I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

OAA*EE AIAAeAI IEOAEEIAE*

OAeE 330.342

OOIEOe?IIAEUeII-?NOI?E*IA

NO?OEOO?ECAOe?ss ? OEIIEIA?CAOe?ss

AEIIII?*IEO NENOAI

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 08.01.01 ( Aeiiii?/ia oai??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a ( 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anuee?e eiia?oe?ei?e aeaaeai?? Oeiiini?eee

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

NEEA?INUeEEE Noai?neaa Aieiaeeie?iae/, Euea?anueea eiia?oe?eia
aeaaeai?y, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ia?eaoeiao ? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAAEEOAIEI Ieoaeei Ieeieaeiae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aeiiii?/ii? oai???

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

IAEIAAOeUe ?aaai Eineiiae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, eaoaae?a
aeiiii?/ii? oai???

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
aeiiii?/ii? oai???, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Oaeai?iae

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 4 aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 15.20 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.35.051.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?? ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe o Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 290008,
i.Euea?a, i?ini.Naiaiaee, 18.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith:
290005, i.Euea?a, aoe.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 30 n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe Iai/eoei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. No/aniee aoai
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?? aeeaieeie
ia?aoai?aiiyie ?eieiaiai oa?aeoa?o. O?ainoi?iaoe?y aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie
cae?enith?oueny o iai?yieo oi?ioaaiiy oae caaii? ci?oaii? aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie, yea aaco?oueny ye ia i?eaaoi?e, oae ? ia aea?aeaai?e aeaniino?,
? a ye?e aeei?enoiaothoueny ye ?eieia?, oae ? ia?eieia? iaoiaee
?aaoethaaiiy. Oni?oia i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ia?ao?aeieo nenoai,
yea iiaeiia aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ye oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa
iiaeaeueoiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee. A eiiieaen? caaaeaiue
noaiiaeaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ia?ao?aeieo
nenoai iaei??th c iniiaieo ? i?iaeaia oeiieia?caoe?? oa no?oeoo?ecaoe??
oeeo nenoai.

I?iaeaia oeiieia?caoe?? ? no?oeoo?ecaoe?? aeoeaii aeine?aeaeo?oueny ye
o ca?oa?aei?e, oae ? o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo??. Iaeiae, a ca?oa?aei?e
aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oey i?iaeaia, caeaa?eueoiai aea/a?oueny a
eiioaeno? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?icaeiooeo ci?oaieo aeiiii?/ieo
nenoai. Oe?a?inuee? aeine?aeieee aeaio i?iaeaio ii/aee aeoeaii
aeine?aeaeoaaoe eeoa a oiiaao aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?. Ia nueiaiaei?
?ic?iaeaieie ? eeoa ie?ai? aeaiaioe i?iaeaie oeiieia?caoe?? ?
no?oeoo?ecaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.

Ia?aaeon?i ia i?iaiae?ciaaii oa ia ?ice?eoi i?iaeaio no?oeoo?ecaoe?? oa
oeiieia?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ye c ooieoe?iiaeueiiai, oae ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/iiai i?aeoiae?a, ia aeaii eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
oeio iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, yea oi?io?oueny a Oe?a?i?. Ona
oea coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a ii?yaeeo ?iaioe iaae oaeeie
iaoeiaeie oaiaie:

1) I?iaeaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai; 2) Ia?ao?aei?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie; 3) Nenoaie aeiiii?/iiai aei??o.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeyaeaiiy e?eoa???a
no?oeoo?ecaoe?? oa oeiieia?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.

O ca’yceo ?c iacaaiith iaoith o aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

1) i?iaiae?coaaoe iayai? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei
i?iaeaie oeiieia?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai; 2) aeyaeoe e?eoa???
?noi?eei-ooieoe?iiaeueii? oeiieia?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai oa ?o
ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeaiaioe; 3) noi?ioethaaoe e?eoa??? ooieoe?iiaeueii?
oeiieia?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai; 4) aeine?aeeoe oei aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie ia ?? iae?i- oa i?e?i??aiyo, ui oi?iothoueny o a?o/eciyi?e
aeiiii?oe?; 5) ie?aneeoe ? cai?iiiioaaoe aeueoa?iaoeai? oeyoe i?ioeano
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea
nenoaia iaoeiaeo i?eioeei?a, eaoaai??e oa iiiyoue, ?ic?iaeaieo
aeiiii?/iith oai???th. O ?iaio? iaae aeena?oaoe??th aaoi? aeei?enoiaoaaa
i?aoe? eeanee?a na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee: A.Ni?oa, Ae.??ea?aei,
E.Ia?ena, I.Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeiai, Aeae.I.Eaeina, O.Aae?ea, a oaeiae
oaeeo a?aeiieo aeiiii?no?a, ye ?.Aa??, A.Ieeai, I.O??aeiai oa ?io?. Aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy canoiniaaii eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae, iaoiaee
aiae?co ? neioaco, ?iaeoeoe?? oa aeaaeoeoe??, ii?aeiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai ?
eia?/iiai, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, no?oeoo?iee aiae?c, aiae?oe/i? ia/eneaiiy
iieaciee?a, eio?? oa?aeoa?ecothoue aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeo /e
?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui: 1) cae?enith?oueny
aiae?c iniiaieo i?eioeei?a ? i?aeoiae?a aei oeiieia?caoe?? ?
no?oeoo?ecaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai a ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?eao; 2)
?ice?eaa?oueny ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a aeiiii?/ieo nenoai a
ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?eao oa cae?enith?oueny ?o ??aiaaa no?oeoo?ecaoe?y; 3)
aiae?cothoueny ?c caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo iiceoe?e iniiai?
?noi?eei-ooieoe?iiaeuei? oeie aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ca oaeeie iciaeaie ye
?o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia, oaoi?/ia, o?oaeiaa, i?aai?caoe?eia iniiae; 4)
cae?eniaii aiae?c iniiaieo i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
iino?iaeono??aeueieo, eaac??ioaeaeooaeueieo oa ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai; 5) aeine?aeaeothoueny iniiai? iniaeeaino? oa
i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aenoaineaieo, ?ioaineaieo oa
aeaoaineaieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie;

6) oi?iothoueny aeaye? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy i?iaeai
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui c?iaeai? o i?e
aeniiaee ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iiaeooue aooe iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeey
iaa?oiooaaiiy ? ?ic?iaeaiiy iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo i?ia?aie
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie. Io?eiai?
oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee oa iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, cie?aia, i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a «Iie?oe/ia
aeiiii?y» , «Iae?iaeiiii?/ia oai??y», «I?e?iaeiiii?/ia oai??y».

Aei iniiaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ye? noaiiaeyoue iniaenoee caeiaooie
aeena?oaioa ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaeaaeaoue:

1) eiiieaenia nenoaiia ioe?iea oeio aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, yea
oi?io?oueny a Oe?a?i? a oiiaao aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?; 2)
cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??? aeey ooieoe?iiaeueii -?noi?e/ii? oeiieia?caoe??
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai; 3) iaoiaeeea ioe?iee

aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo nenoai; 4) iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? aeey Oe?a?ie aeai?o aeueoa?iaoeaieo oeyo?a ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: «Aeiiiiao?e/i? iaoiaee ? iiaeae? a aeiiii?oe?: oai??y ?
i?aeoeea» (i.Euea?a, 1998?.); «I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a
oiiaao o?aiceoe??» (i.Oa?e?a, 1998?.); ia eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? ani??aio?a EEA ca i?aenoieaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe (1996, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo
?ia?o caaaeueiei ianyaii 2,1 ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa, o oiio /ene? iniaenoi
aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue 1,8 ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoe?a.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 199 noi??iie, a oiio /ene? 23 noi??iee
caeiathoue 23 ?enoiee, 17 noi??iie – 161 iaeiaioaaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae, 41 noi??ieo – 4 aeiaeaoee ?c 17 neeaaeiaeie aeiaeaoeo A, 15
neeaaeiaeie aeiaeaoeo A, 6 neeaaeiaeie aeiaeaoeo A, oa 2 neeaaeiaeie
aeiaeaoeo Ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O no/ani?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie o?aeoo?oueny aocueei ? oe?iei. A oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? aeiiii?/ia
nenoaia iaie ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?aai?ciaaia ?aei?noue
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?, ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/ii?, ?eieiai?, oe?iiai?,
a?ioiai?, o?iainiai? i?aenenoai, a oaeiae i?aenenoai ?aaoethaaiiy ?
niiaeeaaiiy o ?o aca?iiae??, a o aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? iiiyooy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ioioiaeith?oueny ?c noeoii?noth
iaoai?ci?a oa ?inoeoooe?e ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ?icaeoeo ? ?aaoeyoe?? iaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie.

Ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ia?aaeaa/a? aeae?eaiiy a ?o
no?oeoo?? oaeeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a ye ae?iaie/i? (a o./.
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?, ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/ii?, aeania aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie ae?iaieoeoaa), ?eieiai?, oe?iiai?, o?iainiai?, a?ioiai?
i?aenenoai, i?aenenoaie oi?ioaaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo aeioiae?a, i?aenenoai
niiaeeaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy. (Aeea.?en.1).

I?ae ae?iaie/eie aeiiii?/ieie nenoaiaie ?icoi?thoue noeoii?noue iaaieo
?inoeooo?a, iaoai?ci?a oa iaoiae?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo ?ano?n?a a
aeiiii?/i? i?iaeoeoe. Nooi?iue ?icaeiaiino? oaoi?/ii? ? oaoiieia?/ii?
iniiae ae?iaieoeoaa coiiaeth? iiae?e ae?iaie/eo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ia
aeaa aaeee? oeie: ?iaeono??aeuei? oa iino?iaeono??aeuei? aeiiii?/i?
nenoaie. ?iaeono??aeuei? ae?iaie/? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie aecia/aeueiith
aeanoea?noth iathoue aeei?enoaiiy iaoei ? nenoai iaoei, a
iino?iaeono??aeuei? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny canoinoaaiiyi aaoiiao?a oa
aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai ae?iaieoeoaa.

I?ae ?eieiaith aeiiii?/iith nenoaiith i?eeiyoi ?icoi?oe noeoii?noue
iaoai?ci?a oa ?inoeooo?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo cae?enith?oueny ia?a
?ano?n?a, i?iaeoeo?a, eai?oae?a, a?ioae o noni?euei?e aeiiii?oe?.
Iniiaieie iiiaioaie aiae?co ?eieiai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie aenooiathoue:
?noi?e/i? aoaie ?icaeoeo ?eieiai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, oeie ?eieo,
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ??ai? ?eieo, iniiai? iiaeae? ?eieo. Aeioiaa?iee,
oiaa?iee oa iinooiaa?iee ia??iaee ? oeie ?noi?e/ieie aoaiaie ia i?ioyc?
yeeo oi?iothoueny oa ooieoe?iiothoue nenoaie ?eieo. ?eiie i?iaeoeo?a,
?eiie ?ano?n?a oa ?eiie a?ioae ? ooieoe?iiaeueieie eiiiiiaioaie nenoaie
?eieo. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo a?aeaoaa?oueny ia i?e?iaeiiii?/iiio,
iae?iaeiiii?/iiio, iaoaiae?iaeiiii?/iiio oa iaoai?e?iaeiiii?/iiio
??aiyo. Iniiaieie iiaeaeyie ?eieo aenooiathoue: /enoee eiieo?aioiee,
/enoee iiiiiie?noe/iee, eiieo?aioii-iiiiiie?noe/iee oa ie?aiiie?noe/iee
?eiee.

Oe?iiaa aeiiii?/ia nenoaia iaie i?aaenoaaeaia ye aeaeiaa
??ciiiai?oi?noue iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy oe?i; ye iniiaiee aei??thaaeueiee
aeiiii?/iee ?ino?oiaio; ye iniiaia oi?ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?e?i- oa iae?iaeiiii?/ieo nenoai. No?oeoo?ieie eiiiiiaioaie oe?iiaeo
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai aenooiathoue iniiai?, eoaee a?aeiinyoueny ?eieia? oa
iica?eieia? oe?iia? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie, oa aeiiii?aei?, ye?
i?aaenoaaeai? aaei?i?no?aoeaieie oa ci?oaieie oe?iiaeie nenoaiaie. O
?eieiaeo oe?iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo nenoaiao ??aaiue ?eieiai? oe?ie
aecia/a?oueny /a?ac a?aeiia?aeia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe??, ?
naia oe?ia ? iniiaiei oaeoi?ii oi?ioaaiiy iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe??. Noa?ith
?iciianthaeaeaiiy iica?eieiaeo oe?iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ? noni?eueiee
? eaac?noni?eueiee naeoi?e iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. Aaei?i?no?aoeai?
oe?iia? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie iathoue caeaoi?noue ?icoe?thaaoe noa?o nai??
ae?? ia anth aeiiii?eo, aeeth/ath/e ? ?eieiaee

naeoi?. Aeey ci?oaieo oe?iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai i?eoaiaiiei ?
aeiiiaiaiiy ?eieiaiai oe?iiooai?aiiy iica?eieiaei.

A?ioia?, aai iiiaoa?i? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie — oea eiiaeiia?ao i?aai?a,
onoaiia, ?inoeoooe?e oi?ioaaiiy, ?ooo ? aeei?enoaiiy a?ioae ? a?ioiaeo
iioie?a. Ca nai?th no?oeoo?ith aoaeue-yea no/ania iaoe?iiaeueia
iiiaoa?ia nenoaia neeaaea?oueny c aeaio naeoi??a: aea?aeaaiiai oa
eiia?oe?eiiai. Aea?aeaaiee naeoi? aeeth/a? a naaa: iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie,
aea?aeaaia eacia/aenoai oa aea?aeaaiee iiiaoa?iee aea??. Eiia?oe?eiee
naeoi? i?noeoue: eiia?oe?ei? oa iuaaei? aaiee, iain?ei? oa ?iaanoeoe?ei?
oiiaee, oiiaee i?ioni?eie, e?aaeeoi? ni?eee ? anioe?aoe??, no?aoia? ?
o?anoia? eiiiai??, oiui.

O?iainia? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie — oea noeoii?noue iaoai?ci?a, ?inoeooo?a,
onoaiia ii oi?ioaaiith, ?ooo ? aeei?enoaiith a?ioiaeo oiiae?a noa SYMBOL
146 \f «Times New Roman» \s 12 ’ ?eo?a aeiiii?ee: aea?aeaae,
ei?ii?aoe?e, aeiiiainiiaea?noa. Iniiao o?iainiai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie
neeaaeathoue a?ioia? oiiaee, oiaoi iaai? noie a?ioae /e ?ioeo oe?iieo
iaia??a, ye? iathoue a?aeiia?aei? e?i?? oi?ioaaiiy oa /?oei aecia/ai?
iai?yie aeei?enoaiiy. ?ic??ciythoue /eno? oa aaeia? o?iaine. *eno? — oea
a?ioia? oiiaee, ui oi?iothoueny eeoa i?e aeiiiiic? oe?iieo iaia??a
(/a?ac ?o ia?a), ye? ? iniiaiei ia SYMBOL 146 \f «Times New Roman» \s 12
’ ?eoii eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo ia ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a (o?iainiaiio ?eieo).
Aaeia? o?iaine — oea /eno? o?iaine aeoi? c a?ioiaeie aeeaaeaie o
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoieo onoaiiaao ? aio?aea, yea ? o iayaiino? ? ia
aeaiiio?oueny a aaie?anuee?e nenoai?. O?neaeuei? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie —
oea noeoii?noue iaoai?ci?a noyaoaaiiy aea?aeaaith iiaeaoe?a o ianaeaiiy
? i?eaaoiiai a?ciano, a oaeiae ?iicaiieo aaaio?a iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee. Ca oa?aeoa?ii oi?ioaaiiy ? noyaoaaiiy iiaeaoee iiae?eythoueny
ia o?e oeie: i?yi?, yeeie iiiaeaoeiao?oueny a?ioiaee aeioiae; iai?yi?,
aei yeeo a?aeiinyoue IAeA, iiaeaoie c i?iaeaaeo, c iai?ioo, aaeiaee
iiaeaoie c iai?ioo, aeoeeciee iiaeaoie, ? o.ae.; oiiaii-i?yi? iiaeaoee,
ye? noyaothoueny c aeaniee?a iaeia, eai?oaeo, ia?ooiiino?. Iaoai?ci
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy cae?enith?oueny /a?ac oae caaio noaaeo iiaeaoeo.
Aeae?eythoue aeaa oeie noaaee iiaeaoeo: a?aie/io, ui aecia/a?oueny ye
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?e?inoo iiaeaoeo aei i?e?inoo a?ioiaiai aeioiaeo, oa
na?aaeith, yea aecia/a?oueny ye ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caaaeueieo aaee/ei
iiaeaoeo aei caaaeueii? aaee/eie a?ioiaiai aeioiaeo. A caeaaeiino? a?ae
oa?aeoa?o ? oeio a?aie/ieo ? na?aaei?o noaaie iiaeioiaeiiai iiaeaoeo
iaoe?iiaeuei? o?neaeuei? nenoaie iiae?eythoueny ia o?e oeie:
i?iii?oe?ei?, ?aa?aneai? oa i?ia?aneai?. O i?iii?oe?eieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
o?neaeueieo nenoaiao ieoiia aaaa iiaeaoeo a caaaeueiiio a?ioiaiio
aeioiae? ? a?eueo-iaio noaa?eueiith ? ia c?inoa? ?c c?inoaiiyi aeioiaeo.
O ?aa?aneaieo o?neaeueieo nenoaiao na?aaeiy noaaea iiaeaoeo ia?
oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy ?c c?inoaiiyi a?ioiaiai aeioiaeo, a a
i?ia?aneaieo — na?aaei?e iiaeaoie c?inoa? ?c c?inoaiiyi a?ioiaiai
aeioiaeo.

Ooieoe?iiaeueia oeiieia?caoe?y aeiiii?/ieo nenoai iiaeiia ?icaeyaeaoeny
? c iiceoe?e ??aiaaiai aniaeoo, oiaoi ia i?e?i oa iae?i??aiyo,
iaoe?iiaeueia i?e?iaeiiii?/ia nenoaia iaie aecia/a?oueny ye iaaia
noeoii?noue iaoai?ci?a oa ?inoeooo?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ie?aieo,
ia?aeiieo eaiie ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno: i?aei?e?inoa, o??i,
ei?ii?aoe?e, eiioea?i?a oiui. O aocuee?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueio
i?e?iaeiiii?/io nenoaio ioioiaeith?ii c iaoe?iiaeueiith ae?iaie/ith
nenoaiith, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeyoue: ?eiie i?iaeoeo?a, ?eiie ?ano?n?a,
?eiie a?ioae ? aaetho. A caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o eiieo?aioe?? ie
aeae?ey?i /ioe?e iaea?eueo oeiia? iiaeae? iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?e?iaeiiii?/ii? nenoaie: /enoo eiieo?aioio, /enoo iiiiiie?noe/io,
eiieo?aioii-iiiiiie?noe/io oa ie?aiiie?noe/io. A caeaaeiino? a?ae
nooiaiy aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia i?ioean ?iciiae?eo ? ia?a?iciiae?eo
?ano?n?a aeae?ey?ii: /eno? eiieo?aioi? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?e?iaeiiii?/i?
nenoaie, a yeeo ?ieue aea?aeaae ? iacia/iith, a a oai?aoe/iiio aiae?c? —
iiai?noth a?aenooiy; ci?oai? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie, aea niinoa??aa?oueny
cia/iee aieea aea?aeaae; aaei?i?no?aoeai?, o yeeo ?iciiae?e ?ano?n?a
cae?enith?oueny aeeeth/ii aai iaeaea oe?eeiaeoi aea?aeaaieie iaoiaeaie;
o?aaeeoe?ei?, aeey yeeo aeanoeaei ? aeei?enoaiiy iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo
iaoiae?a ?aaoeyoe?? ? ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a, aeeth/ath/e ? oae?, ui
aacothoueny ia iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?yo oa a?oa?/ieo cae/ayo.
?noi?e/iee aiae?c iaoe?iiaeueieo i?e?iaeiiii?/ieo nenoai aea? ciiao
aeae?eeoe oae? oeie, ye aei?eieia?, ?eieia? ? iino?eieia?, ui ??ciyoueny
i?ae niaith, a iniiaiiio, ??aiai ?icaeoeo ?eieo oa ?eieiaeo no?oeoo?.

Iaoe?iiaeueia iae?iaeiiii?/ia nenoaia — oea iaaia noeoii?noue iaoai?ci?a
oa ?inoeooo?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee a
oe?eiio. O aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? iaoe?iiaeueia iae?iaeiiii?/ia nenoaia
iaie ioioiaeith?oueny c iaoe?iiaeueiith iae?iaeiiii?/iith ?eieiaith
nenoaiith. I?e oiia? oe?iei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iae?iaeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a ?? neeaae? iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? i?aenenoaie,
ye?, acyo? ie?aii, iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoeny ye nenoaie.

1. iaoe?iiaeueia iae?iae?iaie/a nenoaia, ca yeo aaaaea?ii iaoe?iiaeueia
iae?iae?iaieoeoai a oe?eiio; 2. iaoe?iiaeueia iae?i?eieiaa nenoaia; 3.
iaoe?iiaeueia iae?ioe?iiaa nenoaia; 4. iaoe?iiaeueia iae?ia?ioiaa
nenoaia; 5. iaoe?iiaeueia iae?io?iainiaa nenoaia; 6. iaoe?iiaeueia
nenoaia iae?iaeiiii?/iiai niiaeeaaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo a?ioiaeo aeioiae?a;
7. iaoe?iiaeueia nenoaia iae?iaeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaie ooieoe?iiaeueia oeiieia?caoe?y iae?iaeiiii?/ieo
nenoai ca oa?aeoa?ii ?o oaoi?/ii? /e oaoiieia?/ii? iniiae aeae?ey?
aei?iaeono??aeuei?, ?iaeono??aeuei? oa iino?iaeono??aeuei?
iae?iaeiiii?/i? nenoaie; ca oa?aeoa?ii niinia?a ?aaoethaaiiy — ci?oai?,
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaai? oa oeaio?ae?ciaai?; c oi/ee ci?o oi?i aeaniino? ia
oaeoi?e ae?iaieoeoaa — aeieai?oae?noe/i?, eai?oae?noe/i?,
iinoeai?oae?noe/i?, nioe?ae?noe/i? oa iinonioe?ae?noe/i?; ca ??aiai
?icaeoeo ?eieo — aei?eieia?, ?eieia?, iino?eieia? oa ia?ao?aei?.

Ianooiiee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeth? i?eioeeie
ooieoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/ii? oeiieia?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, oiaoi
aea?oueny ?noi?e/ia oeiieia?caoe?y aeiiii?/ieo nenoai o eiioaeno? ?o
ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e, ?, cie?aia, ca ?noi?e/ieie iciaeaie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iniiae, oaoi?/ii? oa o?oaeiai? iniia. C iiceoe?e
aeaniino? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie iaie ae?eyoueny ia aeieai?oae?noe/i?,
eai?oae?noe/i?, iinoeai?oae?noe/i?, nioe?ae?noe/i? oa
iinonioe?ae?noe/i?. Ca iciaeaie oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ia: aei?iaeono??aeuei?,
?iaeono??aeuei? oa iino?iaeono??aeuei?. C iiceoe?e o?oaeiai? iniiae ia:
o?aaeeoe?ei?, ?ioaeaeooaeuei? oa o?aaeeoe?eii-?ioaeaeooaeuei?. Ca
?noi?e/ieie aoaiaie ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?? niiaeeaaiiy aeae?ey?ii:
aeioiaa?i?, oiaa?i? oa iinooiaa?i? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie.

I?ae eai?oae?noe/iith aeiiii?/iith nenoaiith ie ?icoi??ii oaeo
aeiiii?eo, yea aaco?oueny ia i?eaaoi?e eai?oae?noe/i?e oi?i? aeaniino?
ia iniiai? ?ano?ne ae?iaieoeoaa, a iniiaiei ?aaoeyoi?ii aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a aenooia? ?eiie, ?eieiai-oe?iiaa aeiiii?/ia nenoaia. Ioaea,
eai?oae?caoe?y coiiaeth? noaiiaeaiiy eai?oae?noe/ieo no?oeoo? o
iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?. O aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c
eai?oae?noe/ii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie cae?eniaii o eiioaeno? ?icaeyaeo
iniaeeainoae ?? iiaeaeae: /enoi? eai?oae?noe/ii?, ?aaeueii?,
eaac?eai?oae?noe/ii? oa iinoeai?oae?noe/ii? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai. Iiaeaeue
/enoi? eai?oae?noe/ii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ca
iayai?noth /enoi? i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia oaeoi?e ae?iaieoeoaa,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?eueiiai eiieo?aioiiai ?eieo oa ae?yeuei?noth aea?aeaae
o ?ie? oae caaiiai “i?/iiai noi?iaea”. *enoee eiieo?aioiee ?eiie ia?
nai? iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai? noi?iie. Iiceoeaiei ? oa, ui a?eueiee ?eiie
noeioeth? aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano
?, a?aeoae, aaeineiiaeth? oaoi?/io oa oaoiieia?/io nenoaio ae?iaieoeoaa,
aoaeoeaii ?iciiae?ey? ?ano?ne, aeioiaee oa i?iaeoeoe (a ?aieao ?nioth/i?
?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee), oa noai?th? oiiae aeey
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? aeaaee. Iaaaoeaiee a?e eiieo?aioiiai ?eieo iieyaa? o
iino?eiiio ?nioaaii? caa?iceeaeo oaiaeaioe?e ia?a?iaeaeaiiy a?eueiiai
?eieo a iiiiiie?noe/iee, ui ni?e/eith? oe?eo ieceo iaaaoeaieo
iane?aee?a, cie?aia: aaeueioaaiiy ?icaeoeo IOI, iaaaeaeaaoiee ?iciiae?e
?ano?n?a, aeioiae?a ? i?iaeoeo?a (a aniaeo? oi?ioaaiiy, a ia i?aeo?eiee
?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee), oeaio?ae?caoe?th aeaaee, iaiaaeaiiy
naiaiaee, ni?ey? aeieeiaiith oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a. Ioaea, ?eiie iiaea
aoaeoeaii ooieoe?iioaaoe ? i?aeo?eioaaoe iioeiaeueiee ??aaiue i?iii?oe?e
a aeiiii?oe? o?eueee ca oiia ?nioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e
aeiiii?ee. Aea naiino?eii noai?eoe ?? a?i ia a ciic? ? oea cae?enith?
aea?aeaaa naia a ?aieao no?oeoo?ii? iie?oeee. O ?aaeueieo
eai?oae?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoaiao, ii?o/ ?c iayai?noth naeoi?a, aea
iaio? eeane/ia i?eaaoia aeani?noue ia iniiai? ?ano?ne ae?iaieoeoaa,
iathoue i?noea i?ioeane nioe?ae?caoe?? oa ?icoe?aiiy aea?aeaaiiai
naeoi?a aeiiii?ee. Iinoeai?oae?noe/i? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie, noaiiaeaiiy
yeeo a?aeaoeinue o ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO no., oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeeie
oaiaeaioe?yie ?icaeoeo: oaoi?/ia ? oaoiieia?/ia iniiaa caeaa?eueoiai
aecia/aia aaoiiaoaie ? aaoiiaoeciaaieie eiiieaenaie;
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io iniiao ?ai?acaioothoue aeoe?iia?ia, ei?ii?aoeaia
? iiiiiie?noe/ia oi?ie aeaniino?; ?eieiaa ?aaoeyoe?y aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a aeoeaii aeiiiaith?oueny iineeaiei aea?aeaaiei ao?o/aiiyi; o
ae?iaie/?e noa?? a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y; a?ioiaa nenoaia
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi a ia?ao aacaio?aeiaeo e?aaeeoieo ?
aeaiiceoieo a?ioae; o o?iainia?e nenoai? c?inoa? ?ieue ?eieo oe?iieo
iaia??a; ?icaeoie aeooiaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a?aecia/a?oueny ?icoe?aiiyi
noa?e iineoa.

Oae caai? nioe?ae?noe/i? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie (oae caai?, ine?eueee
nioe?ae?ci — oea iiee ui o?eueee oai?aoe/ia aeieo?eia), ca nai?i ci?noii
? oa?aeoa?ii i?yii i?ioeeaaei? eai?oae?noe/iei: oai?aoe/ii oi?iothoueny
a ?acoeueoao? ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a nioe?ae?caoe?? ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iai?aiith ?ieeth oae caaii? noni?eueii? oi?ie aeaniino? oa i??i?eoaoiei
cia/aiiyi aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy. sse ? a iiia?aaeiueiio aeiaaeeo,
aiae?c nioe?ae?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai cae?enith?oueny iaie e??cue
i?ecio iiaeaeae /enoi?, ?aaeueii?, eaac? oa iinonioe?ae?noe/ii?
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith iniiaith /enoeo
nioe?ae?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai aenooia? aea?aeaaia aeani?noue ia
iniiai? ?ano?ne ae?iaieoeoaa, iniaeeai caieth ? eai?oae, oi?iith
i?aei?e?inoaa — aeeeth/ii aea?aeaaiee a?cian, a iaoiaeaie aeiiii?/iiai
?aaoethaaiiy — aaei?i?no?aoeaia oi?aae?iiy. ?aaeuei? nioe?ae?noe/i?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie iiae?eythoueny iaie ia aeania nioe?ae?noe/i? oa
iinonioe?ae?noe/i?. Aeey ia?oiai oeio aeanoeaei ? aaiethoe?eia
oi?ioaaiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a ye oaeiai, ui aeiiiaith? niaith
aea?aeaaiee naeoi? aeiiii?ee. Ae?oaee oei a?aecia/a?oueny ?icoe?aiiyi
i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a ?aaiethoe?eii ?c c?inoaiiyi i?ioean?a e?ei?iae?caoe??
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e. I??i?eoao aea?aeaaiiai /e ?eieiaiai iaoiae?a
?aaoethaaiiy eaaeeoue a iniia? oeiieia?/ii? eeaneo?eaoe??
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, aea aeae?eythoue
aea?aeaaii-?eieia? oa ?eieiai-aea?aeaai? nenoaie.

Ca iciaeaie oaoi?/iiai ? oaoiieia?/iiai ??aiy aeiiii?/i? nenoaie iaie
eeaneo?eiaaii ia aei?iaeono??aeuei?, ?iaeono??aeuei? oa
iino?iaeono??aeuei?. Aei?iaeono??aeuei? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie iathoue a
nai?e iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ?o/ii? o?ce/ii? i?aoe? ? oae caaieo i?yieo
iaoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa iaoa??aeueieo aeaa, ye? ii noo? nai?e ? /enoi
cao?aoieie iaoiaeaie. Oaeee aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??
i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe aenoaineaiei. Oaoi?/iith iniiaith aei?iaeono??aeueieo
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai aenooiathoue i?ino? ?ino?oiaioe, iaoa??aeueiith
iniiaith — i?e?iaei? iaoa??aee, aia?aaoe/iith iniiaith — iaoai?/ia
aia?a?y, o?oaeiaith — o?ce/ia i?aoey, eai?oaeueiith — caiea?ianueeee
eai?oae, ethaeeia aenooia? iaeaeoeai?oei aeaiaioii ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a.
?iaeono??aeuei? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie oaoi?/iith iniiaith iathoue
aeei?enoaiiy iaoei ? nenoai iaoei, iaoa??aeueiith iniiaith aenooiathoue
ye i?e?iaei?, oae ? ooo/i? iaoa??aee, aia?aaoe/iith iniiaith ye i?aaeei
neoaeeoue aeaeo?e/ia aia?a?y, o?oaeiaith iniiaith — iaoai?ciaaia i?aoey,
a yeino? o?oaeiai? iniiae — ia?aaaaeii iaoai?ciaaia i?aoey,
eai?oaeueiith iniiaith — i?iieneiaee eai?oae, a ethaeeia noa? ana
ianeai?oei aeaiaioii ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a. ?aaeuei? ?iaeono??aeuei?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie neeaaeathoueny c aeaio naeoi??a:
eaac??iaeono??aeueiiai oa iino?iaeono??aeueiiai. Eaac?-?iaeono??aeueiee
naeoi?, o naith /a?ao, ii?aeio? a nia? aei?iaeono??aeueiee oa
?iaeono??aeueiee i?aenaeoi?e c iaeii/aniei aeei?enoaiiyi ye ?o/ii?, oae
? iaoeiii? i?aoe?. Iino?iaeono??aeueiee naeoi? ?aaeueieo
?iaeono??aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ii?aeio? ?iaeono??aeueiee oa
iino?iaeono??aeueiee i?aenaeoi?e, aeei?enoiaoth/e ye iaoeie ? nenoaie
iaoei, oae ? aaoiiaoe ? aaoiiaoeciaai? eiiieaene. Iino?iaeono??aeuei?
oaoiieia?/i? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie oaoi?/iith iniiaith iathoue
aaoiiaoeciaai? ae?iaie/? nenoaie, iaoa??aeueiith iniiaith — ia?aaaaeii
ooo/i? iaoa??aee, aia?aaoe/iith iniiaith — ia?aaaaeii aeaeo?iaia?a?th,
o?oaeiaith iniiaith — aaoiiaoeciaaio i?aoeth, eai?oaeueiith iniiaith
/ano?oa anueiai o?iainiaee oa ei?ii?aoeaiee eai?oae, a ethaeeia aenooia?
ye ianeaiee aeaiaio ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith
iniiaith iino?iaeono??aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai aenooiathoue
eieaeoeaii-i?eaaoi? oi?ie aeaniino? ia oaeoi?e ae?iaieoeoaa, cie?aia:
aeoe?iia?ia, ei?ii?aoeaia, iiiiiie?noe/ia, ie?aiiie?noe/ia oiui.
Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iith iniiaith — i?ioeane aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? oa ?ioaa?aoe??
i?aoe?, ye aaeaeaaoia, aoaeoeaia ?aaeoe?y ia ci?ie ?eieiai? eii SYMBOL
146 \f «Times New Roman» \s 12 ’ thieoo?e oa cieaeaiiy ?eceeo
aaie?oonoaa ? iaae?iiy ??aiy aeioiaeo. Oa?aeoa? iino?iaeono??aeueii?
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie aecia/athoue oaeiae i?ioeane aeaeiioeaio?aoe??,
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??, aeaiiiiiie?caoe??, aeai?eaaoecaoe??.

Ca iciaeaie o?oaeiai? iniiae aeiiii?/i? nenoaie iaie eeaneo?eothoueny ia
o?aaeeoe?ei? oa ?ioaeaeooaeuei?. O?aaeeoe?eieie eaae?o?eothoueny oae?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie, o yeeo aeii?io? o?ce/ia, ?o/ia i?aoey, a
?acoeueoaoaie ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a aenooiathoue o?aaeeoe?ei? aeaaa ?
iineoae. Ia SYMBOL 146 \f «Times New Roman» \s 12 ’ ?eoaie ?inoeoooo
o?aaeeoe?eii? aeaniino? ia ?ano?ne ae?iaieoeoaa aenooiathoue
o?aaeeoe?ei? oiaa?e, o?aaeeoe?ei? eai?oaee ? o?aaeeoe?ei? aeaaa.
O?aaeeoe?ei? oiaa?e ? eai?oaee ? ia SYMBOL 146 \f «Times New Roman» \s
12 ’ ?eoaie eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo ia o?aaeeoe?eiiio ?eieo. Aeii?ioaaiiy
?eieiaeo iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy eaaeeoue a iniia? o?aaeeoe?eii? nenoaie
?aaoeyoe??. O?aaeeoe?eia nenoaia iiiaoa?iiai ia?ao ia?aaeaa/a?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie i?ioicieioiai, cieioiai oa iinocieioiai
noaiaea?oo. O?ainoi?iaoe?y o?aaeeoe?eieo ?ano?n?a o o?aaeeoe?ei?
i?iaeoeoe iaiiaith? ci?noii o?aaeeoe?eio ae?iaie/o nenoaio.
?ioaeaeooaeueieie aaaaea?ii oae? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie, ye? ca nai?th
noooth, i?e?iaeith ? no?oeoo?ith noaiiaeyoue noeoii?noue noni?eueieo,
i?aaiaeo oa aeiiii?/ieo ?inoeooo?a, oa iaoai?ci?a ae?iaieoeoaa,
?iciiae?eo ? niiaeeaaiiy oae caaieo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo aeaa, ye? ia
caaaeaee iathoue ?a/iaeiio oi?io ? iiaeooue ?nioaaoe o aeaeyae? iaoeiaeo
?aeae, oaoiieia?/ieo ? eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ic?iaie, aeine?aeieoeueeeo
c?ace?a i?iaeoeoe?? oiui. O a?eueo oe?o?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?ioaeaeooaeuei?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie — oea oaea noa?a no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, a
ye?e aeaioiaeythoueny ?ioaeaeooaeuei? aeaaa ia o?eueee aeiiii?/iiai, aea
e nioe?aeueiiai oa aeooiaiiai ii?yaeeo, ioiiethth/e oaeei /eiii ia
o?eueee aeiiii?/io, a e nioe?aeueio oa aeooiaio noa?e noni?euenoaa.
?inoeooo ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino? aeeth/a? a naaa ?ioaeaeooaeuei?
oiaa?e o oi?i? iaoeiaeo ?aeae oa ?ic?iaie, oa ?ioaeaeooaeuei? eai?oaee o
oi?i? iaoaio?a oa e?oeaic?e. ?ioaeaeooaeueiee ?eiie iaiiaith?
i?iaeoeoe?y noni?eueiiai ? eaac?noni?eueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Nenoaia
?aaoeyoe?? aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a ooo ci?oaia. ?ioaeaeooaeueia ae?iaie/a
nenoaia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iai?yieie iaoiaeaie ae?iaieoeoaa, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny aeo?aoaie ethaenueeiai ?ioaeaeoo. ?aaeuei?
?ioaeaeooaeuei? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie aoaathoue aeaio aeae?a:
o?aaeeoe?eii-?ioaeaeooaeuei? oa ?ioaeaeooaeueii-o?aaeeoe?ei?. Ia?oee
aeae ia? iciaee: eai?oae?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, o yeeo aeii?io?
eeane/ia i?eaaoia aeani?noue; ?iaeono??aeueieo, c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoei ?
nenoai iaoei; oiaa?ieo, aea iaio? aano?aeoiee ?eiie; oa iaoa??aeueieo
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai o yeeo i??i?eoaoiei ? ae?iaieoeoai, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
oa niiaeeaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeaa ? iineoa. Ae?oaee aeae,
?ioaeaeooaeueii-o?aaeeoe?ei? ?aaeuei? ?ioaeaeooaeuei? aeiiii?/i?
nenoaie, eaae?o?eo?oueny ye: iinoeai?oae?noe/ia aeiiii?/ia nenoaia c
i?eoaiaiiith ?e oi?iith aeoe?iia?ii? i?eaaoii? aeaniino?;
iino?iaeono??aeueia, a ye?e oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy iaaoee aaoiiaoe ?
aaoiiaoeciaai? eiiieaene; iinooiaa?ia, aea iaio? eiio?aeoiee ?eiie;
iinoiaoa??aeueia, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny c?inoaiiyi ae?iaieoeoaa aeooiaieo
aeaa.

Oiaa?ia aeiiii?/ia nenoaia iaie ?icaeyaea?oueny ye nenoaia i?aai?caoe??
aeiiii?ee, i?e ye?e aeaaa aeaioiaeythoueny ae?iaieeaie ia aeey aeaniiai
niiaeeaaiiy (ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey aeioiaa?iiai oeio aeiiii?/ieo nenoai), a
aeey caaeiaieaiiy noni?eueieo iio?aa /a?ac ?o eoi?aeth-i?iaeaae, oiaoi
/a?ac nenoaio iai?io. ?noi?e/ieie ia??iaeaie ?icaeoeo oiaa?ieo
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai aaaaeathoue i?inoa oa ?icaeiooa oiaa?ia ae?iaieoeoai.
Aeey i?inoiai oiaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa?aeoa?iith ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueia
i?eaaoia aeani?noue o?oaeiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy, a ?icaeiooa oiaa?ia
ae?iaieoeoai a?aecia/a?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi iaeiaii? i?aoe? oa
aenieoaoaoe??th. Ca oa?aeoa?ii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iniiae oiaa?i?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie eeaneo?eothoueny ia aeieai?oae?noe/i?,
eai?oae?noe/i?, iinoeai?oae?n-oe/i?, nioe?ae?noe/i? oa
iinonioe?ae?noe/i?. Ca oa?aeoa?ii oaoiieia?/ii? iniiae:
aei?iaeono??aeuei?, ?iaeono??aeuei? oa iino?iaeono??aeuei?. Ca
oa?aeoa?ii ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie ie aeae?ey?ii
aaei?i?no?aoeai?, ?eieia?, ci?oai? oa o?aaeeoe?ei? oiaa?i? aeiiii?/i?
nenoaie. ?aaeuei? oiaa?i? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie iiae?eythoueny ia aeania
oiaa?i? oa iinooiaa?i? ?aaeuei? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie. Aeania oiaa?i?
iiae?eythoueny ia: ?iaeono??aeuei?, c aeei?enoaiiyi nenoai iaoei;
?eieia?, o yeeo ?eieia? iaoiaee ?aaoeyoe?? aeii?iothoue iaae
aea?aeaaieie; iaoa??aeuei?, aea ia? i?noea ae?iaieoeoai, ?aae?caoe?y ?
niiaeeaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeaa.

Aei neeaaeo iinooiaa?ieo ?aaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai a?aeiineii:
iino?iaeono??aeuei?, c aeei?enoaiiyi aaoiiao?a oa aaoiiaoeciaaieo
eiiieaen?a; iino?eieia?, o yeeo iaio? eiie?aoiee ?eiie;
iinoiaoa??aeuei?, yeei i?eoaiaii? ae?iaieoeoai, ?aae?caoe?y ?
niiaeeaaiiy aeooiaieo aeaa ? iineoa. ?ic??ciy?ii iinoeai?oae?noe/i? oa
iinonioe?ae?noe/i? iinooiaa?i? ?eieia? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie. Ia?oei
aeanoeaa aeii?iaioia ?ieue eieaeoeaii-i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia iniiai?
?ano?ne ae?iaieoeoaa, ?eieiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a oa
oaiaeaioe?e ?icoe?aiiy noni?eueiiai ? eaac?noni?eueiiai naeoi??a
aeiiii?ee. Ae?oa? a?aecia/athoueny i??i?eoaoiith ?ieeth aea?aeaaii?
aeaniino? ia iniiai? ?ano?ne ae?iaieoeoaa, aea?aeaaiei ?aaoethaaiiyi
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a oa oaiaeaioe?yie caoaeaiiy noni?eueiiai ?
eaac?noni?eueiiai naeoi??a iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie cae?eniaii
iaea?eueo caaaeueiee aiae?c ? oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniiaieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
oei?a aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.

Oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo o aoaeue-ye?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeiiii?oe?
iiaea iaoe aenoaineaia, ?ioaineaia aai aeaoaineaia ni?yioaaiiy.
Aenoaineaia aeiiii?/ia nenoaia — oea iaeei c ooieoe?iiaeueieo oei?a
ae?iaie/eo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, i?e yeiio aeiaeaoeiaa ae?iaieoeoai
iaoa??aeueieo aeaa ? iineoa cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? i?iii?oe?eiiai
ia?iuoaaiiy ianya?a aeiiii?/ieo aeo?ao on?o iniiaieo ?ano?n?a
ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeae?ey?i aeaa iniiai? oeie aenoaineaieo aeiiii?/ieo
nenoai: aeineiiae?, o yeeo aenoaineaii aeei?enoiaothoueny on? o?e
iniiai? oaeoi?e ae?iaieoeoaa, oa iaaeineiiae?, a yeeo iaaeiiiiii
aeei?enoiao?oueny eeoa iaeei ?c ?ano?n?a. Iaaeineiiae? aenoaineai?
nenoaie aoaathoue o?ueio aeae?a: aenoaineaii-aeaoaineai?,
aenoaineaii-?ioaineai? oa ci?oai?.

?ioaineai? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie — iaeei ?c ooieoe?iiaeueieo oei?a
ae?iaie/eo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, yeee oi?io?oueny oiae?, eiee ia?iuoaaiiy
ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa iaoa??aeueieo aeaa ? iineoa cae?enith?oueny a
oiiaao ia i?iii?oe?eiiai, a cia/ii iaioiai ia?iuoaaiiy ianya?a
aeiiii?/ieo aeo?ao iniiaieo ?ano?n?a. Ca ??aiai, oa?aeoa?ii ? noa?ith
iioe?aiiy i?ioean?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ?ioaineai? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie ie
iiae?ey?i ia aeaa iniiai? oeie: aeineiiae?, a yeeo aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiaothoueny on? o?e iniiai? ?ano?ne, oa iaaeineiiae?, aeey yeeo
aeanoeaei ? aeiiiiia aeei?enoaiiy iaeiiai c o?ueio iniiaieo oaeoi??a
ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaaeineiiae? ?ioaineai? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie
eeaneo?eothoueny iaie ia o?oaeiaeiiiii?, o yeeo ?ioaineaii
aeei?enoiao?oueny eeoa oaeee ?ano?n ye i?aoey, iaoa??aeiaeiiiii?, aea
aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoa??aee, oiiaeiaeiiiii?, i?e yeeo
aeiiiiii aeei?enoiao?oueny oaeee ?ano?n ye oiiaee. O no/anieo
iino?iaeono??aeueieo aai eaac?iino?iaeono??aeueieo aeiiii?eao oe?iea
?iciianthaeaeaiiy iathoue ?ioaineai? i?e?iaeiiii?/i? nenoaie, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny anaa?/iith ?ioaineo?eaoe??th an?o o?ueio iniiaieo
oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa, ye i?aoe?, oae iaoa??ae?a ? oiiae?a.

Aeaoaineaiith iaceaathoue oaeo ae?iaie/o nenoaio, a ye?e aeaaa ? iineoae
aeaioiaeythoueny oeyoii iai?iii?oe?eii a?eueoiai ia?iuoaaiiy aeo?ao
iniiaieo aeiiii?/ieo ?ano?n?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaie eeaneo?eaoe?y
aeaoaineaieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai aeeth/a? a naaa: aeineiiae? (c
aeaoaineaiei aeei?enoaiiyi on?o o?ueio iniiaieo ?ano?n?a), oa
iaaeineiiae? (o yeeo eeoa aai i?aoey, aai iaoa??aee, aai oiiaee
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeaoaineaii). Ne?ae aeae?eeoe o?e aeaee iaaeineiiaeeo
aeaoaineaieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai: o?oaeii?noe? (o yeeo iaaoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiao?oueny i?aoey), iaoa??aeii?noe? (ui aeaoaineaii
aeei?enoiaothoue iaoa??aee), oa oiiaeii?noe? (a oiiaao yeeo iaaoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiaothoueny oiiaee).

Ooieoe?iiaeueieo oei?a i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ? aeineoue
aaaaoi, aea ie o aeaiiio aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ca?oioaaee ?o
ca iaea?eueo caaaeueieie ?enaie, iciaeaie iiaeeeaeo niinia?a
i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. (Aeea.?en.2) ?icaeyaeathoueny,
cie?aia, oae? oeie: eiieo?aioi?, iiiiiie?noe/i?, aaei?i?no?aoeai?,
e?ei?iaeuei? oa ia?ao?aei? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie.

No/aniee iaoeiaee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co yaeua ?eieiai? eiieo?aioe??
aeo?ea? ?c aeeoo?ai? ?aaeueiino?, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ?nioaaiiy o noeoiiino?
aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo iiaeaeae ?eieo — iiiiiie?? oa eiieo?aioe??,
?acoeueoaoii aca?iiae?? yeeo noaea ?eieiaa ooieoe?iiaeueia iiaeaeue i?ae
iacaith “iiiiiie?noe/ia eiieo?aioe?y”. Naia a?ae ai?noo iciae
eiieo?aioiino? /e iiiiiie?cio ie ?ic??ciy?ii aeania /eno? eiieo?aioi?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie c i?/ei ia iaiaaeaiith eiieo?aioe??th, ye? ?niothoue
o aeaeyae? iaoeiaeo eiioeaioe?e; eaac?/eno? eiieo?aioi? ?eieia? nenoaie,
o yeeo a iacia/i?e i???, aea iathoue i?noea oaeoi?e iaiaaeaiiy
eiieo?aioe??; eaac?eiieo?aioi? ?eieia? nenoaie, ye? ia?aaoaathoue ia
noaae?? naiai o?ainoi?ioaaiiy a aeiiii?/i? nenoaie c iaaeineiiaeith
eiieo?aioe??th; eaac??eieia? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie c oe?ieei naeoi?ii
ae?iaieoeoaa noni?eueieo ? eaac?noni?eueieo aeaa ? iineoa.

Aiae?c iiiiiie?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai cae?eniaii /a?ac ?ice?eooy
iniiaieo aeanoeainoae oeiiaeo iiaeaeae: /enoi? oa ?aaeueii?
iiiiiie?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai. *eno? eeaneo?eothoueny ia aaniethoii
/eno?, eaac?/eno? oa eaac?/eno? c oaiaeaioe?yie ia?a?iaeaeaiiy a
ie?aiiie?noe/i? /e eiieo?aioii-iiiiiie?noe/i? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie. Aei
neeaaeo ?aaeueieo iiiiiie?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai aoiaeyoue o?e
naeoi?e: /enoee iiiiiie?noe/iee, eiieo?aioiee iiiiiie?noe/iee oa
ie?aiiie?noe/iee naeoi?e. Ca ??aiai eiioeaio?aoe?? aeiiii?/ii? aeaaee
?aaeuei? iiiiiie?noe/i? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie iaie iiae?eythoueny ia
eaac?iiiiiie?noe/i?, eiieo?aioii-eiioeaio?iaai? ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii;
eaac?eiieo?aioi?, ye? ? eiioeaio?iaaii-eiieo?aioi?; oa
iinoeai?oae?noe/i? ? iinonioe?ae?noe/i?, ui aenooiathoue ye
a?ia?eiioeaio?iaai?.

Aaei?i?no?aoeai? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie oe?iei i?iaiae?ciaai? o iaoeia?e
aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? e?a?i NIAe ia i?aaeiao ye ?? caaaeueii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, oae ? ?o aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?. O aeena?oaoe??
?icaeyae aeanoeainoae aeaiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai oeio aeiiii?/ieo nenoai
cae?eniaii ia iniia? aiae?co /enoi? oa ?aaeueii? aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai. C iiceoe?e aeaniino? aeae?ey?ii nioe?ae?noe/i? oa
eai?oae?noe/i? /eno? aaei?i?no?aoeai? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie. A caeaaeiino?
a?ae nooiaiy ?aaoeyoe?? aeae?ey?i: iiai? oa eaac?/eno? aaei?i?no?aoeai?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie, oiaoi aaei?i?no?aoeai? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie c
oe?eeiaeoi aaei?i?no?aoeaiith /e c /anoeiai ?eieiaith nenoaiith
?aaoeyoe?? aeiiii?/iith ae?yeuei?noth. ?aaeuei? aaei?i?no?aoeai?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie eeaneo?eothoueny ia aeania nioe?ae?noe/i? oa
iinonioe?ae?noe/i?, ?c oaiaeaioe?yie o?ainoi?iaoe?? o ?eieia?
aeiiii?/i? nenoaie. Aeania nioe?ae?noe/i? aaei?i?no?aoeai? nenoaie aei
oeueiai ?aeooue

oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee ii?o/ ?c aea?aeaaiei, a
iinonioe?ae?noe/i? — oeyoii ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy aeaniino? oa oe?eeiaeoiai
aeaiiioaaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie.

A iniiao aiae?co e?ei?iaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai iaie
iieeaaeaii aena?oeaiiy aeanoeainoae aecia/aeueieo /eiiee?a, ui ?
oeiiaeie aeey ?nioth/eo aeae?a oeeo nenoai: e?ei?iaeueii? aeaniino?,
e?ei?iaeueiiai a?ciano oa e?ei?iaeueiiai ?eieo. E?ei?iaeuei? aeiiii?/i?
nenoaie eeaneo?eothoueny iaie ia eai?oae?noe/i?, iinoeai?oae?noe/i? oa
iinonioe?ae?noe/i?. Ia?oee oei ?nioaaa o e?a?iao Caoiaeo o XVIII-XIX
no., ? ia nueiaiaei? ?nio? o aeayeeo e?a?iao o?aoueiai na?oo. Ae?oaee
oei oi?io?oueny o e?a?iao Caoiaeo aiane?aeie ia?a?iaeaeaiiy, a
iniiaiiio, i?eaaoiiai a?ciano. E?ei?iaeueia aeani?noue o
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoaiao iinoa? ia iniia? ?ice?aaeaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai iaeia. E?ei?iaeueiee a?cian — oea ?acoeueoao ia?ai?iaeaaeo
e?aaeaii? aea?aeaaii? oa noni?eueii? aeaniino?, a e?ei?iaeueiee ?eiie
aenooia? ye na?aaeiaeua eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo e?aaeaii? aea?aeaaii?
aeaniino?.

O ?icaeyae? ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai iaie aeoeaioiaaia oaaaa ia
oaiaeaioe?? ia?aoiaeo iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai a ?eieia?
eai?oae?noe/i?, iinoeai?oae?noe/ieo – a nioe?ae?noe/i?,
iinoaaei?i?no?aoeaieo — o ?eieia?, ?iaeono??aeueieo — a
iino?iaeono??aeuei?, ?eieiaeo — o iino?eieia?, a oiaa?ieo — o
iinooiaa?i?.

A E N I I A E E

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ?nioth/i? (noi?iiaaii?) a Oe?a?i? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a eiioaeno? neeaaeaii? a oiae? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iie?aaiii? no?oeoo?ii? (aiae?oeei-?aeaioeo?eaoe?eii?)
iiaeae? nenoaiaoeciaaiiai iieno ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/ii? oeiieia?? iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai,
ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui iaoe?iiaeueia aeiiii?/ia nenoaia Oe?a?ie iiaea
aooe ?aeaioeo?eiaaia ia aeaiiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai? nai?? aaiethoe??:

a) ca ?nioth/ei ?aaeeiii aeaniino? ye iinonioe?ae?noe/ia aeiiii?/ia
nenoaia, a ye?e i?ioean eai?oae?caoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia?
?oeiaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue ia no?eueee aei
?icoe?aiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a, ne?eueee aei e?ei?iae?caoe??
noni?euenoaa, ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeaaee iao?icieo eeai?a, ii?aeueii?
aeaa?aaeaoe?? iaoe??, ?icaaeo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee;

a) ca oa?aeoa?ii oaoiieia?/ii? iniiae ye eaac?iino?iaeono??aeueia,
ine?eueee aaoiiaoeciaai? nenoaie ua ia noaiiaeyoue aecia/aeueii? iniiae
?icaeoeo, oi/a oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea iiaea aooe
eaae?o?eiaaia ? ye ia?ao?aeia a?ae ?iaeono??aeueii? aei
iino?iaeono??aeueii? o?aaeeoe?eii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie;

a) ca oa?aeoa?ii niiniao i?aai?caoe?? niiaeeaaiiy ye oiaa?ia aeiiii?/ia
nenoaia iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai oeio, ui iaoiiaeaii neaaeei ?icaeoeii
eiieo?aioiiai ?eieo;

a) ca oa?aeoa?ii ?acoeueoaoo ae?iaieoeoaa ye o?aaeeoe?eia, ine?eueee
?ioaeaeooaeueiee naeoi? iaoe?iiaeueii? i?e?iaeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a
Oe?a?i? i?aaenoaaeaiee noa?ith caaiaenueei?, aaeocaai?, aeaaeai?/ii? ?
aoc?anueei? iaoee. Oi/a ?? iiaeia o?aeooaaoe ? ye i?ii?aeeiao i?ae
o?aaeeoe?eii-?ioaeaeooaeueiith oa ?ioaeaeooaeueii-o?aaeeoe?eiith
?aaeueiith ?ioaeaeooaeueiith aeiiii?/iith nenoaiith.

sse ooieoe?iiaeueia nenoaia aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei? iaie
?aeaioeo?eo?oueny ye aeaoaineaii-aenoaineaia ca oa?aeoa?ii aeiiii?/iiai
ni?yioaaiiy ae?iaie/i? i?aenenoaie (?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo), ai a
i?e i?ioeane ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iinooiiai aeo?niythoueny i?ioeanaie
aenoaineo?eaoe?? oa aeaoaineo?eaoe??. Oaeo aeaa?aaeaoe?th coiiaeaii a
iniiaiiio iie?oe/ieie i?e/eiaie ? oaeoi?aie, a naia — ?aioiaei
aeaiiioaaeai aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie aeiiii?ee. Ne?ae oaeiae aeacaoe
ia oa, ui oeae aeae aeiiii?/ieo nenoai /e ia iaea?eueo iioe?aiee ?
aeoeaii oi?io?oueny o aaaaoueio noa?ao iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ca
oa?aeoa?ii niiniao i?aai?caoe?? ? eii?aeeiaoe?? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
(niiniao ?aaoethaaiiy) aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie iaie o?aeoo?oueny ye ci?oaia,
oi/i?oa ia?ao?aeia aeiiii?/ia nenoaia c a?ae/ooieie oaiaeaioe?yie aei
o?ainoi?iaoe?? a e?ei?iaeueio eeaiiai-ei?ii?aoea?nonueeo eai?oae?noe/io
?eieiao aeiiii?/io nenoaio.

Oei iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie iiaea noi?ioaaoenue ca
iiceoeaieie ia?niaeoeaaie ?icaeoeo eeoa ca oiiae ?aae?caoe??
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? aea?aeaaii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aeiiii?/ieo
?aoi?i , a iniia? yei? iiaeiia eaaeaoe i?ia?aia no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, yea , a naith /a?ao,
iiaeiia aeoiaeeoe ?c canaae ?ano?nicaa?aaeai-iy , cieaeaiiy
aia?aine?iaeiii? i?noeino? ae?iaieoeoaa , ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i a noa??
aeaniino? ia ?ano?ne , ia?aaeyaeo aeaoi?iiaaii? nenoaie
athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy ( a ia?oo /a?ao aeeoeiai —
eiioiaeueieo noaneae?e , iaoee ? ina?oe ) , noai?aiiy ae??aiai
aio/eiai ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio ci?oaiiai oeio , c
iaia’yceiaei aeaiaioii aea?aeaaiiai oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai
ni?yioaaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy ( ?iaeeeaoeaiiai , a ia aee?aeoeaiiai ),
i?eaaaeaiiy nenoaie iieaoe i?aoe? e?aa?ae?ciaai?e nenoai?
oe?iiooai?aiiy , ae??aiai ? aae?aniiai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo .

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss
AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAI?

O OAEEO IOAE?EAOe?ssO:

Oaa/ee A. ?noi?e/ia oeiieia?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai //
A?niee Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai?? . O.2., *.1. SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 — Euea?a: Eiiiina?oa , 1998.-N.205-209.

Oaa/ee A.I. Ooieoe?iiaeueia oeiieia?caoe?y nioe?ae?noe/ieo
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai // A?niee Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai?? .
O.3. Niaoe?aeueiee aeione ca iao-ie Ia?oi? Anaoe?a?inueei?
aeiiiiao?e/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “ Aeiiiiao?e/i? iaoiaee ? iiaeae? a
aeiiii?oe? : oai??y ? i?aeoeea “ . – Euea?a : Eiiiina?oa , 1998.
–N.385-387.

Oaa/ee A. Iaoe?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie ye ooieoe?iiaeueia oa
ooieoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/ia nenoaia // Iaiaaeaeiaio oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai a
Oe?a?i?: aoaie

noaiiaeaiiy ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo. – Euea?a: IAI «Iaoa», 1998. –
N.268-270.

Oaa/ee A. ?noi?e/ia oeiieia?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai //
A?niee Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai?? . O.2., *.1. SYMBOL 45 \f
«Symbol» \s 12 — Euea?a: Eiiiina?oa , 1998.-N.111-117.

Oaa/ee A. Iniaeeaino? aenoaineaiiai ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo
nenoai // Aeiiiiao?e/i? iaoiaee ? iiaeae? a aeiiii?oe?: oai??y ?
i?aeoeea . Euea?a. 1998. N.150-152.

Oaa/ee A. Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie ?ioaeaeooaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie a oiiaao o?aiceoe??. Iao-ee i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeoe/. eiio., 21-22
o?aaiy 1998?.-Oa?e?a: O?AI, 1998.-N.84-87

Oaa/ee A.I. I?eioeeie ?noi?e/ii? oeiieia?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai //
Oi?a?aey, eiia?oe?y, i?aei?e?iieoeoai. *.1. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12
— Euea?a, 1998.-N.10-12

Oaa/ee A.I. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai. // I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie a oiiaao o?aiceoe??. Iao-ee i?aeia?. iaoe. – i?aeoe/. eiio.,
21-22 o?aaiy 1998?. – Oa?e?a: O?AI, 1998. – N.57-59

Aaoiyiei A.?., Oaa/ee A.I., Naa?ia A.A., ?oaeaeae A.O. ?icaeoie
aeaoeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a o eiieo?aioieo ?eieiaeo nenoaiao // Iao-ee
eiio-oe?? i?io.-aeee. neeaaeo ? ani??aoi?a ca i?aenoieaie
iaoe.-aeine?ae. ?iaioe o 1996 ?. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 — Euea?a,
1997.-N.23-25.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a : ?ice?eoa nooi?noue eiieo?aioieo
?eieiaeo nenoai .

OAA*EE A.I. Ooieoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/ia no?oeoo?ecaoe?y ?
oeiieia?caoe?y aeiiii?/ieo nenoai. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth

08.01.01.-Aeiiii?/ia oai??y.- Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

Cae?enith?oueny ooieoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/ia no?oeoo?ecaoe?y ?
oeiieia?caoe?y aeiiii?/ieo nenoai a ?icaeiooeo ? ia?ao?aeieo
aeiiii?eao . Aeine?aeaeothoueny i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
iino?iaeono??aeueieo , eaac??ioaeaeooaeueieo , ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ,
aenoaineaieo , ?ioaineaieo ? aeaoaineaieo nenoai a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie .

E e th / i a ? n e i a a : aeiiii?/i? nenoaie , oeiieia?caoe?y ?
no?oeoo?ecaoe?y aeiiii?/ieo nenoai , ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa ?noi?e/i?
oeie aeiiii?/ieo nenoai .

OAA*EE A.I. Ooieoeeiiaeueii-enoi?e/aneay no?oeoo?ecaoeey e
oeiieiaecaoeey SYMBOL 253 \f «Times New Roman» \s 12 y eiiiie/aneeo
nenoai. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 —
Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. SYMBOL 45 \f «Symbol» \s 12 — Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei , Eueaia, 1998.

I?iecaiaeeony ooieoeeiiaeueii-enoi?e/aneay no?oeoo?ecaoeey e
oeiieiaecaoeey yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai a ?acaeouo e ia?aoiaeiuo
yeiiiieeao . Aiaeece?othony iaeaieaa iauea i?eioeeiu noaiiaeaiey ,
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey iniiaiuo ooieoeeiiaeueii- enoi?e/aneeo
oeiia yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai . Enneaaeothony i?iaeaiu noaiiaeaiey e
?acaeoey iinoeiaeono?eaeueiuo , eaaceeioaeaeooaeueieo ,
eioaeaeooaeueiuo , yenoaineaiuo , eioaineaiuo e aeaoaineaiuo nenoai
a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu .

E e th / a a u a n e i a a : yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu , oeiieiaecaoeey
e no?oeoo?ecaoeey yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai , ooieoeeiiaeueiua e
enoi?e/aneea oeiu yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai .

Shevtshik B. Functional-historical strukturization and typologization
of economin systems. – Manuscript.

The thesis is submitted for a Master’s Degree of Economic Sciences,
speciality 08.01.01. – Economic Theory. – Lviv State University named
after Ivan Franko, Lviv, 1998.

Functional structurization of economic systems in transitional
economics is realized. Both the production, market, price,
financial, fiscal, money economic subsystems and the system of
economic regulation are distinguished in the composition of
national economic system. The most general positions of micro-
and macroeconomic systems are distinguished and analysed from
the positions of the functional-level structure of national
economics.

In the context of functional structurization of the national
economic system the main historical-functional types of economic
systems are analysed by such features as social-economic basis,
technical level, labour basis and others. The following
functional-historical types of economic systems are investigated :
precapitalist, capitalist, postcapitalist, socialist,
postsocialist, preindustrial, industrial, postindustrial,
traditional, intellectual, quasi-intellectual, goods and postgoods
from the most general positions.

The main peculiarities of the development of such functional
types of these systems as : extensive, intensive, detensive,
competitive, administrative, mixed and transitional economic
systems are researched on the basis of functional structurezation
and historical-functional tupolohization of economic systems.

The recommendations concerning determination of the most rational
ways of the further market reformation of native economic are
worked out on the basis of the analysis of the main types of
economic systems in transitional economics.

Ukrainian economic system can be identified at present
historical stage of its evolution : by the existing regime of
property as postsocialist economic system in which the process
of capitalization occurs on the basis of destruction of state
sector. It causes rather broadening of private sector then
criminalization of the society, confirmation of mafia clans
power, moral degradation of nation, disintegration of national
economy. By the character of technological basis as
quasipostindustrial ; since automatic systems do not form the
main basis of the development, though Ukrainian national economy
can be qualified as transitive from industrial to
postindustrial traditional economic system. By the character of
method of organization of consuming, as goods economic system
of postsocialist type, which is determined by weak development
of the competitive market. By the character of the result of
production as traditional as long as the intellectual sector of
the national microeconomic system in Ukraine is represented by
the sphere of factory, branch, academic and higher educational
institute science. Although it can be interpreted as an
intermediate between traditionally — intellectual and
intellectually-traditional real intellectual economic system.

As functional system at present Ukrainian economy is identified
by us as detensive-extensive one by the character of economic
direction of production subsystem ( its function and development
) , because processes of intensification gradually are ousted by
processes of extensification and detensification . Such
degradation mainly is caused by the political reasons and
factors , namely — sudden demontage of the administrative economic
system . By the character of the method of organization and
co-ordination of economic activity ( mode of regulation )
Ukrainian economy is interpreted by us as mixed , that is —
transitive economic system with perceptible tendencies towards
transformation into the criminal clanovo-corporate capitalist
market economic system.

K e y w o r d s : economic systems , typologization and
structurization of economic systems , functional and historical
types of economic systems .

Caeaii a iaa?? 26.01.1999 ?ieo. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 29.10.1999 ?ieo.
Oi?iao 60o84/16

Iai?? ionaoiee. Ae?oe ionaoiee. Cai. ? 161. Iaeaeae 100 i?ei??iee?a.

29010, i.Ia?aieoeyie, aoe. I.Eia/a, 2, ?aeiiia ae?oea?iy

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