Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo

i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? ?i.i?io.I.I.Neoaiea

EIOAIOEI Aaea??e Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 616.717.4-001.5-089.22

OOIEOeIIIAEUeIA EIEOAAIIss

AeIAOICA?IEO IA?AEIIIA

IEA*IAI? EINOEE

14.01.21 — o?aaiaoieiaiy oa i?oiiaae?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?

i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? ?i.i?io.I.I.Neoaiea, IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

IIINOEOAIEA Ieaen?e Ei?i?e?eiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?aaiaoieiai? oa i?oiiaaei?

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe

AIEII Eaa Ieeieaeiae/,

Ee?anueea i?nueea e?ea?iy oaeaeei? iaaee/ii?

aeiiiiiae, aee?aeoi? ee?i?ee o?aaiaoieia??

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AIIAeA?AIEI Ieeiea Noaiaiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?aaiaoieiai? oa i?oiiaaei?

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: — Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, eaoaae?a o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??,

IIC Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny «_30_»___ea?oiy__ 1999 ?. ia_11,30_ ia caniaeaiii

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.607.01 o Oa?eianueeiio iaoeiai-

aeineiaeiiio iinoeoooi i?oiiaaei? oa o?aaiaoieiai? ii.i?io.I.I.Neoaiea

(310024, i.Oa?eia, aoe.Iooeiinueea, 80).

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o aiaeiioaoei Oa?eianueeiai
iaoeiai-

aeineiaeiiai iinoeoooo i?oiiaaei? oa o?aaiaoieiai? ii.i?io.I.I.Neoaiea

(310024, i.Oa?eia, aoe.Iooeiinueea, 80).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee «_26_»___aa?aciy___ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe A.I.?aae/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ae?ao?ca?i? ia?aeiie iea/iai? e?noee a?aeiinyoueny
aei iioeiaeaeaiue, ye? cono??/athoueny aaeueie /anoi. Aiie iin?aeathoue
ae?oaa i?noea ca /anoioith (i?ney ia?aeii?a aii?eee) na?aae ae?ao?ca?ieo
ia?aeii?a aeiaaeo e?noie (A.A.Anoaaoeaoo?yi,1961; A.I.Neiaeei, 1974;
I.O.Oeiaiei,1985; A.Ae.Oeuoe,1994).

A inoaii?e /an i?iaeaia e?eoaaiiy oeeo iioeiaeaeaiue ae??oo?oueny oeyoii
oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy iia?aoeaiiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy — iae?noeiaiai,
aioo??oiueie?noeiaiai oa iicaina?aaeeiaiai inoaineioaco (E.I.Aieei,1989;
A.A.Caa?aa, 1988; A.O.I?ici?ianeee, 1978; I.O.Oeiaiei,1985; P.M.Rommens
et al, 1995). Oae? iaoiaee eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo
ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee, ye neaeaoia aeoyaiaiiy, ?iiia?e?caoe?y
e?ioe?aee a?iniaith iia’yceith aai a?aea?aeiith oeiith ca?ac
aaeeaathoueny cia/ii ??aeoa. ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a inoaineioaco i?e
ia?aeiiao iea/iai? e?noee aeicaieeea a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae a?ii?caeeeo
a?iniaeo iia’ycie oa o?eaaeiai ia?aaoaaiiy oai?eo ia noaoe?iia?iiio
e?eoaaii?. O oie aea /an aaeeaaiiy inoaineioaco i?e oeeo iioeiaeaeaiiyo
niieo/aii c ?eceeii aeieeiaiiy oaeeo a??cieo oneeaaeiaiue, ye
inoaii??e?o, iac?iuaiiy a?aeeaie?a, i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia?ac i?iiaiaaiai
ia?aa (H.Bezes, P.Massart, I.P.Fourquet et al.,1995; B.Marty, K.Kach,
H.P.Friedl et al., 1995). *anoioa aeaieo oneeaaeiaiue aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycaia c iaoa??aeueiei oa oaoi?/iei caaacia/aiiyi, ye?noth
?iieaioiaaieo o?enaoi??a, caaacia/aiiyi no/anieie aioeaaeoa??aeueieie oa
?ioeie i?aia?aoaie, ye? eiooothoue aeineoue aei?iai. Ia oeae /an a
Oe?a?i? o aeineoue neeaaeieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao iiaiioe?iia ?aae?caoe?y
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao aoaa?
iacae?eniaiiith. Ca iaoa??aeaie eiioa?aioe?? i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a
Oe?a?ie (Oa?e?a, 1997), ca?eueoo?oueny ?ieue eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy
(I.I.Aeaie/aa, 1997; A.I.Eaaoa c? ni?aaao., 1997; O?aaeue c? ni?aaao,
1997). A?eueo?noue o?aaiaoieia?a i?eoiaeeoue aei ia?aeiiaiiy, ui i?e
ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeiiao iea/iai? e?noee o??o?a?/i? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy
iathoue aecia/ai?, iaiaaeai? iieacaiiy.

Ia i?ioyc? aeaio inoaii?o aeanyoe??/ c’yaeeeny ioae?eaoe??, i?enay/ai?
oae caaiiio ooieoe?iiaeueiiio e?eoaaiith ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi “ei?ioeeo” a?iniaeo iia’ycie aai i?oac?a c ieanoiane
(A.I.Ioioneee, A.N.Aaa?eeia, 1985; A.E.Iiinoeoaiea, 1991; P.Bialeski,
A.Gusta, 1995; A.Sarmiento, L.Latta, 1984). Oeae iaoiae ? iiaeaeueoei
?icaeoeii eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy oa oyaey? c naaa ia?niaeoeaiee
iai?yiie. I?ioa a?i ua ia io?eiaa oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy, ui
iia’ycaii, ia iaoo aeoieo, c oaeeie i?e/eiaie. Ii-ia?oa, ?nio?
nai???aeia “?aeaieia?/ia” ia?aoeiaea, yea iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?e oaeiio
iaoiae? e?eoaaiiy aei?noea o?enaoe?y a?aeeaie?a a?aenooiy, a oea
noia?a/eoue i?eioeeio iaiao?aeiino? noaa?eueii? o?enaoe?? i?e e?eoaaii?
ia?aeii?a, yeee aoei coi?ioeueiaaii ?ai?oa aaaaoueia oeieaie
o?aaiaoieia?a. Ii-ae?oaa, iaoiae aeey nai?? aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe??
aeiaaa? aeeaieeo ciaiue oa oaoi?/ii? aeineiiaeino?, yeeo eiio ua ia
aenoa/a?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Oa?e?anueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia??
?i. i?io. I.?.Neoaiea (oeo? IE.95.3, aea?ae?a?no?aoe?y 0196 U 000753).

Oe?eue ?iaioe: Iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe oa oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee.

Aeey oeueiai aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

1. I?iaanoe aio?iiiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ici???a ? oi?ie iea/a o
caei?iaeo in?a ? ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeoe iaa??
oeii?ici???a oeiii-iaoa?’yieo i?oac?a aeey ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy
ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee.

2. Ai?iaoaaoe iiao eiino?oeoe?th i?oaca oa ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo eiai
aeei?enoaiiy.

3. Ooi/ieoe iieacaiiy aei canoinoaaiiy eiina?aaoeaiiai ooioe?iiaeueiiai
e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee.

4. I?iaanoe ?aioaaiiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieiaeaiiy oa ia?ai?uaiiy
a?aeeaie?a iea/iai? e?noee ? ?ici???a ia??inoaeueiiai ?aaaia?aoo i?e
ooieoe?iiaeueiiio e?eoaaii?.

5. Aea/eoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe ?acoeueoaoe ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy
ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee. I?iaanoe ii??aiyeueio ioe?ieo
?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaea?aeaii iia? ciaiiy i?i
?iciiae?e ethaeae ca ?ici??aie iea/a, ui aeicaieeei noai?eoe iaa??
oeii?ici???a i?oac?a aeey e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a oeueiai
naaiaioa e?ioe?aee.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o 91 % iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c cae?eoeie ae?ao?ca?ieie
ia?aeiiaie iea/iai? e?noee ai?aaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi
iieiaeaiiyi caenaiiy e?ioe?aee i?e o?enaoe?? iea/a ci?iiei i?oacii.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaiee niin?a caaacia/o? aoaeo i?oaeii-no?eei?
o?enaoe?? a?aeeaie?a iea/iai?, ui aeiionea? iiaeeea?noue ?o eooiaeo
ia?ai?uaiue o iiiaio ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Oaeee ?aaeei
o?enaoe?? caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy iiaiioe?iiiai ia??inoaeueiiai ?aaaia?aoo
oa c?iuaiiy a?aeeaie?a a iioeiaeuei? no?iee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
i?aaiii/i?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeeee
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a ca
aeiiiiiaith i?oac?a, ye? o?enothoue a?aeeaiee o iaaeao iioeiaeaeaiiai
naaiaioa oa aeiioneathoue iiaeeea?noue ooieoe?? eeno? e ia?aaeie?//y.

?ic?iaeaii iiao eiino?oeoe?th o?enoaaeueiiai i?oaca oa noai?aii iaa??
i?oac?a, aioiaeo aei aeei?enoaiiy a o?aaioi?e i?aeoeoe?. Cai?iiiiiaaiee
iaa?? o?enoaaeueieo i?oac?a iea/a caaacia/o? oaeaeea iaaeaiiy
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? o?aaiaoieia?/ii? aeiiiiiae, ui aaaeeeai a oiiaao
ianiaiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iino?aaeaeaeeo. Aeaioiaeaiiy iaai?o ia iio?aao?
neeaaeieo oaoiieia?e oa aaeeeeo iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao.

Ooieoe?iiaeueia e?eoaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaai?o i?oac?a
iiaea aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeey oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy a o?aaiaoieia??.
Oeth iaoiaeeeo ai?iaaaeaeaii o Oa?e?anueeiio IAe? i?oiiaae?? oa
o?aaiaoieia?? ?i. i?io. I.?.Neoaiea, IN* ? 4, IN* OOC, Oa?e?anuee?e
i?nuee?e e?ea?i? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae ? 4 ?i. i?io. I?uai?iiaa,
*oao?anuee?e ?aeiii?e e?ea?i? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?. Iaaeeei-oaoi?/i?
aeiiae ia “Ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?oac aeey e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a iea/iai?
e?noee” caoaa?aeaeaii Eii?oaoii c iiai? iaaee/ii? oaoi?ee i?e IIC
Oe?a?ie (i?ioieie ? 4 a?ae 29.04.98 ?.).

Iniaenoee aianie iiooeoaa/a. Iniaenoi aeena?oaioii i?iaaaeaii
ianoaaeaiiy oa e?eoaaiiy 64 oai?eo, aeeiiaii ?aioaaiiiao?e/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?th oeiii-iaoa?’yiiai i?oaca,
i?iaaaeaii aio?iiiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iea/a, cai?iiiiiaaii
oeii?ici??e i?oac?a. Noaoenoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii i?e aeoeai?e
o/ano? aaoi?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii
ia O? c’?cae? o?aaiaoieia?a-i?oiiaae?a ?anioae?ee A?ei?onue (A?oaanuee,
1996), ieaioi? i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a Oe?a?ie (Iieoaaa, 1995),
eiioa?aioe?? i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a “No/ani? aniaeoe iaa?aeeeaaeii?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae” (Euea?a, 1997), eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 90-??//th
Oa?e?anueeiai IAe? i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? ?i. i?io. I.?.Neoaiea
(Oa?e?a, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii o 8 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo, c ieo 3 — o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 7
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. Aiia
i?noeoue 124 noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 28 ?enoie?a, 8 oaaeeoeue, 5
aeiaeaoe?a. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 133 aeaea?aea, o oiio /ene? 34 —
?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

CIINO ?IAIOE TC «CIINO ?IAIOE»

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy oa oa?aeoa?enoeea ee?i?/iiai iaoa??aeo.

?iaioa aaco?oueny ia aeina?ae? e?eoaaiiy 104 oai?eo c ae?ao?ca?ieie
ia?aeiiaie iea/iai? e?noee, ye? ia?aaoaaee i?ae iaaeyaeii o
Oa?e?anueeiio IAe? i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? ?i. i?io. I.?.Neoaiea oa
*oao?anuee?e ?aeiii?e e?ea?i? Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?.

E??i caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo iaoiaeee ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaie i?iaiaeeeanue ?aioaaiiiao??y iieiaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a
ia aoaiao e?eoaaiiy c aeaoaeueiei aiae?cii ?o “iiaaae?iee” o eiaeiiio
ee?i?/iiio aeiaaeeo. Eooia? ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a aecia/aee ca eooii
ia?aoeio e?i?e, i?iaaaeaieo ii in? eiaeiiai c a?aeeaie?a. Aaee/eio
ci?uaiiy ca oe?eiith aei??thaaee ye a?aenoaiue i?ae oeeie ae inueiaeie
e?i?yie oa ae?aaeaee o a?aeiinieo iaeeieoeyo. Ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca
aeiaaeeiith ae?aaeaee a aaniethoieo iaeeieoeyo (ii). ?aioaaiiiao??th
i?iaiaeeee ia ?aioaaiia?aiao, aeeiiaieo i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii? oai?eo o
noaoe?iia?, ia 5-7 aeiao i?ney iaeeaaeaiiy i?oaca oa 3-5 oeaei?a ii
oiio, eiee aaea ee?i?/ii ?a?no?oaaee c?iuaiiy a?aeeaie?a.

O 6 oai?eo ia ?aii?o aoaiao e?eoaaiiy aea/aee aaee/eio ia?ai?uaiiy
a?aeeaie?a a iaei?e ?c ieiuei o iiiaio ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue..
Aeey oeueiai aeeiioaaee ooieoe?iiaeueio ?aioaaiia?ao?th i?e
iaaaioaaeaii? (aeoeaia a?aeaaaeaiiy iea/a aei eooa 45°,
caeiaiiy-?icaeiaiiy ia?aaeie?//y aei aeieeiaiiy aieth) oa aac iueiai.

Iniaeeaino? ?aaaia?aoe?? aea/aee oeyoii ?aioaaiiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy
aaee/eie ia??inoaeueiiai ?aaaia?aoo. Aei??thaaee eiai aenioo ia
/ioe?ueio ae?eyieao iiaeeco e?i?? ia?aeiio oa aecia/aee eiai na?aaeith
aaee/eio a i?e?iao?ao.

A?e iaoe??io?a neeaaeaa a?ae 15 aei 82 ?ie?a. *ieia?e?a aoei 59, ae?iie
— 45. Ca iaoai?ciii o?aaie iino?aaeaeaeeo ?iciiae?eyee oaeei /eiii:

— iaae?iiy ia “??aiiio i?noe?” — 51 (49 %)

— aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oiee aeiaaeie:

— iino?aaeaeaeee ciaoiaeeany o naeii? aaoiiia?ey 37 (35,6 %)

— iino?aaeaeaeee aoa caeoee aaoiiia?eai 2 (1,9 %)

— eaoao?aaia (iaae?iiy c aenioe a?eueoa 2 i) 6 (5,8 %)

— oi?ne?oaai? i’ycia? iai?oaeaiiy i?e a?i?ane?iao 3 (2,9 %)

— i?eioniaa ?ioaoe?y e?ioe?aee 2 (1,9 %)

— i?yiee oaea? ii iea/o 3 (2,9 %)

C oeeo aeaieo aeieeaa? oa, ui ia?aeiie ae?ao?ca iea/a, aieiaiei /eiii
(98 %), aeieeaee a?ae iai?yii? o?aaie ? oea a?aeia?aaeaeiny ia
iniaeeainoyo ieiueie ceaio, aaee/ei? ia?aeiiiai ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a oa
iioeiaeaeaii? ie?nii-i’yciaiai oooey?a.

Ia?aeiie ieaeiuei? o?aoeie ae?ao?ca aoee o 42 iino?aaeaeaeeo,
na?aaeiuei? o?aoeie — o 51, aa?oiuei? o?aoeie — o 11. An? ia?aeiie aoee
cae?eo?.

Ca oi?iith ieiueie ceiio oai?eo aoei ?iciiae?eaii oaeei /eiii:

— iiia?a/ia aai iaaeeaeaia aei iiia?a/ii? 40 (38,5 %)

— eina aai aaeioiiiae?aia 25 (24,0 %)

— aaeioiiiae?aia, ineieue/anoa 37 (35,6 %)

— iiaea?ei? ia?aeiie 2 (1,9 %)

Iaeii/anii c ioe?ieith ieiueie ia?aeiio ie aea/aee aaee/eio ci?uaiiy
a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith ia ia?aeiieo ?aioaaiia?aiao. Naia oeae aeae
ci?uaiiy a iaea?eueo?e i??? a?aeia?aaeaa aaee/eio ?ic?eao
iaaee?nie/ii-i’yciaiai oooey?a. *a?ac iueiai ie noaeeee i?i nooi?iue
iia?eueiino? a?aeeaie?a, ? a?i aoa iaei??th c i?ia?aeieo iciae, ca yei?
aecia/aee oaeoeeo e?eoaaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aaee/eie ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ieiueie ia?aeiio, aeyaea oaeo caeiiii??i?noue. I?e
iiia?a/ieo oa eineo ia?aeiiao c iaei??th ieiueiith /ano?oa a?aei?/aee
aaeeea ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith. ? iaaiaee, i?e aaeioiiiae?aieo
ineieue/anoeo ia?aeiiao /ano?oa ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith aoei
iacia/iei. Oae, i?e iiia?a/ieo ia?aeiiao ci?uaiiy, yea ia?aaeuoaaei 0,5
iiia?a/ieea e?noee, a?aei?/aii o 70 % oai?eo, i?e eineo — 92,1 %, a i?e
aaeioiiiae?aieo ineieue/anoeo — eeoa 26 %.

Oaeei /eiii, ?nioaaea caeiiii??i?noue i?ae ieiueiith ia?aeiio ?
aaee/eiith ia?aeiiiai ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a. Oeth caeiiii??i?noue iiaeia
iiynieoe oae. A?aeiii, ui oa?aeoa? ieiueie ia?aeiio ? ?ici??e ia?aeiiiai
ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a aecia/athoueny iai?yieii /eiii? neee oa ??
aaee/eiith. I/aaeaeii, iiia?a/iee aai einee ia?aeii aeieeaa a?ae neee,
yea ae?yea ia iea/a o iiia?a/iiio iai?yieo ? i?ecaiaeeea ia o?eueee aei
c?oeioaaiiy e?noee, aea e aei iiaeaeueoiai ooai?aiiy aaeeei? eooiai?
aeaoi?iaoe?? naaiaioa c ?ic?eaii aai ia?oi?aoe??th ie?nii-i’yciaiai
oooey?a iaeiei c a?aeeaie?a. Ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a, yea aeieea?,
o?eno?oueny ca ?aooiie i?ioii?/ii? ?aaeoe?? i’yc?a oa noai?aii?
?ioa?iiceoe?? i’yeeo oeaiei. Aaeioiiiae?ai? oa aaeioiiiae?ai?
ineieue/ano? ia?aeiie aeieeathoue ia?aaaaeii a?ae ae?? ?ioaoe?eiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?e yeiio ie?nii-i’yciaee oooey?, yeee ? i?oaeiei
ooai?aiiyi, iioeiaeaeo?oueny o iacia/i?e i???, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny, ye
i?aaeei, iaaaeeeei ci?uaiiyi a?aeeaie?a. Aiae?c ?aeue?oo ieiueie
a?aeeaie?a ? aaee/eia ?o ia?aeiiiai ci?uaiiy iaee aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?o “iiaaae?iee” i?e i?iaaaeaii? iiaeaeueoiai
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy.

O 7 (6,7 %) iino?aaeaeaeeo iaea i?noea ee?i?ea ia?aco aai ia?ae?/o
i’yc?a, ye? ?iia?aothoueny i?iiaiaaei ia?aii. Aeey oeeo oai?eo aoei
oa?aeoa?ia oa, ui ia?aeii aeieeaa a?ae ae?? aaeeei? neee, ae?y ?? iineea
ia?aaaaeii i?yiee oa?aeoa?, iaei i?noea aaeeea ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca
oe?eiith.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy iiai? eiino?oeoe?? i?oaca. Aio?iiiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa iaa?? i?oac?a aeey ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a
iea/iai? e?noee

A i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy oe??? ?iaioe iaie ?ic?iaeaii iiao eiino?oeoe?th
o?enoaaeueiiai i?oaca, yea aeicaieeea nooo?ai oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee.
?ai?oa, ia ia?oeo aoaiao aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie aeei?enoiaoaaee
i?oac ?c iie?a?eo (A.E.Iiinoeoaiea, 1991), yeee aeaioiaeyee oeyoii
i?yiiai oi?ioaaiiy ii ooeiaeaeaiiio iea/o. Aea ee?i?/iee aeina?ae
aeei?enoaiiy oe??? iaoiaeeee aeyaea ?yae iaaeie?e?a.

Ii-ia?oa, i?oac ?c iie?a?eo ia iiia?a/iiio ia?aoei? ia? oi?io iaaea, ui
iia’ycaii c aiaoii?/ieie iniaeeainoyie iea/a. A i?ioean? e?eoaaiiy, eiee
aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ciaiooaaoe eieia? ?ici??e i?oaca (caoaeoth/e
oe?eio i?ii?aeeo i?ae iicaeiaaei?ie e?ayie i?oaca), ca ?aooiie eiai
iaaeueii? oi?ie oa o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae iie?a?eo ci?ith?oueny oi?ia
i?oaca a a?e oieiuaiiy iaaea. Oiaoi, oaeee i?oac niethuoaaany ia?aaaaeii
o o?iioaeuei?e ieiuei?, ui i?eaiaeeei aei iaaei??iiai oeneo ia
noaeeiii-ia?aiaee io/ie oa aeieeiaiiy iaa?yeo ia?aaeie?//y ? eeno?.

Ii-ae?oaa, i?oac ?c iie?a?eo oyaey? niaith aei?noeee ea?ean, o yeiio
i’ye? oeaieie ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae iaaiei oeneii, oa u?eueiee eiioaeo
caa??aa?oueny ca ?aooiie ia?a?iciiae?eo iane i’yeeo oeaiei. Oiaoi i’ye?
oeaieie iea/a i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny oi?i? o?enaoi?a, ui ?
iao?c?ieia?/iei oa aeeeeea? a?ae/oooy aeeneiioi?oo.

Ii-o?ao?, i?e aeei?enoai? i?oaca ?c iie?a?eo i?ae iei ii?ooo?oueny
i?e?iee?iao aiane?aeie iaaeinoaoiueiai i?iieeiaiiy iia?o?y, ui iaiaaeo?
eiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e iayaiino? iioeiaeaeaiue oe??e.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, ?iaeea?aeoaeueia aeaioiaeaiiy i?oaca ia?aaeaa/a?
iaia’yceiao iayai?noue eaae?o?eiaaiiai oaoi?ea, niaoe?aeueiiai
?ino?oiaioa??th ? iaoa??ae?a, ui oneeaaeith? oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo
i?oac?a a o?aaioi?e o?aaiaoieia??. Aei oiai ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueia
aeaioiaeaiiy i?oaca eiooo? aeineoue aei?iai. Nia?aa?o?noue aeaioiaeaiiy
iaeiiai i?oaca ?c iie?a?eo neeaea 42 a?eai?.

Iiaa eiino?oeoe?y i?oaca oyaey? c naaa oeiii-iaoa?’yiee ei?nao aeey
iea/a, yeee ia? a?aeiia?aeio o?ao?io oi?io. A naia iaoiaeeea ia?aaeaa/a?
aeei?enoaiiy iaai?o aioiaeo oeii?ici???a o?enaoi??a.

C iaoith noai?aiiy oi?ie oa iaai?o oeii?ici???a i?oac?a aoei aeeiiaii
aio?iiiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy naaiaioa iea/a o 187 caei?iaeo in?a o
a?oe? 20-60 ?ie?a iaio noaoae. Aei??yiiyi i?aeeyaaee aeiaaeeia iea/a ii
ciai?oi?e oa aioo??oi?e iiaa?oiyi, eieia? ?ici??e ia o?ueio ??aiyo.
Io?eiai? aeai? aoee i?aeaeai? noaoenoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith ca
aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?ii? oaoiieia??, yea aeeiiaia ca o/anoth aeieoi?a
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaioa eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? iioeee OAeO
A.I.Ia/a?aiea.

Aeoiaey/e c ?acoeueoao?a noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ciai?oiueiai oa
aioo??oiueiai ?ici???a iea/a, ie aaaaeaee ca aeioe?eueia aeae?eeoe 4
oeii?ici??e i?oac?a. I?ioa, a?aoiaoth/e ?nioth/ee ae?aiacii eieiaiai
?ici??o, ui iaa nai? iaae? a eiaei?e c a?oi, yea a?aeiia?aea?
oeii?ici??ai ca aeiaaeeiith, o II, III oa IV oeii?ici??ao aeae?eaii ua
o?e aeiaeaoeia? ?ici??e c aeaii? aaee/eie. Iai?ee?ioe? iaea?aeaii 10
oeii?ici???a ca aeacaieie ia?aiao?aie (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1 — ?iciiae?e i?oac?a ia oeii?ici??e ca ciai?oiueith (Lou),
  aioo??oiueith (Lin) aeiaaeeiith iea/a oa eieiaei ?ici??ii (d2)

Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui eieiaee ?ici?? d2, ie??i ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
a?aeciae, cacia? ci?i o i?ioean? e?eoaaiiy, ye? coiiaeai? ciaioaiiyi
iinoo?aaiaoe/iiai iaa?yeo, ao?io??th i’yc?a. Ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie,
eieia? ?ici??e iea/a ai?iaeiaae ia?oiai i?nyoey i?ney o?aaie
ciaioothoueny ia 3-5 ni, ui aaea naii ii nia? aeiaaa? aeiaeaoeiaiai
i?eianoaaiiy i?oaca a i?ioean? e?eoaaiiy. Ae??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? ia
neeaaeaei iniaeeaeo oaoi?/ieo o?oaeiiu?a oa cae?enithaaeiny oeyoii
caiiaiaiiy i?ii?aeeo i?ae iicaeiaaei?ie e?ayie i?oaca anoaaeith c
ea?oiio oa ia?ai?uaiiyi cano?aie.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui iea/a ia? iii??ii eiioniiiae?aio oi?io oa ?nio?
aeineoue iino?eia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae eieiaeie ?ici??aie, aee??eea i?oaca
iiaeiia iaoe oi?io o?aiaoe?? c ??cieoeath o aeiaaeei? i?ae aa?oi?i oa
ieaei?i e?ayie o 5 ni. E??i oeueiai, aa?oi?e oa ieaei?e e?a? aee??eee
iathoue o?ao?io oi?io, ui iia’ycaii c aiaoii?/ieie iniaeeainoyie
ae?eyiee iea/iaiai oa e?eoueiaiai noaeia?a. Ciai?oi?e aeaeyae i?oaca
iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 1.

?en. 1. Ciai?oi?e aeaeyae aioiaiai i?oaca ?c cacia/aiiyi iniiaieo

aio?iiiiao?e/ieo iieaae/ee?a oa aeaeyae oai?iai a i?oac?

I?oac aeaioiaeyee c aaaiaiyii? oeaieie. ?iaeee aea? aee??eee, ye?
coeaaee iaeia c iaeiith c aieiaeo oa ieaei?o noi??i, a oaeiae
c?no?i/oaaee ocaeiaae, ooai?thth/e eeoai?. A inoaii? aeeaaeaee ieanoeie
c a?i?eieanoo 20 ii caaoe?oee oa 1,5 ii caaoiaoee. Cae??ieaiiy i?oaca ia
iea/? cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith aeaio no??/ie ?c cano?aeaie. I?oac
aoa aeaioiaeaiee oaeei /eiii, ui eiai iiaeia aoei aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia
iaeaeaa aiee, oiaoi ? ia i?aaa, ? ia e?aa iea/a. Ca ?ic?aooieaie
aa?o?noue oeiii-iaoa?’yiiai i?oaca neeaaeaea 12 a?eaaiue.

Oeae iaa?? aoa aeaioiaeaiee a eaai?aoi??? iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ?inoeoooo
i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? ?i. i?io. I.?.Neoaiea. Aeaioiaeaii 3 iaai?e
i?oac?a (30 oooe), ye? aoee ai?iaiaai? a ee?i?/i?e i?aeoeoe?.

Iaoiaeeea ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a

iea/iai? e?noee.

Eiina?aaoeaia ooieoe?iiaeueia e?eoaaiiy aoei aeei?enoaii i?e cae?eoeo
ia?aeiiao iea/iai? e?noee. Aieiaiei /eiii, oea aoee iino?aaeaeae? c
iioeiaeaeaiiyie a na?aaei?e oa ieaei?e o?aoei? naaiaioa — 93 (89,4 %),
cia/ii ??aeoa — ia?aeiie o aa?oi?e o?aoei? iea/iai? e?noee — 11 (10,6
%).

I?eeiath/e ??oaiiy i?i oaeoeeo e?eoaaiiy, ie, ia?o ca ana, nie?aeeny ia
aea? oae? iniiai? iciaee.

Ia?oa — aaee/eia ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ia ia?aeiieo ?aioaaiia?aiao. sse ie
aaea a?aei?/aee ?ai?oa, aeaiee neiioii aea? i?aenoaao cai?aeic?eoe
?ioa?iiceoe?th i’yeeo oeaiei oa i?eionoeoe iaaoaeoeai?noue i?eeii?a
cae?eoiai ai?aaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a.

Ae?oaa — oea iayai?noue neiioii?a, ui na?ae/aoue i?i o?aaio i?iiaiaaiai
ia?aa.

I?e ia?aeiiao iea/iai? c? ci?uaiiyi a?aeeaie?a, yea ia ia?aaeuo?
iiia?a/iiai ?ici??o e?noee, ie noaaeee iieacaiiy aei ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy aac noii?a?a. A?eueo i?iaeaiaoe/iei o ieai?
aecia/aiiy e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee aoei e?eoaaiiy iino?aaeaeaeeo, o yeeo
iaei i?noea ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a, ui ia?aaeuoaaei iiia?a/iee e?noee oa
ii?aeioaaeiny c? ci?uaiiyi ca aeiaaeeiith. C oaeei aeaeii ci?uaiiy ie
niinoa??aaee 15 (14,4 %) oai?eo. C ieo o 4 ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a
ii?aeioaaeiny c aeeaieei ia?acii i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa. O 11 oai?eo (aac
ee?i?ee iaa?eoo) i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii? aei e?ea?i? aoei ?icii/aoi
eiina?aaoeaia ooieoe?iiaeueia e?eoaaiiy. C ieo o o?ueio iaoe??io?a /a?ac
aeae?eueea aei?a ia?aaoaaiiy e?ioe?aee o iieiaeaii? aeno a?aeaoeiny
ai?aaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a ? o ieo aoei i?iaeiaaeaii e?eoaaiiy oeei naiei
iaoiaeii, yea ne?i/eeiny iaeoaeaiiyi. O 5 oai?eo 3-9 aei?a ii oiio
ai?aaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a ia a?aeaoeiny, o ca’yceo c /ei ?i aoei aeeiiaii
a?aee?eoa ai?aaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a. O aeaio iaoe??io?a ooieoe?iiaeueia
e?eoaaiiy aoei i?iaaaeaeaii aeae? i?e iayaiino? ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ia
aanue iiia?a/iee o ca’yceo c iayai?noth ?io?eiaaieo ?ai i’yeeo oeaiei oa
iinoo?aaiaoe/ii? aecaie. A iaio aeiaaeeao aeinyaiooi c?iuaiiy ?c
caeeoeiaith aeaoi?iaoe??th. Ua o aeaio iaoe??io?a i?e iayaiino? oaeiai
ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ooieoe?iiaeueia e?eoaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith i?oaca
ne?i/eeiny iac?iuaiiyi.

I?e ia?aeiiao, oneeaaeiaieo ia?acii i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa, ie aaeeaaee oaeo
oaeoeeo. *ioe?ueii oai?ei, o yeeo ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ia iiaiee
iiia?a/iee ii?aeioaaeiny c ee?i?eith o?aaiaoe/iiai iaa?eoo i?iiaiaaiai
ia?aa, aoee ia?aeiii iinoaaeai? iieacaiiy aei a?aee?eoiai ai?aaeaiiy oa
?aa?c?? ia?aa. Aei oiai ae o aeaio c ieo ia?aeii iea/iai? e?/oee
niieo/aany c ia?aeiiaie ?ioeo naaiaio?a. O o?ueio oai?eo, iacaaaeath/e
ia iayai?noue ia?aco i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa, ie canoinoaaee eiina?aaoeaia
e?eoaaiiy, ine?eueee o ieo iaei i?noea iacia/ia ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca
oe?eiith oa iiceoeaia aeeiai?ea a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? ia?aa.

Iaoiaeeea e?eoaaiiy aoea oaea. Iino?aaeaeaeee n?aeaa ia eooaoeo, c
iueiai ci?iaee o?ainii?oio oeio oa aeeiioaaee aianoac?th i?noey
ia?aeiio. Iio?i oai?iai i?ioaee naiino?eii, aeoeaiith ae??th i?ea?aeieo
i’yc?a, onoiooe aeaoi?iaoe?th iea/a. Aiia aoea iaeiioeiia — c aa?oeiith
iaciai? e oia?aae. Aeey e?ea?aeaoe?? aeaoi?iaoe?? oai?ee iiaeiai aoa
aeoeaii i?eaanoe i?ieneiaeueiee a?aeeaiie oa caa??aaoe i?aaeeueio a?nue
iea/a, oo?eioth/e ia?aaeie?//y iioeiaeaeaii? e?ioe?aee o c?aiooiio
iieiaeaii? caei?iaith e?ioe?aeith. I?e oeueiio ie ia aeei?enoiaoaaee
i?yeeo i?eioniaeo iaioaeueieo ae?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia c?noaaeaiiy
a?aeeaie?a, a eeoa ceaaea iaoeneoaaee eenoth ia aa?oeio aeaoi?iaoe??
iea/a, aeiiiiaaath/e oai?iio oo?eioaaoe eiai o aa?oeeaeueiiio
iieiaeaii?. I?ney ae??aiaiiy a?n? iea/a ia eiai iaae?aaee aaaiaiyio
iai/ioo oa caa?oo iaeeaaeaee a?iniaee oooi? a?ae e?eoueiaiai aei
iea/iaiai noaeiaa. Iaeeaaeaiiy oooi?a cae?enithaaee i?e aa?oeeaeueiiio
iieiaeaii? iea/a. I?ney caoaa?ae?iiy a?ino ia?aaeie?//y i?aea?ooaaee ia
eineii/i?e iia’ycoe?.

O ia?o? aei? i?ney o?aaie ia i?/ i?ecia/aee ciaaiethaaeuei? i?aia?aoe
(aiaeuea?i, naaeaeuea?i, aa?aea?i, o?aiae). Oai?ei ?aeiiaiaeoaaee
ai?iaeiaae aeiy caa??aaoe aeoeai?noue, ia?aaoaath/e o aa?oeeaeueiiio
iieiaeaii?, a?aeii/eaaoe neaey/e. Oeei ie ia?ane?aeoaaee iaoo aeinyaoe
ai?aaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca ?aooiie aaae e?ioe?aee. Ia i?/ iea/a a oooi??
aeiaeaoeiai o?enoaaee aei a?oaeii? ee?oeie i’yeith iia’yceith.

*a?ac 3-5 aei?a oi?ia iea/a ci?ithaaeanue aiane?aeie ia?ai?uaiiy
aaiaoiie. A?iniaee oooi? a i?ieneiaeuei?e /anoei? noaaaa a?eueiei,
ci?uaany aeiieco oa noeneoaaa i’ye? oeaieie a ae?eyioe? e?eoueiaiai
caeio. Oiio i?ney aeacaiiai no?ieo a?iniaee oooi? ci?iaee oa aeaioiaeyee
ci?iiee i?oac.

I?ioa, ye iieacaa aeina?ae, aeioe?euei?oa o?enaoe?th a?aeeaie?a
i?iaiaeeoe i?oacii c ia?oeo aei?a i?ney o?aaie. Oiio ie nii/aoeo
o?enaoe?th a?iniaei oooi?ii i?iaiaeeee i?ioyaii 1-2 aei?a, aeiee ia aoa
aeaioiaeaiee oeiii-iaoa?’yiee i?oac. Iaaeae?, i?ney ?ic?iaee oa
aeaioiaeaiiy iaai?o i?oac?a ??cieo oeii?ici???a, ie ia?aeoee ia
iaoiaeeeo, yea ia?aaeaa/aea o?enaoe?th a?aeeaie?a oeiii-iaoa?’yiei
i?oacii aaciina?aaeiuei i?e caa?iaii? oai?iai aei e?ea?y.

?ic?iaeaiee iaie oeiii-iaoa?’yiee i?oac aoei aaeeoi o 45 oai?eo. C ieo o
21 i?oac aeaioiaeyee ?iaeea?aeoaeueii, a o 24 iino?aaeaeaeeo aoee
aeei?enoai? aioia? o?enaoi?e c? noai?aiiai iaai?o. O 50 oai?eo ie
canoiniaoaaee i?oac ?c iie?a?eo, aeaioiaeaiee ?iaeea?aeoaeueii ca
iaoiaeeeith, iienaiith I.E.Iiinoeoaieith (1991).

O aeaiue iaaeoiaeaeaiiy oai?iai i?ney iaeeaaeaiiy oooi?a aai
oeiii-iaoa?’yiiai i?oaca aeeiioaaee ?aioaaiia?ao?th iea/a i?e eiai
aa?oeeaeueiiio iieiaeaii? (iaoe??io noiya).

C ia?oeo aei?a i?ney ia?aeiio i?ecia/aee oae? e?eoaaeuei? ai?aae:
caeiaiiy-?icaeiaiiy iaeueoe?a eeno? c eaaeei aniaiaea?ii oa ianeai? ?ooe
a e?eoueiaiio noaeia? c aiie?ooaeith, yea aoea iaiaaeaia iiyaith
aieueiaeo a?ae/ooo?a. Aeai? ai?aae ?aeiiaiaeoaaee aeeiioaaoe o?e/? ia
aeaiue ii 20-30 ?oo?a ia eiaeiee naain c iiaeaeueoei iinooiiaei
ca?eueoaiiyi ?o e?eueeino?. *a?ac 4-5 aei?a oaeiai ?aaeeio aeeiioaaee
iiaoi?io ?aioaaiia?ao?th iea/a o o?e nai?e iiceoe??. sseui ia oeae /an
caeeoaeanue aa?onia aeaoi?iaoe?y naaiaioa, iea/o iaaeaaaee iieiaeaiiy
iacia/iiai a?aeaaaeaiiy. *a?ac 2 oeaei? i?ney ia?aeiio i?ecia/aee ua
iaeio e?eoaaeueio ai?aao aeey iea/iaiai noaeiaa. Oai?ee iaoeeya ooeoa
oia?aae iaeaea aei ai?eciioaeueiiai iieiaeaiiy, iea/a i?e oeueiio
caeeoaeiny aa?oeeaeueiei. Ca aeiiiiiaith caei?iai? ?oee iaoe??io
cae?enithaaa eieeaaeuei? ?ooe o iea/iaiio noaeia? o an?o ieiueiao.
Ai?iaeiaae ia?oiai i?nyoey e?eoaaiiy ?ooe o e?eoueiaiio oa iea/iaiio
noaeiaao iaee ianeaiee oa?aeoa?. I?ioa i?eaeecii i?nyoeue ii oiio, eiee
cieeaa neiioii eooiai? ?ooiiino? a?aeeaie?a, oai?ee ia?aoiaeea aei
aeeiiaiiy aeoeaieo ?oo?a. O oe? ae oa?i?ie eiio?iethaaee ?aioaaiieia?/ii
nooi?iue c?iuoaaiiy oa, caaaeath/e ia io?eiai? aeai?, aecia/aee ?aaeei
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue, a?aoiaoth/e e o?oaeia? iia?aoe??.

O 9 (8,6 %) oai?eo e?eoaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?oaca
c’yaeeiny iai?eeiyoiei ca oaeeo i?e/ei:

— ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith ia?aaeuoaaei iiia?a/iee ?ici?? e?noee
oa ia e?ea?aeoaaeiny i?e iieiaeaii? caenaiiy e?ioe?aee a oooi?? — 3
oai?eo;

— ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith, yea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ee?i?eith
iaa?eoo i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa — 4 oai?eo;

— niieo/aiiy ia?aeiio iea/iai? e?noee c ia?aeiiii e?noie ieaeiuei?
e?ioe?aee — 2 oai?eo.

I’youeii oai?ei aeeiiaii a?aee?eoa ai?aaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a c iaeii/aniith
?aa?c??th i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa ? o?enaoe?th ?o noa?aeiaaei aia?aoii c
i?oaeiith ieanoeeiaith iii?ith. Ua o o?ueio oai?eo aoei aeeiiaii cae?eoa
ai?aaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a ? o?enaoe?th oeei aea aia?aoii.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe.

I?e e?eoaaii? ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee ie ia aaeeaaee
i?eioniai? ?o/ii? ?aiiceoe?? a?aeeaie?a, a ?ic?aoiaoaaee ia ?o
naiino?eia ai?aaeaiiy a iieiaeaii? caenaiiy e?ioe?aee. Oiio, uia aeaoe
ioe?ieo oeueiio caniao ai?aaeaiiy oa oo?eiaiiy a?aeeaie?a, ie i?iaaee
?aioaaiiiao??th ?o iieiaeaiiy ia aoaiao e?eoaaiiy o 33 oai?eo.
Aeine?aeaeoaaee iieiaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a o aeaiue o?aaie, ia 5-10 ? ia
30-40 aeiao i?ney o?aaie. Ie?aii aiae?coaaee aeae eiaeii? aeaoi?iaoe??.

Eooia? aca?iia?aeiineie a?aeeaie?a. O aeaiue o?aaie (i?e iaeeaaeaii?
iia’ycee) o a?eueoino? oai?eo iaea i?noea ae?aaeaia aeaoi?iaoe?y
naaiaioa o iaaeao a?ae 5 aei 24°. Na?aaei? cia/aiiy ?? neeaei 11 ± 9,5°.
Iio?i, ia 5-10 aeiao ia?aaoaaiiy iaoe??ioa a a?iniaiio oooi?? aai i?oac?
eooiaa aeaoi?iaoe?y ciaiooaaeanue aei 0,5° (a na?aaeiueiio 0,9°). I?ioa
iaaeae? o 10 oai?eo (29 %) aeiee /anoeiaee ?aoeeaeea eooiai?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ia iiiaio c?iuaiiy aiia neeaaeaea 6-13° (8,7 ± 2,2°).
Iienaia “iiaaae?iea” a?aeeaie?a iaea, ia iaoo aeoieo, oaea iiyniaiiy. O
iaeaeeae/ee /an i?ney o?aaie a ?acoeueoao? i?aeaeuaiiai oiiono i’yc?a
(ye ?aaeoe?? ia a?eue) caa??aaeany ae?aaeaia eooiaa aeaoi?iaoe?y
naaiaioa. *a?ac 5-10 aei?a aie? ciaiooaaeeny, i’yce ?icneaaethaaeeny ?
ianoaaaei iaeaea iiaia onoiaiiy aeaoi?iaoe??. *anoeiaee ?aoeeaeea
caeeoeiai? aa?onii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ie iiynithaaee oaeeie oaeoi?aie.
Ii-ia?oa, iaoe??ioe aoee aeoeaieie a i?ioean? e?eoaaiiy, aeineoue ?aii
ii/eiaee a?aeaiaeeoe e?ioe?aeo, ? oea i?e ua ieanoe/i?e iicie?
i?ecaiaeeei aei ooai?aiiy iaaaeeei? aa?onii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Ii-ae?oaa, ie
oaeiae i?eioneaee, ui ia caeeth/ieo aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy ?aaaia?aoo
a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai eiio?aeoe?y, yea oaeiae iiaea i?ecaiaeeoe aei
caeeoeiai? aeaoi?iaoe??.

I?e ii??aithth/e “iiaaae?ieo” a?aeeaie?a i?e iiia?a/ieo ?
aaeioiiiae?aieo (eineo) ia?aeiiao iea/iai? e?noee ie a?aei?/aee, ui aeey
iiia?a/ieo ia?aeii?a oa?aeoa?ia a?eueo ae?aaeaia ia?a?nia eooiaa
aeaoi?iaoe?y, ui iiaea aooe iiyniaii iaioei o?enoaaeueiei aieeaii
ie?nii-i’yciaiai aia?aoa i?e oaeiio oei? ia?aeii?a.

Aeeiai?ea ci?uaiiy ca oe?eiith. Ia ii/aoeo e?eoaaiiy i?e iiia?a/ieo
ia?aeiiao aaee/eia ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith neeaaeaea a?ae 0,2
aei iiaiiai iiia?a/ieea e?noee. Iaeiae o iiaeaeueoiio o an?o oai?eo
a?aei?/aii ciaioaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? oeueiai aeaeo. O aeaio oai?eo
a?aeeaiee iiai?noth c?noaaeeeny, a o 6 ci?uaiiy ciaioeeiny aei 0,15-0,4
iiia?a/ieea. I?e aaeioiiiae?aieo oa eineo ia?aeiiao (a?aoiaoth/e e
ineieue/ano?) c aeiaaith ieiueiith ia?aeiio ?nioaaei ia?a?nii iaio
ae?aaeaia ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith, i?ae i?e iiia?a/ieo
ia?aeiiao, aiii ia ia?aaeuoaaei 0,65 iiia?a/ieea. A i?ioean? aen?iiy
e?ioe?aee aiii ciaioeeiny o iieiaeie oai?eo aei 0,3 iiia?a/ieea, a o
?aooe caeeoeeiny oaeei, ye ? aoei.

Aeeiai?ea ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca aeiaaeeiith. O aeaiue o?aaie
?a?no?oaaee aai nei?i/aiiy naaiaioa, aai eiai ioeueiao iiceoe?th. O
ianooii? aeaa oeaei? o a?eueoino? iaoe??io?a c iiia?a/ieie ia?aeiiaie
a?aeaoaaeiny iiaeiaaeaiiy naaiaioa c ooai?aiiyi ae?anoaco i?ae
a?aeeaieaie oe?eiith a?ae 2 aei 13 ii. Aeey oai?eo c aaeioiiiae?aieie oa
eineie ia?aeiiaie aoei a?eueo oeiiaei caa?aaeaiiy ioeueiai? iiceoe??
a?aeeaie?a. Ia iiaeaeueoeo aoaiao caai?iiy ia?aeiio ie /ano?oa
a?aei?/aee aeayea ciaioaiiy ae?anoaco, aai ae caa??aaeany iiia?aaeiy
iiceoe?y a?aeeaie?a. I?aee?aneth?ii, ui iayai?noue ae?anoaco ia
ia?aoeiaeaeaea oi?ioaaiith ia??inoaeueiiai ?aaaia?aoo ? c?iuaiith
a?aeeaie?a a iioeiaeuei? no?iee.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe ?aioaaiiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui
i?e o?enaoe?? iea/a i?oacii o iieiaeaii? aen?iiy a?aeaoaa?oueny onoiaiiy
ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca aeiaaeeiith oa i?ae eooii, a oaeiae nooo?ai
ciaioo?oueny ci?uaiiy ca oe?eiith.

Ee?i?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy, a oaeiae niaoe?aeuei? ?aioaaiieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy o 6 oai?eo aeicaieeee eiinoaooaaoe oaeo i?i oa, ui a
i?ioean? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy i?oacii a?aeeaiee cae?eniththoue
eooia? ia?ai?uaiiy o iaaeao 6-15°. I?e/iio oe? ia?ai?uaiiy aeieeathoue o
iiiaio iaaaioaaeaiiy oa iinyoue iai?ioiee (i?oaeiee) oa?aeoa? (?en.2).

?en.2. ?aae?caoe?y aoaeoo i?oaeii-no?eei? o?enaoe?? a?aeeaie?a iea/iai?

     e?noee i?e ooieoe?iiaeueiiio e?eoaaii? ca aeiiiiiaith i?oaca

Aeeiiaaoe ii??aiyeueio ioe?ieo e?eoaaiiy, ie a oio?ee caoaaaeeoe, ui
canoinoaaiiy i?oaca cia/ii eaaoa ia?aiineoueny oai?eie a ii??aiyii? c?
neaeaoiei aeoyaiaiiyi aai aaeeeith a?iniaith iia’yceith. Oai??, ye?
ia?aaoaaee ia nenoai? neaeaoiiai aeoyaiaiiy, nea?aeeeeny ia a?eue o
i?noe? i?iaaaeaiiy nieoe?, yeee ?ieiee ia?aaeuoaaa a?eue o i?noe?
ia?aeiia, aaaeei ia?aiineee aeiooaia iieiaeaiiy, c’yaeyany a?eue o
niei?. Iniaeeai i/aaeaeii oea aoei o iaoe??io?a, ye? aei iaeeaaeaiiy
i?oaca aeae?eueea aei?a iaoiaeeeeny ia nenoai? aeoyaiaiiy aai o aaeee?e
a?inia?e iia’ycoe?.

I?e ooieoe?iiaeueiiio e?eoaaii? eooiaa ?ooii?noue a?aeeaie?a cieeaea a
no?iee a?ae 24 aei 45 aei?a (o na?aaeiueiio 5,4 ± 0,35 oeaeiy), i?ney
/iai oai?? i?iaeiaaeoaaee ei?enooaaoeny i?oacii ua 2-3 oeaei?. Iniae
i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo noaaaee aei ?iaioe o na?aaeiueiio /a?ac 9,6 ± 0,45
oeaeiy. Oi/a cia/ia e?euee?noue iaoeo iaoe??io?a, ye? ia caeiaeeny
o?ce/iith i?aoeath, noaaaea aei ?iaioe ua ?ai?oa, eiee auooaa a?eue.
I?ioean e?eoaaiiy nooo?ai aeiaoaa aiane?aeie iaiao?aeiino? iiaeaeueoiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ooiiino? o noaeiaao e?ioe?aee.

O an?o oai?eo c?iuaiiy a?aeeaie?a a?aeaoaaeiny /a?ac ia??inoaeueio
iicieth, yea iaea na?aaeith aenioo (ia ??ai? e?i?? ceaio) 7,6 ± 1,9 ii.
Aa?oei oaaae c’yaeeiny ? oa, ui ?ici??e ia??inoaeueiiai ?aaaia?aoo ia
caeaaeaee a?ae a?eo iino?aaeaeaeeo.

Iac?iuaiiy a?aeeaie?a i?e ooieoe?iiaeueiiio e?eoaaii? aoei a?aei?/aii o
aeaio oai?eo (1,9 %). A iaio aeiaaeeao i?e/eiith iac?iuaiiy, iaaii,
iineoaeeea ?ioa?iiceoe?y i’yciai? oeaieie.

Aeey ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee iaea?aeaieo iaie ?acoeueoao?a
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee ie
aeei?enoaee iioae?eiaai? aeai? i?i /anoioo oneeaaeiaiue i?ney
iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy oeeo iioeiaeaeaiue (A.A.Iiiiaa, 1973;
TH.I.Eieanieeia, 1973; A.N.Aiiaea?/oe, I.E.TH?ueyi, 1980; I.?.Oeiaiei,
1985; A.Marty et al., 1994; ?.I.Rommens, I.Verbrugger, P.L.Broos, 1995;
E.E.Naaeae, A.A.Ne?ioa, A.I.Nooei e ae?., 1997; I.I.Aeaie/aa, 1997;
A.O.I?ici?ianeee, 1997). Aiae?coth/e aeai? oeeo aaoi??a, ie aa/eii, ui
/anoioa ia?aeii?a, ye? ia c?ineeny i?ney aioo??oiueie?noeiaiai
inoaineioaco, neeaea 4,8-7,3 %. Oea a 2-3 ?ace ia?aaeuo? /anoioo aeaiiai
oneeaaeiaiiy i?e ooieoe?iiaeueiiio eiina?aaoeaiiio e?eoaaii?. Ie??i
oeueiai, i?e iia?aoeaiiio e?eoaaii? ?nio? caa?ica iiyae iaa?eoo
i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa, /anoioa yeiai ca?aeii c iaaaaeaieie aeaieie neeaaea?
2,5-12,8 %.

AENIIAEE TC «AENIIAEE»

1. Ae?ao?ca?i? ia?aeiie iea/iai? e?noee o 98 % aeiaaee?a aeieeaee a?ae
ae?? iai?yii? o?aaie ? i?e oeueiio eeoa o 85,6 % oai?eo ia?aeiia
ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith ia ia?aaeuoaaei iiia?a/iiai ?ici??o
e?noee, ui aeicaieeei canoinoaaoe eiina?aaoeaia ooieoe?iiaeueia
e?eoaaiiy.

Ooieoe?iiaeueiee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi i?oaca aeioe?eueii
aaeeaaoe o iino?aaeaeaeeo ?c cae?eoeie ?cieueiaaieie iaoneeaaeiaieie
ia?aeiiaie ae?ao?ca iea/a. Iieacaiiy aei a?aee?eoiai ai?aaeaiiy iiaeooue
noaaeoeny eeoa o aeiaaeeao iaa?eoo i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa, niieo/aiiai c?
ci?uaiiyi a?aeeaie?a ca oe?eiith ia iiaiee iiia?a/iee ? a?eueoa.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaie oeiii-iaoa?’yiee i?oac ia? ?yae ia?aaaa ii??aiyii
c i?oacii ?c iie?a?eo. A?i caaacia/o? e?auee eiioaeo c iiaa?oiath iea/a,
ia ii?ooo? i?e?iee?iao ia iiaa?oi? oe??e, a?eueo aeinooiiee o
aeaioiaeaii? ? cia/ii aeaoaaoee, i?ae i?oac ?c iie?a?eo. ?ic?iaeaiee
iaie iaa?? oeii?ici???a oeiii-iaoa?’yieo i?oac?a aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a o?aaioi?e o?aaiaoieia??.

3. I?e ae?ao?ca?iiio ia?aeii? iea/iai? e?noee iiaeia aeinyaoe
caaeia?eueiiai c?noaaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a ? caa?aaoe oea iieiaeaiiy,
aeei?enoiaoth/e i?oac oa o?enoth/e e?ioe?aeo i?aea?neith a iieiaeaii?
aeno iea/a. A oeueiio iieiaeaii? ai?iaeiaae ia?oiai oeaeiy i?ney o?aaie
a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy an?o aeae?a ci?uaiiy, iaa?oue iiaea ianoaoe
ae?anoac iii?ae a?aeeaieaie, aea eiai ooai?aiiy ia ia?aoeiaeaea?
i?ioeano c?iuaiiy a?aeeaie?a. Ia iiiaio c?iuoaaiiy iiaeeeaee /anoeiaee
?aoeeaeea eooiai? aeaoi?iaoe?? iea/a.

4. I?e aeei?enoaii? i?oaca ? niaoe?aeueii? iaoiaeeee e?eoaaeueieo ai?aa
aeinyaa?oueny aoaeo i?oaeii-no?eei? o?enaoe?? a?aeeaie?a, yeee
i?eaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy iiaiioe?iiiai ia??inoaeueiiai ?aaaia?aoo, ui
caaacia/o? iaeoaeaiiy iaoe??ioa a iioeiaeuei? no?iee (9,6 oeaeiy).

5. Oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo eiina?aaoeaiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy cae?eoeo ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee aeicaieeei a
caiia?aoe oaeei oneeaaeiaiiyi, ye inoaii??e?o, iac?iuaiiy a?aeeaie?a,
ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? i?iiaiaaiai ia?aa, ye? cono??/athoueny i?e
o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii? oeeo ia?aeii?a.

NIENIE ?IAIO, IIOAEIEIAAIEO

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOeII TC «NIENIE ?IAIO, IIOAEIEIAAIEO

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOeII »

1. Iiinoeoaiea A.E., Eeoaeoei A.A. Ea/aiea aeeaoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia
iea/aaie einoe // I?oiiaaeey, o?aaiaoieiaey e i?ioace?iaaiea. — 1997. —
? 3. — N. 87-89.

2. Eeoaeoei A.A. “Iiaaaeaiea “ ioeiieia i?e ooieoeeiiaeueiii ea/aiee
aeeaoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia iea/aaie einoe // I?oiiaaeey, o?aaiaoieiaey e
i?ioace?iaaiea. — 1998. — ? 1. — N. 98-100.

3. Iiinoeoaiea A.E., Eeoaeoei A.A. Ea/aiea aeeaoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia
iea/aaie einoe oeiii-iaoa?/aoui i?oacii// I?oiiaaeey, o?aaiaoieiaey e
i?ioace?iaaiea. — 1998. — ? 3. — N. 90-93.

4. Eeoaeoei A.A., Ia/a?aiei A.I., Aaeica?oeaaa A.E. Eiiiuethoa?iay
ia?aaioea aeaiiuo aio?iiiiao?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey iea/a //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea,
caei?iauea: Na.iao/.o?oaeia OAIO, aui. 6. — Oa?ueeia, 1998. — 568 n.

5. Eeoaeoei A.A., Ia/a?aiei A.I., Aaeica?oeaaa A.E. I?eiaiaiea
eiiiuethoa?iie oaoiieiaee aeey ?ac?aaioee oeene?othueo i?oacia i?e
ia?aeiiao iea/a // Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea,
oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea: o?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee, Oa?ueeia, 12-14 iay 1995 a. — *anoue 5.
— Oa?ueeia, Ieoeieueoe, Iaaaeaao?a, 1997. — N. 314-318.

6. Iiinoeoaiea A.E., Eeoaeoei A.A., Eaaiea I.E., Ai?iioeia I.I.
Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ea/aiea ia?aeiiia aa?oiae eiia/iinoe // A ei. Iaoa?eaeu
6 nueacaea o?aaiaoieiaia-i?oiiaaeia ?anioaeeee Aaea?onue. — Aeoaane,
1996. — N. 225-226.

7. Iiinoeoaiea I.E., E?oa?oei A.I. Ooieoe?iiaeueia e?eoaaiiy
ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iea/a ca aeiiiiiaith i?oac?a. Ii??aiyeueia
ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a // No/ani? aniaeoe iaa?aeeeaaeii? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae. Iaoa??aee eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 25-??//th noai?aiiy
Euea?anueei? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. — Euea?a,
1997. — Ei. 2 . — N. 171-172.

8. Eeoaeoei A.A. I?oace?iaaiea a eiina?aaoeaiii ooieoeeiiaeueiii ea/aiee
aeeaoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia iea/aaie einoe // Iiaia a iaaeeoeeia: oai?ey,
i?aeoeea. Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. — Oa?ueeia, 1994. — N.
40.

AIIOAOeIss TC «AIIOAOeIss»

E?oa?oei A.A. Ooieoe?iiaeueia e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iea/iai?
e?noee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiino? 14.01.21 — o?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y. —
Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia??
?i. i?io. I.?.Neoaiea, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y aaco?oueny ia aeina?ae? e?eoaaiiy 104 iino?aaeaeaeeo ?
i?enay/aia iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaiith iaoiaea eiina?aaoeaiiai
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e?eoaaiiy ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee ca
aeiiiiiaith i?oac?a. Aeei?enoaii ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/iee,
?aioaaiiiao?e/iee, aio?iiiiao?e/iee oa noaoenoe/iee iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?ic?iaeaii iiao eiino?oeoe?th oeiii-iaoa?’yiiai i?oaca aeey o?enaoe??
ae?ao?ca?ieo ia?aeii?a iea/iai? e?noee ? ia i?aenoaa? aio?iiiiao?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue 187 in?a noai?aii iaa?? oeii?ici???a oeeo i?oac?a,
i?ecia/aieo aeey aeei?enoaiiy a o?aaioi?e o?aaiaoieia??.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?aioaaiiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeaii, ui i?e
iieiaeaii? aa?oeeaeueiiai caenaiiy iea/a i?e o?enaoe?? eiai aeaiei
i?oacii a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy an?o aeae?a ci?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a ? aiie
caeiathoue caaeia?eueia iieiaeaiiy. Ia iiiaio c?iuaiiy iiaeeeaee
/anoeiaee iacia/iee (6-12°) ?aoeeaeea aa?onii? aeaoi?iaoe?? iea/a. A
i?ioean? ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia iioeiaeaeaio e?ioe?aeo, ye?
ia?aaeaa/a? iaoiaeeea e?eoaaiiy, aeieeathoue i?oaei? eooia? aeaoi?iaoe??
naaiaioa o iaaeao 6-15°.

?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy iieacaee, ui ca oiiae i?oaeii-no?eei? o?enaoe??
a?aeeaie?a i?oacii a?aeaoaa?oueny caai?iiy ia?aeiio ca ?aooiie
ia??inoaeueiiai ?aaaia?aoo ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? e?ioe?aee o no?iee
9,6 oeaeiy. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae caaacia/ea caai?iiy ia?aeiio a
iioeiaeuei? oa?i?ie o 98 % iino?aaeaeaeeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?ao?ca?iee ia?aeii iea/iai? e?noee, eiina?aaoeaia
e?eoaaiiy, oeiii-iaoa?’yiee i?oac, ?aioaaiiiao??y iieiaeaiiy a?aeeaie?a,
ia?ai?uaiiy a?aeeaie?a, ia??inoaeueiee ?aaaia?ao.

AIIIOAOeEss TC «AIIIOAOeEss»

Eeoaeoei A.A. Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ea/aiea aeeaoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia iea/aaie
einoe. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.21 — o?aaiaoieiaey e i?oiiaaeey. — Oa?ueeianeee
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo i?oiiaaeee e o?aaiaoieiaee ei. i?io.
I.E.Neoaiei, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iniiaaia ia iiuoa ea/aiey 104 iino?aaeaaoeo e iinayuaia
iao/iiio iainiiaaieth e oniaa?oainoaiaaieth iaoiaea eiina?aaoeaiiai
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ea/aiey aeeaoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia iea/aaie einoe n
iiiiuueth i?oacia. Eniieueciaaiu eeeieei-?aioaaiieiae/aneee,
?aioaaiiiao?e/aneee, aio?iiiiao?e/aneee e noaoenoe/aneee iaoiaeu
enneaaeiaaiey.

Eco/ai eeeie/aneee iiuo ea/aiey aeeaoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia iea/a n iiiiuueth
i?oaca ec iieeaeea (50 aieueiuo) e, enoiaey ec auyaeaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia,
oniaa?oainoaiaaia iaoiaeeea.

?ac?aaioaia iiaay eiino?oeoeey oeiii-iaoa?/aoiai i?oaca aeey oeenaoeee
aeeaoeca?iuo ia?aeiiia iea/a e ia iniiaaiee aio?iiiiao?e/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee 187 eeoe nicaeai iaai? oeii?acia?ia yoeo i?oacia,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey eniieueciaaiey a o?aaioiie o?aaiaoieiaee. Iiaay
eiino?oeoeey i?oaca i?eiaiaia o 45 aieueiuo.

Eiina?aaoeaiue ooieoeeiiaeueiue iaoiae ea/aiey n eniieueciaaieai i?oaca
i?eiaiyeny o iino?aaeaaoeo n cae?uouie, eciee?iaaiiuie, iaineiaeiaiiuie
ia?aeiiaie aeeaoeca iea/aaie einoe n ethaie ieineinoueth ia?aeiia.
Iieacaiey e ioe?uoiio aiaaeaieth noaaeee a neo/ayo iaa?eoa,
ni/aoathuaainy ni niauaieai ioeiieia ii oe?eia ia iieiue iiia?a/iee e
aieaa. Ioe?uoia ai?aaeaiea auei i?eiaiaii o 9 aieueiuo, /oi ninoaaeei
8,7 % e iauaio /eneo iaaethaeaaiuo aieueiuo. I?e yoii oeenaoeeth
ioeiieia inouanoaeyee noa?aeiaaui aiia?aoii n oi?oaie aiaoiae iii?ie.

Iooai ?aioaaiiiao?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee eco/aii “iiaaaeaiea” ioeiieia ia
yoaiao ea/aiey (ia?aua nooee, ia 5-8 aeaiue e ia 25-40 aeaiue) i?e
ea/aiee ooieoeeiiaeueiui iaoiaeii n iiiiuueth i?oaca. Onoaiiaeaia
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo oa?aeoa?ii ieineinoe ia?aeiia e aaee/eiie
ia?ae/iiai niauaiey ioeiieia. I?e iiia?a/iuo e einuo ia?aeiiao aaee/eia
ia?ae/iiai niauaiey ii oe?eia auea aieueoa, /ai i?e aeioiia?aciuo
ineieue/aouo.

I?aaeeiaeaiiue i?oac iicaieee iaania/eaaoue aieaa oeceieiae/iua oneiaey
oeenaoeee iea/aaiai naaiaioa eiia/iinoe, a iaoiaeeea i?eiaiaiey aioiauo
oeenaoi?ia nouanoaaiii nieceea noieiinoue ea/aiey.

Ia iniiaaiee ?aioaaiiiao?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee onoaiiaeaii, /oi a
iieiaeaiee aa?oeeaeueiiai naenaiey iea/a i?e oeenaoeee aai oeacaiiui
i?oacii i?ienoiaeeo oiaiueoaiea anao aeaeia niauaiey ioeiieia e iie
caieiatho oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia iieiaeaiea. E iiiaioo n?auaiey aiciiaeai
/anoe/iue iacia/eoaeueiue (6-12°) ?aoeeaeea aa?oniie aeaoi?iaoeee iea/a.
Onoaiiaeaii oaeaea, /oi a i?ioeanna ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iaa?ocie ia
iia?aaeaeaiioth eiia/iinoue, eioi?ua i?aaeoniio?aiu iaoiaeeeie ea/aiey,
aicieeatho oi?oaea oaeiaua aeaoi?iaoeee naaiaioa a i?aaeaeao 6-15°.

?acoeueoaou ea/aiey iieacaee, /oi i?e oneiaeyo oi?oai-onoie/eaie
oeenaoeee ioeiieia i?oacii i?ienoiaeeo caaeeaeaiea ia?aeiia ca n/ao
ia?einoaeueiiai ?aaaia?aoa e ainnoaiiaeaiea ooieoeee eiia/iinoe a
n?aaeiai a oa/aiea 9,6 iaaeaee. I?aaeeaaaaiue iaoiae iaania/ee
caaeeaeaiea ia?aeiia a iioeiaeueiua n?iee o 98 % iino?aaeaaoeo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeaoeca?iue ia?aeii iea/aaie einoe, eiina?aaoeaiia
ooieoeeiiaeueiia ea/aiea, oeiii-iaoa?/aoue i?oac, ?aioaaiiiao?ey
iieiaeaiey ioeiieia, ia?aiauaiea ioeiieia, ia?einoaeueiue ?aaaia?ao.

ANNOTATION TC «ANNOTATION»

Litvishko V.A. The Functional treatment of humerus diaphyseal fractures.
— Manuscript.

Dissertation for the degree of medical sciense candidate by speciality
14.01.21 — traumatologe and orthopaedy. — Sitenko Research Institute of
Orthopaedy and Traumatology, Kharkov, 1999.

Dissertation is based on the experience of treatment of 104 sufferers
and it is dedicated to a scientific ground and improvement of the method
of conservative functional treatment of diaphyseal fractures with the
help of orthesis. Clinical and radiological, radiometrical,
anthropometrical and statistical methods were used.

The construction of splint-cloth orthesis for fixing diaphyseal
fractures of humerus was worked out and on the basis of anthropometrical
study of 187 patients a set of orthesis typesizes ment for usage in the
urgent traumatology was created.

On the basis of radiometrical studies it was determined that all hinds
of breaks’ displacement reduce (diminish) and they take a satisfactory
position when a humerus hangs down vertically fixed by the stated
orthesis. A partical slight recurrence (6-12°) of varus humerus
deformation is possible by the time of displacement. Elastic corner
deformations of a segment within the limits of 6-15 degrees appear in
the process of functional loads on the injured extremity that the method
of treatment suggests.

The results of the treatment showed that a fracture heals faster at the
expense of a periosteal regenerate and extremity functions recover
withing 9,6 of week by the elastic and steady breaks’ fixation by the
orthesis. The suggested method provided the fracture’s healing to 98 %
of sufferers in the shortest possible time.

Key words: diaphyseal humerus fracture, conservative functional
treatment, splint-cloth orthesis, radiometry of break’s position,
displacement of breaks, a periosteal regenerate.

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