I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? I.I. AIAIIIEUeOess

OAeE 611.16.013:611.621

AACOOAIUeEI Ieeiea A?eaae?eiae/

AAIII?E?IOeE?EOEssOI?IA ?ONEI NA*IAIAI I?OO?A ETHAeEIE A I?AIAOAEUeIIIO
IA??IAe? IIOIAAIACO

14.03.01.- ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaae. iaoe, i?ioani? Aia?ee ?aai
?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? IIO,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie, eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, Iinia Aiaoie?e
Oeiio?eiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??
oe?a?inueeiai IAe? iae?io??o?a?? ?i. aeaae. A.I. ?iiiaeaiiaa;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
E?ooeye Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith ii?iaeueii?
aiaoii?? Aoeiaeinueei? Aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? IIC Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aiaoii?? ethaeeie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “16” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 13.30 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.003.04. Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey (252057, Oe?a?ia, i.
Ee?a-57, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 34, ii?oieia?/iee ei?ion, aoae. ?3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey (252057, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Ciieia?/ia, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “8” eeiiy1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A.A. *a?eania

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. A o?ieia?/i?e i?aeoeoe? na/iaee i?oo? ?
aeineoue /anoei ia’?eoii iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue. ?o oni?oiiio aeeiiaiith
ni?eythoue a?eueo oi/i? a?aeiiino? i?i e?iaiiinoa/aiiy oeueiai i?aaio, a
oaeiae a?o?oaeoii?ee eiai aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea.

Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiae?a aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? oa ii?oiiao?e/iiai
aiae?co iiaeeaeei ciaiiy ii?oieia?a oa o?c?ieia?a i?i ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
i?eioeeie aoaeiae oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? (A.A.
Eoi?eyiia, 1975-1993; A.I. *a?ioo, 1975-1984; ss.E. Ea?aaaiia,
1980-1982; A.A. Oaoeaiia, 1971-1974; ?.?. Aia?ee, 1981-1997). Oe?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe aia?iaaiiee oa?aeoa? aaaaoueio
caoai?thaaiue na/inoaoaai? nenoaie, i?e/eia yeeo ?ai?oa ia aoea
aecia/aia. O?ieia?y, ieanoe/ia o??o?a?y, o?ainieaioieia?y oa
i?e?io??o?a?y, ?ioaineaii ?icaeaath/enue, aeathoue iiooiao aei
iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy oiiei? oa oeueo?ano?oeoo?ii? aoaeiae
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aioo??oi?o i?aai?a.

Na?aae iaeiaio aea/aieo ieoaiue no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? na/iaiai i?oo?a
aaaeeeaa i?noea iin?aea? i?iaeaia aeieeiaiiy, ?icaeoeo oa inoaoi/iiai
aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea. Iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui aoaeue-yea a?aeoeeaiiy a ?icaeoeo noaeei na/iaiai i?oo?a
iiaea i?eaanoe aei aeieeiaiiy eiai a?iaeaeaii? iaoieia??. A?iaeaeai?
iaoieia?? oa ?io? aeaoaeoe ?icaeoeo na/iaiai i?oo?a iathoue a nai?e
iniia? ii?ooaiiy e?iaiiinoa/aiiy eiai a i?ioean? i?aiaoaeueiiai
iioiaaiaco. Oiio caoai?thaaiiy na/iaiai i?oo?a, iia’ycai? c a?aeoeeaiiyi
ii?iaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, iin?aeathoue ia inoaii? i?noea na?aae on???
iaoieia?? na/inoaoaai? nenoaie. Aei oeueiai ae, ?ic?iaea iiaeo
?aoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy caoai?thaaiue na/iaiai i?oo?a
iaiiaeeeaa aac oi/ieo ciaiue i?i eiai noaeeiio nenoaio oa
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy i?ae e?iaiiinieie i?e?inoaeeiaie oa ?ioeie
no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie i?aaio. ?acii c oei, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ?ia?o,
iia’ycaieo ?c no?oeoo?iith i?aai?caoe??th noaeeiii? nenoaie na/iaiai
i?oo?a, iaaeinoaoiuei (I.A. Eiiaeeei, 1956; A.I. Oeoiie?ia, 1969; TH.A.
I?eianeee, 1970, 1986, 1988; I.A. Eaeaoei, 1979; A.A. Ia?/aiei, 1986,
1988). Iaiao?aeii oaeiae neacaoe, ui aaaaoi ieoaiue c i?eaiaeo
oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a ia?aeiiiai oa aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco
caeeoathoueny a?aee?eoeie. Aeaia ?iaioa ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi oa ?icaeoeii
aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei c’ynoaaiiy iioiaaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a aia?iaaiaco
a ??cieo i?aaiao i?e ii?iaeueieo oiiaao, ye? o?eaaeee /an i?iaiaeyoueny
aiaoiiaie Ee?anueei? oeiee i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani?a ?.?. Aia?eea.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa ?
o?aaiaioii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ethaeeie
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey ii
ieaiia?e oai?: “Aea/eoe i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei neeciai? iaieiiee
i?aai?a o?aaii?, aeeoaeueii?, na/inoaoaai? nenoai ethaeeie a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0195I011141).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aea/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a ia?aeiiiai ? aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco
e?iaiiinieo noaeei no?iee na/iaiai i?oo?a ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio
ia??iae? iioiaaiaco.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ia?aeiieo e?iaiiinieo
noaeei na/iaiai i?oo?a ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco.

2. Anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy a?aeae?e?a ia?aeiii?
i?ioieai?ey?ii? n?oee a ??ci? eaiee i?aaiiniaoeao?/iiai
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a.

3. Aea/eoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ee?oeiieo oa
iaee?oeiieo eiiiiiaio?a no?iee eiaeii? eaiee aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
(a?oa??iea, i?aeai?ey?ia a?oa??iea, eai?ey?, iinoeai?ey?ia aaioea,
aaioea) ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo
iioiaaiaco ethaeeie.

4. Aeyaeoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iaoai?cie oa niiniae oi?ioaaiiy aoi?eiieo
e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a na/iaiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie c iaoith
aeyaeaiiy noaae?e aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

A ?iaio? aia?oa aoee aea/ai?:

1. Aoaie ?icaeoeo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a
ethaeeie i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco.

2. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioieai?ey??a na/iaiai i?oo?a ia
?aii?o aoaiao i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco.

3. Aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo aaiii?e?inoaeei na/iaiai i?oo?a o an?o eiai oa?ao
i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? i?ae /an
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia? aeai? uiaei ?icaeoeo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
na/iaiai i?oo?a aia??ii?a ? ieiae?a ethaeeie aeiiiaiththoue ?nioth/?
iieiaeaiiy uiaei ?icaeoeo e?iaiiiniiai ?onea i?aaio.

?acoeueoaoe oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiinyoueny aei oeo iaoeiaeo
aeaieo, ye? iaiao?aei? i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo, iia’ycaieo ?c a?iaeaeaiith
iaoieia??th na/iaiai i?oo?a, ine?eueee aeieeiaiiy aoaeue-yei? iaoieia??
iiaycaii c? ci?iaie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea. Anoaiiaeai? no?iee
ooai?aiiy ia?aeiiiai aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a ?
cai?uaiiy eiai aoi?eiiei, ui caoe?eaaeoue o?ieia?a, a?iaeieia?a,
iaiiaoieia?a oa o??o?a?a i?e e?eoaaii? oa i?io?eaeoeoe? a?iaeaeaieo
iaoieia?e na/iaiai i?oo?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A ?iaio? aoei naiino?eii cae?eniaii aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, caa?? aia??ieia?/iiai oa ieiaeiiai iaoa??aeo,
ia?iaeo eiai ca aeiiiiiaith caaaeueiia?noieia?/ieo, ?i?eoe?eieo oa
ii?oiiao?e/ieo iaoiae?a, aiae?c io?eiaieo aeaieo, oi?ioethaaiiy
aeniiae?a oa ioi?ieaiiy ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia ?? iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an? aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a,
aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie (Eoaainuee, 1998), iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaaeeoeeie” (Ee?a,
1999), iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ii?oieia?y – i?aeoe/i?e iaaeeoeei? oa
aaoa?eia???” (A?ea Oea?eaa, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, a oiio
/ene? 3 noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo AAE Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiaiee oaeno aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii ia 120
noi??ieao. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 4 ?icae?e?a iniaenoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee
aeeth/a? 210 aeaea?ae a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a. ?iaioa
?ethno?iaaia 74 i?e?ioioia?ao?yie oa aeaeo?iiiia?aiaie ? 3 oaaeeoeyie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca?aeii c caaaeaiiyi aeaii? ?iaioe, aoei aeine?aeaeaii 119 aia??ii?a ?
ieiae?a ethaeeie a?eii a?ae 4-5 oeaei?a aei 9 i?nyoe?a
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo.

Aia??iiaeueiee ? ieiaeiee iaoa??ae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa io?eiaiee c
aeooa?nueeeo ? a?iaeieia?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue e?ea?aiue i?noa Ee?aa i?ney
naiia?eueieo aai?o?a, ia?aae/anieo iieia?a, ye? a?aeaoeenue aiane?aeie
ineo?/ii? aai iaoai?/ii? o?aaie, a oaeiae i?ney ooo/iiai ia?a?eaaiiy
aaa?oiino?.

Ca?aeii c caaaeueiiaecia/ai?e noai?, aioo??oiueioo?iaiee ia??iae
?icaeoeo iiae?ey?oueny ia aeaa ia??iaee: aia??iiaeueiee (ia?o? 8 oeaei?a
i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo) oa ieiaeiee (A.A. Eii??a,1959; E.?. Oae?i,
1976; Patten 1959). Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy a?eo aia??ii?a ie a aeaiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaiaeeee aei??e o?i’yii-eoi?eeiai? aeiaaeeie oa
aeiaaeeie noiie a i?e?iao?ao. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ioe?ithaaee ii
oaaeeoeyi, cai?iiiiiaaieo E.?. Oae?iei (1976) oa A.TH. Aa?aiiaei (1976).

Ia na?oeiiioe/iiio ??ai? no?iea na/iaiai i?oo?a aia??ii?a ? ieiae?a
ethaeeie aoea aeine?aeaeaia ia na??eieo c??cao, oioaeueii iioa?aiaaieo
caaaeueiia?noieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie. Iaoa??ae o?enoaaee a ?ic/ei? E?ee?,
i?iaiaeeee /a?ac aaoa?ath nie?o?a aeno?aeii? eiioeaio?aoe??, aeae? /a?ac
noi?o nie?o-oei?ioi?i, oei?ioi?i-ia?ao?i, oa caeeaaee a ia?ao?i.
Ia?ao?iia? aeiee ??caee ia naiiiio i?e?ioii?. C??ce caaoiaoee 10-15 iei
oa?aoaaee oaeeie caaaeueiia?noieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie: aaiaoienee?iii oa
aiceiii; i?e?iooeneiii ii Aai-A?ciio; ii Iaeei??; ?ii?aaiaoe?y ii
Aiii??.

Aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei na/iaiai i?oo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie aea/aee ca
aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeno ?i’?eoe?eieo iaoiae?a.

Aeey aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy oi?ie aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ?
oa?aeoa?o eiioaeo?a iaae i?ae ieie o an?o eaieao
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea aoa aeei?enoaiee iaoiae ?ii?aaiaoe??
oeyoii ?i’?eoe?? 0,2 % ?ic/eio i?o?aoo n??aea /a?ac ieno?aeio ai?oo ii
?aia’? a iiaeeo?eaoe?? A.A. Nooei ? E.A. *a?ieoaiei (1957).
Aia?ia?o?oaeoii?eo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a
aea/aee oeyoii ?i’?eoe?? ieiae?a 4-9 i?nyoe?a aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai
?icaeoeo 30% aiaeiei ?ic/eiii /i?ii? ooo? /a?ac ieno?aeio ai?oo.
Io?eiai? i?aia?aoe ciaaiaeithaaee a nie?oao aeno?aeii? eiioeaio?aoe??,
ina?oethaaee a eneeie?, ?ici?uoaaee a aaeuecai?, aea/aee ?
oioia?aooaaee, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?e?ineii IA?-6 ? a?iieoey?io eoio IA?-2.

Ieiaeiee iaoa??ae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa io?eiaiee ni?a?ia?oieeaie
a?aeae?eaiiy aeeoy/i? iaoieia?? OAeNI “IOIAAeEO” (caa?aeoaa/ – AEaaea?a
Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/)1.

Aeey aea/aiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae aeieeiaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo i?e?inoaeei e?iaiiiniiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a aia??ii?a ?
ieiae?a ethaeeie aoa aeei?enoaiee iaoiae o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii?
i?e?ineii??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue aaoi?ii ni?eueii ?c
ni?a?ia?oieeaie a?aeae?eo oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai oa ii?oiiao?e/iiai aiae?co
IAeEOe IIO (caa?aeoth/a a?aeae?eii – ae.a.i., i?ioani? Noa/aiei
Ethaeieea Ieaenaiae??aia) Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo ni?a?ia?oieeai
aeuacacia/aieo i?ae?icae?e?a ca iino?eio oaaao oa aeiiiiiao o aeeiiaii?
aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.. Oiaoi/ee oeaiei na/iaiai i?oo?a ?ici??ii 1-2 ii
o?enoaaee a 1% ?ic/ei? OsO4 ii Eieo?eueaeo i?ioyaii 2 aiaeei i?e t 40
C. Ia’?eoe ciaaiaeithaaee a aoaiie? aeno?aeii? eiioeaio?aoe?? (a?ae
700 aei 960 i?e +40N, ii/eiath/e c 960 — i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??), a
aoeaoii? oa caeeaaee a noi?o aiiio c a?aeaeeoii ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie
?aaeeiaie. ?c aeie?a aeaioiaeyee iai?aoiie? c??ce oiaueiith 1-3 iei,
ye? oa?aoaaee oieo?aeeiiaei nei?i. I?ney ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? iaieiiie
na/iaiai i?oo?a ia iioeei-i?e?ineii?/iiio ??ai? i?iaiaeeeinue
i?eoe?eueia aeaioiaeaiiy oeueo?aoiieeo c??c?a (oeueo?ai?e?ioiie
LKB-III oa “Reichert”). Canoiniaaii eiio?anooaaiiy 2% ?ic/eiii
o?ai?eaoeaoaoo ia 700 aoaiie? i?ioyaii 15 oa. oa oeeo?aoii naeioeth a
o?e aea o?eaaeino?. C??ce aeey i?e?ineii?? ia?aiineee ia aeaeo?iiiee
i?e?ineii YIA-100A?. Oioia?aooaaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?e ca?eueoaiiyo 5-12
oeny/ ?ac?a.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

I?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie a?aoiaoaaany oie
oaeo, ui na/iaee i?oo? ? niaoeeo?/iei i?aaiii, yeee ii/eia?
ooieoe?iioaaoe aaea ia 8 oeaei? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo. Eiai
niaoeeo?/i?noue iieyaa? o oiio, ui a?i caeaoiee iaeiie/oaaoe na/o oa
nei?i/aiiyi nai?? i’yciai? iaieiiee aeaiaeeoe ?? /a?ac na/iao i?ioieo c
i?aai?cio ieiaea. Ine?eueee na/a i?noeoue o nia? i?iaeoeoe
ieeneaiiy, ye? ? oe?aeeeaeie aeey i?aai?cio, oi, na?aae ?ioeo ieoaiue,
ye?

?icaeyaeaeenue o ?iaio?, ian oe?eaaeee ? caoeni? iaoai?cie, ye?
caiia?aathoue i?iieeiaiith na/? c ii?iaeieie na/iaiai i?oo?a o
e?iaiiinia ?onei.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiaco ia?aeiiiai i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai
i?oo?a ethaeeie i?aeoaa?aeeee aeai? i?i ?icaeoie ia?aeiieo
e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a c iacaio?iieo ee?oei, ye? ia 4-5 oeaei?
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo aeeoa?aioe?thaaeenue ia aeaa oeie: 1)
ee?oeie aa?aoaiiiiae?aii? oi?ie; 2) ee?oeie c??/anoi? oi?ie. Aoa
aeyaeaiee oaeo aa?aaaoe?? aa?aoaiiiiae?aieo ee?oei, iane?aeeii /iai
? ooai?aiiy ia?aeiieo i?e?inoaeei oeio i?ioieai?ey??a. Ooai?aiiy
i?ina?oo (ethiai?caoe?y) ia?aeiieo i?e?inoaeei ? iane?aeeii ooai?aiiy
a ee?oeiao iacaio?iioeeo?a ioeueoeaaceeoey?ieo eiiieaen?a, c
iiaeaeueoei ?o ?iciaaeii a i?aeee?oeiiiio i?inoi??. I?e oeueiio
aa?aoaiiiiae?ai? ee?oeie c’?aeiothoueny i?ae niaith ca aeiiiiiaith
u?eueieo eiioaeo?a, ooai?thth/e caieioo?noue u?eeie. Ca?eueoaiiy
i?ina?oo i?ae ee?oeiaie ? iane?aeeii i?ioeano iiaeaeueoiai ooai?aiiy
oa ?iciaaeo ioeueoeaaceeoey?ieo eiiieaen?a a i?ina?o ia?aeiieo
i?e?inoaeei, yeee a?aeaoaa?oueny a “aa?aaiaeo” ee?oeiao ? aeae? – a
i?eii?ae?aeueieo aiaeioae?ioeeoao i?ioieai?ey??a. “Aa?aaia? ee?oeie” a
aia??ieia?/iiio aniaeo? ? iaeia?oeie ee?oeiaie noaeeiii? aenoeeee.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia 5-6 oeaeiyo i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo a ?o oeeoiieaci?
c?inoa? e?euee?noue aaeoieae oa i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe,
?icoaoiaaieo ia?aaaaeii ia aaethi?iaeuei?e iiaa?oi?. A??ia?aeii, oe?
i?aaiaee i?eeiathoue o/anoue a nae?aoe?? iaoa??aeo, yeee ?aea ia
iiaoaeiao aacaeueii? iaia?aie. Iaie a?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?ioeane,
ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a iacaio?iieo ee?oeiao, ui ioi/othoue «aa?aaia?
ee?oeie», oaeiae iai?aaeai? ia ooai?aiiy aacaeueii? iaia?aie. A ?o
oeeoiieaci? a?aei?/a?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue i?aaiae neioaoe/iiai oeio
(eaiaeueoe?a aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee, a?eueieo ?eainii, iie?niiaeueieo
eiiieaen?a) oa i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe, ye? ooai?ththoue
e?iiniiaeuei? eiiieaene ? ?icoaoiaai? c aieo i?ina?oo noaeei. Oaeei
/eiii, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i?ioeane, ye? i?ioiaeyoue a
“aa?aaiaeo” ee?oeiao oa a ee?oeiao niieo/ii? oeaieie, ye? ?o
ioi/othoue, iai?aaeai? ia: 1) iiaeaeueoa aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy “aa?aaiaeo”
ee?oei a i?eii?ae?aeuei? aiaeioae?ioeeoe i?ioieai?ey??a; 2) oi?ioaaiiy
aacaeueii? iaia?aie. Ia iao iiaeyae, a?aeiinii ?aiiy iiyaa aacaeueii?
iaia?aie a i?ioieai?ey?ao i?aaio ? eiiiainaoi?iei i?enoinoaaiiyi
ia?aeiii? noaeeiii? nenoaie aei oe?aeeeaeo oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua
ii?iaeieie ca/aoea ? aeae? — naiiai na/iaiai i?oo?a. Ia?aeaeueii c
?icaeoeii aacaeueii? iaia?aie ia 6-7 oeaei? i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean iiaeaeueoi? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? “aa?aaiaeo” ee?oei
a i?eii?ae?aeuei? aiaeioae?ioeeoe i?ioieai?ey??a. Ee?oeie
aeoyaothoueny a aeiaaeeio, i?e oeueiio ?o yae?a iaaoaathoue iaaeueii?
aai ie?oaei? oi?ie. A ieo, a ii??aiyii? c “aa?aaiaeie” ee?oeiaie,
i?noeoueny a?eueoa e?euee?noue aaoa?io?iiaoeio, neiioeaio?iaaiiai
iaaeiei ea??ieaie. Eiioaeoe i?ae aiaeioae?ioeeoaie
ou?eueiththoueny. A oeeoiieaci? i?eii?ae?aeueieo aiaeioae?ioeeo?a
niinoa??aa?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue i?oioiiae??e oa ?eainii,
o?aaiaioe ca?ienoi? aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i aenieee
??aaiue aia?aaoe/ieo oa neioaoe/ieo i?ioean?a a ee?oeiao, ye? iai?aaeai?
ia ?o iiaeaeueoo niaoe?ae?caoe?th. A oeeoiieaci? i?eii?ae?aeueieo
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ii a?eueoa, a ii??aiyii? c
’’aa?aaiaeie’’ ee?oeiaie, e?euee?noue i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe, ye?
?icoaoiaothoueny ia?aaaaeii ia ethi?iaeuei?e oa aacaeuei?e iiaa?oiyo.
Iayai?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe, i/aaeaeii,
iia’ycaii c i?ioeanaie o?ainee?oeiiiai iai?io ?a/iaei oa iiaeaeueoiai
oi?ioaaiiy aacaeueii? iaia?aie. Niinoa??aa?oueny iiaeaeueoa
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ee?oei ia?aaacaeueii? niieo/ii? oeaieie. C??/ano?
iacaio?iioeeoe, ye? ia a?eueo ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo ioi/oaaee
“e?ia’yi? ino??aoe?”, iinooiiai ia?aoai?ththoueny a
iaeiaeeoa?aioe?eiaai? o?a?iaeanoe. Inoaii? caiaeii ia?aoai?ththoueny
a thi? (iii??ii neioacoth/?) o?a?iaeanoe, a aeae? — a c??e?
(?ioaineaii neioacoth/?) ee?oeie. Aei aeuaneacaiiai iiaeia aeiaeaoe, ui
ia?aeiiee aia?iaaiac na/iaiai i?oo?a ethaeeie a?aeaoaa?oueny
(?aae?co?oueny) o?eueee a aia??iiaeueiiio ia??iae? ? iieyaa? a ooai?aii?
ia?aeiieo i?e?inoaeei oeio i?ioieai?ey??a, oi?ioaaiiy caieiooiai
ia?aeiiiai i?ioieai?ey?iiai ?onea oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th eiai a i?ea?aeio,
iai?iio oa aea?aeio eaiee.

Iaie aeine?aeaeaii, ui a ieiaeiiio ia??iae? ia 3-4 i?nyoeyo
a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y caieiooiai ia?aeiiiai i?ioieai?ey?iiai
?onea ia iniiai? eaiee aoi?eiiiai oa ?icaeoie iiaeo i?e?inoaeei ?c
iiia?aaeiueiooai?aieo.

A?oa??iey?ia eaiea i?e?inoaeei na/iaiai i?oo?a
a?aeaeeoa?aioe?eiao?oueny a?ae i?ioieai?ey??a aaea ia 9-10 oeaei?
i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. I?ioeane aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, ye? i?ioiaeyoue
a i?e, iai?aaeai?, aieiaiei /eiii, ia ?aaoeyoe?th e?iaiia?ao a
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio ?one? na/iaiai i?oo?a. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui niaoeeo?/i?noue ?icaeoeo
a?oa??iey?ii? eaiee, iieyaa?, a iniiaiiio, a i?enoinoaaii? aei ci?ie
ia’?io i?aaio. Oea i?iyaey?oueny a ?icoaooaaii? a?oa??ie oa
i?aeai?ey??a ia?aaaaeii a i?aeneecia?e ? a i?aena?ici?e iniiaao oa
aaeaaioeoe?ei?e iaieiioe?. A i’ycia?e iaieiioe? noaeeie i?eiinii? eaiee
?icoaoiaothoueny a ia?ei?c?? – niieo/i?e oeaiei? i?ae oa?aie oa io/eaie
i’yc?a. Noaeeie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a iathoue
aaeioiaeaeio aai ni??aeaaeaeio eiino?oeoe?th, oiaoi, i?e eiai
iaiiaiaii? aiie ?ici?yieythoueny, a i?e aeii?iaeiaii? caeiathoue
iiia?aaeith iiceoe?th. Ia?oa iiyaa ni??ae?caoe?? a?oa??iey?ieo
i?e?inoaeei iaie a?aei?/a?oueny ia 10-12 oeaeiyo i?aiaoaeueiiai
?icaeoeo ? a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaeae? aei e?ioey ieiaeiiai ia??iaeo.

O aioo??oi?e iaieiioe? a?oa??ie oa i?aeai?ey??a iaie a?aei?/a?oueny
aaea ia ?aii?o no?ieao ieiaeiiai ia??iaeo ci?ia i???ioaoe??
aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei. Aiaeioae?ioeeoe iaaoaathoue aeoyaiooi? oi?ie,
?o iiacaeiaaeiy a?nue iai?aaeaia acaeiaae i?ioiaeaeaiiy noaeei. A
a?oa??ieao iaie niinoa??aa?oueny oae caaia «iie?naaeia» iieiaeaiiy, i?e
yeiio aiaeioae?ioeeoe aenooiathoue a i?ina?o noaeei. A oeeoiieaci?
aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei, ia oii? iaaaeeei? e?eueeino?
i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe, aeyaeyeanue cia/ia e?euee?noue i?aaiae
neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo, ui aeaco? ia cia/iee aia?aaoe/iee iioaioe?ae
aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei i?eiinii? eaiee. Oaeiae a oeeo ee?oeiao
niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue aeaiaio?a oeeoineaeaoo:
i?e?io?oai/ie oa i?e?io?eaiaio?a, yea c?inoa? a i??o ?inoo ieiaea. E??i
oiai, a?aei?/a?oueny ou?eueiaiiy eiioaeo?a i?ae aiaeioae?ioeeoaie.
I?aenoiiaoth/e aeuaneacaia, iiaeia a?aei?oeoe, ui aiaeioae?aeuei?
ee?oeie a?oa??ie oa i?aeai?ey??a na/iaiai i?oo?a iathoue
eiiiainaoi?i? i?enoinoaaiiy aei ci?ie aaee/eie ia’?io i?aaia, ye?
i?iyaeythoueny, ii-ia?oa — a nei?i/oaaeueieo iiaeeeainoyo oeeo ee?oei ?
ii-ae?oaa — a cia/i?e u?eueiino? eiioaeo?a i?ae aiaeioae?ioeeoaie.

A aacaeuei?e iaia?ai?, ia ye?e eaaeaoue aiaeioae?aeuei? ee?oeie,
oaeiae niinoa??aathoueny iaai? no?oeoo?i? i?enoinoaaiiy, ye?
iieyaathoue a iayaiino? aeineoue aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeanoe/ieo
aeaiaio?a. Iaie a?aei?/aii i?aeaeuaiiy /enea aeanoe/ieo aieieii c?
ca?eueoaiiyi oa?i?io niinoa?aaeaiue. Ciai? a?ae aacaeueii? iaia?aie
eaaeeoue i’yciaa iaieiiea. sse aoei anoaiiaeaii iaoeie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ee?oeie i’yciai? iaieiiee — aeaaeaiuee? i?ioeeoe
aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny c ee?oei ia?aaacaeueii? niieo/ii? oeaieie
(o?a?iaeano?a) ia 10-14 oeaeiyo i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. A?aeiinii oiaeo
noaeei i?eiinii? eaiee aiie caeiathoue aa?oeeaeueia iieiaeaiiy. Oi?ia ?o
aeoyaiooa. A ?o oeeoiieaci? iaie a?aei?/a?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue
i?aaiae neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo oa aeaiaio?a oeeoineaeaoo. ?icoaooaaiiy
i?io?a?ee ii i??? ?icaeoeo ieiaea aii?yaeeiao?oueny ii iiacaeiaaei?e in?
ee?oei. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iy’ciaa iaieiiea
i?eiinii? eaiee na/iaiai i?oo?a, e??i aaiiaeeiai?/ii? ooieoe??,
i?eeia? o/anoue ? a eiiiainaoi?ieo iaoai?ciao a?aeiinii aono?eeoe??
na/iaiai i?oo?a.

A aaeaaioeoe?ei?e iaieiioe? i?eiinieo i?e?inoaeei ia ?aii?o
aoaiao ieiaeiiai ia??iaeo niinoa??aa?oueny iiyaa cia/ii? e?eueeino?
eieaaaiiaeo aieieii. I?e ca?eueoaii? no?ie?a niinoa?aaeaiue
a?aei?/a?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ?o e?eueeino?. Aieieia ia’?aeiothoueny a
io/ee ??cii? oiaueie oa a?oiothoueny a iiacaeiaaeiueiio iai?yieo
a?aeiinii oiaeo noaeei. A i?noeyo aaeoaeaiiy i?e?inoaeei
niinoa??aa?oueny oee?eoey?ia iieiaeaiiy eieaaaiiaeo aieieii. Iayai?noue
aaeeei? e?eueeino? eieaaaiiaeo aieieii ? iaeiei c aieiaieo iaoai?ci?a,
ye? aacia?a?aii caaacia/othoue e?ia’th an? ae?eyiee oa oa?e na/iaiai
i?oo?a iacaeaaeii a?ae na/iiaiiaiaiiy.

Aeioe?eueii coieieoenue ia ieoaii? i?i o/anoue i?eiinii? eaiee
noaeei na/iaiai i?oo?a a aaiiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioeanao, ine?eueee ?iciiae?e
e?ia? a i?aai? a?a? iaiaeiaaaeio ?ieue a eiai iaae?ei?e ooieoe??. Iaie
niinoa??aaeanue iayai?noue no?ieoa??a i’yciai? iaieiiee ye a i?noeyo
a?aeoiaeaeaiiy a?oa??ie, oae ? i?aeai?ey??a. A?aei?/a?oueny
eieae?caoe?y no?ieoa??a ye a i?noeyo a?aeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae noaeei
a?eueoiai ae?aiao?o, oae ? aeaui aeenoaeuei?oa. A aeayeeo a?oa??ieao
a?aei?/a?oueny iiaea?ei?noue no?ieoa??a. Oaeiae iaie aoei anoaiiaeaii
iayai?noue a?oa??iei- aaioey?ieo aianoiiic?a, ye?, i/aaeaeii, neoaeaoue
aeey a?aeaaaeaiiy e?ia? i?ae /an nei?i/aiiy i?aaia. Ioaea,
i?aenoiiaoth/e aeuaneacaia a?aeiinii ?icaeoeo, noaiiaeaiiy
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae i?eiinii? eaiee
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a, iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaee, ui: 1) aiia yaey? niaith ?acoeueoao aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
ia?aeiieo oa iiaiooai?aieo i?e?inoaeei; 2) aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y
i?aeai?ey?ii? eaiee a?aeaoaa?oueny a ae?oa?e iieiaei? ieiaeiiai
ia??iaeo; 3) a i?aeai?ey?ao na/iaiai i?oo?a a?aeaoaathoueny iai?ii?
i?ioeane; 4) eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei? iaoai?cie a?aeiinii ci?ie
ia’?io i?aaio oi?eathoueny ? ?aae?cothoueny o an?o oa?ao i?eiinii? eaiee
i?ioyaii anueiai ieiaeiiai ia??iaeo.

Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aoee i?iaaaeai? a?aeiinii ?icaeoeo iai?iii?
eaiee aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a, aeacothoue ia aeaa
oeyoe ooai?aiiy e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a. Ia?oee oeyo aai iaoai?ci iieyaa?
a oiio, ui e?iaiiini? eai?ey?e ? iane?aeeii aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? noaeei
ia?aeiiiai i?ioieai?ey?iiai ?onea ia iai?iio eaieo aoi?eiiiai. Ae?oaee
iaoai?ci na?ae/eoue, ui aoi?eii? eai?ey?e aeieeathoue aiane?aeie
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iiaiooai?aieo i?e?inoaeei.

A i?ioean? i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo aecia/athoueny no?oeoo?i? ?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie, ye? i?ioiaeyoue o an?o oa?ao iai?iii? eaiee
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea. Aiaeioae?aeuei? ee?oeie, ye? ia ?aii?o
aoaiao iaee iie?aiiaeueio oi?io, a ae?oa?e iieiaei? ie?aeiiai ia??iaeo
aeoyaothoueny a aeiaaeeio. A ?o oeeoiieaci? iiaeia a?aei?oeoe aea? ciie:
ciio ia?eea??iia, ui ?icoaoiaaia iiaeeco yae?a oa aeoyaiooo ia?eoa?e/io
oi?io, a ye?e ?icoaoiaai? iniiai? eiiiiiaioe oeeoiieacie. Ia an?o
no?ieao iaie a?aei?/a?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue aeaiaio?a neioaoe/iiai oa
aia?aaoe/iiai aia?aoo, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo aia?aaoeeo
aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei. Iayai?noue aeaiaio?a oeeoineaeaoo,
neiioeaio?iaaieo acaeiaae a?n? ee?oei oa u?eueieo i?aeaiaeioae?aeueieo
eiioaeo?a na?ae/eoue i?i aenie? nei?i/oaaeuei? iiaeeeaino? aiaeioae?th
eai?ey??a. A iaaeao eiioaeo?a i?ae aiaeioae?aeueieie ee?oeiaie eai?ey??a
a?aei?/a?oueny iinooiiaa cieaeaiiy ieiu? i?aeaiaeioae?aeueii? u?eeie oa
aeiaaeeie eiioo??a c’?aeiaiue ia oii? ca?eueoaiiy oiaueie
i?aeaiaeioae?aeueieo eiioaeo?a. Oea, a??ia?aeii, iia’ycaii, ii-ia?oa — c
iiaeaeueoei ?icaeoeii aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei, ?, ii-ae?oaa — c
i?enoinoaaiiyi aiaeioae?ioeeo?a aei iino?eieo ci?i oiaueie no?iee
na/iaiai i?oo?a aiane?aeie eiai ?icoyaoaaiiy ? ci?i? eiai
aaiiaeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

A i?ioean? i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo a?aei?/a?oueny ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?
i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe, ?icoaoiaaieo ia?aaaaeii ia ethi?iaeuei?e oa
aacaeuei?e iiaa?oiyo, i?e /iio ia a?eueo i?ci?o no?ieao c?inoa?
e?euee?noue aaceeoe, ?icoaoiaaieo ia aacaeuei?e iiaa?oi?, ui na?ae/eoue
i?i oa, ui aiaeioae?ioeeoe eai?ey??a a i?ioean? i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
iaaoaathoue ?en aaceeoey?ii-o?ainii?oiiai oaiioeia. A eai?ey?ao na/iaiai
i?oo?a a?aei?/athoueny no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a aacaeuei?e iaia?ai?, a ye?e
niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aeanoe/ieo aeaiaio?a. sse ? a
i?eiinieo i?e?inoaeeiao, a aaeaaioeoe?ei?e iaieiioe? a?aei?/a?oueny
aaeeea e?euee?noue eieaaaiiaeo aieieii, c?a?aieo a io/ee, ye? ioi/othoue
oa eaeooue ii oiaeo iai?iieo i?e?inoaeei.

Aeine?aeaeaii, ui oaiie aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy aea?aeii? eaiee
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i?ioiaeyoue aeaui iia?euei?oa, i?ae a
a?oa??iey?i?e. Ia ?aii?o aoaiao oeae a?aeae?e i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea i?aaenoaaeaiee oe?ieeie noaeeiaie, ye? ioi/ai? oa?ii
niieo/iioeaieiieo ee?oei. Iinooiiai aiie aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny a
iinoeai?ey?e oa aaioee, ? aaea a e?ioe? 7 i?nyoey i?aiaoaeueiiai
?icaeoeo iiaeia neacaoe, ui oey eaiea i?e?inoaeei ? iiai?noth
noi?iiaaiith.

Inoaoi/ia oi?ioaaiiy iinoeai?ey??a a?aei?/a?oueny ia 4-5 i?nyoeyo
i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. ?o i?ina?o ooai?aiee 3 — 4 aiaeioae?aeueieie
ee?oeiaie, oi?ia yeeo iaaaaeo? aiaeioae?ioeeoe eai?ey??a. ssae?i ia?
aeoyaiooi-c?aiooo oi?io, ea??ieaia ooai?th? caiaaeeie oa aeaeie
ia?aaaaeii ia ethi?iaeuei?e iiaa?oi?. A yae?? ?icoaoiaai? aeeaee
aoo?iiaoeio, ye? neiioeaio?iaai? a a?eueo?e i??? iiaeeco ea??ieaie.
Niinoa??aathoueny ie?ai? neoi/aiiy aaoa?io?iiaoeio. Oi?ia
aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei iinoeai?ey??a aeineoue aeoyaiooa a aeiaaeeio,
a oeeoiieacia, a ii??aiyii? c oeeoiieaciith eai?ey??a, ia? aeaui iaioee
ia’?i. I?aaiaee oeeoiieacie i?aaenoaaeai? a aaeee?e e?eueeino?,
iniaeeai i?aaiaee neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo. ?eainiie ?icoaoiaai? aeeoocii
ii anueiio ia’?io oeeoiieacie, iiaeooue aooe i?ee??ieai? aei
eaiaeueoe?a aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee oa ooai?thaaoe iie?niiaeuei?
eiiieaene. I?oioiiae??? na?aaei? ca ?ici??ii, c e??noaie, ?icoaoiaai? a
aeayeiio a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae yae?a. Eiiieaen Aieueaeae? ?icoaoiaaiee
ia?eea??aeueii. Ii e?eueeino? i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe iaie aoei
aeyaeaii 2 oeie iinoeai?ey??a. Ia?oee oei oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iayai?noth aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe iaeeo oa
na?aaei?o ?ici???a, ye? ?icoaoiaai? ye iiaeeco yae?a, oae ? a cii?,
a?aeaeaeai?e a?ae ia?eea??iia. A?eueoa ?o /anoeia ciaoiaeeoueny iiaeeco
oeeoiieacie ia ethi?iaeuei?e oa aacaeuei?e iiaa?oiyo. Oeeoiieacia oaeeo
ee?oei ooai?th? cia/io e?euee?noue a?ae?inoe?a, ye? aenooiathoue o
i?ina?o noaeeie.

Aiaeioae?aeuei? ee?oeie iinoeai?ey??a ae?oaiai oeio oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iayai?noth na?aaei?o ca ?ici??ii i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe a cia/ii
iaio?e e?eueeino?, ?icoaoiaaieo iiaeeco aacaeueii? oa ethi?iaeueii?
iiaa?oi? oeeoiieacie. Oea ei?aeth? c cia/ii iaioith e?euee?noth i?aaiae
neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo. Ia?aaaaeaiiy a oeeoiieaci? i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo
aaceeoe ? ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? i?aaiae neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo na?ae/eoue
i?i aenieo aeoeai?noue o?ainiaia?aiiiai o?ainii?oo. Oeeoiieacia oaeeo
ee?oei ooai?th? cia/ii iaioa aeaei?a oa a?ae?inoe?a a noi?iio i?ina?oo
noaeeie.

A aiaeioae?ioeeoao iinoeai?ey??a iaie aeyaeythoueny aeaiaioe
oeeoineaeaoo, i?aaenoaaeai? i?e?io?oai/eaie ? oiiio?eaiaioaie a
iii??i?e e?eueeino?, ye? i???ioiaai? acaeiaae iicaeiaaeiuei? in?
ee?oeie. Aiaeioae?ioeeoe c’?aeiai? i?ae niaith u?eueieie eiioaeoaie. A
iaaeao eiioaeo?a aecia/a?oueny a?aeinia aeoii/ai?noue oeeoieaie.

Aacaeueia iaia?aia iinoeai?ey??a ia? aeineoue aeaeo?iiiiu?eueiee
aeaeyae, iaia?a?aia. Ciai? a?ae aacaeueii? iaia?aie eaaeeoue
ianooe?eueiee oa? ia?eoeeo?a. A oeo i?noeyo, aea ia?eoeeoe ia
i?eeyaathoue aei aacaeueii? iaia?aie, ciaoiaeyoueny a?ae?inoee ee?oei
niieo/ii? oeaieie, i?aaenoaaeaii? o?a?iaeanoaie. A aaeaaioeoe?ei?e
iaieiioe? iaie aeyaeythoueny eieaaaiia? aieieia, ye? c?a?ai? a ie?ai?
io/ee aaeeeeo oa iaeeo ?ici???a. Aecia/aii aeaa oeie ?o i???ioaoe?? ii
a?aeiioaiith aei i?e?inoaeei. O aeayeeo i?e?inoaeeiao, a oiio /ene? a
iinoeai?ey?ao, eieaaaiia? aieieia i???ioothoueny acaeiaae in?
i?ioiaeaeaiiy noaeei: a ?ioeo a?aei?/a?oueny ?o oee?eoey?ia aai eina
iieiaeaiiy.

Iayai?noue aeineoue aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe a
aiaeioae?ioeeoao iinoeai?ey??a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a oe?e eaioe?
?ioaineaii a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane o?ainee?oeiiiai iai?io. Ii i???
c?inoaiiy ?ici???a aaioey?ii? eaiee a?aei?/a?oueny a?eueoa ae?aaeai?noue
oa?o ia?eoeeo?a, ui, i/aaeaeii, iia’ycaii c aaiiaeeiai?/ieie
iniaeeainoyie no?iee na/iaiai i?oo?a. Oae ye ? a ?ioeo eaieao
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea, a aaeaaioeoeeei?e iaieiioe?
a?aei?/a?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue eieaaaiiaeo aieieii oa iii??ia
e?euee?noue ee?oeiieo aeaiaio?a, ye?, i/aaeaeii, neoaeaoue
i?enoinoaaeueiei iaoai?ciii a?aeiinii aono?eeoe?? i?aaio.

I?ina?o aaioe na/iaiai i?oo?a ooai?aiee 5-7 aiaeioae?aeueieie
ee?oeiaie. Inoaii? caeiathoue oae caaia “iie?naaeia” iieiaeaiiy, i?e
yeiio ?o yae?i c oeeoiieaciith aaea?oueny a i?ina?o noaeeie. Ia iaoo
aeoieo, oea ? eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueiei iaoai?ciii aei ci?ie
ia’?io na/iaiai i?oo?a. Eiee na/iaee i?oo? ia iaiiaiaiee na/ath, eiai
aaie caeiathoue ni??aeaaeaeia iieiaeaiiy. Aiaeioae?aeuei? ee?oeie, ye?
iathoue o neeaae? oeeoiieacie aaeeeo e?euee?noue aeaiaio?a
oeeoineaeaoo, nei?i/othoueny ?, oei naiei, ciaioothoue i?ina?o noaeei
aeiinii? eaiee, caaaeyee /iio a i?aai? ia ii?ooo?oueny e?iaiia?a. I?ae
/an ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaiiaiaiiai na/iaiai i?oo?a, eiee eiai no?iea
?icoyao?oueny, aaie ?ici?yieythoueny, ?o aiaeioae?aeuei? ee?oeie
aeoyaothoueny a aeiaaeeio, oei naiei ca?eueooth/e i?ina?o noaeeie ?
iaaeath/e iiaeeea?noue aacia?aoeiaeiiio i?ioiaeaeaiith e?ia?. ssae?a
oaeeo ee?oei iathoue iaaeueio oi?io, aeaei?a ea??ieaie noa? iaioa a
ii??aiyii? c iinoeai?ey?aie. A yae?ao aiaeioae?ioeeo?a aaioe
niinoa??aa?oueny aeenia?nii ?icoaoiaaiee ia?aaaaeii iiaeeco
ea??ieaie aoo?iiaoei, aeyaeythoueny ie?ai? aeeaee aaoa?io?iiaoeio.
I?aaiaee oeeoiieacie i?aaenoaaeai? a iii??i?e e?eueeino?. Neioaoe/iee
aia?ao ae?aaeaiee aeaui iaioa ii??aiyii c iinoeai?ey?aie.
Niinoa??aathoueny aeenia?nii ?icoaoiaai? ii anueiio ia’?io oeeoiieacie
?eainiie oa ie?ai? iie?niiaeuei? eiiieaene. Iiaeeco i?noeue eiioaeo?a
i?ae aiaeioae?aeueieie ee?oeiaie aeyaeythoueny o?eueoey
Aaeaaey-Iaeaaea. A?aei?/a?oueny iii??ia e?euee?noue aaeeeeo ca ?ici??aie
i?oioiiae??e c e?enoaie, eaiaeueoe?a ca?ienoi? oa iaca?ienoi?
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee, aeaiaioe eiiieaeno Aieueaeae?.

Ii??aiyii c i?ioieai?ey?aie, a oeeoiieaci? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a aaioe
c?inoa? e?euee?noue aeaiaio?a oeeoineaeaoo, i?aaenoaaeaieo i???ioiaaieie
ii iicaeiaaei?e in? i?e?io?oai/eaie oa i?e?io?eaiaioaie.
Aiaeioae?ioeeoe a?aeiaaeiaai? a?ae ciai? i?eeyaath/iai oa?o ia?eoeeo?a
aeia?a ae?aaeaiith aacia?a?aiith aacaeueiith iaia?aiith na?aaeiuei?
aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino?, a ye?e aeyaeythoueny aeanoe/i? aeaiaioe.
E?euee?noue inoaii?o c? ca?eueoaiiyi no?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue c?inoa?.
Oeeoiieaciaoe/ia iaia?aia aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei ooai?th? iacia/i?
aeaeie oa ae?inoe ye caieo ethi?iaeueii? iiaa?oi?, oae ? a noi?iio
aacaeueii? iaia?aie. Oa? ia?eoeeo?a i?aaenoaaeaiee ee?oeiaie
iai?ai?nyoeaai? oi?ie, aa?aiooa noi?iia yeeo eaaeeoue ia aacaeuei?e
iaia?ai?. A oeeoiieaci? oeeo ee?oei niinoa??aa?oueny ae?aaeaia
e?euee?noue i?aaiae neioaoe/iiai aia?aoo oa aeaiaio?a oeeoineaeaoo.

Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy noiniaii iiaiooai?aiiy noaeei
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i?aeoaa?aeeee ?nioth/? aei oeueiai /ano
a?iioace uiaei ?o ?icaeoeo. Ie a?aei?/a?ii, ui i?ioean iiaiooai?aiiy
aoi?eiieo i?e?inoaeei na/iaiai i?oo?a ethaeeie ii/eia?oueny ia 10-12
oeaeiyo ?icaeoeo ? i?ioiaeeoue i?ae /an anueiai i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo
iioiaaiaco. A?aei?/aii, ui i?ioeane ?inoo iiaeo i?e?inoaeei
a?aeaoaathoueny ia iniia? an?o eaiie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea, aea
iae/ano?oa — a eai?ey?ao oa iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioeao. A iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo, iiaeeco “a?oiueie” ?inoo niinoa??aa?oueny iayai?noue
ee?oei niieo/ii? oeaieie (iae?ioaa?a), ye? yaeythoueny oaeoi?aie, ui
noeioeththoue aia?iaaiac ? neoaeaoue i?ia?aeieeaie, ye? iai?aaeythoue
??no iiaeo i?e?inoaeei.

Ca i?ioeanaie ooai?aiiy, ?inoo oa eaiae?caoe?? aoi?eiieo i?e?inoaeei
a?aeaoaathoueny ? i?ioeane aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ia i?eiinio, iai?iio oa
aeiinio eaiee. Aiie iieyaathoue o aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ee?oei ia?aaacaeueii?
niieo/ii? oeaieie, ye? ioi/othoue iiaiooai?aio noaeeio. Aeine?aeaeaii,
ui i?ioean aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?eiinii? eaiee a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeaeoa, i?ae
iai?iii? oa aeiinii?. Ee?oeie ia?aaacaeueii? niieo/ii? oeaieie o?nii
i?eeyaathoue aei iiaiooai?aii? i?e?inoaeeie, oi?ioth/e 2-3 oa?e. A
a?oa??ieao oa aaioeao na/iaiai i?oo?a aiie caeiathoue aa?oeeaeueia
iieiaeaiiy ? iinooiiai ia?aoai?ththoueny a i?ioeeoe. A eai?ey?ao
niinoa??aa?oueny iaeei ianooe?eueiee oa? niieo/iioeaieiieo ee?oei, ye?
caeiathoue iiacaeiaaei? iieiaeaiiy ? aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny a ia?eoeeoe. A
iinoei?ey?ao oa aaioeao niinoa??aa?oueny 1-2 oa?e ee?oei niieo/ii?
oeaieie, i??ioiaaieo a iiacaeiaaeiueiio iai?yieo, ye? oi?iothoue
ia?eoeeoa?ia iie?eooy iinoeai?ey??a oa cae?aeueieo aaioe.

Iaie aecia/aii, ui iiaiooai?aiiy noaeei aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
a?aeaoaa?oueny o an?o oa?ao oa a?aeae?eao na/iaiai i?oo?a, aea
iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii — a o?e? oa aei? i?aaia. A oeeoe? oa oae caaiiio
o?eeooieeo na/iaiai i?oo?a oe? i?ioeane i?ioiaeyoue ?c cia/ii iaioith
?ioaineai?noth, ui iiynith?oueny a?aeiinii ieae/eie oaiiaie ?icaeoeo
oeeo a?aeae?e?a. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeacothoue ia iniaeeaino?
?iciiae?eo i?e?inoaeei a ??cieo a?aeae?eao na/iaiai i?oo?a a ieiaeiiio
ia??iae?. Aecia/aii, ui iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue i?e?inoaeei an?o eaiie
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ciaoiaeeoueny a no?ioe? o?ea oa aeia
i?aaia. Aiie ?icoaoiaothoueny ia?aaaaeii a i?aeneecia?e oa i?aena?ici?e
iaieiieao. A i’ycia?e iaieiioe? ia?aaaaeii a?aecia/a?oueny iayai?noue
eai?ey?ii? eaiee aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea.

AENIIAEE

1. Aia?iaaiac na/iaiai i?oo?a o?nii iia’ycaiee c ?icaeoeii oa
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieie iniaeeainoyie i?aaio ? aeeth/a? a naaa ?icaeoie
ia?aeiiiai oa aoi?eiiiai aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea.

2. Ia?aeiiee aia?iaaiac ca/aoea na/iaiai i?oo?a ethaeeie ii/eia?oueny
ia 4-5 oeaeiyo ? cae?i/o?oueny ia 8 oeaei? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai
?icaeoeo. Aecia/aii ianooii? noaae?? ia?aeiiiai aia?iaaiaco:

1) neoi/aiiy aa?aoaiiiiae?aieo ee?oei iacaio?ie c aia?iaeanoe/ieie
iiaeeeainoyie;

2) oi?ioaaiiy i?ina?oo ia?aeiieo i?e?inoaeei aiane?aeie nae?aooth/i?
ae?yeueiino? oa c’?aeiaiue ee?oei iacaio?ie c aia?iaeanoe/ieie
iiaeeeainoyie oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ?o a “aa?aaia?” ee?oeie
i?ioieai?ey??a;

3) aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y “aa?aaiaeo” ee?oei a i?eii?ae?aeuei?
aiaeioae?ioeeoe i?ioieai?ey??a;

4) aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ee?oei ia?aaacaeueii? iacaio?ie a o?a?iaeanoe;

5) ooai?aiiy ia?aeiiiai caieiooiai i?ioieai?ey?iiai ?onea.

3. Ia 6 oeaei? i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ia noaae?? ?nioaaiiy “aa?aaiaeo”
ee?oei ii/eia? ooai?thaaoenue aacaeueia iaia?aia caaaeyee neioaoe/i?e
aeoeaiino? “aa?aaiaeo” ee?oei oa ee?oei ia?aaacaeueii? iacaio?ie. ??
ii??aiyii ?aiiy iiyaa iiynith?oueny niaoeeo?/i?noth ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae ca/aoe?a na/iaiai i?oo?a.

4. Ci?ia ia?aeiiiai aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a
aoi?eiiei iieyaa? a eaieia?e niaoe?ae?caoe?? i?ioieai?ey??a oa a
iiaiooai?aii? i?e?inoaeei.

5. Iiaiooai?aiiy noaeei aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioyaii anueiai ieiaeiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ?c
“a?oiueie ?inoo” iiia?aaeiuei?nioth/eo (iaoa?einueeeo) i?e?inoaeei. Oea
neeaaeiee ii?oiaaiaoe/iee i?ioean, a yeiio caae?yi? an? eiiiiiaioe
no?iee i?e?inoaeei ? iicaee?oeiiiai iao?eeno.

6. I?eiinia eaiea aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ooai?th?oueny
aiane?aeie aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ia?aeiiiai i?ioieai?ey?iiai ?onea oa
iiaiooai?aieo i?e?inoaeei. Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y i?aeai?ey??a na/iaiai i?oo?a
ii/eia?oueny a ae?oa?e iieiaei? ieiaeiiai ia??iaeo. Aiaeioae?e
i?aeai?ey??a i?eeia? o/anoue a o?ainee?oeiiiio iai?i?.

7. ?icaeoie iai?iii? eaiee i?e?inoaeei a?aeaoaa?oueny ia 8-9 oeaei?
i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ? iieyaa? a a?aeiia?aei?e aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
i?ioieai?ey??a oa iiaiooai?aieo noaeei. A i?ioean? i?aiaoaeueiiai
?icaeoeo a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aiaeioae?th eai?ey??a a
aiaeioae?e niiaoe/iiai oeio oa iiaeaeueoa niaoe?ae?caoe?y
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a oa ?o eiioaeo?a a aiaeioae?ioeeoe
aaceeoey?ii-o?ainii?oiiai oaiioeio. I?aaiia niaoeeo?ea aiaeioae?th
e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a iieyaa? a iayaiino? a eiai oeeoiieaci? aaeeei?
e?eueeino? io/e?a i?e?io?eaiaio?a oa i?e?io?oai/ie, ui iia’ycaii c
i?enoinoaaiiyi aiaeioae?ioeeo?a aei iino?eieo ci?i ?icoyaoaaiiy ?
aaiiaeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue na/iaiai i?oo?a.

8. A?aea?aeia eaiea aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a
oi?io?oueny a ae?oa?e iieiaei? i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco aiane?aeie
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ia?aeiieo oa iiaiooai?aieo i?e?inoaeei. ??
i?aaiiniaoeeo?/i?noue iieyaa? a:

1) i?ioeanao o?ainee?oeiiiai iai?io, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a
iinoeai?ey?ao;

2) ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoyo aiaeioae?aeueii? iaieiiee aaioe,
ye? iai?aaeai? ia eiiiainaoi?i? i?enoinoaaiiy aei ci?i oiaueie no?iee
i?aaio.

9. A ae?oa?e iieiaei? i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo a?aeaoaa?oueny
niaoe?ae?caoe?y ee?oei ia?aaacaeueii? iacaio?ie, ye?
aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny a i?ioeeoe, ia?eoeeoe oa o?a?iaeanoe, a oaeiae
oi?iothoue oa?e, ui ioi/othoue aiaeioae?e. Iniaeea?noth aaeaaioeoe?eii?
iaieiiee na/iaiai i?oo?a ? iiyaa ia 3 i?nyoe? i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo a
iicaee?oeiiiio iao?een? aaeeei? e?eueeino? eieaaaiiaeo aieieii, ye? a
i?ioean? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo cae?athoueny a io/ee, i???ioiaai?, a
a?eueo?e i???, acaeiaae i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?e?inoaeei.

10. I?aaiiniaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? aaiaco aia?ia?o?oaeoii?ee na/iaiai
i?oo?a iieyaathoue a ?icaeoeo a ae?oa?e iieiaei? ieiaeiiai ia??iaeo
aonoeo n?oie a?oa??iei-a?oa??iey?ieo, aaioei-aaioey?ieo,
a?oa??iei-aaioey?ieo aianoiiic?a, a?oa??iei-a?oa??iey?ieo no?ieoa??a oa
aaeioiiiae?aii? i?aai?caoe?? an?o eaiie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea.

IA?AE?E ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. No?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? aoaeiae aiaeioae?ioeeo?a a?oa??iey?ieo
i?e?inoaeei a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo ethaeeie. //Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. Oa?iii?eue, 1996, O.1. – N.82-83. /ni?aaao. Aia?ee
?.?., Oaa/aiei I.A., *a?eania A.A., Eaioea? I.A., Iaeaoiaaoe I.E.,
Eocueiaiei TH.TH./.

2. ?icaeoie ia?aeiieo i?e?inoaeei a aia??iaaiac? ethaeeie. //Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. Oa?iii?eue, 1996, O.1. – N.83-84. / ni?aaao. Aia?ee
?.?., Oaa/aiei I.A., *a?eania A.A., Eaioea? I.A., Iaeaoiaaoe I.E.,
Eocueiaiei TH.TH./.

3. I?e?iaaneoeiaaiac a iaciiao?aeueieo oa ia?aiaciiao?aeueieo i?ioieao
ethaeeie. //A?niee ii?oieia??. A?iieoey, 1997, ?3, N.40-41. /ni?aaao.
N.O. *i?iieoeuenueeee, I.I. Aiae???iei./.

4. Aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei na/iaea?aeieo oeyo?a ieiae?a ethaeeie.
//Aanoiee i?iaeai aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu. Iieoaaa-Oa?ueeia, 1997, N.
24-28. /ni?aaao. Aiae???iei I.I./.

5. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua iniaaiiinoe noaiiaeaiey e?iaaiiniuo eaieeey?ia
ii/aaiai iocu?y a i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca /aeiaaea. // A?niee
A?eioea?e?anueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. A?ea Oea?eaa,
1998, Aeione 6, *.2. – N. 9-11.

6. Ia?ae/iue aiaeiaaiac ii/aaiai iocu?y /aeiaaea a i?aiaoaeueiii
iioiaaiaca. //Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. Eoaainuee, 1998, N. 24.

7. ?icaeoie ia?aeiiiai aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a a
i?aiaoaeueiiio iioiaaiac?. //A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie.
Iieoaaa-Oa?e?a, 1999, N. 93-96.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aacooaiueei I.A. Aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei na/iaiai i?oo?a ethaeeie a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.01 – ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. — Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeththoueny no?oeoo?i? iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo
ia?aeiieo ? aoi?eiieo e?iaiiinieo i?e?inoaeei no?iee na/iaiai i?oo?a
ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco. Iaoiaeaie na?oeiai? oa
aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? anoaiiaeaii, ui noaeeie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a ooai?ththoueny ca ?aooiie ia?aeiiiai oa aoi?eiiiai
aia?iaaiaco. Ia?aeiiee aia?iaaiac a?aeaoaa?oueny o?eueee a ieiaeiiio
ia??iae? ? iieyaa? a ?icaeoeo ia?aeiieo i?e?inoaeei oeio i?ioieai?ey??a
?c ee?oei iacaio?ie oa ooai?aii? caieiooiai ia?aeiiiai i?ioieai?ey?iiai
?onea. ?icaeoie aoi?eiiiai i?aaiiniaoeeo?/iiai aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea na/iaiai i?oo?a coiiaeaiee aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th ia eiai iniiai?
eaiee ia?aeiiiai i?ioieai?ey?iiai ?onea oa iiaiooai?aieo i?e?inoaeei.
I?aaiiniaoeeo?/ieie ?enaie ?icaeoeo i?e?inoaeei na/iaiai i?oo?a ?
ii??aiyii ?aiiy iiyaa aacaeueii? iaia?aie e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a oa
iayai?noue a aaeaaioeoe?ei?e iaieiioe? a?oa??ie oa cae?aeueieo aaioe
aaeeei? e?eueeino? iiacaeiaaeiueii???ioiaaieo eieaaaiiaeo aieieii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei, na/iaee i?oo?, aia?iaaiac.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aacooaiueei I.A. Aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iia ?onei ii/aaiai iocu?y /aeiaaea
a i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia
nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01.- ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey. — Iaoeeiiaeueiue
iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao ei. A.A. Aiaiiieueoea, Eeaa, 1999.

Iaoiaeaie naaoiaie e yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee eco/aeenue no?oeoo?iua
iaoaieciu ia?ae/iiai e aoi?e/iiai aiaeiaaiaca e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia
noaiee ii/aaiai iocu?y /aeiaaea a i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia?ae/iua e?iaaiiniua eaieeey?u ii/aaiai iocu?y
/aeiaaea ia?acothony ec eeaoie iacaioeiu, eioi?ua ia 4-5 iaaeaeyo
aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey aeeooa?aioee?othony ia 2 oeia: 1)
aa?aoaiiia?aciua iacaioeiioeeou; 2) caacae/aoua iacaioeiioeeou. Aue
auyaeai oaeo aa?aaaoeee aa?aoaiiia?aciuo eeaoie iacaioeiu n
iineaaeothuei ia?aciaaieai i?inaaoa iaaeaeo ieie, neaaenoaeai /aai
yaeyaony ia?aciaaiea a eiioea 5 iaaeaee yia?eiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey
ia?ae/iuo iee?ininoaeia oeia i?ioieaieeey?ia. Ia?aciaaiea i?inaaoa
(ethiaiecaoeey) anoue neaaenoaea ia?aciaaiey a oeeoiieacia
aa?aoaiiia?aciuo iacaioeiioeeoia ioeueoeaaceeoey?iuo eiiieaenia n
iineaaeothuei eo ?aniaaeii a iaaeeeaoi/iia i?ino?ainoai. I?e yoii
aa?aoaiiia?aciua eeaoee niaaeeiythony iaaeaeo niaie i?e iiiiue ieioiuo
eiioaeoia, ia?acoy caieiooinoue uaee. Oaaee/aiea i?inaaoa iaaeaeo
eeaoeaie yaeyaony neaaenoaeai i?ioeannia aeaeueiaeoaai ia?aciaaiey e
?aniaaea ioeueoeaaceeoey?iuo eiiieaenia a i?inaao ia?ae/iuo
iee?ininoaeia, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a “aa?aaiauo” eeaoeao, e aeaeaa — a
i?eii?aeeaeueiuo yiaeioaeeioeeoao i?ioieaieeey?ia. Ia yoeo n?ieao,
ia?aeeaeueii n i?ioeannaie ia?aciaaiey ia?ae/iuo iee?ininoaeia, a
?acoeueoaoa ia?aciaaiey e nae?aoeee ioeueoeaaceeoey?iuo eiiieaenia a eo
i?inaao, i?ienoiaeyo e i?ioeannu oi?ie?iaaiey aacaeueiie iaia?aiu. A aa
oi?ie?iaaiee i?eieiatho o/anoea eae, oae iacuaaaiua ”aa?aaiaua” eeaoee
i?ioieaieeey?ia, oae e eeaoee ie?oaeathuae ia?aaacaeueiie iacaioeiu.
Ioiineoaeueii ?aiiaa oi?ie?iaaiea aacaeueiie iaia?aiu yaeyaony
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?eniiniaeoaeueiui iaoaieciii ni noi?iiu ca/aoea i?aaia
ioiineoaeueii a?aaeiuo oaeoi?ia n?aaeu aai iieinoe.

Ia 6-7 iaaeaea aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey i?ienoiaeeo niaoeeaeecaoeey
“aa?aaiauo” eeaoie, aunoeeathueo ia?ae/iua iee?ininoaeu a
i?eii?aeeaeueiua yiaeioaeeioeeou i?ioieaieeey?ia, a ia?aaacaeueiuo
iacaioeiioeeoia – a oea?iaeanou. Eeaoee yiaeioaeey auoyaeaathony a
aeeeio, i?e yoii eo yae?a i?eia?aoatho iaaeueioth eee e?oaeoth oi?io. A
ieo, n?aaieoaeueii n “aa?aaiauie” yiaeioaeeioeeoaie, niaea?aeeony
aieueoaa eiee/anoai aaoa?io?iiaoeia, neiioeaio?e?iaaiiiai aie?oa
ea?eieaiiu. Eiioaeou iaaeaeo yiaeioaeeioeeoaie oieioiythony. A
oeeoiieacia i?eii?aeeaeueiuo yiaeioaeeioeeoia iaaethaeaaony aieueoia
eiee/anoai ieoioiiae?ee e ?eainii, o?aaiaiou ca?ienoie
yiaeiieaciaoe/aneie naoe, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia aunieii o?iaia
yia?aaoe/aneeo e neioaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a eeaoeao, eioi?ua iai?aaeaiu
ia eo aeaeueiaeooth niaoeeaeecaoeeth. I?eii?aeeaeueiua yiaeioaeeioeeou,
aunoeeathuea iee?ininoaeu, e ie?oaeathuea eo oea?iaeanou a eiioea 7
iaaeaee yia?eiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey oi?ie?otho caieiooia ia?ae/iia
i?ioieaieeey?iia ?onei.

Ia?aciaaiea aoi?e/iiai aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ii/aaiai iocu?y
/aeiaaea yaeyaony neaaenoaeai aeeooa?aioee?iaee ia aai iniiaiua caaiuey
ia?ae/iiai caieiooiai i?ioieaieeey?iiai ?onea e iiaiia?aciaaiiuo
iee?ininoaeia. Ia?aciaaiea iineaaeieo ia/eiaaony ia 8-9 iaaeaea
aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey e i?iaeieaeaaony a oa/aiee anaai ieiaeiiai
ia?eiaea. Iniiaiua caaiuey aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ii/aaiai
iocu?y ia/eiatho ia?aciauaaoueny ia 8 iaaeaea iioiaaiaca e n iieiie
oaa?aiiinoueth iiaoo auoue ioaeeooa?aioee?iaaiu a ia/aea 5 ianyoea
i?aiaoaeueiiai ?acaeoey. I?aaiiniaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie
iee?ininoaeia ii/aaiai iocu?y /aeiaaea yaeythony: 1) iaee/ea aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa yeaiaioia oeeoineaeaoa a yiaeioaeeioeeoao anao caaiueaa
aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea; 2) ia?aciaaiea aieueoiai /enea io/eia
eieeaaaiiauo aieieii a aaeaaioeoeeaeueiie iaiei/ea noaiee iee?ininoaeia;
3) oi?ie?iaaiea aonoie naoe a?oa?eiei-a?oa?eiey?iuo, aaioei-aaioey?iuo e
a?oa?eiei-aaioey?iuo aianoiiicia a iiaeneecenoie e iiaena?iciie iniiaao
i?aaia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iia ?onei, ii/aaie iocu?ue,
aiaeiaaiac.

SUMMARY

Bezshtan’ko M.A. Haemomicrocirculatory system of human urinary bladder
during prenatal ontogenesis. Manuscript. Dissertation to obtain the
scientific degree of Candidate of Medical Sciences (Medicine) in
specialty 14.03.01 – Human Anatomy – National Medical University, Kyiv,
1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the development of structural mechanisms
of angiogenesis of blood vessels of haemomicrocirculatory system of
human urinary bladder during prenatal ontogenesis. By means of the
injection techniques, electron microscopy and the light microscopy it
was established that angiogenesis is closely related to the development
and morpho-functional peculiarities of an organ and includes development
of primary and secondary haemomicrocirculatory beds. Primary
angiogenesis occurs only in embryonal period and consists of the
formation of primary vessels of the protocapillary type and their
further differentiation to basic links of closed microcirculatory
system. Secondary angiogenesis starts during the fetal period and
consists of the further specialization of the primary protocapillary bed
into basic links of the secondary angiogenesis and the new formation of
microvessels.

Key words: haemomicrocirculatory system, urinary bladder, angiogenesis.

Похожие записи