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Гемокоагулюючі, фібрінолітичні та імунні властивості слизової оболонки бронхів у хворих на хронічний бронхіт: Автореф. дис… канд. мед. наук / Н.А. Ш

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IIIINOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?AIE

E?einueeee ?anioaeeainueeee iaoeiai-aeineiaeiee iinoeooo oice/ieo
iaoiaeia eieoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii eeiiaoieia iai .I.N/aiiaa

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE: 616.233-002-036.12-076:616.233-018.73:616.151.5:612:017.11

OEAAAA Iaoaeiy Aeueaa?oiaia

AAIIEIAAOETHTH*, OA?EIIEOE*I OA IOII AEANOEAINO

NEECIAI IAIEIIEE A?IIOA O OAI?EO IA

O?II*IEE A?IIOO

14.01.27 — Ioeueiiiieiay

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

sseoa—1999

Aeena?oaoeith ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o E?einueeiio ?anioaeieainueeiio iaoeiai-aeineaeiiio
iinoeoooi oice/ieo iaoiaeia eieoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii eeiaoieia i.
.M.N/aiiaa.

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee:

Caneoaeaiee aeiy/ iaoee oa oaoiee Oe?aie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Nieaeao/aiei Na?ae Na?aeiae/, E?einueeee ?anioaeeainueeee IAe
oice/ieo iaoiaeia eieoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii eeiiaoieia i .I.N/aiiaa,
aee?aeoi?.

Ioioeeii iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eoaeoei Aieiaeeie? Oaaei?iae/,
E?einueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oiaa?neoao i. N.I.Aai?aanueeiai,
caaaeoaa/ eaoaae?e oa?ai ?1;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe ss?io Ieaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/, E?einueeee
?anioaeeainueeee IAe oice/ieo iaoiaeia eieoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii eeiiaoieia
i .I.N/aiiaa, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoee.

I?iaaeia i?aaiicaoeiy:

Aeii?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeaiy, eaoaae?a ainieoaeueii
oa?ai ? 1; Aeii?iiao?ianuee.

Caoeno aaeaoaeaoueny “ 3 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei ia canaeaii
niaoeaeciaaii a/aii ?aaee Ae 53.610.01 i?e E?einueeiio
?anioaeieainueeiio IAe oice/ieo iaoiaeia eieoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii
eeiiaoieia i. .I.N/aiiaa (334203, ?anioaeea E?ei, i. sseoa, aoe. Iooia,
8).

3 aeena?oaoeith iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o aiaeioaoei E?einueeiai
?anioaeieainueeiai IAe oce/ieo iaoiaea eeoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii eeiaoieia i.
. I.N/aiiaa (334203, ?anioaeea E?ei, i.sseoa, aoe. Iooia, 8).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icneaiee “ 30 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoeaeciaaii

a/aii ?aaee, aeioeaio
I.O. I’yieia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueinoue ?iaioe. Cia/aiiy o?ii/ieo ianiaoeeo/ieo caoai?thaaiue
eaaaia (OICE) ii?yae c iioeie oai?iaaie, yei iae/anooa aenooiathoue
i?e/eiith caoai?thaaiue, iiaaeiaeiinoi oa niepoiinoi ianaeaiiy a e?aiao
a?iie, aeeth/ath/e Oe?aio, iaooeeueii c?inoa (Ieeei/oe I.N. oa
niiaaao., 1986; Iioiaecae .A. oa niiaaao., 1989; Oauaiei TH.., 1997,
1998; *o/aei I.A., 1996; *o/aei I.A. oa niaaao., 1998). I?e oeueiio a
inoaii aeaa aeanyoe?i//y aiaeii/aoueny oaiaeaioeiy ?inoo caoai?thaaiue
ia xpiii/ii iano?oeoeaii oai?iae eaaaia c ae?aaeaiith peciipaoi?iith
iaaeinoaoinoth, ?icaeoeii eaaaiaai aiia?oaici oa o?ii/iiai eaaaiaaiai
na?oey (OEN). Cia/aiiy aeaii i?iaeaie iaee?anethoueny ua e oei, ui
i?iaiic aeeooy oai?eo ia OICE iaaeaaii?eiiee i?e noaaieicaoe eaaaiaai
aiiepoaic oa oi?ioaaiii OEN. Iaeaea, 75% oai?eo iiie?athoue ia i?ioyci 5
pieia iney aeieeiaiiy canoieii aeaeiiiainaoe e?iaiiaiao, yea caeia o?ao
inoea iney aiia?oiii/ii oai?iae oa o?iii/ii ei?iia?ii iaaeinoaoiueinoi
na?aae i?e/ei nia?oi a aieiaie apyii noa?oa 50 pieia (Iaea H.P. oa
niiaaao., 1985; Duroux oa niaaao., 1984; Iaooeiae/ TH.B., 1991;
Neeueaano?ia A.I. oa niiaaao., 1991, 1993; *a?aenueea I.E., 1991;
Oauaiei TH.., 1998).

A/aiiy i?i aoiiiaoiaaiac o?ii/iiai a?iiooo (OA) a inoaiii ?iee noooai
aeiiiaieeinue iaoeiaeie oaeoaie i?i iaaoaio aeith ciaiioiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, aeeth/ath/e ianeaeee aaapi ia *a?iiaeeuenueee AAN,
ii?ooaiiy ioeioeieia?iiai eei?aino, ianiaoeeoi/ii ?acenoaioiinoi,
aeenaaeain iioiioaoo oa iioeo nenoai caaacia/aiiy aiiainoaco (Othaaeaea
O.I. oa niiaaao., 1995; Oaaeina A.A., 1995; Aieoa I.., 1996; Iiaiaeaiia
A.A. oa ciiaaao., 1996, Oauaiei TH.., 1998, *o/aei I.A. oa niaaao.,
1998). Cie?aia, anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ia?anoth/ee pico caoai?thaaiue ia OA
iaoiiaeaiee ia?o ca ana aeieiai/ieie oaeoi?aie, iae aieeaii yeeo
aiaeaoaaoueny cieaeaiiy iioiieiai/iiai caoenoo i?aaiicio. 3aiaeueii
i?ioeane iaaoaathoue caoyaeiiai iepe6iry c aaeeeei ?eceeii o?iiicaoe
(Naoa?/oe .., 1990). Ie?i iioiieo ?iceaaeia, aei aaaeeeaeo iaoaicia a
ipoapecoaaii ia?aaao OA oa eaaaiaai-na?oeaai iaaeinoaoiueinoi
aiaeiinyoueny ii?ooaiiy iie?iaaiioee?eoeyoe a nenoaii noaeei iaeiai eiea
e?iaooaiay, ui oa?aeoa?ecooueny ioaineaiei aioo?oiueinoaeeiiei o?iiaiii-
oa oia?iiooai?aiiyi, a oaeiae oi?ioaaiiyi o?iiaioeeoa?ieo iie?iaa?aaaoia
(Eiia?ia O.. oa niiaaao., 1986; Naoa?/oe .. oa ciiaaao., 1990; Oaaeina
A.A., 1995). Aeania c ei?aeoeth i?ioeania o?iii/iiai
aioo?oiueinoaeeiiiai iie?icai?oaiiy epiai iia’ycothoue ia?niaeoeae
iaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi oa?ai eaaaiaai-na?oeaai iaaeinoaoiueinoi
(Ieeei/oe I.N. oa niiaaao., 1986; Naoa?/oe .. oa niiaaao., 1990; Oeoa?a
N.I. oa niiaaao., 1990). Aea ca?ac, ia iao iiaeyae, iniaeeao
aeooaeueinoue iaaoaa ?icoeo?iaea caeiiiii?iinoae iioaa?aeueiiai
ooieoeiiioaaiiy iniiaieo nenoai caaacia/aiiy aiiainoaco, oae ye
?icoiiiiy i?e/ei iiaenenoaiieo ii?ooaiue iiaea aeyaeoeny iaaecae/aeii
ei?eniei aeey ooi/iaiey aoiiiaoiaaiaoe/ii cyoi oai?iae. Oea ieoaiey aei
aeaiiai /ano ?ice?eoi iaaeinoaoiuei.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
ca ieaiii iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue E?einueeiai ?anioaeieainueeiai IAeI
oice/ieo iaoiaea eieoaaiiy i iaaee/ii? eeiiaoieiai? ii. I.I.N?/aiiaa c
i?iaeaie “?ic?iaeoe iiai iaoiaee ei?aeoe a?iioaeueii aia??aaeoeaiino
eeoaaiiy a?iioaeueii anoie o?ii/iiai a?iiooo” (iiia? aea?ae?ano?aoe
194U039069).

Iaoa aeineaeaeaiiy. Aea/eoe aaiieiaaoethth/i oa iiyiii aeanoeainoi
neeciai iaieiiee apoixia a niianoaaeaiii c nenoaiiei aaiieiaaoethth/ei
oa iioiiei iioaioeiaeii o oai?eo ia OA a i?ioeani oi?ioaaiiy o?ii/iiai
eaaaiaaiai na?oey oa aeaoe i ioeiieo c aieo iaoi- oa naiiaaiaco.

Ociiaii caaaeaiiy aeineaeaeaiiy:

1. Aeaoe ioeieo aieeao ?icieo eiioeaio?aoeie aeno?aeoia neeciai iaieiiee
a?iioia oai?eo ia OA ia iieacieee aaiieiaaoeyoe, oia?iiieico oa
iioiioaoo.

2. Aecia/eoe nenoaiii-peaioia?ii (e?ia-oeaieia apoixia) niiaaiaeiioaiiy
iieacieeia i?ieiaaoeyioiiai, o?iiaioeeoa?iiai aaiinoaco oa eeoeiiiai
iioiioaoo.

3. Aea/eoe aieea o?iiaio ia i?ieiaaoeyioio oa oia?iiieioe/io aeoeainoue
eaeeioeeoia o oai?eo ia OA, a oaeiae aeaoe iaoioicieia/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
canoinoaaiiy aeoeaaoi?a ieaciiiiaaio na/aaiai oeio aeey noeioeyoe
ooieoeiiiaeueii aeoeaiino iioiioeeoia o aiaeia/ieo oai?eo.

4. Iaa?oiooaaoe aoaeoeaiinoue iaaeyoeieiiai oeyoo canoinoaaiiy o?ieiace
aeey ei?aeoe ii?ooaiue nenoai aaiinoaco oa ioiioaoo o oai?eo c OEN.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoa. A ?iaioi aia?oa aea/ai
aaiieiaaoethth/i, oiapiiieoe/ii oa ioiii aeanoeainoi neeciai iaieiiee
a?iioia a ciianoaaeaiii c nenoaiieie iieacieeaie eiaaoeyoeieiiai oa
o?iiaioeeoa?iiai aaiinoaco, oia?iieico oa eeioeiiiai ioioaoo o oai?eo ia
OA.

Anoaiiaeaia ?ieue ii?ooaiue ioiii ?aaoeyoe aaiinoaco a iaoiaaiaci OEN o
oai?eo ia OA, a oaeiae aea/aii aieea o?iiaiiy ia i?ieiaaoeyioio oa
oia?iieoe/io aeoeainoue eaeeioeeoa o aiaeia/ieo oai?eo c
eaaaiaai-na?oeaaith iaaeinoaoiinoth. Aia?oa aeiaaaeaii noeioethth/ee
aieea o?ieiace ia aeni?anth iiiioeeoaie ?aoeaioi?ia aei N3 eiiiiiaioa
eiiieaiaioo.

Iiaei iiaaeyoeieia aeei?enoaiiy aeoeaaoi?a ieaciiiiaaio na/aaiai oeio
aeey eeoaaiiy oai?eo ia OA c eaaaiaai-na?oeaaith iaaeinoaoinoth.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ounoue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoa. ?acoeueoaoe aeineaeaeaiue
?icoe?ththoue oa iiaeeaeththoue ?icoiiiy ?ie eieaeueiiai o?ii/iiai
caiaeueiiai i?ioeano a oi?ioaaiii caaaeueiiai ioiiiai oa
aaiieiaaoeyoeeiiai aeenaaeaino o oai?eo ia OA. Inoaii, a naith /a?ao, ia
noooaa cia/aiiy aeey iaa?oioiaaii ioeiee iaeai?o inoeaaeo (iaaeyoe oa
iioi) caniaia eieoaaiiy oei a?oie caoai?thaaiue.

Aeiaaaeaia i?aeoe/ia aaaeeeanoue eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy noaio
aaiieiaaoeyoeeiiai, o?iiaioeeoa?iiai oa ioiiiai iioaioeiaeia o oai?eo ia
OA c iaoith aecia/aiiy iieacaiue aeey i?ecia/aiiy ioiiiiaeoethth/eo
i?aia?aoia oa caniaa, ui caeaoi aieeaaoe ia i?ioeane aaiieiaaoeyoe.

?ac?iaeaii eaai?aoi?iee aeiaaiinoe/iee e?eoa?ie oi?ioaaiiy OEN o oai?eo
ia OA, nooue yeiai iieyaa o ao?ao caeaoiino eaeeioeeoia iiae aeth
o?iiaiio ae?iaeyoe oa?iaioe i?ieiaaoeyioii oa oia?iiieioe/ii ae.

Aoieaii a eeiii/io i?aeoeeo i?eaiaeueiee cania ei?aeoe ii?ooaiue
iie?ioei?eoeyoe oa iioiioaoo o oai?eo c OEN, yeee iieyaa a iaaeyoeeiiio
canoinoaaiii aeoeaaoi?a ieaciiiaaio na/aaiai oeio (o?ieiace).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoa aeineaeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?aeoeoe ?anioaeieainueei eeiii/ii eiea?ii i.
Naiaoei (i.Niioa?iiieue), Nioa?iiieuenueeiai i?ioeooaa?eoeueiciiai
aeeniaina?o, E?einueeiai ?anioaeeainueeiai IAe oice/ieo iaoiaea
eieoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii eeiaoieoai ii. .M. N/aiiaa, eaoaae?e ooaa?eoeueico
oa eaoaae?e oaeoeueoaonueei oepai ? 2 E?einueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oiaa?neoaoo ii. N..Aai?aianueeiai, naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oieo
caeeaaea Oe?aie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii caeeniaii iaoaioiee iiooe,
?acoeueoaoe yeiai aenaioeaii a ?icaeiei aeena?oaoe “Iaeyae eioa?aoo?e”
yeee naiae/eoue i?i aiaenooiinoue aiaeiaia iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie. Ociiaii
ioaeeaoei ia oaio aeena?oaoei iinyoue i?ei?oaoiee oa?aeoa?. Aaoi?ii
naiinoieii i?iaiaeeany aaea? oai?eo, o eiiieaenia ianoaaeaiiy, eieoaaiiy
iiaaeyoeiyie o?ieiiace oa eiio?ieue ca eiai aoaeoeaiinoth. Caeeniaii
oaeiae iaoeiaee aiaeic io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia. o iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea,
noi?ioeueiaaii iniiaii iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee oa i?aeoe/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei.

Ai?iaaoey ?acoeueoaoa aeena?oaoe. Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoeieiiai
aeineaeaeaiiy aeiiiaiaeaeenue ia Oe?ainueeie iaoeiaie eiioa?aioe c
iaeia?iaeiith o/anoth “Aeooaeueii ieoaiiy iaiaaeeeaiaioiciiai eieoaaiiy
caoai?thaaiue i?aaiia aeeoaiiy, na?oeaai-noaeeiii oa ia?aiai nenoai”
(sseoa, 1996); iaoeiai-iaaee/iie eiioa?aioei, i?enay/aiie iai’yoi
i?ioani?a Aieii-ssnaiaoeueeiai (Ciioepoiieue, 1996); thaieaeiie
eiioa?aioe, i?enay/aiie 60-?i//th aiaoi?enueeiai aeeoy/iai eo?i?oo
“Aeooaeueii ieoaiey aeeoy/i eo?i?oieia (aiaoi?iy, 1996); thaieaeiie
eiioa?aioe, i?enay/aiie 20-?i//th Oe?ainueeiai IAe aeeoy/i eo?i?oieia
ocioa?ai (aiaoi?iy, 1998), 2-io c’cae ooeceao?a ioeueiiiieiaa Oe?aie
(Eea, 1998).

Ioaeieaoei. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe iioaeieiaaii 10 ?iaio, a oiio /ene 4
?iaioe a ca?ano?iaaieo AAE Oe?aie aeaeaiiyo.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 134 noi?ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo i neeaaeaoueny ic anooio, iaeyaeo eioa?aoo?e, 5
?icaeieia ?acoeueoaoia aeanieo aeineiaeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy io?eiaieo
?acoeueoaoia, aeniiaeia, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoeie. ?iaioa iethno?iaaia
41 oaaeeoeath oa 4 iaethieaie. Nienie eioa?aoo?e iinoeoue 242 ?iaioe
aio/eciyieo oa iiicaiieo aaoi?ia.

CINO ?IAIOE

Iaoa?aee, iaoiaee aeineaeaeaiiy oa caniae eeoaaiiy. Aeey ae?oaiiy
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue ianoaaeaii 134 oai?eo, iiaeieaieo ia 5 a?oi. A
1-oo a?oio aaieoee 64 oai?eo ia o?ii/iee iano?oeoeaiee a?iioo (OIA) aac
eaaaiaai-na?oeaai iaaeinoaoiueinoi, a 2-ao — 28 oai?eo ia OIA, iepeaia
yeiai oneeaaeieany ?icaeoeii OEN, a 3-oth — 14 iiia?eeo oai?eo ia OIA
aac aeyaeaiiai OEN, a 4-oo — 12 iiia?eeo oai?eo ia OIA c i?iyaaie OEN,
a 5-oo — 16 oai?eo ia OIA c iciaeaie OEN, eieoaaeueiee eiiieaen yeeo
aeiiiaithaaany eo?nii iiaaeyoeie o?ieiace. Eiio?ieueio a?oio neeaee 30
caei?iaeo aeiii?ia.

Iaoa?iaeii aeineiaeaeaiiy o oai?eo 1-, 2- oa 5- a?oi aoea e?ia, o
oai?eo 3- oa 4- a?oi — neeciaa iaieiiea a?iioia, yea aoea io?eiaia i?e
aooiini. Nia?oue o oai?eo 3- oa 4- a?oi ianooiaea c ei?ioeei aaiiaeueiei
ia?iaeii. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith ciepoi oai?eo 4- a?oie aoei iineeaiiy
iaaeinoaoiueinoi e?iaiiaiao, o oai?eo 3- a?oie — aino?a ei?iia?ia
nia?oue, iaoai/ia o?aaia, anoeny. Caaip iaoa?iaeo a iiia?eeo oai?eo
aaeaoaaany a iioa?aaei 6 aiaeei c iiiaioo nia?o. C?acee neeciai iaieiiee
io?eioaaee c 3-4 aeieueiaeo a?iioia o eiaeiiai iiia?eiai oai?iai.

Ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo i?iaiaeeeinue aeai?aciai: a ia?oi aeii ia?aaoaaiiy a
coaoeioia?i, a oaeiae i?e aeienoei. Aeiaaiic OIA noaaeany ia iniiai
aeaieo eiiieaeniiai eeiiiei-?aioaaiieiai/iiai ianoaaeaiiy c iaia’yceiaei
a?aooaaiiyi iieacieeia ooieoe ciaioiueiai aeeoaiiy (Oauaiei TH.. oa
niaaao., 1993; Oauaiei TH.., 1997). Ooieoey ciaioiueiai aeeoaiiy
?ano?oaaeanue ia eiii’thoa?eciaaiiiio eiiieaen aeey ioeueiiiieiai/ieo
aeineiaeaeaiue “OII-1”, ui aeeth/aa aaoiiaoe/ia aecia/aiiy iieacieea
ni?ia?aie, iiaaiioaoia?aie c caienaie e?eai “iioie-ia‘i”.

Aeiaaiic OEN anoaiiaethaaany ia ocioai aeinoiai?ieo (“iiciio”)
aeaeo?iea?aeiia?aoi/ieo i?eciaeia aiia?o?ioi i?aaiai oeoii/eo i oae
caaieo “yeinieo” ?aioaaiieiai/ieo neiioiiia eaaaiaai aiiepoeici
(?icoe?aiiy i?eei?iaaeo eaaaiaaeo noaeei i?e caiaeiieiio ia?eoa?ieiiio
noaeeiiiio iaethieo, caieueoaiiy aeiaiao?o iecoaeii aieee eaaaiaai
apoepi) ia oei aiiieiaoe/iiai oeio oeaio?aeueii aaiiaeeiaiiee (Iaea I.?
oa niiaaao., 1985; Aecye A.A. oa niiaaao.,1987; Iooia I.A. oa
niiaaao.,1989; Oeoia?a TH.I. oa niiaaao.,1990). O iiia?eeo oai?eo
aeiaaiic OEN iiaeoaa?aeoaaany i?e aooiin.

Aeey ioeiee iioiioaoo aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ianooiii iaoiaee: ?aaeoeiy
?icaoeiooai?aiiy aeey aeyaeaiiy oioaeueieo (Aoio-?OE) oa aeoeaieo
(Aa-?OE) O-eiioioeeoia i A-eiioioeeoa (AAN-?OE) ii Kerman R. oa
niiaaao.; ?aaeoeiy ?icaoeiooai?aiiy c AA nenoaiith aeey aeyaeaiiy
eioioeeoia, ui aeni?anothoue ?aoeaioi?e aei iioiiaeiaoeiiia M oa G
(AA-?OE) ii Witimeyer S. oa niiaaao.; ?aaeoeiy ?icaoeiooai?aiiy aeey
aeyaeaiiy eiioioeeoia, ui aeni?anothoue ?aoeaioi?e aei o?ieiiace
(Ao-?OE) ii Bratchik A. oa ciiaaao.; ?aaeoeiy ?icaoeiooai?aiiy aeey
aecia/aiiy eiioioeeoia, yei iathoue ?aoeaioi?e aei e?ia’yiiai oa
oeaieiiiai aeoeaaoi?a ieaciiiiaaio ii oeie aea iaoiaeeoei (Ae-?OE oa
Ao-?OE); ?aaeoeiy ?icaoeiooai?aiiy aeey aecia/aiiy ?aoeaioi?ia aei
o?iiaiio (Ao?-?OE) ia eioioeeoao ii Eonaeueiai I..; ?aaeoeiy
?icaoeiooai?aiiy c AA oa AAN nenoaiaie aeey aeyaeaiiy iiiioeeoia, yei
iathoue ?aoeaioi?e aei iioiiaeiaoeiia M oa G i ?aoeaioi?e aei N3
eiiiiiaioa eiiieiaioo (AA-?OI oa AAN-?OI) ii Pomans D. oa niaaao.

Iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy o?iiaioeeoa?iiai oa eiaaoeyoeieiiai aaiinoaco,
oia?iiieico oa i?iaeoeoia ia?aeiaaoeyoei aeeth/aee: aecia/aiiy
aa?aaaoeieii aeoeaiinoi o?iiaioeeoia (aaiieicao-aa?aaaoeieiee oano) ii
Aa?eaaai E.C. oa niiaaao.; o?iiaiiaiai /ano ii Cipia A.; aecia/aiiy /ano
?aeaeueoeeoieaoei ieacie ii Bergerhof H., Roka L.; oiea?aioiico ieacie
aei aaia?eio ii Aaeoaea A.I. oa niiaaao.; i?iopiiaiiiaoro /ano
(i?io?iiaiiaee iiaeaen) ii Aeaoeieie A.I. oa niiaaao.; aeoeaiinoi
oia?iiace ii Aaeoaea A.I. oa niiaaao.; oia?iiieioe/ii aeoeaiinoi e?iai
ii Januszko T., Dubinska L.; oia?iiiaaio (OA) oa i?iaeoeoia aeaa?aaeaoe
oia?ii-oia?iiaaio (IAeO) c aeei?enoaiiyi iioiioa?iaioii oano-nenoaie.
Kpii oeueiai aeineiaeaeoaaeanue o?iiaiiiiiina?aaeeiaaia i?ieiaaoeyioia
oa oia?iiieioe/ia aeoeaiinoue eaeeioeeoia ii iaoiaeeoei Iaeaaeeea E.I.
oa niiaaao. o aeaniie iiaeeoieaoe. Aeno?aeoe neeciai iaieiiee apoixia,
ui io?eiaii i?e ayooici aiooaaeenue ca iaoiaeeeith Neiiao?iaa A.I. oa
niiaaao. a ?icaaaeaiiyo 1:10, 1:100, 1:500, 1:1000, 1:5000, 1:10000,
1:100000. Aeey aecia/aiiy aieeao aeno?aeoia ?icio eiioeaio?aoe ia
iieacieee ioiioaoo oa aaiinoaco i?e i?iaaaeaiii noaiaea?oii ?aaeoe c
e?ia’th caei?iaiai aeiii?a ia aoaii iinoaiiaee ?aaeoe aaiaeeeinue 0,05
(0,1) ie aeno?aeoo. Oeae iaoiaee/iee i?eeii (?icaaaeaiiy) aea
iiaeeeainoue ioeieoe aeoeaiinoue iioiieo, aaiieiaaoeyoeieieo oa
oia?iieioe/ieo aaaioa a oeaieii a?iioia, a oaeiae o noeenoue aei
?icaaaeaiiy.

iaaeyoe o?ieiace oai?ei ia OIA c iciaeaie OEN i?iaiaeeeeny c
aeei?enoaiiyi oeueo?acaoeiaiai iaaeyoi?a. Ia iaeio iaaeyoeth a?aee 30
ooieoeeiiaeueieo iaeeieoeue (OI) o?ieiiace ?ic/eiyee a 5,0 ie
oiceiai/iiai ?ic/eio, iaaeyoe ?iaeee ca caaaeueieie i?aaeeaie iaeei ?ac
ia aeaiue, eo?n neeaaeaany c 10 i?ioeaaeo?.

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeineaeaeaiue oa x iaaiai?aiiy

I?e aeineiaeaeaiii aeno?aeoia neeciai iaieiiee a?iioia o oai?eo ia OA
(iae. 1) aac i?iyaia eaaaiaai-na?oeaai iaaeinoaoiueinoi aaea o aeoiaeiie
eiioeaio?aoe 1:10 iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui aiie iathoue aeoaea aenieo
eiaaoeyoeieio oa o?iiaiieanoe/io aeoeainoue. Ia oea aeaco ?icueea
nei?i/aiiy /ano ?aeaeueoeeoeaoei ieacie (a 2,6 ?ace), iaeaeuaiiy
oiea?aioiino ieacie aei aaia?eio (a 5,4 ?ace), c?inoaiiy o?iiaiiiaiai
/ano (a 4,7 ?ace), caieueoaiiy i?io?iiaiiaiai iiaeaeno (a 1,3 ?ace),
iaeaeuaiiy aeoeaiinoi oia?iiace (a 2,3 ?ace). I?e oeueiio aeno?aeoe
neeciai iaieiiee a?iioia o oai?eo ia OA caa?aaee nai o?iiaiieanoe/ii
aeanoeainoi aei ?icaaaeaiiy 1:100000 (/an ?aeaeueoeeoieaoei ieacie),
1:10000 (o?iiaiiaee /an, oiea?aioiinoue ieacie aei aaia?eio, aeoeaiinoue
oia?iiace), 1:500 (i?io?iiaiiaee iiaeaen). C?inoaiiy o?iiaiiiaiai /ano
i?e ?icaaaeaiii 1:10 a 4,7 ?ace naiae/eoue i?i iayainoue aeayeiai
iioaioeiaeo aioeo?iiaiia (aioeeiaaoeyioia aeoeaiinoue) a neeciae
iaieiioei apiixia o oai?eo ia OA, ui i?iyaeyoueny aei ?icaaaeaiiy
1:10000.

Aeineaeaeaiiy ia?eoa?ieii epiai o oai?eo ia OA (iae. 2) aeinoiaipii
naiae/eoue i?i iiaeaeuaiiy ?iaiy oia?iiiaaio (ia 71,9% i?e ia?aeiiiio
ianoaaeaiii), iiii?iiio caieueoaiii oiapiioeioe/io aeoeaiino (ia 8,6%).
A oie aea /an aiaeii/aoueny aeinoiai?ia caieueoaiiy /ano, ui oa?aeoa?eco
nooiiiue oiea?aioiinoi ieacie aei aaia?eio (ia 8,7%). Oaea, ia ia?oee
iiaeyae, i?ioe?i//y aea iiaeeeainoue aeiionoeoe, ui o oai?eo ia OIA ciie
iieacieeia aaiieiaaoeyoe aiaeia?aaeathoue i?ioeane iineeaiiy
aioo?oiueinoaeeiiiai cai?oaiiy epoai c i?eoiaaiith eiaaoeiiaoith
aaeeaaiiy, ui aaeia?aaeaoueny oanoii oiea?aioinoue ieacie aei aaia?eio.
Ia iayainoue ioaineaii aioo?ioiueinoaeeiii aaiieiaaoeyoe aeaco oaeiae
iaeaeuaiiy a epiai o oai?eo ia OIA ?iaiy IAeO (ia 70,8%).

Ie?i aea/aiiy i?ieiaaoeyioii eaiee aaiinoaco o oai?eo ia OA iaie aoee
aeineiaeaeaii ooieoeiiiaeueii aeanoeainoi o?iiaioeeoia i anoaiiaeaii, ui
oeae iieaciee o oai?eo ia OA iaeaeuaiiee ia 32,5% (i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii ia
eeoaaiiy a noaoeiiia?), a i?e OEN noooai ia aae?iciyoueny aiae
aaeiiaiaeiiai iieacieea o oai?eo ia OA aac i?iyaia OEN. Aa?aaaoeieia
aeoeainoue aeno?aeoia iiaeaeuaia o oai?eo ia OA a ycix ?acaaaeaiiyo ia
106,3 – 44,2%, o oai?eo ia OA c eaaaiaai-na?oeaaith iaaeinoaoiinoth — ia
177,0 – 89,0% aeua ii?ie.

Ioeithth/e io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe, iaiaoiaeii aiaeiioeoe, ui
o?iiaioeeoa?ia aeoeaaoeiy — oea ia?aeiia aeaoa?iiiaioa a?iioiniacio i
aiiepo?io aeaaeei ioneoeaoo?e aeeoaeueieo oeyoia i?e o?iii/ieo
a?iioi-iano?oeoeaieo caoai?thaaiiyo (Oaoa?nueeee O.P. oa niiaaao.,
1990). Neioecoth/ee naieie o?iiaioeeoaie oa ae?oaeie eeioeiaie o aiaieu
caiaeaiiy oaeoi?, ui aeoeao o?iiaioeeoe, iaeiei ic iaeaieueo iaaooiio
iioaioeiaeueieo niaciiaaiia; aeeeeea neeciaee iaa?ye ca ?aooiie
iiaeaeuaiiy noaeeiii i?iieeeeainoi; aeoeao “caiaeuei” eeioeie
(iae?ioaae, iaeo?ioiee, aiciioiee oa iioi); aieeaa ia ioeioeeeia?iee
eei?ain ca ?aooiie caieueoaiiy eieueeinoi oa iiai?oaiiy ?aieiai/ieo
aeanoeainoae neeco; iiaeooeth a?iioiaeueio aiia??aaeoeaiinoue (Morley J.
oa ciiaaao., 1986). Oiio iaeaeuaiiy aa?aaaoeieii aeoeaiinoi o?iiaioeeoia
epoai o oai?eo ia OA i?e iiaeiaii c ?iceei c?inoaiiyi aa?aaaoeieii
aeoeaiinoi oeaiei a?iioia noooaei oaeoi?ii i?ia?ano caoai?thaaiiy i
aaciina?aaeiueith i?e/eiith oi?ioaaiiy aioo?oiueinoaeeiieo
o?iiaioeeoa?ieo aa?aaaoia. Ca oeeo oiia aeieea
a?aaioaoeieii-?icoa?iaaiee oei ie?iaaiie?iaioieo. Oea, a eioeaaiio
iiaenoieo, iaoiiaeth iiaeaeuaiiy noaeeiiiai oiipy oa c?inoaiiy
ia?aaaioaaeaiue iiiea?aeo (Naoa?/oe .. oa niiaaao., 1990). Iaeiei ic
?acoeueoaoia iacai?ioiuei aa?aaaoe “a’yceee iaoaii?oic” o?iiaioeeoia,
ui noi?iaiaeaeooueny cia/iei iinooiaiiyi a iie?ioee?eoeyoeieia ?onei
aiieiai/ii aeoeaieo noano?aoia. Aeoeaaoeith o?iiaioeeoa?ii eaiee
aaiinoaco iiaeia oaeiae ca’ycaoe i c aeyaeaiei iaie iineeaiiyi ieaciiaeo
iaoaiiciia aaiieiaaoeyoe, ui iaeoaa?aeaeooueny i?aoeyie O.. Eiia?iaa oa
niiaaao. (1986).

Iaoyae/oth/ei oaeoi?ii, ui aieeaa ia iepeaia o?ii/iiai a?iioieaaaiaaiai
caiaeueiiai i?ioeano, iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeyaeaia iaie o oai?eo 1- a?oie
caieueoaiiy ia 71,9-159,4% ciinoo oia?iiaaio a e?iai. Iaeaeuaiiy a e?iai
oeueiai i?ieiaaoeyioo o oai?eo c caiaeueiei ooeiaeaeaiiyi eaaaiaai
oeaieie, a eio?ie caeienithoueny cao?eiea oa ?oeioaaiiy iae aeith
oia?iiace aai oia?iiiaeano?oeoace oia?iiiaaio, aoaea noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny
iineeaiiyi i?ioeania aaiieiaaoeyoei. Aaenooinoue c?inoaiiy ?iaiy
ieaciiiiiai oia?iiiaaio o oai?eo ia OEN a ii?iaiyiii c 1-th a?oiith
oai?eo iiaeia ca’ycaoe c iiieaeaiiyi aieeiaineioecoth/i ooieoe ia/iee
i?e ipoa?anoaaii iaaeinoaoiueinoi epiaioairy (?aiaiiee I.., 1984).

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui o oai?eo ia OA neeciaa iaieiiea a?iioia ia aenieo
oia?iiieioe/io aeoeainoue, a 2,9 ?ace ia?aaeuoth/o oiciieiai/iee
?iaaiue. Oea ?icoeiiaii ye iaoaiici naiiaaiaco, ui iai?aaeaiee ia
ciaiueoaiiy oia?iiiaeo aiaeeeaaeiaiue, yei iniiaith aeey ?icaeoeo
iiaaiineea?ico i onoaoaeaiiy aeeoaeueii iaaeinoaoiueinoi. Oaeiae
anoaiiaeaii, ui o oai?eo 3- a?oie noieeinoue aeoeaaoi?ia oia?iieico aei
?icaaaeaiiy iaaeniea. A aieueo iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoeiyo (1:10000
1:100000) o ieo aaea niinoa?iaaoueny aioeoia?iiieioe/iee aoaeo. A o?aoe
cepi aeineiaeia c aiaeiaoeiiiaei oanoii, yeee aaeia?aaea aeienio
oia?iiieioe/io aeoeaiinoue oeaieie neeciai iaieiiee, ui neeaaeaoueny c
acaiiae iiae aeoeaaoi?aie oa iiaiaioi?aie oia?iieico, o oai?eo 3- a?oie
anoaiiaeaii iiieaeaiiy oia?iiieioe/ii aeoeaiinoi aeno?aeoia aei
187,95,3%. Oea aeinoiai?ii ieae/a (?

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