I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI?
I.I.AIAIIIEUeOess

OAeE 611.16.013:611.366

Eaioea? Ieaia Aaea???aia

AAIII?E?IOeE?EOEssOI?IA ?ONEI AEIA*IIAI I?OO?A ETHAeEIE A
I?AIAOAEUeIIIO IA??IAe? IIOIAAIACO

14.03.01.- ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaae. iaoe, i?ioani? Aia?ee ?aai
?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? IIO,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiaaeuenueeee
Ieoaeei Iaaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? ?
iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? IIO;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
E?ooeye Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith ii?iaeueii?
aiaoii?? Aoeiaeinueei? Aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? IIC Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y
IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aiaoii?? ethaeeie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “16 ”aa?aniy1999 ?. i13.30 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.003.04. Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey (252057,Oe?a?ia, i.
Ee?a-57, i?iniaeo ia?aiiae, 34, ii?oieia?/iee ei?ion, aoae. ?3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey (252057, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Ciieia?/ia, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “8”eeiiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A.A.*a?eania

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie .Aeine?aeaeaiiyie inoaii?o 10-15 ?ie?a
(A.A.Eoi?eyiia,1986-1993; A.I.*a?ioo, I.I.Aeaenaiae?ia, I.A.Aeaen??a
1984 ?.; ?.?.Aia?ee, I.I.Oaa/aiei, A.A.*a?eania, 1991) iieacaii, ui
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei ? ooieoe?iiaeueiith nenoaiith, iniiaiith
caaea/ath yei? ? iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy i?aai?a ? oeaiei a?aeiia?aeii
aei ?o o?c?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? eiie?aoiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio.
Anoaiiaeaii ( ?.?.Aia?ee, I.I.Oaa/aiei, A.A.*a?eania 1991?.), ui
iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy, ca?aeii c ooieoe?iiaeueieie iniaeeainoyie
i?aai?a, ae??oo?oueny ia iniia? i?aaiii? niaoeeo?/iino?
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ieo n?oie, iaoiiaeaii? ni?eueiei a?noiaaiacii oeeo n?oie
? ia?aio?ie.

Caaaeueiiaeciaii, ui eiaeia ooieoe?y aaco?oueny ia aaeaeaaoi?e ?e
no?oeoo?? (A.A.Na?ia, 1986). I/aaeaeii, ui ? aeia/iee i?oo? — i?aai c
aaaeeeaith ? nai???aeiith ooieoe??th a i?aai?ci?, ia? aeanoeao eiio
aeao?i?oeaio no?oeoo?o ? i?aai?caoe?th i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea, yea ?
ii?oieia?/iei aacenii eiai ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? (A.I.Eaeyi,
1989).

Caoai?thaaiiy aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie ca inoaii? ?iee ca /anoioith
i?iya?a aenoioeenue a ?yae nioe?aeueii nooo?aeo ( A.A.Eia?iaa, 1981).
Aeciaiiy aaaeeeai? ?ie? noaeeiiiai oaeoi?o a ??cieo oai??yo
ao?iiaoiaaiaca iaoieia?/ieo ci?i a aeia/iiio i?oo??, ??no aeene?iac?e
oa a?iaeaeaieo caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie aeeeeeaee
i?aeaeuaiee ?ioa?an aei no?oeoo?e i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai
i?oo?a ethaeeie (N.N.Naeeaano?ia, 1978, A.I. Eaeyi, 1989) . I?ae oei,
iaoai?cie aeieeiaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo e?iaiiinieo i?e?inoaeei
aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie (iniaeeai no?oeoo? eiai no?iee), ia ciaeoee
naiai inoaoi/iiai ??oaiiy. Oea a?eueoith i??ith iia’ycaii c oei, ui
ieoaiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae ia?aeiiiai oa aoi?eiiiai
aia?iaaiaco a aeia/iiio i?oo?? aei inoaiiueiai /ano caeeoathoueny ia
c’yniaaieie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiiaia a ?one? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey: “Aea/eoe
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?-ia ?onei neeciai? iaieiiee i?aai?a o?aaii?,
aeeoaeueii?, na/inoaoaai? nenoai ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?
iioiaaiaco” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0195I011141).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aea/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a ia?aeiiiai ? aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco
e?iaiiinieo noaeei i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie
a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1) aea/eoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ia?aeiieo e?iaiiinieo
noaeei i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie ia ?aii?o
aoaiao i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco;

2) anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??i?noue aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy a?aeae?e?a ia?aeiii?
i?ioieai?ey?ii? n?oee a ??ci? eaiee i?aaiiniaoeeo?/iiai
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a.

3) aea/eoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ee?oeiieo oa
iaee?oeiieo eiiiiiaio?a no?iee eiaeii? eaiee aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie.

4) aeyaeoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iaoai?cie oa niiniae oi?ioaaiiy aoi?eiieo
e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie c iaoith
aeyaeaiiy noaae?e aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ca aeiiiiiaith canoinoaaiiy
iae?i-i?e?ineii?/ieo iaoiae?a oa o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??
aia?oa aoee aecia/ai? aoaie ?icaeoeo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco.

Aia?oa iienai? no?oeoo?i? iaoai?cie eaieiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? noaeei
i?ioieai?ey?iiai ?onea o a?aeiia?aei? eaiee aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea a no?ioe? aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie ia na?oiiioe/iiio ??ai?.

Aia?oa iienai? oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ee?oeiieo oa
iaee?oeiieo eiiiiiaio?a no?iee eiaeii? eaiee aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie. Aia?oa aoea aeaia oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea
i?ioieai?ey??a ia ?aii?o aoaiao i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Aia?oa iienai? iaoai?cie oa niiniae oi?ioaaiiy aoi?eiieo e?iaiiinieo
eai?ey??a an?o oa??a no?iee aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie .

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? aeai? i?i
noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a
ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco iiaeooue noaoe iniiaith
aeey iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy aoaeiae i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i?e
iaoieia?? iaoa?? ? ieiaeo, ui aeiiiiiaea c’ynoaaoe, yeo ?ieue a?ae?a?a?
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei i?e oi?ioaaii? aeayeeo aaae ? aiiiae?e
?icaeoeo. Aeai?, ui io?eiai?, aeiiiaiththoue oyaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie
noaeeiii? nenoaie aeia/iiai i?oo?a: noaiiaeaiiy niaoeeo?/ii?
aia?ia?o?oaeoii?ee i?aaio, o?nii iia’ycaiith c aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiyi eiai
oa??a; ?icoe?ththoue ciaiiy i?i ii?iaeueiee aia?iaaiac, ui ? aeeaaeii o
?icaeoie no/anii? aia?ieia??.

?acoeueoaoe aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue ?ioa?an aeey i?aeoe/ieo
e?ea??a: aano?iaioa?ieia?a, iaae?ao??a, o??o?a?a; iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a aano?iaioa?ieia??, o??o?a?? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? a o/aiaee
i?ioean ia eaoaae?ao ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??, a?noieia?? ? aia??ieia??,
iia?aoeaii? o??o?a??, oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??, iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii??,
iaae?ao??? ? oa?ai?? iaaee/ieo AOC?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi cae?eniaii aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, caa?? iaoa??aeo, ?i’?eoe?ei? oa
aeaeo?iii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aea/aiiy i?aia?ao?a ia
na?oeiiioe/iiio oa aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiio ??aiyo; i?iaaaeaii
iaaiai?aiiy aeanieo aeaieo, ni?eueii c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii
noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? aeniiaee ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia ?? iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an? aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a,
aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie (Eoaainuee,1998); iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? aiaoii?? noaeeiii?
nenoaie” (Euea?a, 1995); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
ii?oieia??” (Oa?iii?eue, 1996), iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie aeia?eiaioaeueii? iaaeeoeeie” (Ee?a,1999).

Ioae?eaoe??.

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 ?ia?o, ?c ieo o oaoiaeo
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo AAE Oe?a?ie – 3.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. . Iniiaiee oaeno aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeaii ia 125 noi??ieao. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 4
?icae?e?a iniaenoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 156 aeaea?ae a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
aaoi??a. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 59 i?e?ioioia?ao?yie ? aeaeo?iiia?aiiaie, 2
noaiaie ? 1 oaaeeoeath.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca?aeii c caaaeaiiyi aeaii? ?iaioe aoei aeinae?aeaeaii 130 aia??ii?a ?
ieiae?a ethaeeie a a?oe? a?ae 4-5 oeaei?a aei 9 i?nyoe?a
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo.

Iaoa??ae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa io?eiaiee c aeooa?nueeeo ?
a?iaeieia?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue e?ea?aiue i?noa Ee?aa i?ney naiia?eueieo
aai?o?a, ia?aae/anieo iieia?a, ye? a?aeaoeenue aiane?aeie ineo?/ii? aai
iaoai?/ii? o?aaie, a oaeiae i?ney ooo/iiai ia?a?eaaiiy aaa?oiino?. A
ca’yceo c oeei, i?ae /an io?eiaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aea, ie
oaaaeii aea/aee ?noi??th oai?iae iaoa??, i?iaiaeeee ?icoei ?
iaoaiaoii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy o?oi?a aia??ii?a ? ieiae?a. Aia??iiaeueiee
? ieiaeiee iaoa??ae aoa io?eiaiee a?ae i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo ae?iie.

Ca?aeii c caaaeueiiaecia/ai?e noai? aioo??oiueioo?iaiee ia??iae
?icaeoeo iiae?ey?oueny ia aeaa ia??iaee: aia??iiaeueiee (ia?oeo 8
oeaei?a i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo) oa ieiaeiee (E.I. Eii??a, Oaeei,
Patten,1959). Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy a?eo aia??ii?a ie a aeaiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaiaeeee aei??e o?i’yii-eoi?eeiai? aeiaaeeie oa
aeiaaeeie noiie a i?e?iao?ao. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ioe?ithaaee ii
oaaeeoeyi, cai?iiiiiaaieo I.?.Oae?iei. O an?o aeiaaeeao i?e anoaiiaeaii?
a?eo aia??ii?a oa ieiae?a i?eeiaeenue aei oaaae aeai? aiaiiaca oa
?acoeueoaoe iaaee/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??.

Ia na?oeiiioe/iiio ??ai? no?iea aeia/iiai i?oo?a aia??ii?a ? ieiae?a
ethaeeie aoea aeine?aeaeaia ia ai?eciioaeueieo oa o?iioaeueieo na??eieo
c??cao, oioaeueii iioa?aiaaieo caaaeueiia?noieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie. C??ce
caaoiaoee 10-15 iei oa?aoaaee oaeeie caaaeueiia?noieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie:
oa?aoaaiiy aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii; oa?aoaaiiy i?e?iooeneiii ii Aai-A?ciio;
?ii?aaiaoe?y ii Aiii??; oa?aoaaiiy ii Iaeei??.

Aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie aea/aee
ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaena ?i’?eoe?eieo iaoiae?a. Ieiaeiee iaoa??ae aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa io?eiaiee ni?a?ia?oieeaie a?aeae?eaiiy aeeoy/i?
iaoieia?? OAeNI “IOIAAeAO” (caa?aeoaa/ — AEaaea?a Aieiaeeie?
Ieeieaeiae/)*.

Aeey aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy oi?ie aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ?
oa?aeoa?o eiioo??a iaae i?ae ieie o an?o eaieao aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea aoe aeei?enoaiee iaoiae ?ii?aaiaoe?? oeyoii ?i’?eoe?? 0,2 %
?ic/eio i?o?aoa n??aea /a?ac ieno?aeio ai?oo ii ?aia’? a iiaeeo?eaoe??
A.A.Nooei ? E.A.*a?ieoaiei.

Aia?ia?oeoaeoii?eo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a
aea/aee oeyoii ?i’?eoe?? ieiae?a 4-9 i?nyoe?a aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai
?icaeoeo 30% aiaeiei ?ic/eiii /i?ii? ooo? /a?ac ieno?aeio ai?oo. AEia/i?
i?oo?e i?ney ?i’?eoe?? /i?iith ooooth aai acioiieeneei n??aeii o?enoaaee
a ?ic/ei? E?ee?. Oioaeuei? i?aia?aoe ciaaiaeithaaee a nie?oao aeno?aeii?
eiioeaio?aoe??, ina?oethaaee a eneeie? ? ?ici?uoaaee a aaeuecai?.
Io?eiai? i?aia?aoe aea/aee ? oioia?aooaaee, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?e?ineii
IA?-6 ? a?iieoey?io eoio IA?-2.

Aeey aea/aiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae aeieeiaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo i?e?inoaeei e?iaiiiniiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a aia??ii?a ?
ieiae?a ethaeeie aoa aeei?enoaiee iaoiae o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii?
i?e?ineii??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue aaoi?ii ni?eueii ?c
ni?a?ia?oieeaie a?aeae?eo oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai oa ii?oiiao?e/iiai aiae?co
IAeEOe IIO (caa?aeoth/a a?aeae?eii – ae.a.i., i?ioani? Noa/aiei
Ethaeieea Ieaenaiae??aia)*.

Aeey o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? iaoa??ae aoa acyoee ia
i?ci?oa aeaio aiaeei i?ney nia?o? aia??iia /e ieiaea. Ca?aeii aeaieo
TH.I. Eiioo?ia c ni?aaaoi?aie (1977), oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iciaee aooie?co
ee?oei c’yaeythoueny i?ney aeaio aiaeei i?ney nia?o? ieiaea. I?ioa, i?e
aea/aii? oeueo?ano?oeoo?e aeia/iiai i?oo?a, iaie oaeiae a?aoiaoaaeenue ?
ii iiaeeeaino? aeeeth/aeenue a??ia?aei? iinia?oi? ci?ie. Oiaoi/ee oeaiei
aeia/iiai i?oo?a ?ici??ii 1-2 ii o?enoaaee ?ia?n?eiei niiniaii a 2,5 %
?ic/ei? aethoa?aeueaeaa?aea ia 0,1 I oinoaoiiio aooa?? (?I = 7,4) ia
i?ioyc? 2 aiaeei i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??, i?iieaaee a oinoaoiiio
aooa??, iio?i iinoo?enoaaee a

_______________________________________________________________

*Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo ni?a?ia?oieeai aeuacacia/aieo
i?ae?icae?e?a ca iino?eio oaaao oa aeiiiiiao o aeeiiaii? aeaiiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. 1 % ?ic/ei? ini??ai?
eeneioe ia i?ioyc? iaeii? aiaeeie. I?ney o?enaoe?? aeiee i?iieaaee a 3-4
ii?oe?yo oinoaoiiai aooa?a ii 15 oaeeei a eiaei?e, aeaa?ae?aooaaee a
nie?oao aeno?aeii? eiioeaio?aoe??, noi?o? nie?o-aoeaoii, aoeaoii. Iio?i
ciaaiaeaeaio oeaieio iine?aeiaii ?ici?uoaaee a noi?o aiiia ? aoeaoiia a
ni?aa?aeiioaii? 1:3, 1:1, 3:1 a?aeiinii ia 2 aiaeeie a eiaeio ii?oe?th ?
caeeth/aee a aiiiiao noi?o. Iie?ia??caoe?th aeie?a i?iaiaeeee a
oa?iinoao? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 56 ia i?ioyc? 3-5 ae?a. Iai?aoiie? c??ce,
caoiaoee 0,5-1,5 iei aiooaaee ia oeueo?aoii? EEA-3 . C??ce oa?aoaaee
iaoeeaiiaei nei?i. I?ney aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?aoiieeo c??c?a,
i?iaiaeeeanue i?eoe?eueia caoi/ea i??ai?ae aeie?a. Oeueo?aoiie? c??ce
aiooaaee ia oeueo?aoii? EEA-3 ca aeiiiiiaith neeyieo iiae?a. No??/ee
c??c?a n??aeynoiai oa i?aeiicieioenoiai eieuei?o eiio?anooaaee
o?ai?eaoeaoaoii ? oeeo?aoii naeioeth ii caaaeueiii?eeiyo?e iaoiaeeoe?.
I?aia?aoe aea/aee ? oioia?aooaaee a aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? AIA-100 A?
oa AI-125.

?ACOEUeOAOE AEANIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui ?icaeoie
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco caaacia/o?oueny ca ?aooiie:

1) ia?aeiiiai aia?iaaiaco, yeee eaea i?ioyaii aia??iiaeueiiai ia??iaeo
iioiaaiaco;

2) aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco, yeee eaea i?ioyaii ieiaeiiai ia??iaeo
iioiaaiaco.

I?noeai ooai?aiiy ia?aeiieo e?iaiiinieo i?e?inoaeei (i?ioieai?ey??a) ?
iacaio?ia iaaeiei ai?oae?aeueii? caeeaaeee aeia/iiai i?oo?a aia??ii?a
ethaeeie. Ia nueiiiio oeaei? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo
ai?oae?aeueia caeeaaeea aeia/iiai i?oo?a ioi/aia iacaio?iith. Iacaio?ia
caeeaaeee aeia/iiai i?oo?a i?aaenoaaey? niaith iooeo n?oeo, ooai?aio
iie?ii?oieie a?ae?in/aoeie ee?oeiaie. I?aei? ?icaaeoaeai? a?ae?inoee
aaaaoueio ?c oeeo ee?oei u?eueii i?eeyaathoue aei a?ae?inoe?a non?aei?o
iacaio?iioeeo?a. A?eueoa /anoeia oeeo ee?oei oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
c??/anoith aai aa?aoaiiiiae?aiith oi?iith. Iacaio?iioeeoe eaaeaoue a
na?oe?e aii?oi?e i?aeee?oeii?e ?a/iaei?. A aii?oi?e iniiai?e ?a/iaei?
iacaio?ie aecia/a?oueny iaaaeeea e?euee?noue ?icn?yieo oiieeo aieieii,
ye? aeiaie? aeaeaei a?aenoiyoue iaeia a?ae iaeiiai.

C??/ano? oa aa?aoaiiiiae?ai? iacaio?iioeeoe iathoue iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie
ie?oaea /e iaaeueia yae?i. ssae?i iacaio?iioeeo?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iayai?noth aeenia?aiaaiiai o?iiaoeio ? aeia?a iii?oieie yaea?oeyie.
ssaea?oey, ye i?aaeei, ?ici?uothoueny aenoeaio?e/ii, i?eeyaath/e aei
iaeanoae ?iaaa?iaoe?? yaea?ii? iaieiiee. ssaea?oey cia/ii ??ciyoueny ca
oi?iith oa ?ici??aie. Aiie neeaaeathoueny c a?aioey?iiai oa o?a?eey?iiai
eiiiiiaio?a.

ssae?i iacaio?iioeeo?a ioi/aia aocueeith iaeyi?aeith oeeoiieacie, a
eio??e aecia/a?oueny iacia/ia e?euee?noue i?aaiae. I?oioiiae???
a?ae??ciythoueny i?ina?oeaiei iao?eenii ? ??aeei ?ici?uaieie e?enoaie.

A?aioey?ia aiaeiieaciaoe/ia n?oea cia/ii ?icaeiaia ? caiiaiaia ai?noii
na?aaeiuei? ? aeniei? aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino?. I?ee??ieai? ?eainiie
eiiiaeoii ?iciiae?eai? ia iaia?aiao n?oee. A?euei? ?eainiie ca?oiiaai? a
iie?niie. Aeaiaioe oeeoineaeaoo i?aaenoaaeai? i?e?io?oai/eaie oa
i?e?io?eaiaioaie. A oeeoiieaci? aecia/athoueny iiiaeeiie? e?i?aei?
e?aie? oa a?aioee ae?eiaaio, a oaeiae i?ee? aaceeoee, eio?? ceeaathoueny
a ioeueoeaaceeoey?i? eiiieaene. Ieanoei/anoee eiiieaen Aieueaeae?
i?aaenoaaeaiee nenoaiith aocueeeo aeiaaeo oeenoa?i, a oaeiae i?eeeo ?
na?aaei?o aaceeoe. O oeeoiieaci? aeyaeythoueny e?oae? ? iaaeuei?
e?ciniie aeniei? aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino?, eio?? ioi/ai? iaei??th
iaia?aiith. E?ciniie ooai?ththoue ?iiae? cia/i? neoi/aiiy. E??i e?cinii
a oeeoiieaci? iacaio?iioeeo?a cono??/athoueny i??e?iiiiae?ai? no?oeoo?e.

Ie??i c??/anoeo oa aa?aoaiiiiae?aieo iacaio?iioeeo?a cono??/athoueny ?
ee?oeie ?ioi? oi?ie, ui a?ae??ciythoueny ii nai?e oeueo?ano?oeoo?i?e
i?aai?caoe??. Aeiaie? /anoi i?ae oeiiaeie iacaio?iioeeoaie iiaeia
ciaeoe a?eo?iaeanoe, eio?? iathoue aiaaiaeaeio oi?io ? aeaeo?iiiiu?eueio
oeeoiieacio.

Iacaio?iioeeoe c’?aeiothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith u?eueieo i?aeee?oeiieo
eiioaeo?a ? oi?iothoue ?aeeiee ee?oeiiee ieano “aa?aaiaeo” ee?oei
?ioa?noeoe?eieo eaiae?a, ye? iinooiiai aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny a
i?eii?ae?aeuei? aiaeioae?ioeeoe. Iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui i?aeee?oeii?
eiioaeoe i?ae “aa?aaiaeie” iacaio?iioeeoaie aeeiiothoue
nenoaiiooai?thth/o ooieoe?th: iaaeathoue noeoiiino? eiioaeooth/eo ee?oei
iiao ye?noue – ia?aoai?ththoue ?o a oeaieiio nenoaio (iiiioa?
i?eii?ae?aeueieo aiaeioae?ioeeo?a).

I?aeee?oeii? eiioaeoe i?ae i?eii?ae?aeueieie aiaeioae?ioeeoaie,
a??ia?aeii, aecia/athoue ??aaiue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oa ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
ca’yceo aiaeioae?ioeeo?a o neeaae? oeaieiiiai iiiioa?o ? ?acii c
aacaeueiith iaia?aiith, yea ?icaeaa?oueny, caaacia/othoue ?o
iicaeiaaeith iiey?ecaoe?th. Iaaeae?, ca ?aooiie iiia?a/ii? iiey?ecaoe??,
yea caaacia/o?oueny noaiiaeaiiyi nenoaie i?e?iaaceeoey?iiai o?ainii?oo ?
iiaeaeueoei ?icaeoeii aacaeueii? iaia?aie, a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy
ciiaeueiino? i?eii?ae?aeueiiai aiaeioae?th ? a?i iaaoaa? ?en aiaeioae?th
niiaoe/iiai oeio.

Eae?a? e?iaiiinieo i?e?inoaeei aeia/iiai i?oo?a, ye? ?icaeaathoueny
oeyoii ia?aeiiiai aia?iaaiaco, ??ciiiai?oiee. I?ioa, ca aoaeiaith
no?iee, ui ooai?aia iiiioa?ii i?eii?ae?aeueieo aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ?
aacaeueiith iaia?aiith, yea oi?io?oueny, aiie iiaeooue aooe iacaai?
i?ioieai?ey?aie. A i?ioean? ia?aoai?aiiy i?eii?ae?aeueieo
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a a c??e? aiaeioae?ioeeoe eai?ey??a ieiae?a iaie
a?aei?/ai? ye?ni? ci?ie ?o oeeoineaeaoo. Aeyaeaii i?aeaeuaiiy
no?oeoo?iaaiino? (iane/aiino?) oeeoineaeaoo ii i??? ?icaeoeo
aiaeioae?th. I?aeaeuaiiy no?oeoo?iaaiino? ii?aeio?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
ai?cio?iiiino? (aii?yaeeiaaiino? ?icoaooaaiiy) oeeoineaeaoiiai ea?eano,
ui i?iyaey?oueny a noaiiaeaii? oa?aeoa?ii? i???ioaoe?? i?e?io?eaiaio?a.
I?e oeueiio ia? i?noea oi?ioaaiiy a?eyeiioaeoieo io/e?a i?e?io?eaiaio?a,
ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ca i?aeo?eieo oe?e?niino? ee?oeiiiai iiiioa?o ? ca
nei?i/oaaiiy ee?oeiieo iaae, a oaeiae iicaeiaaei?o io/e?a
i?e?io?eaiaio?a – aieieii iaoyao (aeyaeaii?noue yeeo, ye a?aeiii,
ei?aeth? c aaeaac?ai?noth aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei
i?aeeaaeiai noano?aoo).

A a?eyeiioaeoi?e cii? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a aeia/iiai
i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie iaie a?aei?/aii ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
i?e?io?eaiaio?a ii?yae c i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?ie i?e?ii?iioeeoicieie
aaceeoeaie. Ia aeeeth/aii, ui i?e?io?eaiaioe aieeaathoue ia oi?io
i?aeaiaeioae?aeueieo c’?aeiaiue. Iaie aecia/aia ??ciiiai?oi?noue
aaiiao?e/ieo oi?i i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe ? ?icaeoie
ia?aieaciieaiaeueiiai oa?o.

Oaeei /eiii, ia?aeiiee aia?iaaiac i?ioiaeeoue a iacaio?i? ca/aoea
aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie o?eueee a aia??iiaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco
? aeeth/a? oae? noaae??:

a) eiioeaio?aoe?y ee?oei iacaio?ie c aia?iaeanoe/ieie iioaioe?yie;

a) aa?aaaoe?y aia?iaeanoe/ieo ee?oei iacaio?ie (?o c’?aeiaiiy ca
aeiiiiiaith u?eueieo i?aeee?oeiieo eiioaeo?a) ? oi?ioaaiiy iaiaaeaieo
aa?aaiaeie iacaio?iioeeoaie ?ioa?noeoe?eieo eaiae?a;

a) iiey?ecaoe?y i?eii?ae?aeueieo aiaeioae?ioeeo?a, ui ?icaeaathoueny c
“aa?aaiaeo” iacaio?iioeeo?a oa ooai?ththoue no?ieo i?ioieai?ey??a (yea
iia’ycaia c iiyaith aacaeueii? iaia?aie, ?icaeoeii oeeoineaeaoo,
noaiiaeaiiyi nenoaie i?e?iaaceeoey?ecaoe??);

a)ooai?aiiy caieiooiai ia?aeiiiai i?ioieai?ey?iiai ?onea oa
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y eiai ia a?aeiia?aei? eaiee ( i?eiinio,iai?iio,aeiinio)
.

Aoi?eiiee aia?iaaiac i?ioiaeeoue a no?ioe? aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a
ethaeeie i?ioyaii 3-9 i?nyoe?a ? iieyaa? a:

a) ooai?aii? c “a?oiueie ?inoo” ia?aae?nioth/eo i?e?inoaeei aoi?eiieo
(ciiao ia?iaeaeaieo) e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a;

a) ?icaeoeo i’yciai? iaieiiee a?oa??ie, ui oi?iothoueny.

Ooai?aiiy aoi?eiieo e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a
ethaeeie i?ioiaeeoue ca ?aooiie “a?oiueie ?inoo”. “A?oiueea ?inoo”
i?ioiaeeoue aeae?eueea noaae?e ?icaeoeo:

a) ooai?aiiy oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo a?ae?inoe?a ia aacaeuei?e iiaa?oi?
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ia?aae?nioth/eo (iaoa?einueeeo) noaeei; a) eieaeueia
?oeioaaiiy aacaeueii? iaia?aie iaoa?einueei? noaeeie ? aeaooaiiy
a?ae?inoe?a aiaeioae?ioeeo?a /a?ac aeaoaeoe, ui ooai?eeenue a aacaeuei?e
iaia?ai?; a) i?a?aoe?y aiaeioae?ioeeo?a (c? caa?aaeaiiyi oe?e?niino?
iiiioa?o aiaeioae?th) oi?ioaaiiy aeaooath/i? iaciai? aiaeioae?aeueii?
“oii?e”, oi?ioaaiiy “a?oiueee ?inoo”, ?icaeoie ?? aacaeueii? iaia?aie,
aaoaeiaoaaiiy a aacaeueio iaia?aio, ui ?icaeaa?oueny ia?aaacaeueieo
o?a?iaeano?a ? ia?aoai?aiiy ?o a ia?eoeeoe. I?e ooai?aii?
aiaeioae?aeueii? “oii?e” (? iaaeae? — ?icaeoeo “a?oiueee ?inoo”)
oe?e?ni?noue aiaeioae?aeueiiai ieanoo iaoa?einueei? noaeeie ia
ii?ooo?oueny. Aiaeioae?ioeeoe “oii?e” ana ae a?ae??ciythoueny iaioith
e?euee?noth i?e?iaaceeoe; a iaaeieieiioaeoieo ciiao oeeoiieacie
cieeathoue caouaiiy i?e?io?eaiaio?a.

Ca ?aooiie aiaaiaeaeieo ?oo?a aiaeioae?ioeeo?a “oii?a” ?inoa, a i?e
c’yaey?oueny aocueeee u?eeiiiiae?aiee i?ina?o. ? aiia ia?aoai?th?oueny a
“a?oiueeo ?inoo” — iaaaeeeiai eae?a?o ne?ia aei’y/oaaiiy no?iee
iaoa?einueeiai eai?ey?o. I?ina?o iaoa?einueei? noaeeie ? eaiae?ciaaii?
“a?oiueee ?inoo” ia? aeoaea neeaaeio eiio?ao?aoe?th ca ?aooiie iayaiino?
aaeeei? e?eueeino? oiieeo ?icaaeoaeaieo aaeethi?iaeueieo
oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo a?ae?inoe?a. Aaeethi?iaeuei? a?ae?inoe? iaeiiai ?
noi?aeieo aiaeioae?ioeeo?a c’?aeiothoueny iaeei c iaeiei, oi?ioth/e
eiiia?oiaioe ??cii? aaee/eie ? oi?ie. Inoaii? ceeaathoueny iaeei c
iaeiei, c aaeoieyie ? i?e?ii?iioeeoicieie aaceeoeaie. Iiaeeeai, oaeei
/eiii ooai?th?oueny “caian” oeeoieaie, iaiao?aeii? aeey ?icoe?aiiy oa
iiaeiaaeaiiy i?ina?oo “a?oiueee ?inoo”.

“A?oiueee ?inoo”, c yeeo ?icaeaathoueny aoi?eii? e?iaiiini? eai?ey?e
aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a, ia iathoue a neeaae? no?iee ia?eoeeoe. Aei
ieo o?nii i?eeyaathoue ia?aaacaeuei? o?a?iaeanoe, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
?icaeiooeie i?aaiaeaie neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo. Ia?aaacaeuei? o?a?iaeanoe
a?ae??ciythoueny iaaeueiei, ?iiae? eiianiei yae?ii, ioi/aiei aeineoue
oe?ieith iaeyi?aeith oeeoiieacie na?aaeiuei? aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino?.
?iiae? o?a?iaeano ioi/o? nai?ie a?ae?inoeaie “a?oiueeo ?inoo” c on?o
aie?a. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeaeii, ui aiaeioae?aeueia “a?oiueea ?inoo”
ioi/aia i?eeia?aioey?iei ? oiieio?a?eey?iei iaoa??aeii aacaeueii?
iaia?aie, ui oi?io?oueny. Oae?e aea iaoa??ae ?ici?uo?oueny ii ia?aoa???
ia?aaacaeueiiai o?a?iaeanoo. Noai?th?oueny a?aaeaiiy, ui o?a?iaeano
i?iaeoeo? iaoa??ae aacaeueii? iaia?aie, aaoaeiao?oueny a no?ieo
“a?oiueee ?inoo” ? ia?aoai?th?oueny a ia?eoeeo.

Ii i??? ?icaeoeo iniiaieo eaiie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a (iiyaa a?oa??ie, eai?ey??a, aaioe),
i?iaeooeaioaie eiiiiiaio?a aacaeueii? iaia?aie, ie??i aiaeioae?ioeeo?a,
noathoue e ?io? ee?oeii? aeaiaioe noaeeiii? no?iee (o?a?iaeanoe,
ia?eoeeoe oa i?ioeeoe). Ia oea aeaco? a?aei?/aia iaie aeniea nooi?iue
?icaeoeo i?aaiae neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo a oeeoiieaci? oeeo ee?oei ia
?aii?o noaae?yo aia?iaaiaco a aeia/iiio i?oo??.

?icaeoie a?oa??ie c i?ioieai?ey??a i?ioiaeeoue oeyoii aaoaeiaoaaiiy
iacaio?iioeeo?a o aacaeueio iaia?aio, ui oi?io?oueny ? iiaeaeueoiai ?o
?icaeoeo a i?ioeeoe neioaoe/iiai (nae?aoi?iiai) oeio. ?icaeoie i?eeeo
(i?aeai?ey?ieo) a?oa??ie c e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a aeia/iiai i?oo?a
ieiae?a ethaeeie i?ioiaeeoue oeyoii aiiiceoe?? ia?aaacaeueieo
o?a?iaeano?a oa (aai) ia?eoeeo?a, ye? a iiaeaeueoiio
aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny a i?ioeeoe. Oe? ee?oeii? eiiiiiaioe no?iee
i?aeai?ey?ieo a?oa??ie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?icaeiooeie i?aaiaeaie
neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo. A oe?eiio, ?icaeoie i?ioeeo?a a?oa??ie aeia/iiai
i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie, iiaeia iicia/eoe ye i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy
i?ioeeo?a neioaoe/iiai oeio a i?ioeeoe nei?i/oaaeueiiai oeio. Ca /anii
oeae i?ioean ni?aiaaea? c ?icaeoeii i?aeai?ey?ieo ? a?oa??iey?ieo
no?ieoa??a. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui a aeinoaaoe? e?ia? aei ethai? ae?eyiee
eai?ey?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie i?eeia? o/anoue
aeae?eueea a?oa??aeueieo noaeei. Oaeee a?oiiaee i?eioeei oi?ioaaiiy
eai?ey?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a ni?ey? i?aeo?eioe? noaa?eueiiai
eai?ey?iiai e?iaioieo iacaeaaeii a?ae eieaeueieo ia?aiaae?a oeneo a
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio ?one?, ye? aeieeathoue caaaeyee aaciiioe??
a?oa??iey?ieo oa i?aeai?ey?ieo no?ieoa??a. ?icaeoie a?oa??aeueiiai
eaioethaa noaeeiiiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ca /anii ni?aiaaea?
c ?ioaineaiei ?icaeoeii i’yciai? iaieiiee ? ca?eueoaiiyi /enea
i?e?iai?neiie ai?oae?ioeeo?a neeciai? iaieiiee. I?e?iai?neiee
i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith iaeueoeaaeaei? ae?inoe oeeoiieacie, a na?aaeei?
yeeo aecia/athoueny io/ee i?e?io?eaiaio?a No?iea e?iaiiiniiai eai?ey?a
aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie iiai?noth ioi/aia aacaeueiith
iaia?aiith, a ?icuaieaiiyo yei? eaaeaoue ia?eoeeoe), ye? i?noeyie
anooiathoue a eiioaeoe c aiaeioae?ioeeoaie. Iaaeieieiioaeoia ciia
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie
ia? ??cio oi?io ? oiaueio, ui aecia/a?oueny iie?oi?i?ciii ee?oeiieo
e?a?a non?aei?o aiaeioae?ioeeo?a. A ca’yceo c oeei, i?aeaiaeioae?aeuei?
noeee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ciiiai?oi?noth aaiiao?e/ieo oi?i. Ia?eoeeoe
e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie iathoue ciio
ia?eea??iio ? nenoaio aaaaoi/enaeueieo a?ae?inoe?a. Oeeoiieacia
ia?eoeeo?a ia? caeaoi?noue aei aaceeoeyoe?? ? ?iiae? ii anueiio
ia?eiao?o ia? eieaiiiae?ai? i?e?ii?iioeeoici? aaceeoee. Aacaeueia
iaia?aia eai?ey??a i?ae aiaeioae?ioeeoaie ? ia?eoeeoii ia? oa?aeoa?iee
aieeieiiiae?aiee aeaeyae ? neeaaea?oueny c iii??ii ini?io?eueieo,
oaioe/ii ia?aieaoaieo oiieeo o?a?ee, ye? caio?ai? a a?eueo na?oeee
i?eeia?aioey?iee iao?een. Oae e?iaiiini? eai?ey?e i’yciai? iaieiiee
a?ae??ciythoueny oianoeie aiaeioae?ioeeoaie c aaeeeei neaa?iiiae?aiei
yae?ii, iiaeeco ?o, ye i?aaeei, aecia/athoueny ia?aia? cae?i/aiiy.
E?iaiiini? eai?ey?e neeciai? iaieiiee i?oo?a a?ae??ciythoueny oiieeie
aiaeioae?ioeeoaie c iaaaeeeei aa?aoaiiiiae?aiei yae?ii. Cae/aeii
e?iaiiini? eai?ey?e neeciai? iaieiiee i?oo?a iathoue aocueeee i?ina?o ?
a?aeiinyoueny aei ieaciaoe/ieo eai?ey??a. O ieiae?a 5-6 i?nyoe?a
?icaeoeo eai?ey?ia n?oea a i’ycia?e iaieiioe? e?oiiiiaoaeueia. Iaoe?
oe??? n?oee c’?aeiothoueny iaa?no?aeueieie e?iaiiinieie eai?ey?aie. Oe?
eai?ey?e a?aeaeathoue “a?oiueee ?inoo”, c eio?eo ?icaeaathoueny aoi?eii?
e?iaiiini? eai?ey?e, ye? a naith /a?ao a?aeaeathoue “a?oiueee ?inoo”.
Oae oi?iothoueny aono? eai?ey?i? n?oee a no?ioe? aeia/iiai i?oo?a
ieiae?a 7-9 i?nyoe?a ?icaeoeo.

Aaioey?ia eaiea aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie
a iioiaaiac? ?icaeaa?oueny c i?eaaioeaii? no?iee i?ioieai?ey??a. Oiio,
ia ii/aoeo ?icaeoeo aeeo?i?oeaieo noaeei, iinoeai?ey?i? aaioee iaei /ei
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae eai?ey??a. Ii i??? ?inoo aia??ii?a ? iineeaiiy
aaiiaeeiai?ee a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ia?aneaia iaa?no?ae?caoe?y no?iee
i?ioieai?ey??a, a oiio /ene?, aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny ? aaioey?ia eaiea
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a. Ia ii/aoeo
aeeo?i?oeaii? n?oee aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aaioey?i? noaeeie
iathoue ?icneiiee oei aaeoaeaiiy. Eai?ey?e ceeaathoueny ? aeathoue
ii/aoie iinoeai?ey?iei aaioeai, ye? ia’?aeiothoueny i?ae niaith ii oeio
“aea?aaiaeaeii? a?ei/ee” ? ooai?ththoue aaeeeo noaeeio — cae?ath/o
aaioeo.

Aaea, ii/eiath/e c 3-4 i?nyoey aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo ieiaeo,
noaeeie aaiiciiai a?aeae?eo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai
i?oo?a cia/ii ia?aaaaeathoue a?aeiia?aei? a?oa??aeuei? noaeeie ye ii
nai?e e?eueeino? ? ia’?io, oae ? ii aeeeth/iiio ??ciiiai?ooth
a?o?oaeoii?ee. Ia 5-7 i?nyoeyo aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo ieiaeo,
i?ae ie?aieie iinoeai?ey?ieie aaioeaie, ye ia ?o ii/aoeo, oae ? a
e?ioe?, ooai?ththoueny c’?aeiaiiy. E?euee?noue oeeo c’?aeiaiue iino?eii
ca?eueoo?oueny ? a no?ioe? aeia/iiai i?oo?a i?ae eai?ey?iith n?oeith
neeciai? iaieiiee ooai?th?oueny aaioey?ia n?oea.

Ca?aeii ?acoeueoaoai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co
a?aeiia?aeieo aeaiieo e?oa?aoo?e, iaie aeine?aeaeaii, ui ?icaeoie
aeia/iiai i?oo?a — oea (a?eueoith i??ith) noaiiaeaiiy o?ueio iniiaieo
eiiia?oiaio?a, eiaeiee c yeeo a?aeiia?aea? ca niaoeeo?/io ooieoe?th a
nenoai? i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? : 1)ee?oeiiee (i?aaenoaaeaiee ee?oeiaie an?o
o?ueio iaieiiie i?oo?a, ye? c’yaeythoueny ia 8-io oeaei? ?icaeoeo;
2)e?iaiiiniee; 3) ?ioa?no?oe?aeueiee. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui e?iaiiiniee
eiiia?oiaio i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a
(aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei) ii?oiaaiaoe/ii o?nii iia’ycaiee c ??cieie
no?oeoo?aie no?iee i?oo?a ? a?aeiia?aea? ?o ooieoe?iiaeueiei iiieoai.

Eai?ey?ii – oeaieii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a aeia/iiio i?oo?? aia??ii?a ?
ieiae?a ethaeeie iiina?aaeiaai? iaaiith oi?iith i?aai?caoe??
i?e?inoaeeiieo n?oie, ?aaeaiaiooth/eo oeyo oeaieiii?
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoe??.

A naith /a?ao, i?aai?caoe?y ? ooieoe?iiaeueia aaiiao??y
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a, oiiieia?/i? ca’ycee ?
a?noioiiia?ao?/i? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy eiai eaiie aecia/athoueny
iniaeeainoyie no?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a aia?iaaiaco.

AENIIAEE

1. Noaeeie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ooai?ththoueny ca ?aooiie ia?aeiiiai
oa aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco.

2. Ia?aeiiee aia?iaaiac i?ioiaeeoue a iacaio?i? ca/aoea aeia/iiai i?oo?a
ethaeeie o?eueee a aia??iiaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ? aeeth/a? oae?
noaae??:

a) eiioeaio?aoe?y ee?oei iacaio?ie c aia?iaeanoe/ieie iioaioe?yie;

a) aa?aaaoe?y aia?iaeanoe/ieo ee?oei iacaio?ie (?o c’?aeiaiiy ca
aeiiiiiaith u?eueieo i?aeee?oeiieo eiioaeo?a) ? oi?ioaaiiy iaiaaeaieo
”aa?aaiaeie” iacaio?iioeeoaie ?ioa?noeoe?aeueieo eaiae?a;

a) iiey?ecaoe?y i?eii?ae?aeueieo aiaeioae?ioeeo?a, ui ?icaeaathoueny c
“aa?aaiaeo” iacaio?iioeeo?a oa ooai?ththoue no?ieo i?ioieai?ey??a (yea
iia’ycaia c iiyaith aacaeueii? iaia?aie, ?icaeoeii oeeoineaeaoo,
noaiiaeaiiyi nenoaie i?e?iaaceeoey?ecaoe??.)

3. I?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie aeae?eai? oae?
aoaie ?icaeoeo aiaeioae?th noaeei aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
aeia/iiai i?oo?a: iacaio?ii? “aa?aaia?” ee?oeie – aiaeioae?ioeeoe
i?ioieai?ey??a (i?eii?ae?aeuei? aiaeioae?ioeeoe) – aiaeioae?e
niiaoe/iiai oeio e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a, a?oa??ie oa aaioe. A i?ioean?
ia?aoai?aiiy “aa?aaiaeo” iacaio?iioeeo?a a i?eii?ae?aeuei?
aiaeioae?ioeeoe i?ioiaeeoue ?icaeoie i?aaiae neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo, ui
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iiyaith ? ?icaeoeii aacaeueii? iaia?aie noaeei.

4. Ii i??? ia?aoai?aiiy i?eii?ae?aeueieo aiaeioae?i-oeeo?a a c??e?
aiaeioae?ioeeoe eai?ey??a, a?oa??ie oa aaioe aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy /enea aeaiaio?a a?aioey?ii? aiaeiieaciaoe/ii?
n?oee ? a?eueieo ?eainii, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
e?eueeino? i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe ? ci?iith oa?aeoa?o aaceeoeyoe??
(ii?yae ?c aeaaeeieiioo?ieie aaceeoeaie aecia/athoueny iaeyiiaai?
aaceeoee; aaceeoee ceeaathoueny, oi?iothoueny ioeueoeaaceeoey?i?
eiiieaene). A oe?eiio i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy i?eii?ae?aeueieo
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a a c??e? aiaeioae?ioeeoe iiaeia aecia/eoe ye i?ioean
ia?aoai?aiiy aiaeioae?ioeeo?a neioaoe/-iiai oaiioeio a aiaeioae?ioeeoe
aaceeoey?ii-o?ainii?oiiai oaiioeio.

5. Aoi?eiiee aia?iaaiac i?ioiaeeoue a no?ioe? aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a
ethaeeie ia i?ioyc? 3-9 i?nyoe?a ? iieyaa? a:

a) ooai?aii? c “a?oiueie ?inoo” ia?aae?nioth/eo i?e?inoaeei aoi?eiieo
(ciiao ia?iaeaeaieo) e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a;

a) ?icaeoeo i’yciai? iaieiiee a?oa??ie, ui oi?iothoueny.;

a) ?icaeoie iinoeai?ey?ieo ? cae?aeueieo aaioe.

6. Ooai?aiiy aoi?eiieo e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a
ethaeeie i?ioiaeeoue ca ?aooiie “a?oiueie ?inoo”. “A?oiueea ?inoo”
i?ioiaeeoue aeae?eueea noaae?e ?icaeoeo: a) ooai?aiiy oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo
a?ae?inoe?a ia aacaeuei?e iiaa?oi? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ia?aae?nioth/eo
(iaoa?einueeeo) noaeei; a) eieaeueia ?oeioaaiiy aacaeueii? iaia?aie
iaoa?einueei? noaeeie ? aeaooaiiy a?ae?inoe?a aiaeioae?ioeeo?a /a?ac
aeaoaeoe, ui ooai?eeenue a aacaeuei?e iaia?ai?; a) i?a?aoe?y
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a (c? caa?aaeaiiyi oe?e?niino? iiiioa?o aiaeioae?th) ?
oi?ioaaiiy aeaooath/i? iaciai? aiaeioae?aeueii? “oii?e”; a) oi?ioaaiiy
“a?oiueee ?inoo”, ?icaeoie ?? aacaeueii? iaia?aie, aaoaeiaoaaiiy a
aacaeueio iaia?aio, ui ?icaeaa?oueny ia?aaacaeueieo o?a?iaeano?a ?
ia?aoai?aiiy ?o a ia?eoeeoe.

7. ?icaeoie a?oa??ie c i?ioieai?ey??a i?ioiaeeoue oeyoii aaoaeiaoaaiiy
iacaio?iioeeo?a o aacaeueio iaia?aio, ui oi?io?oueny ? iiaeaeueoiai ?o
?icaeoeo a i?ioeeoe neioaoe/iiai (nae?aoi?iiai) oeio. ?icaeoie i?eeeo
(i?aeai?ey?ieo) a?oa??ie c e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a aeia/iiai i?oo?a
ieiae?a ethaeeie i?ioiaeeoue oeyoii aiiiceoe?? ia?aaacaeueieo
o?a?iaeano?a oa (aai) ia?eoeeo?a, ye? a iiaeaeueoiio
aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny a i?ioeeoe. Oe? ee?oeii? eiiiiiaioe no?iee
i?aeai?ey?ieo a?oa??ie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?icaeiooeie i?aaiaeaie
neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo. A oe?eiio, ?icaeoie i?ioeeo?a a?oa??ie aeia/iiai
i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie, iiaeia iicia/eoe ye i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy
i?ioeeo?a neioaoe/iiai oeio a i?ioeeoe nei?i/oaaeueiiai oeio.

8. Eai?ey?ii-oeaieii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a aeia/iiio i?oo??
aia??ii?a ? ieiae?a ethaeeie iiina?aaeiaai? iaaiith oi?iith i?aai?caoe??
i?e?inoaeeiieo n?oie, ?aaeaiaiooth/eo oeyo oeaieiii?
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoe??. A naith /a?ao, i?aai?caoe?y ? ooieoe?iiaeueia
aaiiao??y aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a, oiiieia?/i?
ca’ycee ? a?noioiiia?ao?/i? aca?iia?aeiineie eiai eaiie aecia/athoueny
iniaeeainoyie no?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a aia?iaaiaco.

IA?AE?E ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua aniaeou ?acaeoey ia?ae/iuo iee?ininoaeia ia ?aiieo
yoaiao i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaca /aeiaaea. //I?iaeaiu, aeinoeaeaiey e
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo iaoe e i?aeoe/aneiai
cae?aaiio?aiaiey. O?oaeu E?uineiai iaaeeoeeineiai einoeoooa ei.
N.E.Aai?aeaaneiai,1996. O.132. /. 1. n.92-95. /niaao.*a?eaniaA.A.,
Oaa/aiei A.A., Iaeaoiaaoe I.E./.

2.Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iay i?aaiecaoeey eeaoie iacaioeiu a yia?eiaaiaca
/aeiaaea. Oacenu aeieeaaeia ??? eiia?anna iaaeaeoia?iaeiie annioeeaoeee
ii?oieiaia. Ii?oieiaey, O.109, ?2, 1996, n. 36

3.Oeueo?ano?oeoo?a ia?ae/iuo e aoi?e/iuo e?iaaiiniuo eaieeey?ia
aeae/iiai iocu?y /aeiaaea a i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca //A?niee
ii?oieia??. A?iieoey, 1997, ? 2, N.108-110.

4..Oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo aioo??oiueii?aaiieo
e?ioiiinieo i?e?inoaeei ia ?aii?o noaae?yo i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie. //Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? aiaoii?? noaeeiii?
nenoaie. – Euea?a. – 1995.- n.10-11 /ni?aaao. Aia?ee ?.?., Oaa/aiei
I.I., *a?eania A.A., Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E., Aecaaoeuenueea ?.A., Aacooaiueei
I.A./

5.Aeeiai?ea oeueo?ano?oeoo?e i?aeaiaeioae?aeueieo eiioaeo?a iai?iieo
i?e?inoaeei ia i?ioyc? i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo // Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? aiaoii?? noaeeiii? nenoaie. Euea?a, 1995.-
n.122-123 /ni?aaao. *a?eania A.A., Oaa/aiei I.I., Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E,
Eocueiaiei TH.TH./

6.No?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? aoaeiae aiaeioae?ioeeo?a a?oa??iey?ieo
i?e?inoaeei o i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo ethaeeie //Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. Oa?iii?eue. 1996, O.1. – n.82-83./ni?aaao. Aia?ee
?.?., Oaa/aiei I.I., *a?eania A.A., Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E., Eocueiaiei
TH.TH., Aacooaiueei I.A./

7.?icaeoie ia?aeiieo i?e?inoaeei a aia??iaaiac? ethaeeie //Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. Oa?iii?eue. 1996, O.1. – n.83-84../ni?aaao. Aia?ee
?.?., Oaa/aiei I.I., *a?eania A.A., Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E., Eocueiaiei
TH.TH., Aacooaiueei I.A./

8.Aiaeiaaiac aaiiiee?ioeee?oeyoi?iiai ?onea aeae/iiai iocu?y yia?eiiia e
ieiaeia /aeiaaea // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie.-
Iieoaaa-Oa?e?a. – 1999, ? 6 n. 96-100.

9.Caeiiiia?iinoe aoi?e/iiai aiaeiaaiaca a aeae/iii iocu?a
ieiaeia /aeiaaea // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. – Eoaainuee.- 1998,
N. 100.

10. No?oeoo?i? aniaeoe ia?aeiiiai aia?iaaiaco// Oeno. –
*a?i?aoe?.- 1997, ? 1 n. 212-219 /ni?aaao. Oaa/aiei I.I., *a?eania A.A.
/.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eaioea? I.A. Aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei aeia/iiai

i?oo?a ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaico. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.01 – ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. – Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a
ia?aeiiiai ? aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeee a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaca. Iaoiaeaie na?oeiai? oa aeaeo?iiii?
i?e?ineii?? anoaiiaeaii, ui noaeeie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
aeia/iiai i?oo?a ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco
ooai?ththoueny ca ?aooiie ia?aeiiiai oa aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco.

Ia?aeiiee aia?iaaiac i?ioiaeeoue a iacaio?i? ca/aoea aeia/iiai i?oo?a
ethaeeie o?eueee a aia??iiaeueiiio ia??iae?. I?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai
ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie aeae?eai? oae? aoaie ?icaeoeo aiaeioae?th
noaeei aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a: iacaio?ii?
“aa?aaia?” ee?oeie – aiaeioae?ioeeoe i?ioieai?ey??a (i?eii?ae?aeuei?
aiaeioae?ioeeoe) – aiaeioae?e niiaoe/iiai oeio e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a,
a?oa??ie oa aaioe.

Aoi?eiiee aia?iaaiac i?ioiaeeoue a no?ioe? aeia/iiai i?oo?a ieiae?a
ethaeeie ia i?ioyc? 3-9 i?nyoe?a ? iieyaa? a ooai?aii? c “a?oiueie
?inoo” ia?aae?nioth/eo i?e?inoaeei aoi?eiieo (ciiao ia?iaeaeaieo)
e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a, ?icaeoeo i’yciai? iaieiiee a?oa??ie, ui
oi?iothoueny., ?icaeoeo iinoeai?ey?ieo ? cae?aeueieo aaioe.

Eai?ey?ii-oeaieii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a aeia/iiio i?oo?? aia??ii?a ?
ieiae?a ethaeeie iiina?aaeiaai? iaaiith oi?iith i?aai?caoe??
i?e?inoaeeiieo n?oie, ?aaeaiaiooth/eo oeyo oeaieiii?
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoe??. A naith /a?ao, i?aai?caoe?y ? ooieoe?iiaeueia
aaiiao??y aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeia/iiai i?oo?a, oiiieia?/i?
ca’ycee ? a?noioiiia?ao?/i? aca?iia?aeiineie eiai eaiie aecia/athoueny
iniaeeainoyie no?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a aia?iaaiaco.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei, aeia/iee i?oo?,
aia?iaaiac.

Eaioea? A.A. Aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iia ?onei aeae/iiai iocu?y a
i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia
nineneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01. – ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey. – Iaoeeiiaeueiue
iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao ei. A.A. Aiaiiieueoea, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia no?oeoo?iui iaoaieciai ?acaeoey
aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aeae/iiai iocu?y /aeiaaea a i?aiaoaeueiii
ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca. Iaoiaeaie naaoiaie e yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee
onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?aaiiniaoeeoe/aneia ?onei aeae/iiai iocu?y /aeiaaea
?acaeaaaony ca n/ao ia?ae/iiai e aoi?e/iiai aiaeiaaiaca, eioi?ue
i?ioiaeeo ia i?ioyaeaiee yia?eiiaeueiiai ia?eiaea e aoi?e/iiai
aiaeiaaiaca – ia i?ioyaeaiee ieiaeiiai ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca.

Ianoii ia?aciaaiey ia?ae/iuo e?iaaiiniuo iee?ininoaeia (i?ioieaieeey?ia)
anoue iacaioeia aie?oa yieoaeeaeueiie caeeaaeee aeae/iiai iocu?y
yia?eiiia /aeiaaea. Ia?aciaaiea aoi?e/iuo e?iaaiiniuo eaieeey?ia
aeae/iiai iocu?y ieiaeia /aeiaaea i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao “ii/ae ?inoa”.
“Ii/ea ?inoa” i?ioiaeeo ianeieueei noaaeee ?acaeoey: a) ia?aciaaiea
oeeoiieaciaoe/aneeo io?inoeia ia aacaeueiie iiaa?oiinoe yiaeioaeeioeeoia
i?aaenouanoaothueo (iaoa?eineeo) ninoaeia; a) eieaeueiia ?ac?ooaiea
aacaeueiie iaia?aiu iaoa?eineiai ninoaea e auiy/eaaiea io?inoeia
yiaeioaeeioeeoia /a?ac aeaoaeou, eioi?ua ia?aciaaeenue a aacaeueiie
iaia?aia; a) iea?aoeey yiaeioaeeioeeoia (n nio?aiaieai oeaeinoiinoe
iiiineiy yiaeioaeey) e oi?ie?iaaiee auiy/eaathuaeny ia?oaeo
yiaeioaeeaeueiie “oii?u” e oi?ie?iaaiey “ii/ee ?inoa ”, ?acaeoea aa
aacaeueiie iaia?aiu, ano?aeaaiea a aacaeueioth iaia?aio, eioi?ay
?acaeaaaony ia?aaacaeueiuo oea?iaeanoia e i?aa?auaiea eo a ia?eoeeou.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey iniiaiuo caaiueaa aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
aeae/iiai iocu?y ieiaeia (iiyaeaiea a?oa?eie, eaieeey?ia, aaioe),
i?iaeooeaioaie eiiiiiaioia aacaeueiie iaia?aiu, e?iia yiaeioaeeioeeoia,
noaiiayony e ae?oaea eeaoi/iua yeaiaiou ninoaeenoie noaiee (oea?iaeanou,
ia?eoeeou e ieioeeou). Iacaioeiioeeou iauaaeeiythony n iiiiuueth ieioiuo
iaaeaeo eeaoi/iuo eiioaeoia e oi?ie?otho aaeeinoaaiiue eeaoi/iue ieano
“aa?aaiauo” eeaoie eioa?noeoeeaeueiuo eaiaeia, eioi?ua iinoaiaiii
aeeooa?aioee?othony a i?eii?aeeaeueiua yiaeioaeeioeeou. Iiaeii n/eoaoue,
/oi iaaeeeaoi/iua eiioaeou iaaeaeo “aa?aaiauie” iacaioeiioeeoaie
auiieiytho nenoaiiia?acothuoth ooieoeeth: i?eaeatho niaieoiiinoe
eiioaeoe?othueo eeaoie iiaia ea/anoai – i?aa?auatho eo a oeaiaaoth
nenoaio (iiiineie i?eii?aeeaeueiuo yiaeioaeeioeeoia).

Eaeea? e?iaaiiniuo iee?ininoaeia aeae/iiai iocu?y, eioi?ua ?acaeaathony
iooai ia?ae/iiai aiaeiaaiaca, ?aciiia?aciue. Ii, ii no?iaieth noaiee,
eioi?ay ia?aciaaia iiiineiai i?eii?aeeaeueiuo yiaeioaeeioeeoia e
aacaeueiie iaia?aiie, eioi?ay oi?ie?oaony, iie iiaoo auoue iacaaiu
i?ioieaieeey?aie. A i?ioeanna i?aia?aciaaiey i?eii?aeeaeueiuo
yiaeioaeeioeeoia a c?aeua yiaeioaeeioeeou eaieeey?ia ieiaeia iaie
ioia/aiu ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey eo oeeoineaeaoa. Auyaeaii iiauoaiea
no?oeoo?e?iaaiiinoe (ianuuaiiinoe) oeeoineaeaoa ii ia?a ?acaeoey
yiaeioaeey. Iiauoaiea no?oeoo?e?iaaiiinoe iauaaeeiyaony n oaaee/aieai
aiecio?iiiinoe (oii?yaei/aiiinoe ?aciauaiey) oeeoineaeaoiiai ea?eana,
/oi i?iyaeyaony a noaiiaeaiee oa?aeoa?iie i?eaioaoeee iee?ioeeaiaioia.
I?e yoii eiaao ianoi oi?ie?iaaiey ieieieiioaeoiuo io/eia
iee?ioeeaiaioia, eioi?ua ioaa/atho ca iiaeaea?aeeo oeaeinoiinoe
eeaoi/iiai iiiineiy e ca nie?auaiea eeaoi/iuo a?aieoe, a oaeaea
i?iaeieueiuo io/eia iee?ioeeeaiaioia – aieieii iaoyaeaiey (auyaeaiiinoue
eioi?uo, eae ecaanoii, ei??aee?oao n aaeaaceaiinoueth yiaeioaeeioeeoia
ii ioiioaieth e iiaeeaaeauaio noano?aoo).

A ieieieiioaeoiie ciia yiaeioaeeioeeoia e?iaaiiniuo eaieeey?ia
aeae/iiai iocu?y ieiaeia /aeiaaea iaie ioia/aii oaaee/aiea
eiioeaio?aoeee iee?ioeeaiaioia ?yaeii n i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaothueie
iee?iieiioeeoiciuie aaceeoeaie. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi iee?ioeeaiaiou
aeeytho ia oi?io iaaeyiaeioaeeaeueiuo niaaeeiaiee. Iaie ii?aaeaeaia
?aciiia?aciinoue aaiiao?e/aneeo oi?i iee?iieiioeeoiciuo aaceeoe e
?acaeoea ia?aieaciieaiiaeueiiai oa?a.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?ae/iue aiaeiaaiac i?ioiaeeo a iacaioeia ca/aoea
aeae/iiai iocu?y /aeiaaea oieueei a yia?eiiaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca e
aeeth/aao oaeea noaaeee:

a) eiioeaio?aoeey eeaoie iacaioeiu n aiaeiaeanoe/aneeie iioaioeeyie;

a) aa?aaaoeey aiaeiaeanoe/aneeo eeaoie iacaioeiu (eo niaaeeiaiey n
iiiiuueth ieioiuo iaaeeeaoi/iuo eiioaeoia) e oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aie/aiiuo
aa?aaiauie iacaioeiioeeoaie eioa?noeoeeaeueiuo eaiaeia; a) iiey?ecaoeey
i?eii?aeeaeueiuo yiaeioaeeioeeoia, eioi?ua ?acaeaathony n “aa?aaiauo”
iacaioeiioeeoia e ia?acotho noaieo i?ioieaieeey?ia (eioi?ay naycaia n
iiyaeaieai aacaeueiie iaia?aiu, ?acaeoeai oeeoineaeaoa, noaiiaeaieai
nenoaiu iee?iaaceeoeyoeee); a) ia?aciaaiea caieiooiai ia?ae/iiai
i?ioieaieeey?iiai ?onea e aeeooa?aioeeaoeey aai ia niioaaonoaothuea
caaiuey (i?eiinyuoth, iaiaiioth, auiinyuoth) .

Aoi?e/iue aiaeiaaiac i?ioiaeeo a noaiea aeae/iiai iocu?y ieiaeia
/aeiaaea ia i?ioyaeaiee 3-9 ianyoeaa.

Ia?aciaaiea aoi?e/iuo e?iaaiiniuo eaieeey?ia aeae/iiai iocu?y ieiaeia
/aeiaaea i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao “ii/ae ?inoa”. “Ii/ea ?inoa ” i?ioiaeeo
ianeieueei noaaeee ?acaeoey: a) ia?aciaaiea oeeoiieaciaoe/aneeo
io?inoeia ia aacaeueiie iiaa?oiinoe yiaeioaeeioeeoia i?aaenouanoaothueo
(iaoa?eineeo) ninoaeia; a) eieaeueiia ?ac?ooaiea aacaeueiie iaia?aiu
iaoa?eineiai ninoaea e auiy/eaaiea io?inoeia yiaeioaeeioeeoia /a?ac
aeaooaeou, eioi?ua ia?aciaaeenue a aacaeueiie iaia?aia; a) iea?aoeey
yiaeioaeeioeeoia (n nio?aiaieai oeaeinoiinoe iiiineiy yiaeioaeey) e
oi?ie?iaaiee auiy/eaathuaeny ia?oaeo yiaeioaeeaeueiie “oii?u” e
oi?ie?iaaiea “ii/ee ?inoa”, ?acaeoea aa aacaeueiie iaia?aiu, ano?aeaaiea
a aacaeueioth iaia?aio, eioi?ay ?acaeaaaony, ia?aaacaeueiuo oea?iaeanoia
e i?aia?aciaaiea eo a ia?eoeeou.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey iniiaiuo caaiueaa aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
aeae/iiai iocu?y ieiaeia /aeiaaea (iiyaeaiea a?oa?eie, eaieeey?ia,
aaioe), i?iaeooeaioaie eiiiiiaioia aacaeueiie iaia?aiu, e?iia
yiaeioaeeioeeoia, noaiiayony e ae?oaea eeaoi/iua yeaiaiou ninoaeenoie
noaiee (oea?iaeanou, ia?eoeeou e ieioeeou).

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iia ?onei, aeae/iue iocu?ue,
aiaeiaaiac.

Cancer Ye.V. Haemomicrocirculatory system of human gall bladder during
prenatal ontogenesis. Manuscript. Dissertation to obtain the scientific
degree of Candidate of Medical Sciences (Medicine) in specialty 14.03.01
– Human Anatomy – National Medical University, Kyiv, 1999

The dissertation is devoted to the development of structural mechanisms
of angiogenesis of blood vessels of haemomicrocirculatory system of
human gall bladder during prenatal ontogenesis. By means of the light
microscopy it was established that the organ-specific microcirculatory
bed develops in the process of primary and secondary angiogenesis.
Primary angiogenesis occurs in the mesenchimal primordium of the human
gall bladder only during embryonal period and includes the following
stages: a) mesenchimal cells concentration; b) aggregation of these
cells (formation of the tight contacts between them) and the formation
of the interstitial channels; c) polarization of the developing
primordial endotheliocytes, forming the wall of the protocapillary,
which is related to the emergence of the basement membrane, development
of the cytoskeleton and establishment of the microvesiculation system.
Secondary angiogenesis occurs in the human gall bladder wall over the
period of 3 – 9 months of gestation and consists of 1) formation of
secondary blood capillaries from the growth buds of the pre-existing
microvessels; 2) development of arterioles with the muscular layer; 3)
development of the postcapillary and collecting venules.

Key words: haemomicrocirculatory system, gall bladder, angiogenesis.

Похожие записи