?iaeiee —
aeniaaeaiiy, aiaeiiai??iee, ci?oaiee; ooo/iee — naeee?i?-i?ioean,
ia?aione aaco, caaiaeiaiiy oa ?i.). Aea ia a?aei?io a?ae aaieia?/ieo oe?
oaeoi?e i?aeaeathoueny ?aaoethaaiith ? iiaeooue aooe a?aoiaai? i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? i?iaeo?a ?ic?iaee, a oei naiei ?aaoeththoueny eiao?oe??ioe
ye aaci-, oae ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy.

A ?iaio? iaaaaeaii iia? oaoiieia?? ? nenoaie ?ic?iaee
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu, ni?yiiaai? ia ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
aacieiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy. Caiaoaioiaaii aeaa niiniae aoi?eiiiai
aeaeiaooeo aaco, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ca iaaieo oiia iaeaaiaeeoe
aoi?eiio ?ic?iaeo ?iaeiaeu ? ca?eueoeoe ye aaci- , oae ?
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy [29,30]. Nooue ia?oiai niiniao iieyaa? a oiio, ui
ca ?aooiie a?aeai?o aiaee c aenieoaoaoe?eieo naa?aeeiaei, ui
iaaiaeieeeny, caaacia/o?oueny ?ooii?noue cauaieaiiai aaco a iaaiaeiai?e
cii? oa iiaeeea?noue eiai aeaeiaoaaiiy ?ioeie naa?aeeiaeiaie, ye? ia
iaaiaeieeeny. Nooue ae?oaiai niiniao iieyaa? o ci?uaii? eiioo?a
aaciiiniino? iieeaaeo oeyoii a?aeai?o aiaee ia iaeiiio e?ee? neeaaeee
(iieeaaeo) nenoaiith naa?aeeiaei ? ia?aaaaeaiiyi /anoeie ?o o
aaciaeaeiaoai?.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo oaoiieia?e i?aeaeuaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy iaooiaeo iaeyi?aie ? eiiaeainaoieo
aae?a aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu.

Aeine?aeaeaii iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy iaooiaeeo/aiiy c iaooiaeo
iaeyi?aie a oiiaao ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo ye ia
aeniaaeaiiy, oae ? c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a ? oaoiieia?th ?ic?iaee oiieeo iaooiaeo iaey-

i?aie a oiiaao aeniaaeaiiy, yeee aeeth/a? a?aea?? iaooe c iaooiiane/aii?
/anoeie ieanoa ? ?a?oeueiaaiee a?aea?? aaco c aaciai? oaiee o
e?eueeino?, i?iii?oe?ei?e oaeaeeino? cieaeaiiy caaaeaiiai ieanoiaiai
oeneo. I?e oeueiio a?aea?? iaooe ? aaco aaaeooue ia??iaee/ii /a?ac
?ioa?aae ia?oi?aoe??, ?icoaoiaaiee o iaooiiane/ai?e /anoei? ieanoa,
oeyoii ci?ie aea?eiiai oeneo aeua ? ieae/a e?eoe/ii? aaee/eie, yea
aecia/a? i?i?ea aaco aei ?ioa?aaeo ia?oi?aoe??. Niin?a iiaea aooe
?aae?ciaaiee ia aoaeue-yeiio aacieiiaeainaoiiio ?iaeiaeu? c iaooiaith
iaeyi?aeith, aea caa?aaeeny oiiae oiioaiii? aenieoaoaoe?? naa?aeeiaei
[31].

?icaeyiooi iia? ia?niaeoeai? niiniae ? oaoiieia?? ?ic?iaee iaooiaeo
iaeyi?aie a oiiaao i?aeo?eiaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo ye o?aaeeoe?eiee, eiee
?ic?iaea iaooiai? iaeyi?aee i?iaiaeeoueny i?e ia?ooiiiio aaciiaooiaiio
eiioaeo?, oae ? iao?aaeeoe?eiee, eiee ?ic?iaea iaooiai? iaeyi?aee
cae?enith?oueny ?c ci?uaiiyi ?? a aacieiiaeainaoio /anoeio iieeaaeo
[32,33].

Aea/aii iiaeeea?noue ? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee, iao?aaeeoe?eiee
niin?a ?ic?iaee iaooiai? iaeyi?aee c ia?ai?uaiiyi ?? a aacieiiaeainaoio
/anoeio iieeaaeo, noai?aiiy aeaioacii? nenoaie aoaeaaiaeiaai? noi?o? o
ii?iaiio i?inoi?? (iaooa — aac) c ianooiiei aeo?niaiiyi ?? i?e
naeee?i?-i?ioean? aei iaooiaaciaeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaei.

Ia??oioiaaii, ui a oiiaao aiaeiieaaath/i? iaooiai? iaeyi?aee oa
aeoeaiiai i?iyao aiaeiiai??iiai ?aaeeio aeioe?eueia ia?ai?uaiiy
aiaeiiaooiaiai eiioaeoo a iieiaeaiiy aaciiaooiaiai eiioaeoo, i?e oeueiio
oiaueia ooo/ii noai?aii? iaooiai? iaeyi?aee iiaea aooe ia iaioith ??
ii/aoeiai? oiaueie. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui a iaeii??aeieo eieaeoi?ao
caeeoeiaa iaooiiane/ai?noue (i?e aeo?niaii? iaooe c iaooiai? iaeyi?aee
aiaeith) noaiiaeoue 15 -20%, o oie /an, ye caeeoeiaa aaciiane/ai?noue
(i?e aeo?niaii? aaco iaooith) iiaea aeinyaaoe 30% ? a?eueoa. Ooo/ia
iaeyi?aea yaeyoeia niaith ia nooe?eueiee iaooiaee oa? o ii?iaiio
na?aaeiaeu?, a iaooo ?c caeeoeiaith aaciiane/ai?noth, yea noai?th?
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey aeaioacii? o?eueo?aoe?? oa aeo?niaiiy oe??? noi?o?
aacii i?e naeee?i?-i?ioean?.

Oiaueia ooo/ii noai?thaaii? iaooiai? iaeyi?aee iiaea aooe ?ic?aoiaaia ca
ni?iuaiith oi?ioeith:

(12)

aea h1, h2 — oiaueia a?aeiia?aeii i?e?iaeii? ? ooo/ii noai?aii? iaooiai?
iaeyi?aee;S1, S2 — ieiu? a?aeiia?aeii i?e?iaeii? ? ooo/ii noai?aii?
iaooiai? iaeyi?aee; wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????Ia?aaaaith iiaiai iao?aaeeoe?eiiai niiniao
?ic?iaee iaooiai? iaeyi?aee ? oa, ui a?aeiaaea? iaiao?aei?noue a ie?ai?e
n?ooe? naa?aeeiaei ia iaooiao iaeyi?aeo, ?ic?iaea iaooiai? iaeyi?aee ia
?a?eaiaioo?oueny ?? oiaueiith, i?aeaeuo?oueny eiao?oe??io
iaooiaeeo/aiiy, iiaeeeaa caea/oaaiiy aoaeaaiaeiaaeo ?ic/eiiee?a ?
ca?eueoaiiy ieiu? eiioaeoo eaaeeo aoaeaaiaei?a c iaooith ca ?aooiie
iayaiino?

aeaioacii? nenoaie iaooa — aac o ii?iaiio i?inoi??.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee aaoi?ii niin?a o iiaeaeueoiio ae?noaa aenia?eiaioaeueia
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioe, aeeiiai? a Oe?AeA?? I. I. Aaaitheii a
eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao ia c?aceao a??nueeeo ii??ae Eoee/eo?inueeiai (O-1)
oa THe??anueeiai (A-20 -21) ?iaeiaeu, i?aeoaa?aeeee aenieo aoaeoeai?noue
cai?iiiiiaaiiai niiniao ?ic?iaee aiaeiieaaath/eo iaooiaeo iaeyi?aie.
Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy niiniao cae?enith?oueny ia Oeiio??anueeiio IAE? (ai?eciio
O-1), aea niinoa??aa?oueny ia?ai?uaiiy iaooiai? iaeyi?aee a
aacieiiaeainaoio /anoeio iieeaaeo, c iaeii/aniei canoinoaaiiyi
naeee?i?-i?ioeano. I/?eoaaia aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
niiniao ?ic?iaee iaooiai? iaeyi?aee ?c ci?uaiiyi ?? a aacieiiaeainaoio
/anoeio iieeaaeo ia Oeiio??anueeiio IAE? o?eueee o 1999 ?. noaiiaeoeia
500 oen. a?i.

?icaeyiooi iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy c
ieanoa ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy iiaiai niiniao ?ic?iaee eiiaeainaoieo
aae?a aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu, ia yeeo niinoa??aa?oueny i?iya
aiaeiiai??iiai ?aaeeio. ?ic?iaea aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo ia
aeniaaeaiiy c i?iyaii aiaeiiai??iiai ?aaeeio i?ecaiaeeoue, c iaeiiai
aieo, aei aeiaaeaiiy eiiaeainaoo o ieano?, c ?ioiai, — ca ?aooiie
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy o iieeaae ieanoiai? aiaee oi?io?oueny eiiaeainaoiee aae
iiia?aaeo o?iioo iaaiaeiaiiy. A i?eioeei? oaeei aaeii iiaea aooe ?
iaooiaa iaeyi?aea.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a ?ic?iaee eiiaeainaoiiai aaeo ia?aaeaa/a?
?a?oethaaiiy ia?ai?uaiiy eiai ca ?aooiie /a?aoaaiiy /anoeiaiai ? iiaiiai
naeee?i?-i?ioean?a aai aeniaaeaiiy ? naeee?i?-i?ioeano [34].

I?e oeueiio aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie ?icoaoiaothoue ca iaaiith nenoaiith,
yea ia?aaeaa/a? aenieoaoaoe?th eiiaeainaoiiai aaeo o ia??iae eiai
noaa?e?caoe?? ia ??ai? ?ioa?aae?a ia?oi?aoe?? ca ?aooiie ia?aoiaeo ia
?aaeei ?ic?iaee c i?aeo?eiaiiyi iino?eiiai ieanoiaiai oeneo a
aacieiiaeainaoiiio iieeaae?. Iiaea noai?thaaoeny e?eueea aaea?ae
aeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaei c iiaoi?iith noaa?e?caoe??th eiiaeainaoieo aae?a
ia ??ai? ?o aeai?a. Ia i?eeeaae? Iiaio?i?oeueeiai aacieiiaeainaoiiai
?iaeiaeua iieacaii oi?ioaaiiy eiiaeainaoieo aae?a ? iiaeeea?noue ?o
?ic?iaee. O?eaae?noue ia??iae?a naeee?i?-i?ioeano oa aeniaaeaiiy
iieeaaeo aecia/a?oueny /anii aeniaaeaiiy eiiaeainaoiiai aaeo ? /anii
ia?ai?uaiiy AAE a?ae aeai?a iaei??? a?oie (aaea?a?) aeaeiaoaieo
naa?aeeiaei aei aeai?a ?ioi? a?oie naa?aeeiaei. Cai?iiiiiaaia oaoiieia?y
iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ca oiiae oa iiaeeeaino? ?a?oethaaiiy ieanoiaiai
oeneo, oiaoi ? noiooiueith c nenoaiaie ?ic?iaee c i?aeo?eiaiiyi
ieanoiaiai oeneo.

AENIIAEE

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi ae??oaiiy aaaeeeai?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeaie ca?eueoaiiy aeaeiaooeo aoaeaaiaeiaai?
ne?iaeie a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia, oeyoii i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy aacieiiaeainaoieo ? iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo
?iaeiaeu.

Aea/aii caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?
iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a, aeyaeaii oaeoi?e, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
iiaeia cae?enithaaoe ?o ?aaoethaaiiy c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy, i?aeii?yaeeoaaaoe oaoiieia?? ?ic?iaee iioi/iiio
noaiia? iieeaae?a. Iieacaii, ui na?aaeiy e?euee?noue eiiaeainaoo ia
iaeeieoeth a?eueiiai aaco aeey aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu AeAeC c?inea c
96 a/i3 o 1974 ?. aei 180 a/i3 o 1998 ?. i?e iaeii/aniiio ca?eueoaii?
iioi/ieo caian?a eiiaeainaoo c 80 aei 180 iei. o, ui aeania ? coiiaeth?
iiaeeea?noue aeaeiaooeo aeiaeaoeiaeo ia’?i?a eiiaeainaoo ca ?aooiie
iiaeo oaoiieia?e.

C aiae?co noaio ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?e ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo
?iaeiaeu (ai?no eiiaeainaoo iiiaae 200 a/i3) c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai
oeneo ye ca ?oaaaeai, oae ? a Oe?a?i? aeieeaa?, ui e?ioeaaee eiao?oe??io
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy iiaea ca?eueooaaoeny c 0,30 (i?e ?ic?iaoe? ia
aeniaaeaiiy) aei 0,45-0,70 (i?e ?ic?iaoe? a ?aaeei? naeee?i?-i?ioeano).
Oiaoi 30-55 % caian?a eiiaeainaoo, iaa?oue i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu o ?aaeei? naeee?i?-i?ioeano, iiaeooue aooe
ia aeeo/aieie c ieanoa. Naia oeae eiiaeainao ? i?aaeiaoii e
ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a — i?ae eooii ci?o i?aeaeuaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy c iaoith iaeneiaeueiiai aeaeiaooeo
eiiaeainaoo c iaae?.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaea?aeaii ianooii?
?acoeueoaoe:

1. Ocaaaeueiaii na?oiaee aeina?ae ?nioth/eo oaoiieia?e ? nenoai ?ic?iaee
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu, ni?yiiaaieo ia iaeneiaeueia aeeo/aiiy
aoaeaaiaei?a c iaae?, aecia/aii oeyoe iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue a
oeueiio iai?yieo, iieacaii noai ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ia
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeuao Oe?a?ie. Ia iniia? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo
aea/aii noai aoaeaaiaeiaaeo ?ano?n?a o iaae?ao Oe?a?ie, iieacaii ?o
ca?eueoaiiy a /an?, ui noai?th? oiiae aeey ?aae?caoe?? iaaaaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeo oaoiieia?e i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??io?a
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy aacieiiaeainaoieo ? iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo
iieeaae?a.

2. Iaa?oioiaaii c i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi i?iieneiaeie iaoa??aeaie ii ie?aieo
aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeuao Oe?a?ie aieea aaieia?/ieo oiia ia aaci- oa
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy, iieacaii, ui:

— /ei a?eueoee ii/aoeiaee ieoiiee ai?no eiiaeainaoo a aac? ? oene
ii/aoeo eiiaeainaoe?? aoaeaaiaeiaai? noi?o?, oei iaio? eiao?oe??ioe
e?ioeaaiai aaci- ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?iaeiaeu ia
aeniaaeaiiy;

— /ei a?eueo? aeeaeia, oaiia?aoo?a ? ii/aoeiaee ieanoiaee oene , oei
a?eueo? eiao?oe??ioe aaci- ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ia an?o ?aaeeiao
?ic?iaee;

— /ei neeaaei?oa aaieia?/ia aoaeiaa ? a?eueoee nooi?iue aaieia?/ii?
iaiaeii??aeiino? ?iaeiaeua, /ei a?eueoa aeoeai?noue ieanoiai?
aiaeiiai??ii? nenoaie, oei iaio? eiao?oe??ioe aaci- ?
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy iiaeooue aooe aeinyaioo? ia an?o ?aaeeiao ?ic?iaee;

— eiao?oe??ioe aaci- ? eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ia?aaoaathoue o ianooiieo
caeaaeiinoyo a?ae eiao?oe??io?a ii?enoino?, aaciiane/aiino? ?
i?iieeiino? eieaeoi??a:

— aeey ?aaeeio aeniaaeaiiy — o i?yi?e caeaaeiino?;

— aeey aiaeiiai??iiai ?aaeeio — a iaa?iai?e caeaaeiino?;

— aeey ?aaeei?a ?ic?iaee c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo oeyoii
caea/oaaiiy nooiai aaco o ieano eiao?oe??ioe aaci- ?
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy a a?eueo?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae oaoiieia??
?ic?iaee.

3. O iai?yieo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii
oi?aa?naeuei? niiniae ?aaoethaaiiy nenoai ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo
?iaeiaeu c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo, ni?yiiaai? ia ca?eueoaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy ieano?a aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai aaco nooei; ca
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo niinia?a ?aaoethaaiiy anoaiiaeaii ia
i?eeeaae? iiaeae? iieeaaeo c aeaio ieano?a, ui:

— aeey ??ciii?iieeieo aacieiiaeainaoieo ieano?a, ?icae?eaieo
iai?iieeiith ia?aoeieith, iiaeeeaa ae??aithaaiiy o?iioo aeo?niaiiy
ne?iai aaco nooei ianooiieie oeyoaie:

— ia?oee — ca?eueoaiiy ?ai?an?e oa aeai?an?e ia iecueeii?iieei? ieanoe c
iaoith iaaeeaeaiiy oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?iioo aeo?niaiiy ne?iai
aaco nooei o ieo aei oaeaeeino? o aenieii?iieeieo ieanoao ca aeiiiiiaith
iaeii/anii-?icae?eueii? aenieoaoaoe??;

— ae?oaee — oea iiia?aaeiy (aei ii/aoeo naeee?i?-i?ioeano) ?ic?iaea
iecueeii?iieeiiai ieanoa ia aeniaaeaiiy c iiieaeaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo a
iueiio aei aaee/eie wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`a???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy ?? ?? ???&? ?MathType??@?
???u?????????»????-?????H?@????H?W???u@th??????- o?ao?e —
oea ae??aithaaiiy o?iioo aeo?niaiiy ieanoiaiai aaco nooei ia iiiaio
i?i?eao nooiai aaco o aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie iine?aeiaiei
i?aeeeth/aiiyi o i?ioean aeo?niaiiy ieano?a nii/aoeo c iecueeith, a
iio?i iine?aeiaii c ona a?eueoith i?iieei?noth;

— /aoaa?oee — ??aiii??i?noue ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai
aaco nooei caaacia/o?oueny ao??iiyi ie?aieo n?oie iaai?oaeueieo
naa?aeeiaei ia aeniei- ? iecueeii?iieei? ieanoe, i?e oeueiio iaea?eueoee
aieea ia ?ici?uaiiy naa?aeeiaei

ia? a?aeiiniee o?ce/iee ia?aiao? K2/K1;

— aeey ??ciii?iieeieo, eiioaeooth/eo ieano?a aea/aii
iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy oeyoii ii?aeiaiiy
naeee?i?-i?ioeano ? aeniaaeaiiy, iaa?oioiaaii, ui i?ney i?i?eao nooiai
aaco o aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie ne?ae ia?aeoe ia /anoeiaa aeniaaeaiiy
aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo c iiieaeaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo ia aaee/eio
wmetafile8? ??E????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
A???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy???a?? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-?????H?V???H?m???u@th?????? —
iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy
aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai aaco nooei o i?e?ino?oeoo?? ii?iaiai i?inoi?o ca
?aooiie cieaeaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo ia aaee/eio wmetafile8?
??E???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  A???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy???a?? ???&? ?MathType??
? ???u?????????»????-?????H?V???H?m???u@th?????? 4.
Ocaaaeueiaiiyi iiaeo iaoaioicaoeuaieo oaoiieia?e ? aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a
a iai?yieo i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy, ia iniia? aea/aiiy (ye ia
??ai? iae?ino?oeoo?e aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo, oae ? i?e?ino?oeoo?e
ii?iaiai i?inoi?o) eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy aeo?niaiiyi ieanoiaiai aaco
nooei, noaea iiaa iiaeeo?eaoe?y naeee?i?-i?ioeano — nooi?i/anoee
naeee?i?-i?ioean, yeee ca ?aooiie /a?aoaaiiy iiaiiai naeee?i?-i?ioeano ?
aeniaaeaiiy ?noioii i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoiiai
?iaeiaeua.

5. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoaioicaoeuaiee ? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaiee niin?a ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo c iiia?aaei?i
i?aeiyooyi ieanoiaiai oeneo oeyoii caea/oaaiiy nooiai aaco a
iaai?oaeuei? naa?aeeiaeie, aei ii/aoeo naeee?i?-i?ioeano, ia aaee/eio
aeai?an?? ia ieano o aeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaeiao (wmetafile8?
??±???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`??

aea wmetafile8? ??G???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyya ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th?????? 6. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a e
iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua c
i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo oeyoii ia?aioneo aenieiiai??iiai nooiai
aaco c iaeiiai iieeaaeo ( c aenieei ieanoiaei oeneii) a ?ioee,
aacieiiaeainaoiee; iaa?oioiaaia iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeano
i?aeo?eiaiiy ieanoiaiai oeneo a aacieiiaeainaoiiio iieeaae? oeyoii ci?ie
oaiio a?aeai?o aaco c iueiai.

Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaeaoa iiaeo iaoaioicaoeuaieo
oaoiieia?e ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c ia?aioneii aaco aea/aii
aieea aaieia?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaee,
anoaiiaeaii, ui:

— /ei iaioa a?aeiioaiiy ii/aoeiaeo caian?a ? ieanoiaeo oene?a
o aacieiiaeainaoiiio iieeaae? aei ii/aoeiaeo caian?a ? ieanoiaeo oene?a
o aenieiiai??iiio iieeaae?, oei a?eueoei aoaea eiao?oe??io
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy;

— /ei a?eueoee ai?no eiiaeainaoo a aacieiiaeainaoiiio iieeaae? ?
/ei iaioee — o aenieiiai??iiio, oei a?eueoa aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaee
?iaeiaeua a oe?eiio;

— o?eueo?aoe?eii-?ii?ni? aeanoeaino? iaio iieeaae?a o
i?yi?e caeaaeiino? aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaee
aacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua.

7. Iaa?oioiaaii i?eioeeie oa anoaiiaeaii oiiae ? e?eoa???
aeei?enoaiiy ia?aioneo aaco aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy aeniaaeaieo aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a;
aeine?aeaeaii ieoaiiy iiaoi?iiai aeei?enoaiiy aia?a?? nooiai aaco
iieeaaeo, ui i?ieoia noaae?th naeee?i?-i?ioeano, oeyoii ia?aioneo eiai o
aeniaaeai? aacieiiaeainaoi? iieeaaee; iieacaii, ui iniaeeaino?
ia?aioneo nooiai aaco o aeniaaeaiee aacieiiaeainaoiee iieeaae
a?oioothoueny ia ianooiiiio:

— iayaiino? aenieiiai??iiai aaciaiai iieeaaeo a ?ic??c?
aacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua aai iiaeeco iueiai;

— iiaeeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? ia?aioneo, aeoiaey/e ?c
ni?aa?aeiioaiue caian?a aaco, ieanoiaeo oene?a, ieoiiiai ai?noo
eiiaeainaoo a aac?, o?eueo?aoe?eii-?ii?nieo aeanoeainoae iieeaae?a,
aeeaei caeyaaiiy aacieiiaeainaoiiai ? aenieiiai??iiai aaciaiai
iieeaae?a;

— iiia?aaeiueiio aeniaaeaii? iaeiiai c iieeaae?a o oie /an, ye
?ioee ?ic?iaey?oueny c i?aeo?eiaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo.

8. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii iia? iaoaioicaoeuai? niiniae
ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa aaciaeeo/aiiy oeyoii:

— ia?aioneo aaciaiaeyii? noi?o? c iaaiaeiaieo iieeaae?a o
aeniaaeai?;

— ci?uaiiy eiioo?a aaciiiniino? oa i?iaeiaaeaiiy no?ieo ?iaioe
aaciaeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaei, caiia?aath/e ?o iaaiaeiaiith.

9. ?ic?iaeai? iia? iaoaioicaoeuai? niiniae i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
iaooiaeeo/aiiy c iaooiaeo iaeyi?aie iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a,
aea/aia iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaee iaooiaacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo ?aeeiith
n?oeith naa?aeeiaei a oiiaao aeniaaeaiiy oeyoii ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeai??a
iaooe ? aaco.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee, aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??aiee ? caiaoaioiaaiee aeueoa?iaoeaiee niin?a ?ic?iaee oiiei?
iaooiai? iaeyi?aee oeyoii ?? ci?uaiiy a aacieiiaeainaoio /anoeio
iieeaaeo c ianooiiei aeei?enoaiiyi naeee?i?-i?ioeano a o?e /anoei?
aacieiiaeainaoiiai ieanoa, aea noi?iiaaia aeaioacia nenoaia o ii?iaiio
i?inoi?? (iaooa — aac) ca ?aooiie caeeoeiai? aaciiane/aiino? a cii?
ia?ai?uaiiy iaooe.

10. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoaioicaoeuaiee niin?a ?ic?iaee eiiaeainaoieo
aae?a aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu a oiiaao aeoeaii? aiaeiiai??ii?
nenoaie ? naeee?i?-i?ioeano, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia eiai i?aoeacaeaoi?noue o
i?iieneiaeo oiiaao ia i?eeeaae? Iiaio?i?oeueeiai aacieiiaeainaoiiai
?iaeiaeua, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii oaoiieia?? eiai ?aae?caoe?? oeyoii
noaa?e?caoe?? eiiaeainaoieo aae?a (? iaooiaeo iaeyi?aie) ia ??ai? aeai?a
aeaeiaoaieo naa?aeeiaei, ui aeinyaa?oueny /a?aoaaiiyi naeee?i?-i?ioeano
? aiaeiiai??iiai ?aaeeio.

11. ?ic?iaeai? iia? niiniae ? nenoaie ?ic?iaee
aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo c iiia?aaei?i i?aeiyooyi ieanoiaiai oeneo
aei ii/aoeo naeee?i?-i?ioeano c ia?aoiaeii ia nooi?i/anoee
naeee?i?-i?ioean aoei ?aae?ciaaii o i?iaeoiiio aa??aio? ia
Eoee/eo?inueeiio iaooiaacieiiaeainaoiiio ?iaeiaeu?. I?e oeueiio
aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeno iiaeo oaoiieia?e ?ic?iaee oiiaeeeaeoue
ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy ai?eciioo O-1
Eoee/eo?inueeiai ?iaeiaeua c 0,29 (i?e ?ic?iaoe? ia aeniaaeaiiy) aei
0,68; ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui cae/aeiee iiaiee naeee?i?-i?ioean caaacia/o?
eiao?oe??io eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy o oeeo oiiaao — 0,47. Aeiaeaoeiaee
aeaeiaooie eiiaeainaoo caaaeyee iiaei oaoiieia?yi o ii??aiyii? ?c
cae/aeiei naeee?i?-i?ioeanii o?eueee c 2-ai aeieo Eoee/eo?inueeiai
?iaeiaeua noaiiaeoeia 118 oen. o, a a oe?eiio c ai?eciioo O-1 —
270 oen. o.

I?aeaioiaeaiee ? caoaa?aeaeaiee AO «Oe?aaci?ii» i?iaeo ?ic?iaee
Eoee/eo?inueeiai iaooiaacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua c iaeaoii iiaeo
oaoiieia?e, iaaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??, aeeth/a?:

— i?aeiyooy ieanoiaiai oeneo a ai?eciio? O-1 aei ii/aoeo
naeee?i?-i?ioeano;

— naeee?i?-i?ioean i?e i?aeaeuaiiio ia aaee/eio aeai?an??
ieanoiaiio oeneia? aei i?i?eao nooiai aaco o aeaeiaoai? naa?aeeiaeie;

— ia?ao?ae ia nooi?i/anoee naeee?i?-i?ioean, ?ic?iaea iieeaaeo
ia aeniaaeaiiy aei caaeaii? aaee/eie iioi/iiai ieanoiaiai oeneo;

— ?ic?iaea iieeaaeo a ?aaeei? naeee?i?-i?ioeano i?e iiieaeaiiio
ieanoiaiio oeneo;

— iiaoi?aiiy oeeee?a nooi?i/anoiai naeee?i?-i?ioeano;

— ci?uaiiy iaooiai? iaeyi?aee (o i?ioean? oeeee?a nooi?i/anoiai
naeee?i?-i?ioeano) a aacieiiaeainaoio /anoeio iieeaaeo;

— i?iaaaeaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano o ooo/ii ooai?ai?e iaooia?e
iaeyi?aoe?;

— aeniaaeaiiy an??? nenoaie /a?ac naa?aeeiaeie c ?ioa?aaeaie
ia?oi?aoe?? a iaooia?e iaeyi?aoe?.

12. A?aoiaoth/e, ui a iniiaiiio an? aacieiiaeainaoi? ?iaeiaeua
Oe?a?ie aei oeueiai /ano ?ic?iaeyeeny ia aeniaaeaiiy ? cia/ia /anoeia
eiiaeainaoo aeiaea o ieano?, iaaoaa? aaaeeeaiai i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy
cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy aeniaaeaieo
aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a oeyoii ia?aioneo aaco. Ia i?eeeaae?
ai?eciio?a A-16, A-17 Oeiio??anueeiai ?iaeiaeua iieacaii, ui
aeiaeaoeiaee aeaeiaooie eiiaeainaoo, yeee aeiaa o ieano?, ca ?aooiie
ia?aioneo aaco iiaea aeinyaoe 10%.

13. Iaaaaeai? o ?iaio? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie
?ic?iaee c ia?aioneii aaco ia Aa?ac?anueeiio ?iaeiaeu? iieacaee, ui
aeiaeaoeiaee aeaeiaooie eiiaeainaoo noaiiaeoue 3,2 oen. o i?e ciaioaii?
oaiio iaae?iiy iioi/iiai oeneo a ai?eciio? I-5 ia 2,15 IIa ? ca?eueoaii?
ieoiiiai aeoiaeo eiiaeainaoo ia 21,5 a/i3. Caaaeueia aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue a?ae ia?aioneo aaco ia Aa?ac?anueeiio AE? neeaea 792 oen.
a?i.

14. Iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iia? niiniae oa
oaoiieia?? /anoeiai ai?iaaaeaeaii ia Iiaio?i?oeueeiio, Aa?ac?anueeiio,
Oeiio??anueeiio ?iaeiaeuao ? ye i?iaeoiee aa??aio — ia Eoee/eo?inueeiio
iaooiaacieiiaeainaoiiio ?iaeiaeu?. E??i oiai, ae?th/? naeee?i?-i?ioeane
ia Oeiio??anueeiio oa Eioaeaanueeiio iaooiaacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeuao
aeathoue ciiao cae?enieoe, aea oea iiaeeeai, iia?aoeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaaaaeaieo iiaeo niinia?a ? oaoiieia?e. Aei oiai ae a Oe?a?i? ia 01.
01. 1998 ?. a?aee?eoi ? ia aaaaeaii a ?ic?iaeo 69 ?iaeiaeu i?e?iaeieo
aac?a, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo ia? aenieee ieoiiee ai?no eiiaeainaoo (iiiaae
200 a/i3). Oae? ?iaeiaeua — iaeia?o? ia’?eoe aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? iiaeo oaoiieia?e.

Ca ?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a c oeie
ae cao?aoaie, ui e i?e aeei?enoaii? a?aeiieo niinia?a ?ic?iaee
(iai?eeeaae naeee?i?-i?ioean), iiaeia ca?eueoeoe aeaeiaooie eiiaeainaoo
ia 3 — 20%, i?e/iio oaoiieia?? iathoue aooe iaoiiaeai? ia?o ca ana
aaieia?/iith niaoeeo?eith aacieiiaeainaoieo iieeaae?a.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? iiaeo oaoiieia?e ?
niinia?a ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu ne?ae cae?enithaaoe oeyoii
?o aeei?enoaiiy o i?iaeoao ?ic?iaee, aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ?ic?iaee,
ei?aeoeaao aei i?iaeo?a ?ic?iaee. ?ioei aaaeeeaei oeyoii ?aae?caoe??
iiaeo oaoiieia?e ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu iiaea noaoe
a?aeiia?aeia caeiiiaeaa/a aaca aea?aeaae c oeeo ieoaiue, ui coiiaeoue
?ioaineaia canoinoaaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e o aacia?e i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie
? caaacia/eoue cia/iee i?e??no aeaeiaooeo aoaeaaiaeiaai? ne?iaeie c
iayaieo ?ano?n?a i?e i?i?iaeueieo aeiaeaoeiaeo cao?aoao.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oee ?. I. ?ano?ni? ia?aaeoiiae i?aeaeuaiiy
aacieiiaeainaoia?aeaea/? ?iaeiaeu Oe?a?ie // Iaooiaa ? aaciaa
i?iieneia?noue. — 1998. — ?2. — N. 30-31.

2. Dovzhok Ye., Gotsky B., Fyk I. State and prospects of gas production
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P. 323-332.

3.Oee ?. I. Ia?niaeoeae ia?iuoaaiiy aeaeiaooeo aaco a Oe?a?i? // Iaoa?.
5-? I?aeia?. eiio. OIAA «Iaooa-Aac Oe?a?ie-98». — O.1. — Iieoaaa, 1998.
— N. 122-123.

4. A?eai?ueaa A. N., Aeoaeei I. A., Oue E. I., I?ieioueaaa O.
A., Aeeiai A. N., Aeieo?ianeee I. E. Iooe iiauoaiey eiiaeainaoiioaea/e
ieanoia ia ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo ianoi?iaeaeaieyo AII «Oe?aaci?ii» // YE
AIEEYaaci?iia. Na?. Aaieiaey, ao?aiea e ?ac?aaioea aaciauo e ii?neeo
iaooyiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee; Aui. 2, 1985. — N. 16-18.

5. A?eai?ueaa A. N., Oue E. I., Aeeiai A. N. Ia?niaeoeau
i?eiaiaiey naeeeeia-i?ioeanna ia Oeiioaaaneii iiiaiieanoiaii
iaooaaacieiiaeainaoiii ianoi?iaeaeaiee // ?ac?aaioea aacieiiaeainaoiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee n iiaeaea?aeaieai ieanoiaiai aeaaeaiey: Na. iao/. o?. —
Iineaa: AIEEaac, 1988. — N. 109-113.

6. Oee ?. I., A?eai?’?a A. N., A?eiai ?. N. I?aeaeuaiiy
aacieiiaeainaoia?aeaea/? ieano?a oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy naeee?i?-i?ioeano
i?e aenieeo oeneao ? oaiia?aoo?ao ia Oeiio??anueeiio ? Eioaeaanueeiio
?iaeiaeuao // Iaoa?. 5-? I?aeia?. eiio. OIAA «Iaooa — Aac Oe?a?ie-98». —
O.2. — Iieoaaa, 1998. — N. 86-87.

7. Oue E. I. Iiaen/ao i?iiuoeaiiuo caiania aaca iauaiiui
iaoiaeii i?e aeoeaiii aiaeiiaii?iii ?aaeeia // YE AIEEYaaci?iia. Na?.
Aaieiaey, ao?aiea e ?ac?aaioea aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee; Aui. 13, 1982. —
N. 8-12.

8. Oee ?. I. Iia? iiaeeo?eaoe?? naeee?i?-i?ioeano // Iaoa?. 5-?
I?aeia?. eiio. OIAA «Iaooa — Aac Oe?a?ie-98». — O.2. — Iieoaaa, 1998. —
O.2. — N. 83-84.

9. Oee ?. I. Aaieiai-o?ce/i? ia?aaeoiiae ? oaoiieia??
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1997. — ?2. — N. 23-24.

10. A?eai?ueaa A. N., Oue E. I. Caaea/e i?iiuneiai-aaioece/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee ii eiio?ieth ca ?ac?aaioeie aeoaieicaeaaathueo IAEI n
i?eiaiaieai naeeeeia-i?ioeanna // YE AIEEYaaci?iia. Na?. Aaieiaey,
ao?aiea e ?ac?aaioea aaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee; Aui. 19, 1981. — N. 8-11.

11. Oee ?. I., Noa?inoei TH. N. Canoinoaaiiy aaio?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
naa?aeeiaei i?e ?ic?iaoe? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu Oe?a?ie (eeo. iiaith) //
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21-24.

12. A?eai?ueaa A. N., Oue E. I., A?o?iia A. E., Eoeue A. E. Ia?niaeoeau
?ac?aaioee aacieiiaeainaoiuo caeaaeae Eioaeaaneiai e Oeiioaaaneiai
ianoi?iaeaeaiee a ?aaeeia naeeeeia — iiaecaiiia o?aieeeua aaca //
Ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo aaciai? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie: Ca. iaoe. i?. — Aei.
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13. Eethe A. I., Ea?a/einueeee A. TH., Oee ?. I. Nenoaii? i?iaeaie
?aca?ao-

aaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco a Oe?a?i? // Iaooiaa ? aaciaa i?iieneia?noue. —
1998. — ?5. — N. 6-9.

14. Oee ?. I. Niin?a caiia?aaiiy aeiaaeaiith eiiaeainaoo a
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15. Oee ?. I. I?iaeoi? ??oaiiy c iiaeie oaoiieia?yie ia
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16. Iao.2017946 ?inney, IEE A 21 A 43/14. Ono?ienoai aeey
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17. Iao. 16233 Oe?a?ia, IIE A 21 A 43/00. Niin?a ?ic?iaee
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18. Iao. 16202 Oe?a?ia, IIE A 21 A 43/00. Niin?a ?ic?iaee
aaaaoiieanoiaeo aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu c iaiaeii??aeieie ii
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19. Iao. 16227 Oe?a?ia, IIE A 21 A 43/00. Niin?a ?ic?iaee
aacieiiaeainaoiiai ?iaeiaeua c iaiaeii??aeieie ieanoaie // A?eiai ?.
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Aioeueeee A. I. (UA); Iioae. 29. 08. 97, Athe. ? 4. A. n. 1367587 NNN?;
Iioae. 15. 01. 88, Athe. ? 2. — 3 n.

20. Iao. 16872 Oe?a?ia, IIE A 21 A 43/18. Niin?a ?ic?iaee
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1740637 NNN?; Iioae. 15. 06. 92, Athe. ? 22. — 5 n.

21. Oue E. I. E aii?ino ioaaoa auoaniaieai i?e
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22. Iao. 2043485 ?inney, IEE A 21 A 43/00, 43/18. Niinia
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23. A. n. 1176655 NNN?, IEE A 21 A 43/20. Niinia ?ac?aaioee
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24. Iao. 16394 Oe?a?ia, IIE A 21 A 43/00. Niin?a ?ic?iaee
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?iaeiaeua // Aeoaeei I. A., A?eai?’?a A. N., Oee ?. I., A?eiai ?. N.,
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87, Athe. ? 19. — 4n.

25. Iao. 16232 Oe?a?ia, IIE A 21 A 43/00. Niin?a i?aeo?eioaaiiy
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26. Aeeiai A. N., Aooieeia A. E., Oue E. I. Enneaaeiaaiea
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27. Oue E. I., Aeeiai A. N. I iiauoaiee eiiaeainaoiioaea/e enoiuaiiuo
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28. Aeeiai A. N., Oue E. I., Ii?ic A. E., Iaco? A. I., Aooai A.
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29. A.n. 1314757 NNN?, IEE A 21 A 43/20. Niinia aoi?e/iie
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30. A.n.1466312 NNN?, IEE A 21 A 43/00. Niinia ?ac?aaioee
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3 n.

31. Iao. 16448 Oe?a?ia, IIE A 21 A 43/00. Niin?a ?ic?iaee oiieeo
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32. Iao. 16203 Oe?a?ia, IIE A 21 A 43/18. Niin?a ?ic?iaee
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(UA); Iioae. 29. 08. 97, Athe. ? 4. — 5 n.

33. Oee ?. I., Ni?aae A. ?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaino?
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34. Iao. 2023141 ?inney, IEE A 21 A 43/18. Niinia ?ac?aaioee
aacieiiaeainaoiie caeaaee a aeoeaiii aiaeiiiniii ieanoa // Aaaeaiia A.
N., Aioeeee A.I., Aooieeia A. E., Eiaaeei I. I., Inoaiaiei A. O., Oieie
E. I., Oue E. I. (UA); Iioae. 15. 11. 94, Athe. ? 21. — 4n.

35. ?uaiei I.I., Oee ?.I., Aieoe?oeueeee A.I., Iaoa??a ?.I. Aeaye?
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36. A?eai?ueaa A.N., Oue E.I., Aeeiai A.N. Inaiaiea i?ioieia iaooe ec
iiaeaaciauo aiaeiieaaathueo iaooyiuo ioi?i/ae iaaieueoie iiuiinoe //
Ane?uoea i?iaeoeoeaiuo ai?eciioia e inaiaiea iaooaaaciauo neaaaeei. –
Eaaii-O?aieiane, 1982. – N.207-208.

37. ?acoiaiei A.E., Noa?inoei TH.N., Oue E.I. Auaeaeaiea iauaeoia
?ac?aaioee Ea?a/aaaiaeneiai IAEI // Aaciaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. – 1993. —
?12. N.24-25.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oee ?. I. Aaieiai-oaoiieia?/i? iniiae i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy c aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.06 — ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. —
?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco,
?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith i?iaeaie ? iiooeo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy c aacieiiaeainaoieo ?iaeiaeu. Ia i?aenoaa?
oai?aoe/ieo, aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeaii
iniiai? aaieiai-oaoiieia?/i? oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia eiao?oe??io
aoaeaaiaeiaaeeo/aiiy, iieacaii i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue oaoiieia?? ?ic?iaee
noaiia? aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?ano?nii? aace
eiiaeainaoo a Oe?a?i?, iieacaii ia?niaeoeai?noue ?ia?o uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa eiiaeainaoiaeeo/aiiy. ?ic?iaeaii iia? niiniae ?aaoethaaiiy
naeee?i?-i?ioeano, ni?yiiaai? ia ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ioiieaiiy
aeo?niaiiyi ne?iai aaco nooei. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao nenoaio ?ic?iaee c
i?aeaeuaiiyi ieanoiaiai oeneo aei ii/aoeo naeee?i?-i?ioeano, ui
iiia?aaeaeo? aeiaaeaiiy eiiaeainaoo o i?eaea?eieo ciiao naa?aeeiaei.
Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a ?ic?iaee aacieiiaeainaoiiai iieeaaeo —
nooi?i/anoee naeee?i?-i?ioean. Aea/aii iiaeeea?noue ? cai?iiiiiaaii
aeueoa?iaoeaiee niin?a ?ic?iaee iaooiaeo iaeyi?aie ?c ci?uaiiyi ?o o
aacieiiaeainaoio /anoeio iieeaaeo. I?iieneiaeie ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue
aea?aii aacieiiaeainaoi? ?iaeiaeua Oe?a?ie, aea ai?iaaaeaeothoueny
naeee?i?-i?ioean ? ia?aione aaco.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oue E. I. Aaieiai-oaoiieiae/aneea iniiau iiauoaiey eiyooeoeeaioa
oaeaaiaei?iaeiecaea/aiey ec aacieiiaeainaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.06 — ?ac?aaioea iaooyiuo e aaciauo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee. — Eaaii-O?aieianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao iaooe e aaca, Eaaii-O?aieiane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth i?iaeaiu e iieneo iooae iiauoaiey
eiyooeoeeaioa oaeaaiaei?iaeiecaea/aiey ec aacieiiaeainaoiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Ia iniiaaiee oai?aoe/aneeo, yenia?eiaioaeueiuo e
i?iiuneiauo enneaaeiaaiee auyaeaiu iniiaiua aaieiai-oaoiieiae/aneea
oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia eiyooeoeeaio oaeaaiaei?iaeiecaea/aiey, eco/ai
oa?aeoa? eo aicaeaenoaey, iieacaia iiae/eiaiiinoue oaoiieiaee ?ac?aaioee
ninoiyieth aacieiiaeainaoiie caeaaee. I?iaaaeai aiaeec ?ano?niie aacu
eiiaeainaoa a Oe?aeia, onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e oaaee/aiee oaeoueo aai
caiania n 80 iei. o a 1974 a. aei 180 iei. o a 1997 a. niaea?aeaiea
eiiaeainaoa ia aaeeieoeo naiaiaeiiai aaca oaaee/eeinue n 96 a/i3 aei
180 a/i3. ?ac?aaioaiu iiaua niiniau ?aaoee?iaaiey naeeeeia-i?ioeanna,
iai?aaeaiiua ia oaaee/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa ioaaoa, ca n/ao au?aaieaaiey
o?iioa auoaniaiey nu?iai aaca nooei, aace?othueany ia:
iaeiia?aiaiii-?acaeaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee, iai?eia? aeaoo
?aciii?iieoeaaiuo ieanoia, iia?aaeathuai /anoe/iii iiieaeaiee ieanoiaiai
aeaaeaiey a ieceii?iieoeaaiii ieanoa n iineaaeothuae ?ac?aaioeie iaieo
ieanoia a ?aaeeia naeeeeia-i?ioeanna, iineaaeiaaoaeueiii iiaeeeth/aiee a
i?ioeann auoaniaiey ieanoia nia/aea n ieceie, a iioii n aieaa aunieie
i?iieoeaaiinoueth, eniieueciaaiee ioaeaeueiuo naoie iaaiaoaoaeueiuo
neaaaeei ia auniei- e ieceii?iieoeaaiua ieanou. Eco/aia aiciiaeiinoue e
i?aaeeiaeaiu niiniau iiauoaiey eiiaeainaoiioaea/e eiioaeoe?othueo
?aciii?iieoeaaiuo ieanoia iooai iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
naeeeeia-i?ioeanna e enoiuaiey. Iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue oaaee/aiey
eiiaeainaoiioaea/e ca n/ao iiauoaiey eiyooeoeeaioa ioaaoa auoaniaieai a
iee?ino?oeoo?a ii?iaiai i?ino?ainoaa. Eco/aii aeeyiea
aieinoii-oeeueo?aoeeiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ieanoia ia i?ioeann iiauoaiey
eiyooeoeeaioa eiiaeainaoiioaea/e. Aia?aua i?aaeeiaeaiu iiaay
iiaeeoeeaoeey ?ac?aaioee — nooiai/aoue naeeeeia-i?ioeann — e nenoaia
?ac?aaioee n iiaeaea?aeaieai ieanoiaiai aeaaeaiey iooai ia?aionea aaca
ec aunieiiaii?iuo aaciauo caeaaeae a aacieiiaeainaoiua. Aia?aua
i?aaeeiaeaia iiaay nenoaia ?ac?aaioee aacieiiaeainaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee
n iiauoaieai ieanoiaiai aeaaeaiey iooai caea/ee aaca aei ia/aea
naeeeeia-i?ioeanna, /oi iaania/eaaao i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea auiaaeaiey
eiiaeainaoa a i?ecaaieiuo ciiao e aeai?anneiiiuo ai?iieao ieanoa.

?ac?aaioaiiua iiaua niiniau e nenoaiu ?ac?aaioee aacieiiaeainaoiie
caeaaee n iiaeuaiii ieanoiaiai aeaaeaiey aei ia/aea naeeeeia-i?ioeanna n
iineaaeothuei ia?aoiaeii ia nooiai/aoue naeeeeia-i?ioeann ?aaeeciaaiu a
i?iaeoiii aa?eaioa ia Eoee/eoeineii iaooaaacieiiaeainaoiii
ianoi?iaeaeaiee. I?e yoii eniieueciaaiea eiiieaena iiauo oaoiieiaee
?ac?aaioee aacieiiaeainaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee iicaieeo oaaee/eoue
eiyooeoeeaio eiiaeainaoiioaea/e ai?eciioa O-1 Eoee/eoeineiai
ianoi?iaeaeaiey n 0,29 (i?e ?ac?aaioea ia enoiuaiea) aei 0,68; neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi iau/iue iieiue naeeeeia-i?ioeann iaania/eaaao
eiyooeoeeaio eiiaeainaoiioaea/e a yoeo oneiaeyo — 0,47. Aeiiieieoaeueiay
aeiau/a eiiaeainaoa ca n/ao iiauo oaoiieiaee oieueei ai 2-i aeiea
Eoee/eoeineiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey ninoaaeo 118 oun. o, a a oeaeii ii
ai?eciioo O-1 — 270 oun. o.

Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaiu e iaoaioicaueuaiu iiaua niiniau oaaee/aiey
eiyooeoeeaioa aaciioaea/e iooai ia?aionea aaciaiaeyiuo nianae ec
iaaiaeiaiiuo caeaaeae a enoiuaiiua, a oaeaea iooai niauaiey eiioo?a
aaciiiniinoe e i?iaeeaiey n?iea ?aaiou aaciaeiauaathueo neaaaeei,
i?aaeoi?aaeaeay eo iaaiaeiaiea.

Aia?aua i?aaeeiaeai oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaiiue, yenia?eiaioaeueii
i?iaa?aiiue e caiaoaioiaaiiue aeueoa?iaoeaiue niinia ?ac?aaioee oiieie
iaooyiie ioi?i/ee iooai aa niauaiey a aacieiiaeainaoioth /anoue caeaaee
n iineaaeothuei eniieueciaaieai naeeeeia-i?ioeanna a oie /anoe
aacieiiaeainaoiiai ieanoa, aaea noi?ie?iaaia aeaoooaciay nenoaia a
ii?iaii i?ino?ainoaa (iaooue — aac) ca n/ao inoaoi/iie aaciianuuaiiinoe
a ciia ia?aiauaiey iaooe.

?ac?aaioai iiaue, iaoaioicaueuaiiue niinia ?ac?aaioee eiiaeainaoiuo
aaeia aacieiiaeainaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee a oneiaeyo aeoeaiie
aiaeiiaii?iie nenoaiu e naeeeeia-i?ioeanna.

I?iiuneiauie iauaeoaie enneaaeiaaiee eca?aiu aacieiiaeainaoiua
ianoi?iaeaeaiey Oe?aeiu, aaea aiaae?ythony naeeeeia-i?ioeann e ia?aione
aaca, — Iiaio?ieoeeia, Oeiioaaaneia, Eioaeaaneia, Aa?acianeia e
Eoee/eoeineia iaooaaacieiiaeainaoiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey.

ABSTRACT

Fyk I. M. The geology-technological principles for increasing
hydrocarbon recovery factor of gas-condensate fields. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 05.15.06 — developments of
oil and gas fields. — Ivano-Frankivsk State Technical University of Oil
and Gas, Ivano-Frankivsk, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to investigation of the problem and
searching for ways of increasing hydrocarbon recovery of gas-condensate
fields. On the basis of theoretical, experimental and field
investigations the basical geology-technological aspects impacting on
hydrocarbon recovery factor were defined, the technology’s subjecting to
gas-condensate field state is demonstrated. The condensate resource base
of Ukraine is analyzed, the prospect of increasing condensate recovery
factor is shown. Developed are new methods of regulating cycling
process for increasing the coverage factor of wet gas displacement by
dry gas. Proposed is a new system of the development by increasing
formation pressure before cycling process and thus preventing condensate
precipitation in the near-bottom hole zones and formation depressions.
A new modification of the development — stepwise cycling process is
proposed for the first time. The possibility of using the proposed
alternative method of oil margins’ development by their displacement to
the gas-condensate zone of the deposit was concerned. The gas-condensate
deposits of Ukraine using cycling process and gas overflow were chose as
field objects of the investigation.

Key words: oil-, gas-condensate field, coverage factor, condensate
recovery factor, formation pressure, oil margin, cycling process and gas
overflow.

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