OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

O?E?IOeIAA IEUeAA AIEIAeEIE??AIA

OAeE 575:314

AAIAOEEI-AeAIIA?AO?*I? I?IOeANE A O?AAI?CIAAIEO IIIOEssOe?ssO NO?AeII?
OE?A?IE

03.00.15 — aaiaoeea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aaiaoeee ? oeeoieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aaiaoeee ?
oeeoieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Ao?aiaioiaa Ethaia Ieaen??aiaIo?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith i?iiaaeaaoeee aioo??oi?o oai?ia
Oa?e?anueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Eiaaeueiaa Ieueaa Ieeiea?aia;Eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi??? iiioeyoe?eii? aaiaoeee ?inoeoooo
caaaeueii? aaiaoeee ?AI ?i.I.?.Aaa?eiaa

Eo?aaoiaa Ieueaa Eaii?ae?aia

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiaee a?a??i?/iee oeaio?,
eaai?aoi?iy aaiaoe/iiai iiiioi?eiao, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “16” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E64.051.18 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 310077, i.Oa?e?a, iaeae. Naiaiaee,4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (310077, i.Oa?e?a, iaeae. Naiaiaee,4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 9 ”eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
A.A.Iae?aniaa

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy ?yaeo nioe?aeueieo ? iaaee/ieo
i?iaeai, ui aeieeathoue o noni?euenoa?, iaiao?aeii iaoe oi/io
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iiioeyoe?eio no?oeoo?o ? aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/i?
i?ioeane, ui i?io?eathoue o i?e. Aoaeue-ye? ainiiaea?nuee? ? nioe?aeuei?
ia?aoai?aiiy a noni?euenoa? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ci?ie aaiaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee iiioeyoe??. Oni?oe iaaeeoeeie, ia?aoai?aiiy o noa?? i?aoe?
e iiaooo ci?ieee iai?yiee i?e?iaeiiai aeiai?o, ?icaeoie i?iieneiaino? oa
o?ainii?oo iineeeee i?a?aoeieii i?ioeane, i?ecaaee aei ?icoe?aiiy
aooa?eaeeiaa. Aaeaioeaiinoue iiioeyoe??, oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo a i?e
niaaeeiai? iaoieia??, o?ce/iee ?icaeoie, aeo?eaae?noue, no?ee?noue aei
no?an?a, i?aoeacaeaoi?noue ?? /eai?a o cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny
iiioeyoe?eiith no?oeoo?ith.

Ca?ac a?aeaoaathoueny aeiaaeuei? ci?ie no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?e ethaeeie, ui
neeaeany ?noi?e/ii. Ia ci?io o?aaeeoe?eiei iaei/enaeueiei iiioeyoe?yi
i?eoiaeyoue aaeee? o?aai?ciaai?, ye? noathoue ia?aaaaeiei oeiii
iiioeyoe?e. Oae, ianaeaiiy i?no ia ii/aoie 20 noi??//y neeaaeaei 41%
anueiai ianaeaiiy na?oo. A aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao ieoiia aaaa
i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy neeaaea? 7080% ? a?eueoa. O eieeoiueiio N?N? i?nueea
ianaeaiiy neeaaeaei a na?aaeiueiio 61%. Ia iaiao?aei?noue i?iaiicoaaiiy
iane?aee?a ??cei? ci?ie aaiaoe/ii? no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?e iaiaeii?aciai
aeacoaaee aaiaoeee. Aiae?c o?aai?ciaaieo iiioeyoe?e ?icii/aany ii??aiyii
iaaeaaii. Iniiai? aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/i? iieacieee aeine?aeaeai? ia
i?noao ?in??, Eacaonoaio, Oo?eiai??. ?iaioaie, aeeiiaieie ia iiioeyoe?yo
Iineae, Aeia-Aoe, Aiaa?nueea, Aooaaaaea, Eino?iie, Eo?nueea, iieacaiee
ca’ycie no?oeoo?e o?aai?ciaaii? iiioeyoe?? c ?? aaeaioeai?noth
(I.I.Ai/eia e ae?., 1984, A.E.Aeue/eiiaa e ae?., 1988, A.I.Eaaiia e
ae?., 1996-1998, I.E.Eo?aaoiaa e ae?., 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996,
A.N.Nayoiaa e ae?., 1988, O.I.Oo?aaaa e ae?., 1991).

Aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oe?a?inueeeo iiioeyoe?e aea/ai?
iaaeinoaoiuei. Aeooaeuei?noue oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue i/aaeaeia: Oe?a?ia,
e?a?ia c 50i?eueeiiiei ianaeaiiyi, a?ae??ciy?oueny neeaaeiith
aeieia?/iith ? aeaiia?ao?/iith ianoaiiaeith.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii eaoaae?e aaiaoeee ? oeeoieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca oaiith “No?oeoo?a iiioeyoe?e oa
noeeuei?noue aei ioeueoeoaeoi??aeueieo caoai?thaaiue” ?
Aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0196U002581. ?iaioa aeeiiaia i?e eii?aeeiaoe??
eaai?aoi??? iiioeyoe?eii? aaiaoeee ?inoeoooo caaaeueii? aaiaoeee ?i.
I.?. Aaa?eiaa ?in?enueei? Aeaaeai?? iaoe, /anoeiai i?e

2

o?iainia?e i?aeo?eioe? Oiiaeo RSS/HESP (a?aio No.:1081/575/1995).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei ia i?eeeaae? Oa?eiaa,
Aeiiaoeueea ? Iieoaae aea/eoe aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/i? i?ioeane a
o?aai?ciaaieo iiioeyoe?yo no?aeii? Oe?a?ie. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia?aaeaa/aeinue ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

· aecia/eoe aeeiai?eo aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe aeeiai?eo aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/ieo iieaciee?a oa
i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue ?ia?eaeeiaia? oa aooa?eaeeiaia?
eiiiiiaioe;

· i?iaanoe aiae?c oethaii? no?oeoo?e, aeyaeoe ?ieue a?ieia?/ieo oa
nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eieo iciae o oi?ioaaii? i?ae?icae?eaiino? oa
aecia/eoe nooi?iue iaii?en?? ca oeeie iciaeaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee o?ueio iiioeyoe?e no?aeii?
Oe?a?ie c ??ciei nooiaiai o?aai?caoe?? (Oa?e?a, Aeiiaoeuee, Iieoaaa).
Aea/aia aeeiai?ea aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/iiai i?ioeano a oeeo iiioeyoe?yo o
ca’yceo c ooai?aiiyi naiino?eii? aea?aeaae Oe?a?ia.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a. Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe
iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia aea? oyao i?i aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/iee i?ioean a
o?aai?ciaaieo iiioeyoe?yo no?aeii? Oe?a?ie oa aieea ia oeae i?ioean
aaiiie?oe/ieo oiia. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e oi?ioaaii? i?ia?ai c ioi?iie
caei?ia’y e nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii neeaaeaia aaca aeaieo a e?eueeino?
17264 oethaieo caien?a, c?iaeai? ?ic?aooiee ia eiii’thoa?i?e oaoi?oe?,
i?iaaaeaii ca?? ? aiae?c iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e oa ocaaaeueiaii iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny
ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e aaiaoeee ? oeeoieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa ?inoeoooo a?ieia?? OAeO a 1996, 1997 ? 1998
?ieao.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? 4 noaoo?.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 162
noi??ieao iaoeiiieno oa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e,
?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a,
nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. ?ethno?iaaia 32 oaaeeoeyie ? 30 ?enoieaie.
A?ae?ia?ao?y i?noeoue 224 aeaea?aea e?oa?aoo?e, c yeeo 141 ?iicaiia.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? aaey/i?noue A.I.Ioo?io ca iaaeaiiy ia?aeiiiai iaoa??aeo
ii Aeiiaoeueeo ca 1992 ??e, A.Ae.Eo?i?aeia?e ca iaaeaiiy ia?aeiiiai
iaoa??aeo ii Iieoaa? ca 1995 ??e oa O.A.Ii?icia?e ca aeiiiiiao a
io?eiaii?

3

iaoa??aeo ii Oa?eiao, on?i ni?a?ia?oieeai a?o?a?a CAAN?a Oa?eiaa,
Aeiiaoeueea ? Iieoaae, ni?a?ia?oieeai AO “OA?O?II” A.I.Eooia?aae/o ?
A.I.Iiaeai?iiio ca aeiiiiiao a eiii’thoa?i?e ia?iaoe? ia?aeiiiai
iaoa??aeo oa iaiaaeaea?o NO “?IAE” A.A.Iena?aieo ca oaoi?/io i?aeo?eieo
a iaea?aeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? /a?ac ia?aaeo “INTERNET”.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii no/aniee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy iiioeyoe?eii?
aaiaoeee ethaeeie, cai?iiiiiaaiee I.E.Eo?aaoiaith ?c ni?aaaoi?aie i?e
aea/aii? iineianueei? iiioeyoe?? (I.E.Eo?aaoiaa e ae?., 1984, 1988,
1992, 1996). Aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii aea??ee caien?a ?a?no?aoe?? oetha?a,
ye? aoee iaea?aeai? a a?o?aao CAAN?a i?no Oa?eiaa, Aeiiaoeueea ?
Iieoaae. O Oa?eia? aoee aea/ai? caiene ?a?no?aoe?? oetha?a
Aeca?aeeinueeiai oa I?aeaeii?e?aecaanueeiai ?aeii?a a 1960, 1985 ? 1993
??. (2858, 2793 ? 2200 oetha?a). O Aeiiaoeueeo aoee aea/ai? caiene
?a?no?aoe?? oetha?a ca 1960, 1985 ? 1992 ??. (2317, 2322 ? 1145 oetha?a)
ia oa?eoi??? i?noa, iicia/aii? aei 1973 ?. ye Eae?i?inueeee ?aeii, a
i?ney aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy ye Eae?i?inueeee ?
Ai?ioee?anueeee ?aeiie. O Iieoaa? aoee aea/ai? caiene ?a?no?aoe??
oetha?a ca 1960, 1985 ? 1995 ??. (880, 1298 ? 1451 oetha?a). Aoei
a?aoiaaii a?e, iaoe?iiaeuei?noue, i?noea ia?iaeaeaiiy, ina?oo oa
i?ioan?th in?a, ye? anooiaee aei oethao. ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ina?oo aoea
a?aenooiy a caienao ?a?no?aoe?? oetha?a Oa?eiaa ? Aeiiaoeueea a 1960 ?.,
Iieoaae – ca on? aea/ai? ?iee. ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i i?ioan?th aoea a?aenooiy
a Iieoaa? a 1995 ?. Aoei aeeeth/aii aeai?, ye? ia iiaeia aoei
?icoeo?oaaoe, a oaeiae oae?, ui aoee iaiiai? aai iaoi/i?. A?eia?
iieacieee aoee ?ic?aoiaai? aeey an??? iiioeyoe??, ?io? iieacieee o?eueee
aeey ?? ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? /anoeie, aei yei? aoee a?aeianai? /ieia?ee aei
55 ?ie?a oa ae?iee aei 45 ?ie?a. Iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a
i?iaaaeaia c aeei?enoaiiyi caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo ia?aiao?e/ieo oa
iaia?aiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a noaoenoeee (I.A.Ieioeineee, 1970), a oaeiae
aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/i? iieacieee– iieaciee oethaii? ani?oaoeaiino? A’,
iie?oi??/iee iieaciee ca’yceo E, eiao?oe??io i?a?aoe?? m (I.E.Eo?aaoiaa
e ae?., 1984, 1992, 1996). Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea aoea i?iaaaeaia ia
eiii’thoa?i?e oaoi?oe?. Oi?ioaaiiy aac aeaieo i?iaiaeeeiny a i?ia?aiao
FoxPro oa Excel, ?ic?aooiee a i?ia?ai? ia iia? Fortran, iiaoaeiaa
a?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo a i?ia?aiao Excel oa Visio.

Ca aea/aiee ia??iae niinoa??aaeiny ciaioaiiy oethaiino?. sseui a 1960 ?.
oethai?noue o oa?e?anuee?e iiioeyoe?? neeaea 13,5‰, o 1985 ?. 6,3‰, oi
a

4

1993 ?. aiia noaea aei??aithaaoe 4,4‰. O aeiiaoeuee?e iiioeyoe??
i?inoaaeaia aiaeia?/ia oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy oethaiino? a eiai?oao, ye?
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny: 14,8‰-9,5‰-4,7‰. C aaiaoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o iaae?iiy
oethaiino? oai?aoe/ii ciaioo? aoaeoeaii-?ai?iaeoeoeaiee ianya
iiioeyoe??, ui ? oaeoi?ii ciaioaiiy oaii?a a?aeoai?thaaiino? ianaeaiiy,
a oaeiae ni?ey? ae?aeoo aai?a.

Caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th aeey aea/aieo iiioeyoe?e, ye ? aeey a?eueoino?
no/anieo i?no, ? i?aeaeuaiiy na?aaeiueiai a?eo anooio aei oethao, ui
iiaea aooe i?e/eiith aeiaeaoeiaiai aaiaoe/iiai aaioaaeo a ianooiiiio
iieie?ii?. E??i oiai, ca?eueoo?oueny aeenia?n?y oeueiai iieacieea, ui
iioe?th? eiei in?a, ye? anooiathoue aei oethao a ?ai?iaeoeoeaii
iani?eyoeeaiio a?oe?. Ii nooiaith ca?eueoaiiy o?aai?caoe?? aea/ai? i?noa
?icoaoiaai? oaeei /eiii: Iieoaaa, Aeiiaoeuee, Oa?e?a. Iaeieae/ee a?e
anooio aei oethao oa?aeoa?iee aeey iieoaanueei? iiioeyoe??, a iaeaeuee –
aeey oa?e?anueei?, ye a 1985 ?., oae ? a 90o ??. (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1 – Na?aaei?e a?e anooio aei oethao??e
iae?oaeaiiyOa?e?aAeiiaoeueeIieoaaam/Maem/maem/mae196027,60,225,40,228,50
,226,40,226,80,324,90,3198531,50,229,30,229,50,227,30,227,30,325,20,2199
2-9533,60,331,10,329,70,327,20,327,70,325,30,3I?ei?oea. m/ – na?aaei?e
a?e anooio aei oethao /ieia?e?a, mae – na?aaei?e a?e anooio aei oethao
ae?iie.

O 1960 ?. iaea?eueoee oethaiee a?e ia?a/aieo aoa o aeiiaoeuee?e
iiioeyoe??. *anoea in?a, ui anooiathoue aei oethao o a?oe? aei 20 ?ie?a
o ia??iae aei 1985 ?. o oa?e?anuee?e ? aeiiaoeuee?e iiioeyoe?yo
c?inoaea, o iieoaanuee?e – c?inoaea, a i?ney 1985 ?. iacia/ii cieceeany.
Iaea?eueo iieiaeeo ia?a/aieo (ae?iie) (i?eaeecii 1/3) caaaeaee aoei a
iieoaanuee?e iiioeyoe??, iieiaeeo ia?a/aieo (/ieia?e?a) (i?eaeecii 1/7)
aei 90-o ??. a iieoaanuee?e iiioeyoe??, a a iei?oi?e /an – o
aeiiaoeuee?e. Aiaeii/an ?c c?inoaiiyi /anoee iieiaeeo oetha?a o
oa?e?anuee?e iiioeyoe?? a?aecia/aia ca?eueoaiiy /anoee in?a, ui
anooiathoue aei oethao a iino?ai?iaeoeoeaiiio a?oe?. O aeiiaoeuee?e ?
iieoaanuee?e iiioeyoe?yo ni?yioaaiiy i?ioeano ??cia aeey ??cieo noaoae,
aea a oe?eiio a no?oeoo?? oetha?a ia /anoeo in?a iino?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai
a?eo i?eiaaeaei a?ae 1,8% /ieia?e?a a 1960 ?. a iieoaanuee?e iiioeyoe??
aei 14,3% ae?iie a 1993 ?. a oa?e?anuee?e iiioeyoe??. O aea/aieo
iiioeyoe?yo

iiceoeaiee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie caeeoa?oueny aenieei

5

i?ioyaii onueiai ?icaeyiooiai ia??iaeo ? neeaaea? a?ae r=0,89 aei r=0,92
a oe?eiio ? aeaui ieae/a a ?ai?iaeoeoeai?e /anoei? iiioeyoe?e — a?ae
r=0,72 aei r=0,81.

––

––

Iaeneiaeueia aoi?/ia ??ciiiai?ooy aoei iii?/aii a 1985 ?. (oaae.2).
sseui i?eionoeoe, ui aoi?/ia ??ciiiai?ooy aei iaaii? i??e aeaco? ia
??ciiiai?ooy aaiaoe/ia, oi iieoaanueea iiioeyoe?y i?ioyaii anueiai
aea/a-iiai ia??iaeo caa??aaea iaeiaioo aaiaoe/io aaoa-?iaaii?noue.
A?eueo ??cii-iai?oia ca iaoe?iiaeueiei neeaaeii oa?e?anueea iiio-eyoe?y.
A 1985 ?. iaeneiaeueia aoi?/ia ??ciiiai?ooy aoei iii?/aii a aeiiaoeuee?e
iiioeyoe??, ui iiaeia iiynieoe aeecueeei ?icoaooaaiiyi Aeiiaoeueea aei
Eaaeaco, yeee aeoaea ??ciiiai?oiee ca iaoe?iiaeueiei neeaaeii.
Caaaeueiei aeey aea/aieo iiioeyoe?e ? oa, ui iaoe?iiaeueia ??ciiiai?ooy
ia iaeiaeiaa o ??cieo noaoae — o /ieia?e?a aiii caaaeaee aeua, ui
iiynith?oueny a?eueo ?ioaineaiith i?a?aoe??th /ieia?/iai ianaeaiiy o
ca’yceo c i?ioan?eiith ae?yeuei?noth, neoaeaith a a?i??. Caaaeii
i?aeaeuaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ??ciiiai?ooy c 1960 ii 1985 ??. aoei oeiiaei
aeey i?no ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco ? ca’ycaia c iayai?noth ?aeeiiai
iie?oe/iiai e aeiiii?/iiai i?inoi?o. A on?o aea/aieo iiioeyoe?yo
iae/eneaii?oeie ? oe?a?ioe? e ?in?yie. Ca iaoe?iiaeueiei neeaaeii
oa?e?anueea ? aeiiaoeueea iiioeyoe?? a?eueo iiae?ai? i?ae niaith, i?ae c
iieoaanueeith iiioeyoe??th (oaae.3). O oa?e?anuee?e iiioeyoe?? oe?a?ioe?
a on?o eiai?oao neeaaeaee 46,6-50,0%, o aeiiaoeuee?e 41,9-43,0% ? o
iieoaanuee?e 76,9-84,0%. Na?aae in?a, ui anooiathoue aei oethao, ?in?yi
o oa?e?anuee?e iiioeyoe?? aoei 42,4-46,6%, a a aeiiaoeuee?e —
43,3-49,2%. Aei 1985 ?. a on?o aea/aieo iiioeyoe?yo /anoea ?in?yi
c?inoaea, a oe?a?ioe?a ciaiooaaeanue, a a 1990-o? ??. iai?oeeanue
cai?ioiy oaiaeaioe?y, eeoa a aeiiaoeuee?e iiioeyoe?? /anoea ?in?yi aeaui
c?inoaea (oaae.3). Iaeiaio aaiaoe/ii iie?ii?oiith ca aoi?/iei neeaaeii ?
iieoaanueea iiioeyoe?y. Aeiiaoeueea iiioeyoe?y iaea?eueo aaiaoe/ii
aaoa?iaaiia ca e?euee?noth iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, /anoea yeeo neeaaea? ia
iaio 1%, a oa?e?anueea – ca aoi?/iei ??ciiiai?ooyi iiae?oaeae?a
iaei/enaeueieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae. O oa?e?anuee?e ? aeiiaoeuee?e
iiioeyoe?yo i?eaeecii iieiaeia an?o oeeaaeaieo oetha?a ?
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieie, o iieoaanuee?e ?o iaioa o?aoeie. C
iaeiiiaoe?iiaeueieo

6

Oaaeeoey 3 – Oethaia no?oeoo?a ca iaoe?iiaeuei?nothIaoe?i-

iaeuei?noue1960 ?.1985 ?.1992-95
??.%A’%A’%A’Oa?e?ao50,013,846,69,049,96,0?42,49,846,66,443,66,1?5,069,02
,750,22,320,8?2,625,24,112,34,215,6Aeiiaoeueeo43,010,941,95,342,57,6?43,
39,448,83,849,28,2?6,771,23,447,83,348,0a2,613,91,51,61,5-a1,121,21,112,
11,0-?3,329,23,312,32,521,3Iieoaaao80,321,076,910,784,06,4?15,711,520,17
,913,95,7?2,654,4—-?1,4-3,021,32,14,0I?ei?oea. *anoea oa oethaia
ani?oaoeai?noue a?ei?on?a oa a?ae?a iiaeai? eeoa aeey Aeiiaoeueea. % —
a?aenioie iaoe?iiaeueiino?, A’ – oethaia ani?oaoeai?noue ca
iaoe?iiaeuei?noth. Iicia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiinoae: o – oe?a?ioe?, ? –
?in?yie, ? – ?a?a?, a – a?aee, a – a?ei?one, ? – ?io?.oetha?a o
oa?e?anuee?e ? iieoaanuee?e iiioey-oe?yo iaea?eueoa /anoea i?eiaaea? ia
oethae i?ae oe?a?ioeyie, o aeiiaoeuee?e — ia oethae i?ae ?in?yiaie. O
iieoaanuee?e iiioeyoe?? ia oethae i?ae oe?a?i-oeyie i?eiaaea? a?eueo 90%
on?o iaeiiiaoe?i-iaeueieo oetha?a. Na-?aae i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo oetha?a
iaea?eueoa oe-?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo ? ?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeeo (oaae.4).
Oethaia ani?oaoeai?noue a?aeoe-ey? iiioeyoe?? a?ae noaio iaii?en??. Aeey
iniiaieo iaoe?iiaeue-iinoae aoea a?aecia/a-ia iiceoeaia oethaia
ani?oaoeai?noue. A on?o aea/aieo iiioeyoe?yo iaeneiaeuei? ?iaeaene
iiceoeaii? oethaii? ani?oaoeaiino? a?ae-cia/ai? o ?a?a?a A oe?eiio ae
?ieue iaoe?i-iaeueiino? o aeai?? oethaieo ia?oia??a a?ae?a?a? ana iaioo
?ieue (oaae.3). Ca iciaeith “iaoe?iiaeuei?noue” a?aecia/aia oaiaeaioe?y
iaaeeaeaiiy aea/aieo iiioeyoe?e aei iaii?eniiai noaio. I?i oea
na?ae/eoue ciaioaiiy iieacieea oethaii? niieo/aiino? E (oaae.5). Na?aae
aea/aieo iiioeyoe?e o iei?oi?e /an iieoaanueea ? iaea?eueo aeecueeith
aei noaio iaii?en?? ca aoi?/iith iciaeith. 8

Ca aea/aiee ia??iae o oa?e?anuee?e, aeiiaoeue-e?e ? iieoaanuee?e
ii-ioeyoe?yo niinoa??aa-einy i?aeaeuaiiy /a-noee ei??iieo iao-eaioe?a,
ye? anooiaee aei oethao, i?eaeecii aea?/?. O oa?e?anuee?e ? iieoaanuee?e
iiioey-oe?yo /anoea o?iaeaeai-oe?a iaeano? noaa?eueii iaaea?, o
aeiiaoeuee?e — o 1985 ?. aiia c?inea. *anoea “aeeaei?o” i?a-?aio?a
(Oeaio?aeueiee ? Oeaio?aeueii — *i?ii-caiiee ?aa?iie ?in??, Iieaeiaa,
A?ei?on?y) a on?o iiioeyoe?yo ii-no?eii cieaeoaaeany, i?e/iio a?eueo
ae-?aaeaii a oa?e?anuee?e (iaeaea a 2 ?ace) ? a aeiiaoeuee?e (iaeaea a
3,5 ?ace) o ia??iae c 1960 ii 1985 ??. ?icoe?aiiy eiea oethaieo ca’yce?a
o ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae cae?enithaaeiny ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy /anoee
“aeaeuei?o” i?a?aio?a a on?o iiioeyoe?yo. ?iciaae N?N?, iiaeeeai, ni?eya
cieaeaiith /anoee “aeaeuei?o” i?a?aio?a a 1990-? ??.. AE?iie c aeeaei?o
?aa?ii?a a?eueoa, i?ae /ieia?e?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaioo i?a?aoe?eio
aeoeai?noue ae?iie. Ii iaea?eueo /enaeueieo ?aa?iiao a?aecia/aia
iiceoeaia oethaia ani?oaoeai?noue, yea ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy
(oaae.6). Iieoaanueea iiioeyoe?y iaaeeaea?oueny aei iaii?eniiai noaio
a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae oa?e?anueea ? aeiiaoeueea (oaae.5). A 1960 ?. ? a
1990-? ??. iaea?eueo? i?a?aoe?ei? a?aenoai? niinoa??aaeeny a
aeiiaoeuee?e iiioeyoe??, iaeiaio? caaaeaee aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey
iieoaanueei? iiioeyoe??. O ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae a on?o iiioeyoe?yo
aeaeuei?noue i?a?aoe?? c?inoaea. I?ney ooai?aiiy noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae
Oe?a?ia i?a?aoe?ei? a?aenoai? a Aeiiaoeueeo i?iaeiaaeoaaee c?inoaoe, o
Oa?eia? caeeoeeeny i?eaeecii ia oiio ae ??ai?, ui ? a 1985 ?., o Iieoaa?
o ae?iie aeaui c?inee, a a /ieia?e?a aeaui ciaioeeenue. Aeey
iieoaanueei? ? oa?e?anueei? iiioeyoe?e oa?aeoa?i? i?aeeii ? niaae
a?aenoaiae “aaoueee-aeeoeia” a iaio noaoae, o aeiiaoeuee?e — cieaeaiiy
aeaieo iieaciee?a i?ioyaii onueiai aea/aiiai ia??iaeo. Aeey an?o
aea/aieo iiioeyoe?e aei 1985 ?. aoei oa?aeoa?ia c?inoaiiy oethaii?
a?aenoai?, a a 1990-o ??. — ?? ciaioaiiy. O iieoaanuee?e iiioeyoe??
cia/aiiy oethaieo a?aenoaiae caaaeaee aoee i?i?iaeueieie (oaae.7).

7

Oei

OethaoI?noi,
??eOa?e?aAeiiaoeueeIieoaaa196019851993196019851993196019851993N%N%N%N%N%
N%N%N%N%I:139851,8119348,986247,8101447,795445,550748,060472,180466,9996
73,8O75453,958449,047655,244443,839241,121141,656293,073491,396196,5?547
39,156947,736842,744744,052254,827754,6305,0637,8343,4?896,4302,580,9969
,5272,8142,8122,0—-A——70,710,100——A——40,420,200——?80,6
100,8101,2161,6101,051,000,070,910,1I:130348,2124651,194152,2111352,3114
454,554952,023427,939733,135426,2o-?49037,649339,639441,935832,240835,62
1539,27230,816140,512836,2?-o60546,451341,235737,943639,244038,520437,11
1850,417844,817048,0o-?221,7473,8323,4544,9514,4285,1114,7133,3123,4?-?4
33,3544,3272,9494,4675,9244,462,692,310,3?-o745,7534,2646,8938,3746,5295
,3218,9276,8359,9?-?624,8766,1606,41059,4897,8427,662,692,382,2?-?60,510
0,870,7181,6151,371,300,000,000,0Anueiai2701100,02439100,01803100,021271
00,02098100,01056100,0838100,01201100,01350100,0

I?ei?oea. E?euee?noue oa /anoea a?ei?onueeeo oa a?aoeueeeo oetha?a
iiaeai? eeoa aeey Aeiiaoeueea. I — iaeiiiaoe?iiaeueiee oetha, I —
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiee oetha, N e % — e?euee?noue oa /anoea oetha?a i?ae
i?aaenoaaieeaie eiie?aoii? iaoe?iiaeueiino?. Iicia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae oae? ae, ye o oaae.3.6

8

Ca aea/aiee ia??iae o oa?e?anuee?e, aeiiaoeue-e?e ? iieoaanuee?e
ii-ioeyoe?yo niinoa??aa-einy i?aeaeuaiiy /a-noee ei??iieo iao-eaioe?a,
ye? anooiaee aei oethao, i?eaeecii aea?/?. O oa?e?anuee?e ? iieoaanuee?e
iiioey-oe?yo /anoea o?iaeaeai-oe?a iaeano? noaa?eueii iaaea?, o
aeiiaoeuee?e — o 1985 ?. aiia c?inea. *anoea “aeeaei?o” i?a-?aio?a
(Oeaio?aeueiee ? Oeaio?aeueii — *i?ii-caiiee ?aa?iie ?in??, Iieaeiaa,
A?ei?on?y) a on?o iiioeyoe?yo ii-no?eii cieaeoaaeany, i?e/iio a?eueo
ae-?aaeaii a oa?e?anuee?e (iaeaea a 2 ?ace) ? a aeiiaoeuee?e (iaeaea a
3,5 ?ace) o ia??iae c 1960 ii 1985 ??. ?icoe?aiiy eiea oethaieo ca’yce?a
o ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae cae?enithaaeiny ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy /anoee
“aeaeuei?o” i?a?aio?a a on?o iiioeyoe?yo. ?iciaae N?N?, iiaeeeai, ni?eya
cieaeaiith /anoee “aeaeuei?o” i?a?aio?a a 1990-? ??.. AE?iie c aeeaei?o
?aa?ii?a a?eueoa, i?ae /ieia?e?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaioo i?a?aoe?eio
aeoeai?noue ae?iie. Ii iaea?eueo /enaeueieo ?aa?iiao a?aecia/aia
iiceoeaia oethaia ani?oaoeai?noue, yea ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy
(oaae.6). Iieoaanueea iiioeyoe?y iaaeeaea?oueny aei iaii?eniiai noaio
a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae oa?e?anueea ? aeiiaoeueea (oaae.5). A 1960 ?. ? a
1990-? ??. iaea?eueo? i?a?aoe?ei? a?aenoai? niinoa??aaeeny a
aeiiaoeuee?e iiioeyoe??, iaeiaio? caaaeaee aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey
iieoaanueei? iiioeyoe??. O ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae a on?o iiioeyoe?yo
aeaeuei?noue i?a?aoe?? c?inoaea. I?ney ooai?aiiy noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae
Oe?a?ia i?a?aoe?ei? a?aenoai? a Aeiiaoeueeo i?iaeiaaeoaaee c?inoaoe, o
Oa?eia? caeeoeeeny i?eaeecii ia oiio ae ??ai?, ui ? a 1985 ?., o Iieoaa?
o ae?iie aeaui c?inee, a a /ieia?e?a aeaui ciaioeeenue. Aeey
iieoaanueei? ? oa?e?anueei? iiioeyoe?e oa?aeoa?i? i?aeeii ? niaae
a?aenoaiae “aaoueee-aeeoeia” a iaio noaoae, o aeiiaoeuee?e — cieaeaiiy
aeaieo iieaciee?a i?ioyaii onueiai aea/aiiai ia??iaeo. Aeey an?o
aea/aieo iiioeyoe?e aei 1985 ?. aoei oa?aeoa?ia c?inoaiiy oethaii?
a?aenoai?, a a 1990-o ??. — ?? ciaioaiiy. O iieoaanuee?e iiioeyoe??
cia/aiiy oethaieo a?aenoaiae caaaeaee aoee i?i?iaeueieie (oaae.7).

9

Oaaeeoey 6 – Oethaia no?oeoo?a ca i?noeai ia?iaeaeaiiy

Iiia? ?aa?iioI?noi,
??eOa?e?aAeiiaoeueeIieoaaa196019851993196019851992196019851992%A’%A’%A’%
A’%A’%A’%A’%A’%A’125,816,141,826,350,420,528,221,144,910,963,514,328,921
,735,918,059,516,9224,621,213,613,113,110,316,118,624,211,710,110,542,32
9,028,922,019,113,3320,29,319,511,416,710,126,912,112,36,311,35,515,38,2
19,37,311,76,340,413,80,413,90,2-0,3-0,319,60,1-0,2-0,1-0,3-515,113,37,5
12,34,28,69,09,72,44,21,710,91,76,51,0-0,3-63,53,61,83,02,1-4,31,51,55,3
1,2-3,38,81,93,21,1-71,127,30,9-0,7-2,812,80,68,40,5-0,5-1,0-0,4-82,00,1
2,31,31,24,13,07,32,37,11,8-1,47,81,3-0,3-91,03,00,94,51,0-0,811,00,59,5
0,4-
0,4-0,4-0,1-100,516,01,638,72,229,91,014,11,613,11,825,60,3-0,8-0,923,81
10,914,90,9-0,6-1,43,70,910,80,6-0,913,30,8-0,2-120,2-0,59,50,3-0,233,10
,2-0,2-0,2-0,3-0,2-130,1-1,0-0,4-0,424,60,9-1,310,90,2-1,08,11,1-140,7-0
,9-0,8-1,414,10,8-0,4-0,8-0,5-0,6-

10

I?iaeiaaeaiiy oaaeeoei 6

Iiia? ?aa?iioI?noi,
??eOa?e?aAeiiaoeueeIieoaaa196019851993196019851992196019851992%A’%A’%A’%
A’%A’%A’%A’%A’%A’150,8-1,4-1,5-0,94,81,49,41,2-0,8-1,2-0,6-160,410,70,4-
0,826,50,319,70,4-0,1-0,4-0,8-0,5-170,3-1,61,11,1-0,69,41,42,30,9-0,2-1,
54,60,7-180,84,20,8-0,6-0,7-1,33,10,7-0,8-1,4-0,3-190,8-0,6-0,7-0,6-0,6-
0,9-0,6-0,533,00,3-200,6-1,22,90,7-0,7-0,8-0,8-0,5-0,8-0,5-210,2-0,4-0,7
-0,432,90,79,10,524,50,1-1,2-1,36,9

I?ei?oea. % — a?aenioie o?iaeaeaioe?a ?aa?iio, A’ – oethaia
ani?oaoeai?noue ca i?noeai ia?iaeaeaiiy. Iicia/aiiy ?aa?ii?a: 1 – Oa?e?a
(Aeiiaoeuee, Iieoaaa), 2 — Oa?e?anueea (Aeiiaoeueea, Iieoaanueea)
iaeano?, 3 — Oe?a?ia, 4 — Iieaeiaa, 5 — Oeaio?aeueii-*i?iicaiiee, 6 –
Oeaio?aeueiee, 7 — A?ei?on?y, 8 — I?ai?/iee Eaaeac, 9 — Iiaieaey, 10 —
?anioae?ee Caeaaeaccy, 11 — Aieai-A’yonueeee, 12 – I?eaaeoeea, 13 —
I?ai?/iee, 14 — I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiee, 15 — O?ae, 16 — ?anioae?ee
Na?aaeiuei? Ac??, 17 — Eacaonoai ? Ee?aec?y, 18 — Cao?aeiee Nea??, 19 —
No?aeiee Nea??, 20 – Aeaeae?e No?ae, 21 — ?iicaii? e?a?ie.

11

Oaaeeoey 7 – Aaiaoeei-aaia?ao?/i? iieacieee??e anooio aei
oethaoI?noiOa?e?aAeiiaoeueeIieoaaaI/?

m/Iae?

maeA-Ae?

ma-aeI-Ae?

mi-aeO?

moI/?

m/Iae?

maeA-Ae?

ma-aeI-Ae?

mi-aeO?

moI/?

m/Iae?

maeA-Ae?

ma-aeI-Ae?

mi-aeO?

mo1960479?

22394?

20363?

17287?

15548?

21693?

26562?

24506?

20399?

18654?

23401?

36370?

42294?

27255?

29476?

381985801?

36662?

30457?

22393?

19721?

27751?

39637?

34408?

23354?

20658?

28638?

41578?

39409?

28371?

27658?

341992-95802?

40657?

39406?

22319?

20627?

27879?

69819?

67316?

28301?

28536?

36603?

47623?

62265?

22233?

25450?

31

I?ei?oea. I/ ? m/ – na?aaeiy aeaeuei?noue i?a?aoe?? /ieia?e?a oa ??
iia??oi?noue, Iae ? mae – na?aaeiy aeaeuei?noue i?a?aoe?? ae?iie oa ??
iia??oi?noue, A-Ae ? ma-ae – na?aaeiy a?aenoaiue “aaoueei-aeeoeia” oa ??
iia??oi?noue, I-Ae ? mi-ae – na?aaeiy a?aenoaiue “iaoe-aeeoeia” oa ??
iia??oi?noue, O ? mo – na?aaeiy oethaia a?aenoaiue oa ?? iia??oi?noue.

12

Ca ?icaeyiooee i?ii?aeie /ano ??aaiue ina?oe a iiioeyoe?yo Oa?eiaa ?
Aeiiaoeueea i?aeaeueany, ui c aaiaoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o ? iiceoeaiei
iiiaioii, ine?eueee c? c?inoaiiyi ??aiy ina?oe iia’ycaia aaeaeaaoia
?icoi?iiy aaiaoe/iiai ?eceeo i?e iaaeeei-aaiaoe/iiio eiinoeueooaaii?.
Iaeiae c?inoaiiy ??aiy ina?oe iia’ycaia oaeiae c i?aeaeuaiiyi a?eo
anooio aei oethao, ui ? aeiaeaoeiaei oaeoi?ii aaiaoe/iiai ?eceeo aeey
iauaaee?a. O aea/aieo iiioeyoe?yo o iei?oi?e /an a?eueo ca ana i?e
anooi? a oetha in?a ?c na?aaeiueith niaoe?aeueiith ina?oith (31,0% a
oa?e?anuee?e ? 38,1% a aeiiaoeuee?e iiioeyoe?yo). Iii?oia oaiaeaioe?y ia
i?aeaeuaiiy /anoee in?a c aeuith ina?oith (a 1,2 ?ace a Oa?eia? ?
Aeiiaoeueeo) ? cieaeaiiyi /anoee in?a c na?aaeiueith caaaeueiith
ina?oith (a 1,4 ?ace a Oa?eia? ? Aeiiaoeueeo). Iie?oi?e/iee iieaciee
ca’yceo aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui ca ??aiai ina?oe aea/ai? iiioeyoe??
a?aeoeeythoueny a?ae iaii?eoe/iiai noaio. A?aecia/aia iiceoeaia oethaia
ani?oaoeai?noue a on?o oanoe a?oiao ina?oe. O aaiaoe/iiio nain? oea
iineeth? ?ai?iaeoeoeaio ?cieyoe?th ethaeae, ui i???ioothoueny ia iaaiee
??aaiue ina?oe (oaae.8).

Oaaeeoey 8 – Oethaia no?oeoo?a ca ina?oith

Ina?oaI?noi,
??eOa?e?aAeiiaoeuee1985199319851992%A’%A’%A’%A’Aeua21,843,126,043,119,63
6,523,141,6Iaiiaia aeua11,730,012,132,314,633,712,040,1Na?aaeiy
niaoe?aeueia25,023,731,022,030,621,138,127,6Na?aaeiy
caaaeueia36,833,426,628,332,628,622,831,8Iaiiaia
na?aaeiy4,326,64,227,02,230,93,841,1Ii/aoeiaa0,433,10,1-0,449,80,249,9I?
ei?oea. A’ – iieaciee oethaii? ani?oaoeaiino? ca ina?oith, % — a?aenioie
oetha?a eiie?aoiiai ??aiy ina?oe.

Aeiiii?/i? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoeeny a Oe?a?i? ca ia??iae, ioiieaiee
aeine?aeaeaiiyi, a?aeaeeeny ia i?ioan?eiiio neeaae? ia?a/aieo (oaae.9).
A on?o aea/aieo iiioeyoe?yo aoa aeyaeaiee ca’ycie i?ae i?ioan??th oa
iaoe?iiaeuei?noth aeey /ieia?e?a ? a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aeey ae?iie.
Na?aae in?a ?a?aenueei? iaoe?iiaeueiino? a oa?e?anuee?e ? aeiiaoeuee?e
iiioeyoe?yo a on?o eiai?oao aoei a?eueoa ?O? (a 1,5-3,3 ?ace) ?
iaaee/ieo ?ia?oiee?a (a 1,3-2,7 ?ace), i?ae a oe?eiio a iiioeyoe??. A
?ioeo aoi?/ieo a?oiao o iecoe? aeiaaee?a iaai? i?ioan?? oaeiae
?iciianthaeaeai? c /anoioith, a?aei?iiith a?ae
caaaeueiiiiioeyoe?eii?.

13

Oaaeeoey 9 – Oethaia no?oeoo?a ca i?ioan??th

I?ioa-

n?yI?noi,
??eOa?e?aAeiiaoeueeIieoaaa19601985199319601985199219601985%A’%A’%A’%A’%A
’%A’%A’%A’145,943,729,042,020,727,443,150,625,845,919,531,531,728,926,73
1,4215,520,418,719,522,011,318,821,319,525,218,512,822,419,326,815,3310,
633,715,434,710,627,56,118,311,523,58,710,35,218,55,515,941,018,42,347,7
3,224,01,717,32,14,42,957,71,7-2,3-51,743,72,633,63,830,42,32,93,926,44,
937,83,940,42,935,462,612,64,123,84,623,02,427,23,324,94,225,13,135,433,
715,270,615,81,045,90,912,40,819,10,713,71,630,10,1-0,549,680,2-0,814,54
,926,61,25,01,920,15,021,80,4-0,929,393,8-2,479,01,722,50,8-1,4-1,2-6,3-
4,1-1012,651,516,157,614,355,914,055,621,560,417,450,917,661,623,653,311
5,412,57,617,813,317,88,813,48,411,416,117,57,610,73,017,7I?ei?oea. % —
a?aenioie iiae?oaeae?a eiie?aoii? i?ioan??, A’ – oethaia ani?oaoeai?noue
ca i?ioan??th. Iicia/aiiy i?ioan?e: 1 — ?ia?oieee noa?e ae?iaieoeoaa, 2
— ?ia?oieee noa?e ianeoaiaoaaiiy, 3 – ?O?, 4 – aooaaeoa?e, ieaiiaeee,
aeiiii?noe, 5 — iaaee/iee ia?niiae, 6 – aeeeaaea/?, th?enoe,
a?ae?ioaea??, 7 – iaoeia? i?aoe?aieee, 8 —
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oi?aae?inueeee ia?niiae, 9 – a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?, 10
— o?, ui iaa/athoueny, 11 — ?io?.

14

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia cieaeaiiy ?ie?
iaoe?iiaeueiino? o aeai?? oethaiiai ia?oia?a, iiceoeaia oethaia
ani?oaoeai?noue ii i?ioan?ei?e i?eiaeaaeiino? iiaea i?ioeae?yoe oeueiio
i?ioeano e a?aeoeeyoe iiioeyoe?th a?ae iaii?eniiai noaio ca aoi?/iith
i?eiaeaaei?noth. Ca i?ioan?eiith i?eiaeaaei?noth aea/ai? iiioeyoe??
a?aeoeeythoueny a?ae noaio iaii?en?? i?eaeecii a iaeiaeia?e i???, i?i ui
na?ae/aoue iiae?ai? cia/aiiy iie?oi?e/iiai iieacieeo ca’yceo E (oaae.5).
Aiae?c ani?oaoeaiino? ca i?ioan??th iieacaa, ui o a?eueoino? c ieo ?nio?
iiceoeaia oethaia ani?oaoeai?noue. Oea ?iaeoue iiioeyoe??
i?ae?icae?eaieie ca i?ioan?eiith i?eiaeaaei?noth. Oeiiaei aeey an?o
iiioeyoe?e ? oa, ui iaea?eueo aenie? ?iaeaene iiceoeaii? oethaii?
ani?oaoeaiino? a?aecia/ai? a ?ia?oiee?a iniiaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa (aei
50,6%) oa o/i?a (aei 61,6%). (oaae.9). Caaaeii ?ieue i?ioan?? o
oi?ioaaii? oethaii? no?oeoo?e c /anii i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny.

AENIIAEE

1. Aea/aiiy caien?a oetha?a, ye? aoee ca?a?no?iaai? a 1960, 1985 oa
1992-95 ??. a o?aai?ciaaieo iiioeyoe?yo no?aeii? Oe?a?ie (Oa?e?a,
Aeiiaoeuee, Iieoaaa), iieacaei, ui a 90-? ?iee ci?ieeanue aeeiai?ea
aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/iiai i?ioeano. sseui c 1960 ii 1985 ??. o oeeo
iiioeyoe?yo ca?eueooaaany aooa?eaeeiaiaee eiiiiiaio, oi a 90-? ?iee
ii/aany c??no ?ia?eaeeiaiaiai eiiiiiaioa.

2. Iineeaiiy aooa?eaeeiaiaiai eiiiiiaioa a ia??iae c 1960 ii 1985 ??.
ae?aceeinue o i?aeaeuaii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ??ciiiai?ooy, a?aenioea
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo oetha?a, aeaeueiino? i?a?aoe?? oa oethaii? a?aenoai?.

3. C??no ?ia?eaeeiaiaiai eiiiiiaioa a 90-o? ?iee ae?aceany a ciaioaii?
eiao?oe??ioa i?a?aoe??, aoi?/iiai ??ciiiai?ooy, oethaii? a?aenoai?,
i?aeaeuaii? a?aenioea iaeiiiaoe?iiaeueieo oetha?a, oaiaeaioe?? aei
iiiiaoi?/iino?.

4. Cia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiino? oa i?noey ia?iaeaeaiiy o oi?ioaaii?
oethaii? no?oeoo?e i?nueeeo iiioeyoe?e no?aeii? Oe?a?ie iineaaeth?oueny:
ca oeeie iciaeaie aiie iaaeeaeathoueny aei iaii?en??. Caeeoa?oueny
noaa?eueiith aai i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ieue nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eieo iciae:
aea/ai? iiioeyoe?? ca ina?oith oa i?ioan??th caeeoathoueny
?ai?iaeoeoeaii i?ae?icae?eaieie.

15

O?e?ioeiaa I.A. Aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/i? i?ioeane a o?aai?ciaaieo
iiioeyoe?yo no?aeii? Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.15. – aaiaoeea / Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, 1998 ?.

Aea/aiiy caien?a oetha?a, ye? aoee ca?a?no?iaai? a 1960, 1985 oa 1992-95
??. a o?aai?ciaaieo iiioeyoe?yo no?aeii? Oe?a?ie (Oa?e?a, Aeiiaoeuee,
Iieoaaa), iieacaei, ui a 90-? ?iee ci?ieeanue aeeiai?ea
aaiaoeei-aeaiia?ao?/iiai i?ioeano. sseui c 1960 ii 1985 ??. o oeeo
iiioeyoe?yo ca?eueooaaany aooa?eaeeiaiaee eiiiiiaio (i?aeaeuaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ??ciiiai?ooy, a?aenioea i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo oetha?a,
aeaeueiino? i?a?aoe?? oa oethaii? a?aenoai?), oi a 90-? ?iee ii/aany
c??no ?ia?eaeeiaiaiai eiiiiiaioa (ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioa i?a?aoe??,
aoi?/iiai ??ciiiai?ooy, oethaii? a?aenoai?, i?aeaeuaiiy a?aenioea
iaeiiiaoe?iiaeueieo oetha?a, oaiaeaioe?y aei iiiiaoi?/iino?). Ca
iciaeaie “iaoe?iiaeuei?noue” oa “i?noea ia?iaeaeaiiy” i?nuee? iiioeyoe??
no?aeii? Oe?a?ie iaaeeaeathoueny aei iaii?en??, ca
nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eieie iciaeaie (ina?oa, i?ioan?y) aea/ai? iiioeyoe??
caeeoathoueny ?ai?iaeoeoeaii i?ae?icae?eaieie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiioeyoe?y, no?aeia Oe?a?ia, oethaia no?oeoo?a,
?ia?eaeeia, aooa?eaeeia, iaii?en?y, i?a?aoe?y, oethaia ani?oaoeai?noue.

Oeeeioeiaa I.A. Aaiaoeei-aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?ioeannu a o?aaiece?iaaiiuo
iiioeyoeeyo ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.15. – aaiaoeea / Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?neoao, 1998 a.

Eco/aiea caiene a?aeia, caeeth/aiiuo a 1960, 1985 e 1992-95 aa. a
o?aaiece?iaaiiuo iiioeyoeeyo ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu (Oa?ueeia, Aeiiaoee e
Iieoaaa) iieacaei, /oi a 90-a aiaeu eciaieeanue aeeiaieea
aaiaoeei-aeaiia?aoe/aneiai i?ioeanna. Anee n 1960 ii 1985 aa. a yoeo
iiioeyoeeyo oaaee/eaaeny aooa?eaeeiaiaue eiiiiiaio (iiauoaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?aciiia?acey, i?ioeaioa iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo a?aeia,
aeaeueiinoe iea?aoeee e a?a/iiai ?annoiyiey), oi a 90-a aiaeu ia/aeinue
ia?anoaiea eia?aaeiiai eiiiiiaioa (oiaiueoaiea eiyooeoeeaioa iea?aoeee,
yoie/aneiai ?aciiia?acey, a?a/iiai ?annoiyiey, iiauoaiea i?ioeaioa
iaeiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo a?aeia, oaiaeaioeey e iiiiyoie/iinoe). Ii i?eciaeai
“iaoeeiiaeueiinoue” e “ianoi ?iaeaeaiey” ai?iaeneea iiioeyoeee ainoi/iie
Oe?aeiu i?eaeeaeathony e iaiieenee, ii nioeeaeueii-i?ioanneiiaeueiui
i?eciaeai (ia?aciaaiea, i?ioanney) eco/aiiua iiioeyoeee inoathony
?ai?iaeoeoeaii iiae?acaeaeaiiuie. 16

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiioeyoeey, ainoi/iay Oe?aeia, a?a/iay no?oeoo?a,
eia?eaeeia, aooa?eaeeia, iaiieeney, iea?aoeey, a?a/iay anni?oaoeaiinoue.

Filiptsova I.V. Genetic and Demographic Processes in Urban Populations
of Eastern Ukraine. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a biological candidate’s degree by speciality 03.00.15. –
genetics / Kharkov State University, 1998.

Study of marriage records for 1960, 1985 and 1992-95 years in urban
populations of eastern Ukraine (Kharkov, Donetzk and Poltava) has shown
genetic and demographic dynamics change in nineties. It has been
displayed outbreeding component increasing (national diversity,
international marriages percentage, migration and marriage distances
increasing) from 1960 to 1985 and inbreeding component increasing
(migration coefficient, ethnic diversity, marriage distance decreasing,
mononational marriages increasing, tendency to monoethnicity). Urban
populations of eastern Ukraine are coming to panmixya state by
nationality and birthplace, and remaining reproductionally subdivided by
social and professional characters (education and profession).

Keywords: population, eastern Ukraine, marriage structure, inbreeding,
outbreeding, panmixya, migration, marriage assortativity.

OAIA AeENA?OAOe?? A?AeIA?AAEAIA A IOAE?EAOe?ssO

1. E. Ao?aiaioiaa, N. A?eiaa, ?. Aieiaaiue, I. O?e?ioeiaa.
Aeaiiaaiaoe/i? aca?iica’ycee ianaeaiiy Oa?eiaa // Aeaiia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aei. 19. – Ee?a, 1997. – N. 139-148.

2. Ao?aiaioiaa E.A., Oeeeioeiaa I.A. Aaiaoeei-aeaiia?aoe/aneea i?ioeannu
a ai?iaeneeo iiioeyoeeyo Oe?aeiu a 90-o aiaeao. A?a/iay no?oeoo?a
oa?ueeianeie iiioeyoeee // Aaiaoeea. – 1998. – O.34, ?8. – N.1120-1126.

3. Ao?aiaioiaa E.A., Eo?iaaeiaa A.Ae., Oeeeioeiaa I.A.
Aaiaoeei-aeaiia?aoe/aneay no?oeoo?a iieoaaneie iiioeyoeee // A?niee
i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. Aei.17. – 1998. – N.6-8.

4. Ao?aiaioiaa E.A., Iooei A.I., Oeeeioeiaa I.A. A?a/iay aeeiaieea
aeiiaoeeie iiioeyoeee // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. Aei.20. –
1998. – N.65-68

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