IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

A?aeae?eaiiy ii?nueei? aaieia? oa inaaei/iiai ?oaeiooai?aiiy

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaoeiai-i?e?iaeie/iai iocath

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

IA?EOAA Ieaenaiae? Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 504.42.06:(551.351+551.462.32)](262.5+262.54)

AAIAEIEIA?*IA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA

II?NUeEEO AA?AA?A OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 04.00.10 — aaieia?y ieaai?a ? ii??a

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?aeae?eaii? ii?nueei? aaieia?? oa inaaei/iiai
?oaeiooai?aiiy IIII IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee /e.-ei?. I?aeia?iaeii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe ?a?ac??

?aaiieeia Ieaen?e Aaneeueiae/

(AIAI? IIII IAI Oe?a?ie,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee)

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieo?iiieuenueeee Ieaen?e TH??eiae/

(?inoeooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie, caa. a?aeae?eii)

eaiaeeaeao aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe

I?eianueeee Aai?a?e Ieeieaeiae/

(AIAI? IIII IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea,

aaieia?/iee oaeoeueoao

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “04” o?aaiy 2000 ?. i 11 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.164.01 A?aeae?eaiiy
ii?nueei? aaieia?? oa inaaei/iiai ?oaeiooai?aiiy IIII IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252054, i. Ee?a, aoe. I. Aii/a?a, 55-a.

C aeena?oaoe?eiith ?iaioith iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o A?aeae?eaii?
ii?nueei? aaieia?? oa inaaei/iiai ?oaeiooai?aiiy IIII IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 31” aa?aciy 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI ?a?acii ?aaiieeia I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie aaiaeieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeueoo ? aa?aaiai? ciie *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a a
iaaeao Oe?a?ie coiiaeaia aaeeeei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia i?e?iaeia aaieia?/ia
na?aaeiaeua ?aa?iio ia’?eo?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?iieneiaiai,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaen?a, iacaiiiai oa ii?nueeiai
o?ainii?oo, iaeiio?ieueiaaiei aeaeiaooeii i?uaii-/a?aiaoeiaeo
a?aeeeaae?a. Ana oea i?ecaaei aei ii?ooaiiy aeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae oa
noai?aiiy e?eciaiai aeieia?/iiai noaio, ianaiia?aae a aa?aaia?e cii?
?icoaooaaiiy aaeeeeo i?iieneiai-ii?oiaeo i?no oa eo?i?oieo cii.
Ianeiaeee iaaaaeaieo ci?i aaieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua i?ae aieeaii
iaaaoeaieo oaoiiaaiieo oaeoi??a ia i?e?iaei? i?ioeane aea/aii ua
iaaeinoaoiuei. A ca’yceo c oeei ioi?iia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
i?eii?nueeeo ?aeii?a Oe?a?ie oa eiai ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
aeiaaa? i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaiiaeo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue A?aeae?eaiiy ii?nueei? aaieia?? oa inaaei/iiai
?oaeiooai?aiiy Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaoeiai-i?e?iaeie/iai iocath IAI Oe?a?ie
ca oaiith «Aaieia?/ia aaiethoe?y, ei?eni? eiiaeeie, ?oaeiiaaiaoe/i?
nenoaie, aaiaeieia?y *i?iiii?nueeiai ?aa?iio».

Iaoa ?iaioe oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aea/aiiy aieeao aaieia?/ieo i?ioean?a oa aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a ia
aeieia?/iee noai iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua aa?aaiai? ciie *i?iiai oa
Acianueeiai ii??a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aecia/aii oae? caaaeaiiy:

1) i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co eeaneo?eaoe?e oa ?aeiioaaiiy aa?aaiai? ciie c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?? aaieia?/iiai noaio oa aieeao ia ia?
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?;

2) c’ynoaaiiy aieeao i?e?iaeieo oa aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a ia ?icaeoie
aa?aaiaeo aaieia?/ieo i?ioean?a;

3) ?ic?iaea iieiaeaiue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ia iniia?
aea/aiiy i?e?iaeiiai i?ioeano a aa?aaia?e cii? ii??a.

Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. A iniiao aeena?oaoe??
iieeaaeaii iaoa??aee, c?a?ai? aaoi?ii c 1996 ii 1999 ??. i?ae /an
iaa/aiiy a ani??aioo?? o A?aeae?eaii? ii?nueei? aaieia?? oa inaaei/iiai
?oaeiooai?aiiy IAI Oe?a?ie. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoaii ?acoeueoaoe
aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o oaeueoo oa i?eaa?aaeii? /anoeie *i?iiai oa
Acianueeiai ii??a, io?eiaii i?ioyaii 1964-1992 ??., aieiaiei /eiii ca
aeiiiiiaith iacaiiiai oa ii?nueeiai ao??iiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
niaoe?aeueieo ieaacania?a, a oiio /ene? ao?iai? ieaooi?ie oa ao?iaiai
noaeia «Aaio?i?e». Aeei?enoaii oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oaeueoo
oa eiioeiaioaeueiiai noeeo *i?iiai ii?y ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo noaeai «Aeaaeai?e Aa?iaaenueeee», «Ieoaeei
Eiiiiinia», «I?ioani? Aiaeyieoeueeee», «Ee?a» ca o/anoth a iaeiiio ?c
?aen?a aaoi?a ?iaioe. A iaoiaee/iiio a?aeiioaii? oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeaiue
aaoi?a ? aeei?enoaiiy oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aeeiioaaeeny c iiceoe?e aeiia
aea/aiiy aeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a aaieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaia caeiiiii?iinoue aaieiai/iiai
?icaeoeo aa?aaiaii ciie iiaii/iii /anoeie *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii?ia a
ya’yceo ci ciiiith ?iaiy aanaeio iiae aieeaii aanoaoe/ieo eieeaaiue
Naioiaiai ieaaio. Aeyaeaii aaiethoeieiee oa?aeoa?
aa?acieii-aeoioeyoeaieo i?ioeania a caeaaeiinoi aiae aaieiai-oaeoiii/iii
aoaeiae aa?aaia i aiae?iaeeiaii/iiai ?aaeeio ii?nueeeo aeaaoi?ie.
Anoaiiaeaii iaiaoiaeiinoue eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy ainiiaea?nueeii
aeiyeueiinoi a i?eaa?aaeieo ii?nueeeo ?aeiiao Oe?aiie c o?aooaaiiyi
aaieiai/ieo oa aiae?iaeeiaii/ieo oaeoi?ia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o noai?aii? aaiaeieiai/iii iiaeae?, ui
ni?eyoeia i?iaiicoaaiith oa i?eeiyooth iioeiaeueieo ?iaeaia?ieo ??oaiue,
a oaeiae caiia?aaiith iaaaaeaieo ciii a iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeui a
i?ioeani ainiiaea?nueeii aeiyeueiinoi a i?eaa?aaeieo ?aeiiao Oe?aiie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe oa ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia can?aeaii?
a/aii? ?aaee AIAI? IIII IAI Oe?a?ie, naeoe?? ioi?iie iaae? Oe?a?inueeiai
oiaa?enoaa ioi?iie i?e?iaee (i.Ee?a, 22 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.), ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua aniaeou ioeaiee e
i?iaiica yeieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
iaeanoae e ?aeiiia Oe?aeiu» (i. Aeoooa, 1997 ?.) oa ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «E?eciaee oa ia?aaee?eciaee noai
aeiae?eey ye ?acoeueoao oaoiiaaiiiai aieeao ia aaieia?/ia na?aaeiaeua ?
aaiii?oinoa?o» (i. Euea?a, 1998 ?.). Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii
6 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Aa?aaiaa ciia *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a a caaaeueieo no/anieo
?enao noi?ioaaeany ia caeeth/iiio aoai? /aoaa?oeiiiai ia??iaeo
(aieioeaio) a ?acoeueoao? neeaaeii? aca?iiae?? ? anoaiiaeaiiy a?aeiinii?
aeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae i?ae nooiaeieii oa ii?ai.

2. Nai???aei?noue ii?oieia?? ? ia?aoai?aiiy ii?nueeeo aa?aa?a
aecia/athoueny aieiaiei /eiii aaieia?/iith aoaeiaith oa?eoi??? oa
oa?aeoa?ii a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai ?aaeeio i?eaa?aaeieo aeaaoi??e.

3. Oaoiiaaiia iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iaeiei ?c aieeaiaeo oaeoi??a ia ?icaeoie
no/anieo aaieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a aa?aaia?e cii? *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai
ii??a.

4. ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a ? ioi?iia aaieia?/iiai
na?aaeiaeua i?eaa?aaeii? ii?nueei? ciie Oe?a?ie ? iaeieie ?c iniiaieo
aeiia ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a ?aa?ii?.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
6 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. Iiaiee ianya ?iaioe ia? 153
noi??iee ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 25 iaethie?a oa 12 oaaeeoeue.
Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 218 iaeiaioaaiue, o oiio /ene? 7 – ?iicaiieo
aeaea?ae.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue o A?aeae?eaii? ii?nueei? aaieia?? oa inaaei/iiai
?oaeiooai?aiiy IIII IAI Oe?a?ie. Aaoi? aeneiaeth? aeeaieo iiaeyeo
aeaaeai?eo IAI Oe?a?ie ?.O.Oitheiao ca iaoeiaa ni?yioaaiiy aeaii?
i?iaeaie ii aaiaeieia?/i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aa?aaiai? ciie oa oaeueoo
Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio, a oaeiae iaoeiaiio ea??aieeo /e.-ei?. IAI
?a?ac?? I.A.?aaiieeiao. Aaoi? aaey/iee eieaaai ii A?aeae?eaiith, cie?aia
TH.?.?iicaioeaao, A.A.Ae?icaeianuee?e, A.I.I?eianueeiio, N.I.Eeauaieo,
C.A.E?aniiaeei?e, I.I.Ianeaeiao, A.A.Eooiueiio, E.A.Nooi?i?e,
A.A.Neaei?aiei ca aeiiiiiao a ?iaio?.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

?NOI??ss AEA*AIIss AAIAEIEIA?? II?NUeEEO AA?AA?A OE?A?IE

Iaeia?o? a?aeiiino? uiaei i?e?iaeieo oiia Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio
i?noyoueny a iieniaeo ?iaioao aioe/ieo aaoi??a – Aa?iaeioa (V no.aei
i.a.), Ioieaiay (II no.aei i.a. ), No?aaiia (I no.i.a.) oa ?i. Aei
oeueiai /ano a?aeiineoueny neeaaeaiiy ia?oeo ea?o *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai
ii??a, i?ecia/aieo aieiaiei /eiii aeey ii?aieaanoaa. Oa?aeoa? oa ??aaiue
aeine?aeaeaiue a ?aa?ii? nooo?ai ia ci?ieany ? a na?aaeiueia?//y.
Cia/iee ?icaeoie a?ae?i-a?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeaoany o XVIII no.
caaaeyee coneeeyi ?in?enueeeo aeine?aeiee?a (Ianoa?ia, A?thn, Neiya?i oa
?i.). Eeoa iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. a?aei?/a?oueny iiaee aoai a
aeine?aeaeaii? *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a, iia’ycaiee c ?iaiai
aeaaeai?ea I.?.Aiae?oniaa (1861-1924) – caniiaieea ii?nueei? aaieia??.
A?i aia?oa aeyaea iayai?noue n??eiaiaeiaaiai ca?aaeaiiy i?eaeiieo
/i?iiii?nueeeo aiae, neeaa no?aoea?ao?/io noaio /aoaa?oeieo a?aeeeaae?a
? iaeaiaaia?ao?/i? ea?oe Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio a iiioe/io,
e?ia??enueeo oa /aoaa?oeiio aiioe. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iai?yie?a
aeine?aeaeaiue e?oieia?? aeiiieo a?aeeeaae?a oa ?noi??? ?icaeoeo *i?iiai
ii?y, caii/aoeiaaieo I.?. Aiae?oniaei, iaaoa o i?aoeyo
I.Ae.A?oaiaaeueneiai ? I.I. No?aoiaa (1932, 1938), I.I.No?aoiaa (1954).

Aea/aiiy a?ae?iaeeiaii/ieo ? e?oiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a, oa?aeoa?
oi?ioaaiiy aa?aaiai? ciie *i?iiai ? Acianueeiai ii??a iaeoei
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ?iaioao A.I.Caieiae/a (1938), A.O.Aeia?ei?ia
(1938,1941), A.?.Aecain-Eeoianueeiai (1933,1938). I?iaeiaaeaiiy
eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue aa?aaiai? ciie *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a
a?aeia?aaeaii o iiiia?ao?yo A.I.Caieiae/a (1958, 1962), ?.O.Oitheiaa,
A.I.I?eianueeiai, A.I.Onaiea (1974), TH.I.O?onoaeueiaa, A.I.Iaiee?ii?
(1980), ?.O.Oitheiaa, A.?.Aiaoaiea, A.A.Ianoa?ianueeiai (1992).

Aeey ae??oaiiy eiieaenieo ieoaiue aa?aaiaeo i?ioean?a, aeey ae?iaee
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ?iaeaia?iiio caoenoo aa?aaiai? nioae c o?aooaaiiyi
i?e?iaeieo oiia ?icaeoeo ii?nueeeo ocaa?aae a 1952 ?. aoei noai?aii
Aa?aaiao naeoe?th Ieaaiia?ao?/ii? eii?n?? i?e Aeaaeai?? iaoe N?N? i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii A.I.Caieiae/a. Iniaeeao oaaao Naeoe?y i?eae?eyea ieoaiiyi
caai?iie ?ic?iaee i?uaii-/a?aiaoeiaeo a?aeeeaae?a i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii?
/anoeie *i?iiai ii?y, E?eio oa Acianueeiai ii?y (?icianueeee E.A.,
Ee?e/aiei I.I., O?onoaeueia TH.I., Iaiee?ia A.I.). Ieoaiiy aea/aiiy
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo oiia i?eaa?aaeii? nioae oa aoaeoeaiino?
i?ioeaicnoaieo nii?oaeaeaiue ?icaeyaeathoueny o i?aoeyo ?.I.Cae?inueeiai
(1969,1974).

Aeieia?/i? aniaeoe noaio i?eaa?aaeieo ?aa?ii?a *i?iiai ? Acianueeiai
ii??a ?icaeyaeathoueny o iiiia?ao?yo i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th A.I.Eaiiaeaeyia
(1990), I.I.A?iioiaia (1985).

Oe?iei aena?oeththoueny ieoaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio oaeueoiai? ciie
*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio o 8-oiii?e na??? iiiia?ao?e «Aaieiaey oaeueoa
Oe?aeiu» (1981-87) i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th aeaaeai?ea ?.O.Oitheiaa, a ?yae?
iaoeiaeo aeaeaiue ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?aen?a IAeN «Aeaaeai?e Aa?iaaenueeee»
(1988-1992), «Ieoaeei Eiiiiinia» (1989), «I?ioani? Aiaeyieoeueeee»
(1994), «Ee?a» (1995-1997).

Ocaaaeueithth/a cia/aiiy ii aea/aiith no/aniiai aeieia?/iiai noaio
iaaeieeoiueiai aaieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua Oe?a?ie, a oiio /ene? ?
Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio iathoue iaoa??aee, ui iaaiaeyoueny o
iiiia?ao?? i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th aeaaeai?ea ?.O.Oitheiaa (1992).

INIIAI? ?ENE AAIEIAI-OAEOII?*II? AOAeIAE

I?AI?*II? *ANOEIE *I?IIAI OA ACIANUeEIAI II??A

A?aeiiino? i?i aaieia?/io aoaeiao, no?aoea?ao?th oa oaeoii?/ia
?aeiioaaiiy ?aa?iio i?noyoueny o ?iaioao I.A.Io?aoiaa, ?.O.Oitheiaa,
A.A.*aeoiiaa, A.?.Noa?inoaiea, N.I.Noaaio?ia, A.?.Eaey?aa, A.A.
Nieeiaoaa, A.A.Aiiaea?/oea, I.?.Iaoiaiea, ?.A.Ua?aaeiaa, A.I.Oiaeiieyna,
I.A.?aaiieeiaa, A.TH.Cineiiae/a, A.I.Eiaie?aa, I.A.Ianeoi,
Ae.I.I’yoeiai?, ?.?.Iaoaeaoe, I.?.Eoe??iea, A.A.Ianeieiaa,
ss.I.Iaeiaeoeueeiai, ?.I.Aa?eaeaiea, TH.A.Oaneaiea, Ae.I.Ooaieaniaa,
TH.Ae.Aoeaiaea, TH.I.Aeiaaaey, A.ss.?aaec?a?eea, O.A.Ua?aaeiaa,
I.I.Eoi??ia, TH.A.Ii?aoiiaa oa ?i.

Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeee ?aa?ii iaeaaeeoue aei aioo??oiueieiioeiaioaeueieo
aanaei?a ieaai?/iiai oeio. Ia i?aii/? oaeueoo *i?iiai oa aeaaoi???
Acianueeiai ii??a i?ioiaeeoue iaaea ci No?aeii-?a?iiaenueeith
ieaooi?iith, neeaaeaiith ii?iaeaie a?oath oa i?ioa?icith. Na?aaei?e oa
ciai?oi?e oaeueo *i?iiai ii?y, a oaeiae oeaio?aeueia oa i?aaeaiia
/anoeie Acianueeiai ii?y no?oeoo?ii a?aeiinyoueny aei ai?aa?oeeinueei?
Ne?onueei? ieeoe, caoaeiaaii? ia?aaaaeii neeaae/anoeie ii?iaeaie
iaeaicith. Inaaei/iee /ioie ieeoe neeaaea?oueny ?c iiooaeii? oiau?
iaci-eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaae?a, aieiaiei /eiii i?ciuei-e?aeaeiaeo oa
a?eueo iieiaeeo inaaei/ieo eiiieaen?a. I?aaeaiia iaaea Ne?onueei?
ieaooi?ie ca?aa?oueny c iniiaith eiioeiaioaeueiiai noeeo, a oaeiae
i?ai?/ieie a?ae?iaaie E?einueei? a??nei? nenoaie.

Aeeaieiaiaeia /anoeia *i?iiii?nueei? oeiaiaeie iaiaaeaia c on?o aie?a
aeuei?enueeeie neeaae/anoeie nii?oaeaie. C ieo E?einueeee
iaaaioeee?ii??e caoaeiaaii ii?iaeaie oaa??enueei? na??? (aa?oi?e
o??an-ieaeiy th?a), na?aaeiuei? th?e, e?aeaee, iaeaiaaio oa iaiaaio, ye?
ii nenoai? neeae?a caio?ththoueny a iai?yieo aeeaieiaiaeii? caiaaeeie,
ui ia? a nai?e iniia? ei?o ieaai?/iiai oeio.

Cao?aeia (i?aeaiaeia) ia?eee?iaeueia caieeaiiy E?einueeiai aioeee?ii??th
a?aei?/a?oueny ia a?aenoai? 65 ei ia i?aaeaiiee cao?ae a?ae Naaanoiiiey,
aea aia?oa ?.O.Oitheiaei anoaiiaeaiee Eiiiiin?anueeee aoeeai?/iee oeaio?
e?aeaeiaiai a?eo. Aoeeai?/ia ae?yeuei?noue oeueiai ae a?eo oa?aeoa?ia ?
aeey ??aieiiiai E?eio. A?eueo aeaai?e (th?nueeiai a?eo) aoeeai?ci
aeanoeaee aeey oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie E?einueei? a??nueei? nenoaie, a
oaeiae i?eeaaeiai eiioeiaioaeueiiai noeeo *i?iiai ii?y. A?eueo?noth
a/aieo i?eionea?oueny i?ciueith?nueeee-?aiiueie?aeaeiaee /an caeeaaeaiiy
*i?iiii?nueei? aeeaieiaiaeii? caiaaeeie.

Acianueea ii?a o oaeoii?/iiio a?aeiioaii? iaeaaeeoue aei Ne?onueei?
ieeoe, aea aeae?eythoueny oae? no?oeoo?e: I?ai?/ii-Acianueeee i?iaei,
neeaaeaiee o??aniaeie, th?nueeeie, e?aeaeiaeie, iaeaiaaiiaeie oa
iaiaaiiaeie ii?iaeaie; Acianueeee aae (Oeaio?aeueia Acianueea
i?aeiyooy), aea ii?iaee e?aeaee oa iaeaiaaio a?aenooi?, oa
?iaeiei-Eoaainueeee i?iaei, caiiaiaiee ia?aaaaeii iiooaeiith oiauath
iaeeiinueeeo i?uaii-aeeienoeo a?aeeeaae?a. Aei oe??? ae no?oeoo?e
iaeaaeeoue ? Ea?/ainueeee i?aino??a, ui ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
no?aeiiai ia?eee?iaeueiiai caieeaiiy A??nueeiai E?eio.

A aeeaieiaiaeiie caiaaeeii *i?iiai ii?y ?icaeiooa aaaaoie?eiiao?iaa
oiaua iaeaiaai-iaiaai-/aoaa?oeiieo a?aeeeaae?a, a iniia? yeeo
caeyaathoue e?aeaeia? oa a?eueo aeaai? a?aeeeaaee (iiaeeeai,
iaeaicienueeiai a?eo). *anoeiai oae? cia/i? noaia?eae?iiaeuei?
no?oeoo?e, ye aae Aiae?oniaa oa i?aeiyooy A?oaiaaeueneiai, ui
?iciaaeiaothoue aeeaieiaiaeio oeiaiaeio ia cao?aeio oa no?aeio /anoeie,
caoaeiaaii ia?aaaaeii e?aeaeiaeie, a oaeiae iaeaiaaiiaeie ii?iaeaie.

No/ani? ei??ii? aa?aae i?ai?/ii? /anoeie *i?iiai ii?y ooai?ai? iaea?eueo
aeaai?ie ii?iaeaie ocaeiaae E?einueei? a??nueei? nii?oaee (o??an-th?a,
e?aeaea, /anoeiai iaeaiaai, iaiaai). Ocaa?aaeaey i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai
oaeueoo *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a i?aaenoaaeaii ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao
ii?iaeaie i?ioeai-ie?ioeaio (na?iao, iaio?n, iiio, e?ia??e, eoyeueiee),
caaaeii /aoaa?oeiieie ii?nueeeie oa eiioeiaioaeueieie a?aeeeaaeaie.

No/aniee a?ae?ieia?/iee ?aaeei oa a?ae?iaeeiai?ea i?eaa?aaeii? ciie a
Aciai-*i?iiii?neiio aanaei? neeaeeny ia inoaiiueiio aoai? /i?iiii?nueei?
o?aina?an??, eiee ??aaiue ii?y aeinya no/anii? a?aei?oee. Aei oeueiai
aanaei ciaoiaeeany o ?aa?aneai?e noaae?? (aaniethoia a?aei?oea 90-130 i)
o iiaiaaeneinueeee /an (i?eaeecii 18 oen. ?ie?a oiio). Iiae?ai?
o?aina?aneaii-?aa?aneai? eieeaaiiy ??aiy *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a
iaiaeii?aciai a?aei?/aeenue ai?iaeiaae ieaenoioeaio (aeecueei 1 iei.
?.), a oaeiae iaee i?noea a iaiaai?.

?AEIIOAAIIss AA?AAIAI? CIIE

?aeiioaaiiy aa?aaiai? ciie *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a aia?oa c?iaeaii
A.I.Caieiae/ai (1958) ia iniia? aeaieo i?i ii?oieia?th aa?aaa ?
a?ae?iaeeiai?eo aa?aaiaeo i?ioean?a. A iiaeaeueoiio ?aeiioaaiiy
aeacaiiai ?aa?iio aoei i?iaaaeaii TH.Ae.Ooenueeei (1974), c o?aooaaiiyi
no?oeoo?ii-aaiii?oieia?/ieo, ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/ieo, oa aeeiai?/ieo
e?eoa???a. Eeaneo?eaoe?y ii?nueeeo aa?aa?a Oe?a?ie aeaia A.E.Iaenei/oeii
(1993) c iiceoe?e ?o ?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae. I?inoi?iaa
i?eo?i/ai?noue oaeeo aaaeeeaeo aaieia?/ieo yaeu ye a?aa?oaoe?ei?
i?ioeane, noaia?eiia ?icaaioaaeaiiy i?aecaiieo i??nieo aiae oa aeeaeiieo
aac?a, naeni?/ia aeoeai?noue oa a?ycueiaoeeai?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
iaaaaeai? o i?aoeyo ?.O.Oitheiaa, I.A.Aeai/eoeia, A.?.Eyeueea,
I.I.Oa?eoiiiaa, A.?.Aoaaiiaa, A.A.Eethe?ia, TH.?.?iicaioeaaa,
N.I.Eeauaiea, A.I.I?eianueeiai, A.O.Aaai?eueyia, A.A.Ianoa?ianueeiai,
TH.A.Niaieaanueeiai, A.?.Ai?iaeiaa, A.A.Ianeieiaa, I.I.Ianeaeiaa,
C.A.Caoa?iaa oa ?i.

Aa?aaiaa ciia oa i?eeaaeee oaeueo *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a a iaaeao
Oe?a?ie ca aeaieie A.I.Caieiae/a, A.E.Iaenei/oea, TH.I.O?onoaeueiaa,
A.I.Iaiee?ii?, ?.I.Aoa/eaeca, TH.Ae.Ooenueeiai oa aeayeeie iaoeie
ooi/iaiiyie iiae?eythoueny ia a?n?i iaeanoae:

Iaeanoue i?ai?/ii? /anoeie Aeoiaenueei? aeaeueoe. Aei ia? aoiaeeoue
/anoeia Aeoiaenueei? aeaeueoe ia i?ai?/ a?ae E?e?enueeiai ae?ea aei
AEaa?eyi?anueei? caoiee (ic. Nanee), caaaeueiith i?ioyaei?noth 45 ei.
Ae?eyiea aeaeueoe ooai?aia i?ciuei/aoaa?oeiieie a?aeeeaaeaie ? yaey?
niaith oeiiao oi?io iiae?aieo aeoioeyoeaieo ooai?aiue. E??i
aetha?aeueieo a?aeeeaae?a ia iiaa?oi? aeaeueoe ?icaeioo? ii?nuee?
a?aeeeaaee iiai/i?iiii?nueei? o?aina?an?? ia a?aenoai? aei 15-20 ei a?ae
no/anii? aa?aaiai? e?i??.

I?aeaiaeia /anoeia aeaeueoe i?inoyaa?oueny ia 15-20 ei a?ae aa?aaiai?
e?i??, /?oei aeyaeaia a ?aeue?o? aeia, a ua aeae? ia oaeueo?
i?inoaaeo?oueny a?ic?eia aeieeia – caoiieaia iaeainenoaia Aeoiath,
eio?ee ia e?ath oaeueoo aiaaeaa a iaeiieiaiiee eaiueii.

I?eeaaea /anoeia oaeueoo neeaaeaia a iniiaiiio i?ciuei/aoaa?oeiieie
eiioeiaioaeueieie oa ii?nueeeie a?aeeeaaeaie, a oiio /ene?
ea?aiaaonueeiai a?eo. Ia ae?eyioe? i.Ci??iee anoaiiaeai? ii?iaee neeo?o,
aeaaiio.

I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeia iaeanoue i?inoyaa?oueny a?ae Aeoiaenueei? aeaeueoe aei
aeaeueoe Aei?i?a ia a?aenoaiue 300 ei, i?eo?i/aia aei
I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, yaey? niaith neaai iaoeeaia ??aieiia
ieaoi c aaniethoieie a?aei?oeaie 50-100 i, ui neeaaeaia o i?eaa?aaei?e
nioc? *i?iiai ii?y i?ioeai-ie?ioeaiiaeie (na?iao-iaioen-iiio, eoyeueiee)
oa /aoaa?oeiieie a?aeeeaaeaie. Aa?aaiaa ciia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
/a?aoaaiiyi aa?ac?eieo ae?eyiie, ye? ? aiaeiae?eueieie i?inoi?aie i?ae
cia/ii iioe?aieie o ?aa?ii? ??/eiaeie nenoaiaie oa aeoioeyoeaieie
aa?aaaie, ui ooai?eeeny aieiaiei /eiii o aeaeyae? ia?anei?a,
a?aeie?aiethth/e a?ae ii?y caoiieai? ieaei? /anoeie aeieei ??e (eeiaie).

Oaeueoiaa ciia oe??? iaeano? ia? oe?eio 150-190 ei, neaai ?ic/eaiiaaio
iiaa?oith, ? /?oei ae?aaeai? o ?aeue?o? iaeaiaeieeie Aei?i?a oa
Aei?no?a, ui i?iaeiaaeothoueny ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio noee? o aeaeyae?
eaiueii?a. Aeieeie caoiieaieo iaeai??/eiaeo nenoai neeaaeai?
aetha?aeueieie a?aeeeaaeaie, a aiaeiae?euei? ieiu? – ia?aaaaeii
aa?oiuei/aoaa?oeiieie ii?nueeeie a?aeeeaaeaie oa noaaa?aeueieie
ooai?aiiyie. Iniiaieie aaieia?/ieie yaeuaie o i?eaa?aaei?e cii? iaeano?
? aa?ac?y, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aieiaiei /eiii cnoaaie, oa
aeo-ioeyoeai? i?ioeane, ?icaaioaaeaiiy i?aecaiieo aiae. Ia ciai?oiueiio
oaeueo? oa?aeoa?ii oaeiae noaia?eiia ?icaaioaaeaiiy i??nieo aiae,
ia?aaaaeii ii iaeaiaeieeiao Aei?i?a oa Aei?no?a ? aeoeai? aacia?
aeae?eaiiy.

Aei?i?ianueei-Ea?e?i?onueea iaeanoue i?inoyaa?oueny a?ae ae?ea Aei?i?a
(e?aee aa?aa) aei Aaeaeuenei? eine (Ea?e?i?onueea caoiea,
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiee E?ei). I?eo?i/aia aei inueiai? /anoeie *i?iiii?nueei?
caiaaeeie, neeaaeaia ia e?aiio aa?ac? Aei?i?a iioiaaieie aetha?aeueieie
inaaeeaie na?iaonueeiai, iaioe/iiai, ae/aaeeuenueeiai oa
?aiiueiieaenoioeaiiaiai a?eo, ia?ae?eoa ii?nueeeie aioa?iinueeeie
i?neaie oa aeeiaie, a oaeiae eiioeiaioaeueieie /aoaa?oeiieie noaeeieaie;
inoaii? ia e?einueeiio ocaa?aaeae? Ea?e?i?onueei? caoiee
i?aenoaeththoueny ae/aaeeuenueeeie (eoyeueieoeueeeie) i?neaie.
Aetha?aeueii-ii?nueea aeoioeyoeaia ??aieiia iaeanoue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
a?aeiinii iaaaeeeeie aaniethoieie a?aei?oeaie (10-30 i). Aa?aae
neeaaeai? iaee?oii?oeie o I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’?
aeoioeyoeaieie o?eaie (einaie), c ia?aaaaeiei ?icaeoeii aa?ac?eieo
aa?aa?a o aa?oei? Ea?e?i?onueei? caoiee. Ia oaeueo? ?icaeioo?
i?ciuei/aoaa?oeii? eiioeiaioaeuei? noaeeiee, c ie?aieie ino??aeaie
ii?nueeeo i?uaii-/a?aiaoeiaeo a?aeeeaae?a ea?aiaaoo (ia i?aaeaiue a?ae
Oaiae?ianueei? eine), ??aeoa aetha?aeuei? i?nee, i?eo?i/ai? aei aeieeie
iaeai-Eaeai/aea. Oaeueoiaa ciia iaeano? yaey? niaith aiaeiae?eueiee
i?ino?? i?ae iaeaiaeieeiith i?ciuei/aoaa?oeiiiai Aei?i?a, ui aiaaeaa o
*i?iiii?nueeee aanaei ia no?ae a?ae Iaeane, oa a?eueo aeaai?ie
(ie?ioeai-?aiiueiieaenoioeaiiaeie) aeieeiaie oe??? ??/eiai? nenoaie, ui
aiaaeaea a e?oiiee oae caaiee Eaeai/aenueeee eaiueii (ia cao?ae a?ae
E?einueeiai i?aino?iaa), yeee i?inoyaa?oueny o ?aeii Eiiiiin?anueeiai
aoeeai?/iiai oeaio?o ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio noee? *i?iiai ii?y.

Cao?aeii-E?einueea iaeanoue ? i?eo?i/aiith aei cao?aeii? /anoeie
E?einueeiai i?aino?iaa (a?ae eine Aaeaeuenueei? aei iena Aeiia?aaeiee).
Aa?aae a ?aeii? Oa?oaieoonueeiai i?aino?iaa oa i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieo
a?ae?ia?a E?einueei? a??nueei? nii?oaee neeaaeaii ia?aaaaeii aaiiyeaie
i?ioeai-ie?ioeaio (na?iao, iaio?n, iiio). A ?aiaoi??enuee?e caoioe?
?icaeioo? aieiaiei /eiii i?uai? a?aeeeaaee i?ciueiie?ioeaiiaiai a?eo.
Aa?aaiaa ciia iaeano? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iith caeaeno?noth, caaaeyee
oe?iei ?icaeioo?e n?ooe? caoie, aooo oa ica?, ye? i?eieeathoue aei
aa?aaiai? e?i?? ? a?aeoio?iaai? a?ae ii?y aocueeeie i?uaieie ia?aneiaie.

I?eeaaea aei iaeano? oaeueoiaa ciia ia i?aaeaiue a?ae iena Oa?oaieoo
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?aeiiniith aocuee?noth (40-10 ei) oa aonoith n?oeith
ae??aieo eaiueii?a, ui i?inoyaathoueny aei e?oiiiai eaiueiio, eio?ee,
eiia??ii, iaeaaeeoue iaeai-Aei?i?o (aai eiai i?eoioe? iaeai-Eaeai/ae).

Iniiaieie aaieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie o aa?aaia?e cii? iaeano? ?
aa?ac?eii-cnoai? yaeua, iaioith i??ith aeoioeyoe?y inaaee?a.

I?aaeaiii-E?einueea iaeanoue i?inoyaa?oueny a?ae ieno Aeiia?aaeiee ia
caoiae? aei i?noa Oaiaein?? ia noiae?. I?eaa?aaeia nioaa
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ae??aiiaoooiaith aoaeiaith c ie?aieie aeoyaiooeie,
ieaaii aa?aiooeie ae?eyieaie, neaaeith caeaeno?noth. Na??y ien?a o
cao?aei?e oa no?aei?e /anoeiao ocaa?aaeaey neeaaeaia ianeaaie
na?aaeiuei- oa aa?oiueith?nueeeo aaiiye?a, a oaeiae a?aei?aia?iaaieie
inoaioeyie aoeeaiiaaiieo ii??ae. Aoooe i?eo?i/ai? aieiaiei /eiii aei
ae?eyiie ?icaeoeo a?a?e?o?a oa i?neiaee?a oaa??enueei? na???. I?eeaaeee
oaeueo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iacia/iith oe?eiith (7-30 ei), ??ceei iaoeeii
oa ia?aoiaeii a e?ooee eiioeiaioaeueiee noee, neeaaeaiee ia?aaaaeii
aeaai?ie ei??iieie ii?iaeaie ? eeoa ia aeayeeo ae?eyieao ia?ae?eoee
iacia/iei oa?ii aieioeaiiaeo inaaee?a.

Noee ?ic/eaiiaaii aonoith n?oeith eaiueii?a. Aeey iaeano? oa?aeoa?ii
?ioaineaia a?ic?eia ?ic/eaioaaiiy, aeniea cnoaia oa naeni?/ia
aeoeai?noue.

Ea?/ainueea iaeanoue ? i?eo?i/aiith aei iaeiieiaiiiai i?aino?iaa,
iieaa?oueny ia i?aaei? *i?iei ii?ai, ia noiae? aiaeaie Ea?/ainueei?
i?ioiee, ia i?aii/? – Acianueeei ii?ai. I?inoyaa?oueny a?ae i?noa
Oaiaein?? aei naeeua Eaiainueea (a?ey iniiae A?aaaonueei? no??eee).
Iaeanoue a?aeiineoueny aei ia?eoa??? E?einueei? a??nueei? nii?oaee,
neeaaeaia ia?aaaaeii ii?iaeaie aa?oiueiai iaeaiaaio-ieaeiueiai iaiaaio
(iaeeiinueea na??y), iaiaaio oa /aoaa?oeiieie a?aeeeaaeaie. Aiia
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iei ?ic/eaioaaiiyi aa?aaiai? e?i??, /eneaiieie
iai?aa?aiooeie caoieaie oa ienaie, ui ooai?ai? aieiaiei /eiii aeoiaeaie
?eoiaeo aaiiye?a (na?iaonueeeie, iaioe/ieie, /aoaeeinueeeie oa
ea?aiaaonueeeie). Aeey oe??? iaeano? acaeiaae *i?iiai ii?y ?
oa?aeoa?ieie a?aeiinii oe?ieee oaeueo oa iieiaee eiioeiaioaeueiee noee,
o i?aei?aeaey yeiai ?icaeioo? eiione aeiino iaeai-Aeiio oa iaeai-Eoaai?.
Acaeiaae Ea?/ainueei? i?ioiee oa Acianueeiai ocaa?aaeaey iaeanoue iaaeo?
c i?eeiaiaeiith aeaaoi???th (aeeaeie 10-15 i), aa?aaiaee noee yei?
neeaaeaii ia?aaaaeii /aoaa?oeiieie a?aeeeaaeaie. A oe?eiio a iaeano?
ia?aaaaeathoue a iniiaiiio aa?ac?ei? i?ioeane a no?aei?e ?? /anoei? oa
i?eo?i/ai?noue aeoioeyoeaieo ae?eyiie aei cao?aeii? iieiaeie
Ea?/ainueeiai i?aino?iaa. Iaeanoue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oe?ieei ?icaeoeii
a?ycueiaeo aoeeai?a, a oaeiae a?aeiinii aeoeaiith naeni?/iith
ae?yeuei?noth.

A?aaaonueea iaeanoue ciaoiaeeoueny o cao?aei?e /anoei? Acianueeiai ii?y.
Io?eiaea naith iacao a?ae A?aaaonueei? no??eee, yea a?aeie?aieth? a?ae
Acianueeiai ii?y ia i?ioyc? 110 ei eiai caoieo Neaao, ui c’?aeio?oueny c
ii?ai ia i?aii/? /a?ac aocueeo i?ioieo i?ae iacaith Oiiea. Aa?aae Neaaoa
iecuee?, iieia?, neeaaeai? ia?aaaaeii /aoaa?oeiieie noaeeieaie, neeueii
ii??-cai?, c aonoith n?oeith caoie, i?aino?ia?a oa ica?. A?aaaonueea
no??eea yaey? niaith aeoioeyoeaio oi?io o aeaeyae? iaaeaiaeiiai aa?a
aenioith aei 5,5 i, oe?eiith a?ae 0,5-5 ei, neeaaeaiiai ia?aaaaeii
i?uaii-/a?aiaoeiaei iaoa??aeii, a oaeiae ie?aieie inoaioeyie ei??iieo
ii??ae /aoaa?oeiiiai a?eo. I?aeaiaeiee aa?aaiaee noee A?aaaonueei?
no??eee acaeiaae Acianueeiai ii?y iieiaee, c ia?aaaaeath/eie aeeaeiaie
aei 10 i, ie?ai? ae?eyiee no??eee caciathoue ?icieao.

I?ai?/ii-Acianueea iaeanoue ?icoaoiaaia a iaaeao Oe?a?ie a?ae i?noa
Aaie/anueea ia caoiae? aei naeeua N?aeiai ia noiae?. I?inoyaa?oueny
acaeiaae i?aaeaiieo noee?a Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa oa I?eacianueeiai ianeao.
Ei??ii? ii?nuee? aa?aae aenioith aei 15 i neeaaeai? a?aeeeaaeaie
iaiaaiiaiai oa /aoaa?oeiiiai a?eo (ia?aaaaeii i?neaie eoyeueieoeueeiai,
aioa?iinueeiai y?on?a, ieaeiueiai ieaenoioeaio oa
na?aaeiuei-aa?oiuei/aoaa?oeiieie noaeeieaie). Aei ei??iieo aa?aa?a
i?e/eaiiaothoueny nai???aei? aeoioeyoeai? o?ea – eine, ye? nai?i
a?eueiei aeenoaeueiei cae?i/aiiyi i?inoyaathoueny o iai?yieo ii?nueei?
aeaaoi??? ia a?aenoaiue aei 30-45 ei. Oe?eia ein o iniiae nyaa? 5-7 ei,
o aeenoaeueiiai e?ioey – 0,5-1,5 ei. Eine neeaaeai? i?uaii-/a?aiaoeiaei
iaoa??aeii, aenioa ?o iaae o??cii aiaee ia ia?aaeuo? 2-3 i. Aa?aaiaee
i?ino?? i?ae einaie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeoeaieie aa?ac?eii-cnoaieie
i?ioeanaie.

CAAAEUeI? ?ENE IAEAIAAIA?AO?? OA IAEAIAEIEIA??

ACIAI-*I?IIII?NUeEIAI AANAEIO O *AOAA?OEIIEE A?E

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaieia?/ii? ?noi??? *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a
iia’ycaia c ?iaiaie aaieia?a oa aaia?ao?a I.?.Aiae?oniaa,
I.Ae.A?oaiaaeuenueeiai, I.I.No?aoiaa, I.A.Io?aoiaa, ?.I.Aa?aneiiaa,
A.O.Aeia?ei?ia, I.A.Oaaei?iaa, ?.O.Oitheiaa, A.I.Naiaiaiea,
I.A.?aaiieeiaa, I.O.Aiaeeea, I.TH.Ieo?iiieuenueeiai, A.I.I?eianueeiai,
I.A.Ianeoi, TH.?.?iicaioeaaa, I.I.Ianeaeiaa, A.E.*aiaeeae,
I.A.Ino?ianueeiai, a ieoaiiy ?noi??? oa aca?iiae?? i?e?iae-iiai
na?aaeiaeua oa ethaeeie o ?aa?ii? i?noyoueny o i?aoeyo a?oaieia?a oa
?noi?e-e?a I.I.?oeiaiea, I.I.?iaa/aaa, I.I.Ieeaaeieeiaa,
A.Ae.Aeaaaonueeiai, E.E.Oee?ea, I.I.Aeieooaiiaa, A.I.?acoiiaa,
I.O.Oan?ia, I.A.Aaaoiiaa oa ?i.

Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeee aanaei noi?ioaaany a no/anieo eiioo?ao aieiaiei
/eiii o i?ciueiiiioe/iee /an. A i?ciueiio ie?ioeai? (e?ia??enueeee,
aioa?iinueeee oa eoyeueieoeueeee /an) iaae? ii?nueeeo aanaei?a eeoa ia
ie?aieo ae?eyieao a iacia/i?e i??? aeoiaeeee ca eiioo?e no/anii? e?i??.
Inoaoi/ii aa?aaiaa nioaa *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a noi?ioaaeany ia
ii/aoeo /aoaa?oeiiiai ia??iaeo (e?iaoeue aioa?iio ii/aoie /aoaeeinueeiai
(aaeeinueeiai) /ano).

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith aeey /aoaa?oeiiiai ia??iaeo ? iaiaeii?acia?
aeiaaeuei? ceaaeai?iiy, ui /a?aoaaeeny c? cia/ieie iioaie?iiyie. Oea
ciaoiaeeei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a cia/ieo ci?iao ??aiy Na?oiaiai ieaaio ?
iia’ycaiiai c iei Na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai aanaeio, a oiio /ene? aanaei?a
Acianueeiai oa *i?iiai ii??a. I?e oeueiio o ?aa?ii? ai?iaeiaae
ieaenoioeaio a?aeaoeiny ia iaioa i’yoe-oanoe aiio ceaaeai?iue oa
a?aeiia?aeii? e?eueeino? iioaie?iiue ee?iaoo. I?ae /an ceaaeai?iue
??aaiue *i?iiai ii?y cieaeoaaany aei 90-130 i a?aeiinii no/aniiai ??aiy,
a o ia??iae iioaie?iue aeinyaaa aai ia?aaeuoaaa no/anio a?aei?oeo ia 4-6
i. Oae? ??ce? ci?ie ??aiy *i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny
eiai ?cieyoe??th aai oe?ieei ca’yceii c non?aei?ie aeaaoi??yie
Na?aaecaiiiai ? Eani?enueeiai aanaei?a, i?e oeueiio a?aeiia?aeii
a?aeaoaaeiny iaeaea iiaia ii??niaiiy aai cia/ia inieiiaiiy, c ianaeaiiyi
eiai oaoi?noe/ieie eiiieaenaie iiethne?a eani?enueeiai aai
na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai oeio. A iioeiaeueieo oacao o?aina?aneaieo
/i?iiii?nueeeo aanaei?a a?aeaoaaeiny n??eiaiaeiaaa ca?aaeaiiy cia/ii?
oiau? aeeaieiaiaeieo oa??a aiaee oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo
nai?iiaeaaeo aeiiieo a?aeeeaae?a. Ia i?eaa?aaeieo /anoeiao nooiaeieo oa
ca?eueiaieo a?ae aiaee oaeueo? *i?iiai oa oa?eoi??? Acianueeiai ii??a
i?ae /an ceaaeai?iue aoee iioe?ai? ooiae?ia? noaiia? eaiaeoaooe c
a?aeiia?aeieie eiieaenaie ?ineeiiiai oa oaa?eiiiai na?oo. A
i?aeeueiaeiaeeia? aiioe ia noo? ia?aaaaeaee e?ninoaiia? oa noaiia?
eaiaeoaooe.

Oae? ??ce? aeiaaeuei? ci?ie i?e?iaeieo oiia ai?iaeiaae ieaenoioeaio
aeeeeeaee aeieia?/i? e?ece a Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiio aanaei?, ui
a?aeaeaaeinue ia ?icaeoeo oaoie, oei?e, a?ae?ieia?/ieo oa
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oiiaao ia iaae? aa?aa-nooiaeie. Iniaeeaiai aieeao oeeo
aeieia?/ieo ci?i caciaea ethaeeia, yea ii/aea inaithaaoe i?eaa?aaei?
ieiu? Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio a e?ioe? aa?oiueiai ieaenoioeaio oa
a aieioeaii.

NO*ANI? AAIEIA?*I? I?IOeANE A I?AI?*I?E *ANOEI?

*I?IIAI OA ACIANUeEIAI II??A

E??i iniiaieo aaieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, iaoiiaeaieo aiaei- oa aeciaaiieie
i?ioeanaie, a aa?aaia?e cii? cia/iith i??ith i?iyaeythoueny yaeua,
ni?e/eiai? i?iieneiai-ainiiaea?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth ethaeeie. I?e
oeueiio aio?iiiaaii? oaeoi?e aieeao ia ?icaeoie aa?aaiai? ciie iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia aaciina?aaei? aai i?yi? oa iiina?aaeeiaai? aai iai?yi?
(A.?.Eeia?aa 1978; TH.I.O?onoaeueia, A.I.Iaiee?ia, 1980 oa ?i.).

Aei ia?oi? a?oie oaeoi??a iaeaaeaoue:

1. Caaoaeiaa aa?aaiai? ciie. Nthaee a?aeiinyoueny nii?oaee i?iieneiaiai,
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai, eo?i?oiiai, ii?oiaiai i?ecia/aiiy oa
i?ieeaaeaiiy iaooi-aaciaeo oa c?iooaaeueieo eiioi?eaoe?e, ui ca iaaieo
oiia iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ae?eyiee ye aa?ac?eieo, oae ?
aeoioeyoeaieo aa?aa?a, ii?oooth/e anoaiiaeaio aeeiai?/io ??aiiaaao.

2. Aa?aaicaoeni? nii?oaee aac aeinoaoiueiai a?aooaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo
oaeoi??a i?ecaiaeyoue aei ii?ooaiiy aaeaino iioie?a oeaieiaiai
i?uaii-/a?aiaoeiaiai iaoa??aeo, aiane?aeie /iai i?enei?th?oueny ?iciea
aeia oa ?oeioaaiiy aa?aa?a.

3. ?ic?iaea i?uaieo a?aeeeaae?a ii?nueeeo ieyae?a, ein, ia?anei?a,
i?aeaiaeieo aaiie a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ii?ooeea aeeiai?/io ??aiiaaao
ia cia/ieo ae?eyieao ocaa?aaeaey *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a ?, ye
iane?aeie, i?ecaaea aei ?icieao i?eeaaeeo ei??iieo aa?aa?a. Iaea?eueo
cia/iiai ?oeioaaiiy caciaee aa?aae a ?aeii? sseoeinueei? aoooe, Iaeane,
Aaie/anueea, Ia??oiiey oa ?i.

4. I?ieeaaeea i?aeo?aeieo ii?nueeeo eaiae?a aei ii?o?a oa
aeiicaaeeaethth/? ?iaioe noai?ththoue ianoee aeey iaiin?a ia aa?aaiaiio
noee?, ui oaeiae i?aeaeuo? ?ioaineai?noue ?oeioaaiiy ei??iieo aa?aa?a.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie iiina?aaeeiaaieo oaeoi??a a?aeiinyoueny:

1. Ca?aaoethaaiiy ??/eiaeo nenoai ? aeeo/aiiy iaoa?eeiaiai noieo, ui, c
iaeiiai aieo, ci?ith? aaeain i?uaiiai iaoa??aeo, a c ?ioiai, a?iaaiieo
oa oaiiaaiieo eiiiiiaio?a, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy ianyaia
aeoioeyoeaieo ooai?aiue oa iiieaeaiiy a?ieia?/iii i?iaeoeoeaiinoi
i?eaa?aaeieo aeaaoi??e. Ca?aaoethaaiiy noieo coiiaeei iii?oia
i?aeaeuaiiy nieiiino? ii?nueei? aiaee a i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei?
*i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a oa ciaioaiiy a?iiane i?eaeiiieo iiethne?a,
ye? i?e a?aeie?aii? neeaaeathoue iaeio ?c aieiaieo /anoei oeaieiaiai
iaoa??aeo, ui iaeiie/o?oueny a i?eaa?aaei?e cii?.

2. C?iooaaeuei? ?iaioe, ui aeeiioaaeeny ia ie?aieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ae?eyieao aa?aaiai? ciie (?aeii ica?a Nanee oa
?i.) aenieii?ia?ae?ciaaieie aiaeaie, i?ecaaee aei no?oeoo?ieo ci?i,
ao?aoe ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a oa aeeo/aiiy ?o c ei?enooaaiiy. Aeaye?
iaaaoeai? yaeua a caieaei?enooaaii? a?aei?/athoueny oaeiae acaeiaae
I?ai?/ii-E?einueeiai eaiaeo, ui ni?e/eiythoueny i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy
a?oioiaeo aiae.

3. Caa?oaeiaiiy aiaeieo ian ? aeiiieo inaaee?a eiioiaeueieie,
i?iieneiaeie oa c?iooaaeueieie noieaie, o?ainii?oieie caniaaie, oiui. A
?acoeueoao? a ii?nueea na?aaeiaeua iaaeoiaeeoue oe?ieee niaeo?
aenieioiene/ieo ?a/iaei ? niieoe i?aai?/iiai oa iai?aai?/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae oae? aaaee? iaoaee ye ?oooue, naeiaoeue, eaaei?e,
oeeie, i?aeue, o?ii. *anoeiai aiie iaeo?ae?cothoueny a i?eaa?aaei?e
nioc? ia aaio?i?/iiio aa?’??? aiane?aeie ci?ooaaiiy i??nieo oa ii?nueeeo
aiae, aaeni?aothoueny aeiiieie inaaeeaie oa i?eaa?aaeieie
a?ae?ia?iioaie. I?e iaaeaenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
oe?aeeeaeo ?a/iaei ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao i?eaa?aaeieo aeaaoi??e aeieea?
aeieia?/ii e?eoe/ia ianoaiiaea. Iaea?eueo iioe?ai? oae? yaeua
a?aei?/athoueny a ?aeii? i?iieneiaeo oa ii?oiaeo i?no – Iaeane, Ea?/?,
Ia??oiiey, a oaeiae a ?aeiiao ?enin?yiiy (Oa?niinueea iaeanoue).

?AEIIAIAeAOe?? UIAeI ?AOe?IIAEUeIIAI AEEI?ENOAIIss

I?E?IAeIEO ?ANO?N?A OA IOI?IIE AeIAE?EEss

O I?AI?*I?E *ANOEI? *I?IIAI OA ACIANUeEIAI II??A

Aaiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie noaio oa ioi?iie ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua
Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio aena?oeai? o i?aoeyo A.I.A?iioiaia,
?.I.Oeaai?eiaa, TH.I.O?onoaeueiaa, A.I.Iaiee?ii?, I.E.Aeiia?aaeiaa,
?.O.Oitheiaa, I.O.Aiaeeea, A.O.Aaai?eueyia, A.I.Oiaeiieyna,
A.I.I?eianueeiai, N.I.Eeauaiea, A.A.Ae?icaeianueei?, A.I.Oeaiea,
A.E.Iaenei/oea, I.A.Oaaei?iaa, I.A.Aeai/eoeia, A.?.Neaa?ia,
I.A.Ueioeiaa, I.?.Aeiia?aaeiaa, I.I.Aacai?iaeueea, ?.I.Aoa/eaeca,
E.A.?icianueeiai, ?.I.Cae?inueeiai, A.?.Eeia?aaa, I.I.Inieeii?,
I.A.Eo/a?oea, I.A.Iaeneiiai?.

A aeaiee /an caaaeaiiy ii ?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a oa ioi?ii? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?aaeaiieo i?eii?nueeeo
?aeii?a Oe?a?ie cae??ieai? a ?yae? caeiiaaeaa/eo aeo?a Oe?a?ie a oiio
/ene? o iinoaiia? Aa?oiaiii ?aaee Oe?a?ie: «Iniiai? iai?yiee aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey, aeei?enoaiith i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a oa caaacia/aiiy aeieia?/ii? aaciaee» (1998).

I?e noai?aii? nenoaie aaiaeieia?/iiai iii?oi??iao iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai ?aa?iio iaiao?aeii ia?aaeaa/eoe, ia
iao iiaeyae, i?iaaaeaiiy oaeeo ia?oi/a?aiaeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo caoiae?a:

—aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy e?oiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a a aa?aaia?e cii? ii?y c
iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o aieeao ia noai aa?aa?a ? ?o caoeno a?ae
?oeioaaiiy;

—i?eieiaiiy aeaeiaoaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo i?ne?a oa /a?aiaoie ?c
i?eaa?aaeieo iaaeaiaeieo oa i?aeaiaeieo iieeaae?a oa ia?aianaiiy ?o
aeaeiaoaaiiy c ii?nueeiai aeia ia aeeaeie ia iaioa 30 i;

—a?aooaaiiy i?aeaiaeieo iioie?a iaiin?a ia caianaiiy i?aeo?aeieo
noaeio?aeieo eaiae?a oa aieea a?ycueiaoeeai?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ia aaciaeo
ii?aieaanoaa;

—aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo ia??eoeueoo?e – noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo ieaioaoe?e
ii ooo/iiio ae?iuoaaiith eieii?e iiethne?a oa aiaei?inoae aeey i/euaiiy
no?/ieo aiae, cieaeaiiy ??aiy caii?ieo yaeu, ui a ?aoo?-?aoo ni?eyoeia
caa?aaeaiith oa i?aeaeuaiith ?ae?aaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae i?eaa?aaeieo
aeaaoi??e *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a;

—aeeo/aiiy ?c ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ?aeii?a iioe?aiiy a?ycueiaiai
aoeeai?cio c oi?eaeueieie eaiaeoaooaie oa noai?aiiy ia ?o oa?eoi???
caiia?aeiee?a.

AENIIAEE

1. No/ania aa?aaiaa ciia *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a noi?ioaaeany a
?noi?e/iee /an, aeecueei 5-6 oeny/ ?ie?a iacaae, aiane?aeie aieioeaiiai?
o?aina?an?? Na?oiaiai ieaaio ? iia’ycaiiai c iei Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai
aanaeio. Oaeueo *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a aoee iie?eo? ii?nueeeie
aiaeaie, ??aaiue yeeo ia?aaeuoaaa no/anio a?aei?oeo ia 2-4 i. A
iiaeaeueoiio ??aaiue ii?y caciaaaa cia/ieo eieeaaiue aieiaiei /eiii
?aa?aneaiiai oa?aeoa?o (aei — 15 iao??a, a?ey 2,5 oeny/ ?ie?a oiio).

2. E?ecia? yaeua a Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiio aanaei? ia ia?oeo aoaiao eiai
ainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy iaee ia?aaaaeii caaaeueiee i?e?iaeiee
oa?aeoa?, coiiaeaiee ??ceeie ci?iaie ee?iaoo, ui i?eaiaeeei aei
?ioaineaii? ae?yeueiino? ??/eiaeo nenoai ? cia/ii? aeoeaiino? aa?aaiaeo
i?ioean?a ye aa?ac?eiiai oae ? aeoioeyoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o, aiane?aeie
cia/ieo aanoaoe/ieo eieeaaiue ??aiy ii?nueeiai aanaeio.

3. Cia/iee iaaaoeaiee aio?iiiaaiiee aieea ia iaaeieeoi? i?eii?nueea
na?aaeiaeua ii/aa i?iyaeyoeny c /ano ?ioaineaii? caaoaeiae i?eaa?aaeieo
oa?eoi??e e?oiieie iinaeaiiyie, ii?oiaeie nii?oaeaie, aeey yeeo aeieeea
iaiao?aei?noue aeaeiaoaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ia?aaaaeii
i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Aiane?aeie ?ic?iaee i?eaa?aaeieo
i?uaii-/a?aiaoeiaeo a?aeeeaae?a ia cia/ieo ae?eyieao i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai
oaeueoo *i?iiai ii?y, E?eio oa Acianueeiai ii?y aoa ii?ooaiee ?aaeei
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae, ui i?ecaaei aei eaoano?io?/ieo ?iciea?a
aa?aa?a ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao oa aeoea?caoe?? cnoaieo i?ioean?a.

4. Iniaeeai iaaaoeaiee aieea ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua ii?nueeeo aa?aa?a
Oe?a?ie ia? no/aniee oaoiiaaiiee oaeoi?, coiiaeaiee nii?oaeaeaiiyi
e?oiieo i?no c aaaaoiaaeocaaith i?iieneia?nooth, a oiio /ene?
iaoaeo?a?eiith, iaoeiiaoae?aiith, o?i?/iith, nii?oaeaeaiiyi iaooiaeo
oa?i?iae?a, i?ieeaaeaiiyi o?ainii?oieo eiioi?eaoe?e oa
iaooi-aacii?iaiae?a.

5. I?ae aieeaii ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a aa?aaia?e cii?
a?aeaoaa?oueny ooai?aiiy aaio?i?/ieo oa a?ieia?/ieo aiiiaeueieo yaeu, ui
aeieeathoue a ?acoeueoao? i?eaiino aeoeaieo oe?aeeeaeo ?a/iaei ? niieoe
i?aai?/iiai oa iai?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy aiane?aeie neeaeo
i?iieneiaeo, eiioiaeueieo, n?euenueei-ainiiaea?nueeeo noie?a. Iaea?eueo
oe?aeeeaee aieea ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua iathoue iaooii?iaeoeoe,
ianoeoeeaee, aaaee? iaoaee: naeiaoeue, ?oooue, eaaei?e, oeeie oa ?i.

6. Aeey caiia?aaiiy oa iiaeieaiiy iaaaoeaieo i?e?iaeieo oa aio?iiiaaiieo
yaeu o i?eaa?aaei?e cii? iaiao?aeii ocaiaeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a?aeiia?aeii c ?nioth/eie
aaieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie a ?aa?ii?. Aeey oe??? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
aeeiiaiiy aeiia uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a
i?eii?nueeeo ?aeii?a Oe?a?ie.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii oae? ?iaioe:

1. Aeino?aoea?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iaci-eaeiicieneeo ioeiaeaiee
naaa?i-caiaaeiiai oaeueoa e eiioeiaioaeueiiai neeiia *a?iiai ii?y //
Aaieiaey, aaioeceea e aeae?ia?aoey naaa?i-caiaaea *a?iiai ii?y. – Eeaa:
IIAI? IIII IAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. – N. 31-36. (niaao.: A.O.Oitheia,
A.A.Eaaiieeia, TH.E.Eiicaioeaa e ae?.).

2. ?aeueao aeia e oaeoiieea naaa?i-caiaaea *a?iiai ii?y // Aaieiaey,
aaioeceea e aeae?ia?aoey naaa?i-caiaaea *a?iiai ii?y. – Eeaa: IIAI? IIII
IAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. – N. 55-68. (niaao.: A.O.Oitheia, I.A.Ianeaeia.,
A.A.Ianuieia e ae?.).

3. ?icaeoie ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiinoa?iiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy –
iaeaaaeeea??oa caaaeaiiy no/aniino? // A?niee Oe?a?inueeiai Aoaeeieo
aeiiii?/ieo oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ciaiue. – 1998. – N4. – N.67.
(ni?aaao.: A.A.Eiaaeaiei, A.A.Ianeth/aiei).

4. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea iiinoa?iiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey // Iao-eu eiio.
«Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua aniaeou ioeaiee e i?iaiica yeieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iaeanoae e ?aeiiia Oe?aeiu. –
Eeaa: Ia-ai «Ciaiea» Oe?aeiu. – 1997. – N. 86-87. (niaao.: A.E.Oaa/aiei,
A.E.Uaaieaa, A.I.Aeei).

5. Aoaeiaaeueia aeei?enoaiiy aaieiai/iiai na?aaeiaeua a eiioaenoi
iiinoa?iiai i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy // Iniiae i ooiaeaiaioe: Iiaeaiaeii/ee
iaoeiai-oaoii/iee cai?iee. – Aei. 25. – E.: EIOAA, 1999. – N. 11-14.
(niiaaao. A.O.E?a?a, A.I.?eii).

6. I?eiaiaiea YAI i?e ninoaaeaiee iauae oa?aeoa?enoeee eieaeueiie
oa??eoi?ee // Iao-eu eiio. «Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua aniaeou ioeaiee e
i?iaiica yeieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
iaeanoae e ?aeiiia Oe?aeiu. – Eeaa: Ia-ai «Ciaiea» Oe?aeiu. – 1997. – N.
91-92. (niaao.: A.A.Aiaoneaaneee, A.A.Ioneaiei).

7. Eaaiieeia A.A., Ia?uoaa A.A. Aaiyeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aa?aaiaie ciiu
*a?iiai e Acianeiai ii?ae // Aaieiaey e iieaciua eneiiaaiua
*a?iiai ii?y. — Eeaa, 1999. – N. 323-326.

Aiioaoe?y

Ia?eoaa I.I. Aaiaeieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ii?nueeeo aa?aa?a Oe?a?ie. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 04.00.10 – aaieia?y ieaai?a oa ii??a. – A?aeae?eaiiy
ii?nueei? aaieia?? oa inaaei/iiai ?oaeiooai?aiiy IIII IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,
1999.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio
aaieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua i?eaa?aaeii? nioae i?ai?/ii? /anoeie *i?iiai oa
Acianueeiai ii??a. Aeeiiaii ?aeiioaaiiy aa?aaiai? ciie oa oaeueoo c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae oa a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai ?aaeeio.
Ioa?aeoa??ciaaii iniiai? aio?iiiaaii? oaeoi?e aieeao ia i?e?iaeia
na?aaeiaeua ocaa?aaeaey i?e ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii caa?aaeaiith ??aiiaaae, ui anoaiiaeeanue
ia aeaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio o iaaeao nioae
nooiae?e-ii?a, a oaeiae caoiaee ii caiia?aaiith aai ciaioaiith
iaaaaeaieo oa aeieia?/ii oe?aeeeaeo aieea?a ia i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua
?aa?iio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: *i?ia oa Acianueea ii?y, aa?aaiaa ciia, aaieia?/ia
aoaeiaa, a?ae?iaeeiai?/iee ?aaeei, i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua, ainiiaea?nueea
ae?yeuei?noue, aeieia?/ii oe?aeeeaee aieea.

Aiiioaoeey

Ia?uoaa A.A. Aaiyeieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea ii?neeo aa?aaia Oe?aeiu. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.10 – aaieiaey ieaaiia e
ii?ae. – Ioaeaeaiea ii?neie aaieiaee e inaaei/iiai ?oaeiia?aciaaiey IIII
IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu yeieiae/aneiai
ninoiyiey aaieiae/aneie n?aaeu i?ea?aaeiie iieinu naaa?iie /anoe *a?iiai
e Acianeiai ii?ae. Auiieiaii ?aeiie?iaaiea aa?aaiaie ciiu e oaeueoa n
o/aoii eo aaieiae/aneiai no?iaiey e aeae?iaeeiaie/aneiai ?aaeeia.
Ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu iniiaiua aio?iiiaaiiua oaeoi?u aicaeaenoaey ia
i?ea?aaeioth n?aaeo i?e i?iaaaeaiee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea. I?aaeeiaeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii nio?aiaieth onoaiiaeaoaainy ia
aeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey Aciai-*a?iiii?neiai aannaeia ?aaiiaaney a
i?aaeaeao iieinu nooa-ii?a, a oaeaea ia?ii?eyoey ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth
eee oiaiueoaieth iaaeaeaoaeueiuo e yeieiae/anee a?aaeiuo aicaeaenoaee ia
i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo ?aaeiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: *a?iia e Acianeia ii?y, aa?aaiaay ciia, aaieiae/aneia
no?iaiea, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneee ?aaeei, i?e?iaeiay n?aaea, oicyenoaaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, yeieiae/anee a?aaeiua aicaeaenoaey.

Abstract

Parishev A.A. Geoecological characteristics of the sea coast of the
Ukraine. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate Degree of Geological Sciences by speciality
04.00.10 – Geology of Oceans and Seas. – Marine Geology and Sedimentary
Ore Department of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The questions about ecological condition of the geological environment
of the coast zone of the northern part of the Black Sea and the Sea of
Azov are being given considered in this thesis. The division into
districts of the coast zone and shelf has been done taking into account
their geological structure and hydrodynamical regime. The main
anthropological factors of the influence of the economic activity on the
coast zone have been characterised. Some recommendations to preserve the
balance which has been established in present stage of the development
of the Azov and the Back Sea basin within region «land-sea» are
proposed. The measures to prevent or decrease the undesirable and
ecologically damaging influence on the natural surroundings of the
region are proposed also.

Key words: Black Sea, Sea of Azov, coast zone, geological structure,
hydrodymanical regime, natural surroundings, economic activity,
ecologically damaging influence.

________________________________________________________________________
_______

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 10.09.1999 Oi?iao 60o90/16 Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0

Oe?aae 100 aec. Cai.?

________________________________________________________________________
_______

Aiaeae?oeiaaii o oi?ii «AIICIN», 252030, Eeia-30,
aoe.A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai, 15, io. 18, o/o. 224-52-98.

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