I?I?NOA?NOAI AA?II?IIENEIAIAI EIIIEAENO OE?A?IE

IEEIEA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE N?EUeNUeEIAINIIAeA?NUeEEE ?INOEOOO

EICEIAA Iaoae?y Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE.338.439.

OI?IOAAIIss OA ?ICAEOIE CA?III?IAeOEOIAIAI I?AeEIIIEAENO *A?EANUeEI?
IAEANO? A OIIAAO NOAIIAEAIIss ?EIEIAEO A?AeIINEI

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02 — aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ieeiea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oiainuee?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e aeaaeai??

I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oeai/oe Aieiaeeie?
Naiaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aooaaeoa?nueeiai

iae?eo ? noaoenoeee
Oiainueei?

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
aeaaeai??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Ea?aiai I.I., ae.a.i., i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, Ieeiea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie;

Ooaeie?e E.I., e.a.i., noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, canooiiee
caa?aeoaa/a a?aeae?eii oe?iiooai?aiiy oa ei’thieoo?e ?eieo, ?inoeooo
aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI, i. Ee?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaeanueeee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_27__” _ea?oiy__1999?. i _10_ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae38.806.01 a Ieeiea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ?inoeooo? ca aae?anith: 327021,
i. Ieeiea?a, aoe. Ia?ecueei? eiioie, 9, eiioa?aioe-caea.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ieeiea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo ca aae?anith: i.
Ieeiea?a, aoe. Ea?iaiea, 73.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_16_”_ethoiai__1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio
___________ Ioaie/aiei A.N.

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Ca?ii aoei ? aoaea iaeaieiai?oei i?iaeiaieue/ei ?ano?nii e?a?ie.
Aiaeii/an aiii ? oiaa?ii i?e ciai?oiuei-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiineiao c ?ioeie
aea?aeaaaie na?oo oa aeaea?aeii iaoe?iiaeueieo aeioiae?a. A Oe?a?i?
o?aaeeoe?eii oe?aii?iaeoeoe caeiathoue aieiaia i?noea a ?aoe?iiao
oa?/oaaiiy ianaeaiiy. A?ae noaa?eueiino? caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy
oe?aii?iaeoeoaie aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeeoue nioe?aeueiee noai o
noni?euenoa?. Oea ? caaaeaiiyi ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno, yeee ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? yaey? niaith noeoii?noue aaeocae i?iaeiaieue/iai
eiiieaeno, ia’?aeiaieo o caieiooee oeeee a?ae ae?iaieoeoaa ca?iiai?
ne?iaeie aei aeoiaeo oa ?aae?caoe?? e?ioeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a niiaeeaaiiy.

Ca?iiaa ainiiaea?noai ? iaei??th c iaea?eueo ?iaeono??ae?ciaaieo aaeocae
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. A no/anieo oiiaao aiii iaaciic? naiiooaeee
ni?aaeoeny ?c caaacia/aiiyi noaa?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia. ??aaiue
niaoe?ae?caoe?? e ?iciiae?eo i?aoe? a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?
iaoiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeyaeaoe eiai ?icaeoie a noeoiiino? c
aaeocyie i?iieneiaino?, ui caaacia/othoue iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iee noai, ?
iniaeeai c ia?a?iaieie, ui aeiaiaeyoue ca?iine?iaeio aei aeaeo,
i?eaeaoiiai aei niiaeeaaiiy. Aea/aiiy iiaeeeainoae ?icaeoeo ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa a oiiaao iaiaaeaieo ?ano?n?a ? aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith
nueiaiaeaiiy.

Aaaeeea?noue eiiieaeniiai ?icaeyaeo neeaaeiaeo ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno a?aei?/athoue oae? a/ai? ye Aeai’yiaiei A.I., Eiaan I.A.,
Naaeoe I.O., Ooaeie?e E.I., Oie/ae I.I., Uo? I.?. oa ?i.

I?iaeaie, ui aeieeathoue i?ae eaieaie ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno a
i?ioean? aeiiii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei ii?iaeaeothoueny iaaecia/ai?noth
a?aeiinei aeaniino?. Naia aiie caaaeaee aecia/athoue ?iciiae?e i?eaooe?a
i?ae aea?aeaaith ? oiaa?iae?iaieeii, i?ae aaeocyie, a na?aaeei? ieo.
Aeoaea neeaaeii aoaea aeinyaoe ni?aaaaeeeaiai ae??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy,
aeiee an? ?eieia? noa’?eoe, a oiio /ene? ? aea?aeaaa, ia noaiooue
aeiiii?/ii ??aiii?aaieie ia?oia?aie ia ?eieo.

Ca?aeii c oai???th ia?eaoeiao a iao?e e?a?i? ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a
neeaany “?eiie i?iaeaaoey”, iaea?eueo iaaacia/iei i?iyaii yeiai ?
aeeeoao ae?iaieea, aaci?aai?noue niiaeeaa/a ? o?ii?/iee aeao?oeeo. I?e
oeueiio iio?aae niiaeeaa/?a caeeoathoueny iacaaeiaieaieie. I?aeoeea
anoaiiaeaiiy oe?i ye “aeo?aoe iethn iaaeaaaea” aeicaiey? iiiiiie?noo
iino?eii io?eioaaoe aeiiii?/iee i?eaooie a neeo nai?? caeaoiino?
iaiaaeoaaoe aeione i?iaeoeoe??. A ?ac? eiieo?aioiiai anoaiiaeaiiy oe?i a
?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? iaiaaeaia e?euee?noue ?ano?n?a ?iciiae?ey?oueny oae,
ui iaeneiaeueii caaeiaieueiythoueny iio?aae niiaeeaa/?a. Oiio a ia??iae
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iaea?eueo aaaeeeaa ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ? iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a ia?aoai?aiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ye eiiieaeno iaoai?ci?a, ui
?aaoeththoue a?aeiineie aeaniino?, i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa
oiaa?ii-a?ioia? a?aeiineie. ?ioeie neiaaie, noai?aiiy ia iae?i??ai?
“i?aaee a?e” o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?eieiaeie oiiaaie, yeei aeiaiaeeoueny
i?aeei?yoeny noa’?eoai aoaeue-yei? oi?ie aeaniino? oa c aoaeue-yeith
i?aai?caoe??th ae?iaieoeoaa.

A iiaeaeueoiio i?aaeiaoii iaoi? oaaae aoaeooue aa?a?i? aeiiii?/i?
a?aeiineie n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? ia?a?iaii? noa?e AIE. Aaeaea ?c
?icaeoeii iaoee, aaeineiiaeaiiyi oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ?c c?inoaiiyi iiieoo ia ia? ?icoe?th?oueny
ani?oeiaio i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy, ye? ia?aae niiaeeaaiiyi i?ioiaeyoue
noaae?th ia?a?iaee.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeiaaio?eaaea iaioaaiiy eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
nenoaie i?ecaaei aei eaoano?io?/iiai iia??oaiiy noaio aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie
oa caoyaeii? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece. C on?o aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
oey e?eca iaea?eueo aino?i a?aeia?aceeany ia aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen?
(AIE), iniaeeai o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, aei yeiai neeaeiny
a?aeiioaiiy ye aei “aoi?eiii? aaeoc?”, ia aeeaey/enue ia i?eeiyo?
ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe i?i i??i?eoaoi?noue ?icaeoeo naea. Iane?aeeii
oeueiai ? niaae ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa iniiaieo aeae?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, iniaeeai oaa?eiieoeoaa, a oaeiae
oa?/iai? ? ia?a?iaii? i?iieneiaino?.

Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei noaaeoue aei?noe? aeiiae ia?aae on?ia
aaeocyie aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, cie?aia ca?iii?iaeoeoiaei
i?aeeiiieaenii. Iniaeea?noth aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ? noai?aiiy iiaeo
oi?i i?aeaaeocaaeo ainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a i?ae i?aei?e?inoaaie
noi?aeieo aaeocae, ci?ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?. ?eiie
ia?aaeaa/a? eiieo?aioe?th i?ae oiaa?iae?iaieeaie, a ye?e ia?aiaaathoue
o?, ui ae?iaeythoue i?iaeoeoe?th aeui? yeino?, oe?oiai ani?oeiaioo oa
i?eaaaeea?oiai ciai?oiueiai aeaeyaeo. Oiio ia?aae i?aei?e?inoaaie AIE
noi?oue caaaeaiiy ia o?eueee ae?inoeoe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo
ne?iaeio, a e ye?nii ?? ia?a?iaeoe, ?icoanoaaoe ? aeiaanoe aei
niiaeeaa/a o eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiiio ii??aiyii c a?aeiieie ca?oa?aeieie
o??iaie aeaeyae?.

A inoaii? ?iee ??cea cieaeaiiy aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy i?ecaaei aei cia/iiai
?inoo ieoiii? aaae oe?aa ? oe?aii?iaeoeo?a o ?aoe?iiao oa?/oaaiiy i?e
nei?i/aii? niiaeeaaiiy iieiea, i’yna, y?oeue, iai/?a, ?eae. Ca?iiaa
ainiiaea?noai a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue o ae??oaii? i?iaeiaieue/i?
i?iaeaie, iniaeeai a ia??iae iia??oaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua
ianaeaiiy.

Iaeiae oeaia ni?eeiyooy ?ie? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei i?ecaaei aei ?icaeoeo a n?euenueeiio oa, cie?aia, ca?iiaiio
ainiiaea?noa? oaeeo oaiaeaioe?e: caaino?aiiy aeenia?eoaoo oe?i ia
i?iieneiao oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th, ?iceaae
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie oa nenoaie iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy naea. A oaeeo oiiaao i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iuoaaiiy, caa??aaiiy ? ia?a?iaee ca?ia i?e ?aoe?iiaeueiiio
aeei?enoaii? ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a — eeth/iaa i?iaeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? aaeocae, ye? aoiaeyoue aei ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno (CII). A?ae ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie caeaaeeoue
noaa?e?caoe?y ? ?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia a Oe?a?i?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiaie iaoeiai? ?iaioe Oiainueei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai??, yea aoiaeeoue aei ia?ae?eo
i?aai?caoe?e ? onoaiia Oeaio?o iaoeiaiai caaacia/aiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno *a?eanueei? iaeano?, caniiaaiiai Oe?a?inueeith aeaaeai??th
aa?a?ieo iaoe oa iaeaniith aea?aeaaiith aaei?i?no?aoe??th.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueiiai ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno,
aeiiii?/iee aiae?c ae?iaieoeoaa, caaio?ae? ? ia?a?iaee ca?ia oa ?ic?iaea
i?iiiceoe?e ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? a oeeo aaeocyo a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, aaeineiiaeaiith i?aeaaeocaaeo
aca?iia?aeiinei o i?aeeiiieaen?.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe aecia/ai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ?icaeyiooe iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? a no/anieo oiiaao;

— aeine?aeeoe i?aeaaeocaa? ca’ycee ia?oia??a ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno *a?eanueei? iaeano?;

— i?iaanoe aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia ? ca?iii?iaeoeo?a a
iaeano? oa oaeoi??a, ui ia ia? aieeaathoue;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a aaeocyo
i?aeeiiieaeno oa oaeineiiaeaiiy ?icaeoeo i?aeaaeocaaeo ca’yce?a o
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiio i?aeeiiieaen?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A oiae? ?iaioe iaae oaiith
aeena?oaoe?? io?eiaii ?yae ?acoeueoao?a, ye? iathoue naiino?eia
cia/aiiy:

— aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno
*a?eanueei? iaeano?;

— aia?oa eiiieaenii ?icaeyiooi aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ?
ia?a?iaee ca?ia a *a?eanuee?e iaeano?, a oiio /ene? ia i?aei?e?inoaao ca
??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy, oaeoi?e, ui ia ia? aieeaathoue oa
aecia/ai? oeyoe ?? i?aeaeuaiiy;

— aecia/ai? oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo aca?iia?aeiinei o
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiio i?aeeiiieaen?;

— ?ic?iaeaia aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ?aa?iio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e, a oaeiae ia ??ai? iaeanii? aea?aeaaii?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? i?e oi?ioaaii? oa i?iaiicoaaii? i?aeaaeocaaeo
aca?iia?aeiinei ia ?eieo ca?ia oa oe?aii?iaeoeo?a ia o?eueee *a?eanueei?
iaeano?, a e ?ioeo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie. ?ic?iaee Iieiaeaiiy i?i
eaai?aoi??th c aecia/aiiy yeino? ca?ia ? ca?iii?iaeoeo?a, ai?iaaaeaeai?
i?e ae?aaeeoaoe?yo aeaio eaai?aoi??e, iiaeeeai aeei?enoaoe i?e
canioaaii? iacaeaaeieo i?eaaoieo oa ni?eueieo i?aai?caoe?e oaeiai
i?io?eth.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaioii oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii
ia?aaeoiiae oa i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, nooi?noue oa iniaeeaino? ioe?iee aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa o aaeocyo ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno a
oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniee
aiae?c no/aniiai aeiiii?/iiai noaio aaeocae ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno c o?aooaaiiyi ?o iniaeeainoae. Iaa?oioiaaii iniiai?
iai?yie ?icaeoeo i?aeeiiieaeno oa ?ic?iaeaii iioeiaeueiee ieai eiai
?icaeoeo ia 2000?. ? 2005?. ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aeaaeocaaeo ca’yce?a a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee oa cai?iiiiiaaii
noaio ia?a?iciiae?eo e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? ?aa?iiaeueieo
?ioaa?aoe?eieo oi?ioaaiue oeio anioe?aoe?e a i?iaeoeoiaiio
i?aeeiiieaen?.

O noaoo? “Oi?ioaaiiy ainiiaea?y caie? ia *a?eauei?” (Aeiiii?ea AIE,
1997., ?6.) aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue ca??, ia?iaea oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??
(80%).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
ai?iaaaeaeai? ia aei/??iueiio i?aei?e?inoa? AeAE “Oe?a Oe?a?ie”
“Oaeuei?anueeee eiia?iao oe?aii?iaeoeo?a” (*a?eanueea iaeanoue) oa
o?e?? I?aeia?iaeii? eeoaenueei-oe?a?inueei? eiiiai?? “Aoai Eyiue”
(i.Oeueyiiaea E??iaia?aaenueei? iaeano?). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeeny ? io?eiaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Oiainueei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai?? (1996-1998??.), i?aeia?iaeiiio
neiiic?oi? “Aa?iaeieia?/i? ? aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie o?i?caoe?? AIE Oe?a?ie”
(Oiaiue, 19-21 /a?aiy 1997?.), Anaoe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee oa aaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe a
aeu?e oeie?” (i. E??iaia?aae 21-22 o?aaiy 1998?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Aaoi? ia? i’youe iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue: 2 — a iaoeiaiio
aeo?iae? “Aeiiii?ea AIE”; 1 — a iaoeiaiio aeo?iae? “A?niee aa?a?ii?
iaoee I?e/i?iiii?’y” (i. Ieeiea?a); 1 — a oaoiaiio ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo
noaoae “Aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueia iie?oeea” (i.
E??iaia?aae), 1 — a oacao iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Oiainueei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai??.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y iaienaia oe?a?inueeith
iiaith, ?? aeeeaaeaii ia 153 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo,
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a c aeniiaeaie aei eiaeiiai c
ieo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa i?noeoue 36 oaaeeoeue, 13 ?enoie?a, 21 aeiaeaoie. Aei
nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae aoiaeeoue 188 iaeiaioaaiue.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

?ICAe?E 1. Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno

1.1. Ia’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae oa i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno

1.2. Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? ? ?? iniaeeaino? a
aaeocyo ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno

?ICAe?E 2. Noai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee ca?ia a *a?eanuee?e iaeano?

2.1. ?icaeoie ? aoaeoeai?noue ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa *a?eanueei?
iaeano?

2.2. Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ca?iiae?iaieoeoaa a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy

2.3. Aiae?c caaio?ae? oa ia?a?iaee ca?ia

?ICAe?E 3.Iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno
*a?eanueei? iaeano? ia ia?niaeoeao

3.1. Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia

3.2. Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo ca’yce?a o ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiio
i?aeeiiieaen? a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei

3.3. Iioeiaeueiee ieai ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/i? no?oeoo?e ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno ia ia?niaeoeao

AENIIAEE

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno” ?ice?eoi iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iniiae
oi?ioaaiiy ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ?aa?iio.

Aieiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith oi?ioaaiiy ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ?
oa, ui noeoii?noue i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa, caaio?ae?, o?ainii?ooaaiiy,
ia?a?iaee ca?ia ia?a?inoa? o oe?e?nio nenoaio, ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaiaio?a
yei? i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ?aeei?e iao? — ae?iaieoeoao e?ioeaaeo
i?iaeiaieue/eo i?iaeoeo?a.

Ca?iii?iaeoeoiaee i?aeeiiieaen oi?io?oueny ca oaeeie i?eioeeiaie:

— i???ioaoe?y ia caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ianaeaiiy a oe?aii?iaeoeoao;

— ocaiaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a i?aei?e?inoa-ia?oia??a ia iniia?
canoinoaaiiy ?eieiaeo aaaeae?a, oaeeo ye oe?ia, iiieo ? i?iiiceoe?y,
eiieo?aioe?y;

— aaaaoioeeaaei?noue oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

— noai?aiiy iiai? nenoaie caooo ca?ia oa ca?iii?iaeoeo?a ia canaaeao
oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ?
??ciiiai?oi?noue aeae?a e?ioeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a. E?ioeaao i?iaeoeoe?th
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe a aeaio aniaeoao:
ia?oee — ye i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy c ca?ia — ai?ioii, e?oie, oe?a,
oe?aiaoei/i? oa iaea?iii? ae?iae ? ?i., ui iio?aieythoue /a?ac
oi?a?aaeueio ia?aaeo aei e?ioeaaiai niiaeeaa/a — ianaeaiiy; ae?oaee — ye
oiaa?ia i?iaeoeoe?y eiaeii? neeaaeiai? aaeoc? i?aeeiiieaeno, ui ca’yco?
i?aei?e?inoaa ??cieo aaeocae oaoiieia?/iei eaioethaii. Iai?eeeaae,
ae?iuaia o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio i?aei?e?inoa? ca?ii iio?aiey? ia
aeaaaoi? aai oe?aii?eeiaeueiee ioieo (OII), aea i?iaaaeeoueny eiai
aei?iaea oa caa??aaiiy, iio?i ai?ioiiiaeueiee oeao io?eio? c iueiai
ai?ioii, yea, a naith /a?ao, iai?aaey?oueny ia oe?aiia/aiiy, aai
caa??aa?oueny ia ?aae?caoe?ei?e aac?, oa /a?ac oi?a?aaeueio ia?aaeo
iio?aiey? aei ianaeaiiy.

I?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie i?iaeoeoiaeo
i?aeeiiieaen?a iiaeiai a?aeaoaaoeny o iai?yieo noai?aiiy o?nii
?ioaa?iaaieo nenoai ii ae?iaieoeoao e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe??. I?e oeueiio
?iciiae?e i?eaooeo a?ae ?aae?caoe?? e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe?? i?ae
i?aei?e?inoaaie neeaaeiaeo aaeocae aeicaieeoue caaacia/eoe ?o aeiiii?/i?
?ioa?ane.

sseui ?icaeyaeaoe ?icaeoie ?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a c iiceoe??
aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a ae?iaiee?a ca?iine?iaeie oa ia?a?iaieo
i?aei?e?inoa, oi ia?o? iathoue a?eueoee ?ioa?an. Oea iiynith?oueny oei,
ui ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a neeaeiny oae, ui oe?ie ia ne?iaeio
caaaeaee aoee ieae/eie i?ae oe?ie aioiai? aei niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeoe??.

Ae?iaieeo iiaeiia a?aeoeiaeiaoaaoeny nia?aa?o?noue i?iaeoeoe?? ?
ia?aaeaa/aoeny ia?aooaaiiy i?eaooeo o a?aeiia?aeiino? c na?aaeiueith
ii?iith ia aeeaaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai eiooe, ye? iai?aaeai? ia oi?ioaaiiy
iniiaieo oiiae?a, a oaeiae ia i?eaeaaiiy aeo?a/aieo o ae?iaieoeoa?
iai?ioieo cania?a. Oiio aaaeeeai aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?eyoe ?aoi?ioaaiith
oe?iiooai?aiiy c iaoith caaacia/aiiy io?eiaiiy ??aiiaaeeeiai i?eaooeo ia
aaainiaaiee eai?oae c o?aooaaiiyi oa?i?io eiai iai?ioo ia an?o noaae?yo
ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo.

Nooue aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia iieyaa? a iaea?aeaii?
iaeneiaeueii? e?eueeino? aenieiye?niiai ca?ia c iaeeieoe? ae?iaie/iai
?ano?no oa i?eaooeo ia aaeoa?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Noai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee ca?ia a *a?eanuee?e
iaeano?” ?ice?eoi no/aniee aeiiii?/iee noai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee
ca?ia a *a?eanuee?e iaeano?.

*a?eanueea iaeanoue o?aaeeoe?eii iin?aea? iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue ii
ae?iaieoeoao ca?ia a Oe?a?i?. Ca inoaii? aeanyoue ?ie?a ca?iia?
eoeueoo?e a *a?eanuee?e iaeano? ?ici?uoaaeenue a na?aaeiueiio ia ieiu?
663,9 oen.aa, na?aaei?e aaeiaee ca?? ca?iiaeo noaiiaea 2301,6 oen.o,
o?iaeaei?noue — 34,7oe/aa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui ia?aoe?iiaeuei?noue no?oeoo?e iin?a?a
iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia aeiiii?eo ae?iaieoeoaa, noaa?euei?noue iiieoo ?
i?iiiceoe?? ia ?eieo ca?ia. A no?oeoo?? iin?aieo ieiu ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?
iaiaa?oioiaaiith ? /anoea iceii? ioaieoe? o iin?aieo ieiuao ?
iaaeinoaoiy /anoea y/iaith, a?ana, eoeo?oaece, i?ina, ca?iiaiaiaeo. Oae,
a na?aaeiueiio o 1991-1995??. ia iceio ioaieoeth a iaeano? i?eiaaeaei
42,0, y/i?iue — 17,8, iaan — 2,9, eoeo?oaeco — 12,3, i?ini — 2,0,
ca?iiaiaia? — 16,1%.

No?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy o ?ici??ao iin?aieo ieiu a?aeaeaathoueny ia ??ai? ?
no?oeoo?? aaeiaeo cai??a ca?ia. O 1996 ?. iaeanoue iaaeiio?eiaea
ii??aiyii c 1991-1995??. 466,7 oen.o ca?ia. Ii??aiyii c na?aaei?i
?ici??ii o 1986-1990??. aaeiaa ae?iaieoeoai ca?ia nei?ioeeiny ia 39,6%
(oaae.1). Aeeiai?ea cieaeaiiy aaeiaiai cai?o ca?ia ca inoaii? n?i ?ie?a
iia’ycaia ia no?eueee ?c nei?i/aiiyi iin?aieo ieiu, ne?eueee ?c
cieaeaiiyi o?iaeaeiino? aiane?aeie no??ieiai iaae?iiy eoeueoo?e
caiea?ianoaa a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao. O 1996 ?ioe?
aoei io?eiaii 26,5 oe/aa, ui neeaaea? 72,0% a?ae ??aiy o?iaeaeiino?
1986-1990 ??. Iaea?eueo a?o/ooii cieceeany o?iaeaei?noue e?oi’yieo
eoeueoo? — ia 45%. E?oi’yi? eoeueoo?e ia caneoaeaii iathoue ae?oai?yaeia
cia/aiiy, oi/a caeoi?aaeuei? oe?ie ia ieo ia 20-30% aeu? i?ae ioaieoe?
i’yei?.

Iniiaiith i?e/eiith cieaeaiiy o?iaeaeiino? ? iaaeio?eiaiiy on?o
aa?ioaoi?/ieo aeiia i?e ae?iuoaaii? ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, a oaeiae
iacaaeia?eueiee o?iainiaee noai ainiiaea?noa. Iniaeeaee aieea ia
iia??oaiiy inoaiiueiai iaee ianai?/ani? ?ic?aooiee ca iinoaaeaia ca?ii
ii/eiath/e c 1990?.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeeiai?ea iin?aieo ieiu, o?iaeaeiino?, aaeiaeo cai??a oa

ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia ia aeooo ianaeaiiy a *a?eanuee?e iaeano?

?ieeIin?aia ieiua ca?iiaeo, oen.aaO?iaeaei?noue, oe/aaAaeiaee ca??,
oen.oAe?iaieoeoai ca?ia ia aeooo ianaeaiiy,
ea1961-1965656,922,31462,9982,41966-1970613,625,31549,41020,81971-197563
3,030,51930,71246,91976-1980642,731,01991,01285,91981-1985646,329,91934,
21253,51986-1990634,136,82333,11525,01991-1995565,133,21850,01231,419965
32,026,51411,2940,61997512,331,51613,81052,4

Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia, i?iaaaeaiee ca aeiiiiiaith
a?oioaaiue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa na?ae/eoue, ui
iniiaieie ?aca?aaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ? cieaeaiiy
o?oaeii?noeino? oa nia?aa?oino? ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia ca ?aooiie
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e ?o ae?iuoaaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ni?o?a ? a?a?eae?a ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, a oaeiae
i?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? oa niaoe?ae?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa.

A inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aa?oueny nei?i/aiiy i?iaeaaeo ca aea?aeaaiei
caiiaeaiiyi oa ?icoe?aiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo eaiae?a caooo ca?ia. O 1997?.
i?e ciaioaii? ieoiii? aaae ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? caaio?aaeueiei
i?aai?caoe?yi ia 53,6% ii??aiyii c 1991?. c?inee ianyae i?iaeaaeo ia
?eieo, a oaeiae ianaeaiith (?en.1). A oiiaao a?ia??ioeyoe??, c?inoaiiy
oe?i ia aia?aiiin??, caei?iaeaiiy e?aaeeoo, nei?i/aiiy oaoiieia?/ii
iaiao?aeieo caian?a a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao,
a?aenooiino? eioo?a ia eoi?aeth ian?iiy ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? oa iineaaeaiiy
eiai ni?oici?ie c?inoa? ?aae?caoe?y ca aa?oa?ieie oaiaeaie oaeeo
eoeueoo?, ye ioaieoey, ca?iiaiaia?, y/i?iue, eoeo?oaeca oa a?a/ea. Oae,
o 1994?. oeei eaiaeii a iaeano? aoei ?aae?ciaaii 20,3 oen.o ca?ia, a o
1996?. — aaea 183,7 oen.o, ui neeaaeaei a?aeiia?aeii 2,5 oa 26,2% o
caaaeueieo ianyaao ?aae?caoe?? ca?ia.

wmetafile8? ?? ???3???????? ???????yyy???????????? u?
???

????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy???????en.1. No?oeoo?a eaiae?a ?aae?caoe??
ca?ia a 1991?, 1997?.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, a?aeiiaa a?ae aea?aecaiiaeaiiy ? i?inoi oi?iaeueiei
e?ieii. Ca?ii o?iaeath 1998?. oa ianooiieo ?ie?a ia?aaeon?i aoaea
a?aeaaioaaeoaaoeny ia oe?aii?eeiaeuei? i?aei?e?inoaa aeey iie?eooy
ciaia’ycaiue ia?aae aea?aeaaith, iinoa/aeueieeaie iaeeaii-ianoeeueieo
iaoa??ae?a oa aeia?ea, a ?aooiie iiaa?iaiiy e?aaeeo?a ca ?iii?oio
oaoi?eo, aa?aioii yeiai aenooia? aea?aeaaa. Oiaoi, a ae?eniino? a
iaeaeeae/? ?iee a?aeiineie c caaio?aaeueieie i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeaea ia
ci?iyoueny.

A n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? iaeano? iaaoee ?icaeoeo oae? iia? aa?a?i?
oi?ioaaiiy ye naeyinuee? ni?eee, aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa cae?eoiai ?
a?aee?eoiai oeio, naeyinuee? (oa?ia?nuee?) ainiiaea?noaa. Aeaye? c ieo
ooieoe?iiothoue anueiai ??e-aeaa, ui ia aea? iiaeeeaino? iiai?noth
?ice?eoe noai ?o ae?iaie/i-o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino? ii??aiyii c
eieaeoeaieie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie.

Ii??aiyeueia eiiieaenia ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia ia
i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?iaiaeeeany ca aeiiiiiaith
?ioaa?aeueiiai ?iaeaeno (oaae.2).

Aeai? oaaeeoe? 2 na?ae/aoue, ui oae? iia? oi?ioaaiiy ye cae?eo? oa
a?aee?eo? aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa, ni?eee a 1996?. ua ia aeinoaoiuei
i?iyaeee naaa: aoaeoeai?noue ieae/a ii??aiyii c na?aaei?i ??aiai ii
iaeano?. Oae, ?ioaa?aeuei? ?iaeaene a ieo aei??aiththoue a?aeiia?aeii
0,519, 0,673, 0,425. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui ?o noaiiaeaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao caoyaeii? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, ui aieeaa? ia
caaaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino?.

I?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie ia ? ae??oaiiyi an?o i?iaeai AIE, a ? o?eueee
iaei??th ?c neeaaeiaeo caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo oa
i?iaeiaieue/iai aeinoaoeo. I?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui iaeei ?c iniiaieo
?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iieyaa? a eiie?aoi?e ae??
aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a. Oiio aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa oiai /e ?ioiai
aa?ioi?ioaaiiy i?iyaey?oueny o nooiai? aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
oaeoi??a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa (caaacia/ai?noue
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieie caniaaie oa ia?aiaeie eiooaie, ii?ioi?iiaai?noue
i?i eii’thieoo?o ?eieo caooo, aeniea ye?noue i?iaeoeoe??).

Oaaeeoey 2

?ioaa?aeueiee ?iaeaen ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia ia i?aei?e?inoaao

??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a *a?eanuee?e iaeano?, 1996?.

I?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaO?iaeaei?noue, oe/aa?iaeaen o?iaeaeiino? Nia?aa?o?noue,
a?i./oe?iaeaen nia?aa?oino?Aeo?aoe i?aoe?, ethae-aiae./oe?iaeaen
o?oaeii?noeino?I?eaooie ia 1 aa, a?i.?iaeaen i?eaooeo?ioaa?aeueiee
?iaeaen
CAO23,680,8718,521,2191,101,15882,20,6280,519Aa?io??ie30,071,1066,090,87
10,830,874143,41,0951,214Ni?eee29,971,1027,701,1020,630,66383,970,6410,4
25AAO26,920,9908,031,1491,001,05397,250,7420,673Aea?aeainie25,970,9557,9
81,1421,681,768135,081,0311,525Aeine?aei?
ainiiaea?noaa28,961,0658,351,1951,521,600178,381,3621,942Eieainie28,301,
0407,041,0070,860,905143,381,0951,024ENI26,900,9896,940,9930,920,968129,
320,9920,957Ii iaeano?27,201,0006,991,0000,951,000130,981,0001,000

A oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee caaaeueia e?eca ioiieea on? ?? aaeoc?,
cie?aia ca?iiia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue, yea ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ?aa?iio. Ca inoaii? aeanyoue ?ie?a
iai?oeeanue /?oea oaiaeaioe?y aei nei?i/aiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa
e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe?? ca?iiia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa, ca?eueoaiiy
nia?aa?oino? oa cieaeaiiy ?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iaieoeoaa.

Niaae ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia a iaeano? — iniiaia i?e/eia iaaaoeaieo yaeu a
ia?a?iaieo aaeocyo ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno. Ca inoaii? i’youe
?ie?a ae?iaieoeoai ca?ia ciaioeeiny ia 40,6%, caaio?ae? — ia 70,1%. A
oie aea /an ae?iaieoeoai ai?ioia cieceeinue ia 20,5%, oe?aa oa
oe?aiaoei/ieo ae?ia?a — ia 55,4, iaea?iiieo ae?ia?a — ia 60,9,
eiia?ei?i?a ia 81,9%. O 1995 ?ioe? niiaeeaaiiy oe?aa ? oe?aii?iaeoeo?a
ia aeooo ianaeaiiy a iaeano? oaeiae nei?ioeeiny ii??aiyii c 1986-1990
??. ia 10,2%. Iaeaeu? oaiie nei?i/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeo?a ia?a?iaee
ca?ia iaee i?noea ii oe?ao, iaea?iiieo ae?iaao oa eiia?ei?iao.

A inoaii? ?iee ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae ??cei
cieceany aiane?aeie nei?i/aiiy aaeiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia oa ?icoe?aiiy
eaiae?a caooo, ianoa/? eioo?a aeey eoi?ae? ca?iine?iaeie oa neaaei?
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace, a oaeiae nei?i/aiiy iiieoo ia
oe?aii?iaeoeoe c aieo e?ioeaaeo niiaeeaa/?a. Iaea??oa noaiiaeua o
eiia?ei?iia?e i?iieneiaino?: ?? ae?iaie/? iiooaeiino? aeei?enoiaothoueny
nueiaiaei? a na?aaeiueiio eeoa ia 5,2%.

Nueiaiaei? iecueeee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei,
aa?oa?ecaoe?y aeiiii?ee, a?aenooi?noue iaoai?cio ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a
ia?oia??a a ?ioaa?iaaiiio ae?iaieoeoa? iiyniththoue i?aaiaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a aei noai?aiiy aeanieo
ia?a?iaieo iiooaeiinoae. C aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o a?eueo aoaeoeaia
?aae?caoe?y aioiai? aei aaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeoe??. A 1996?. a ainiiaea?noaao
iaeano? ae?yei 652 i?i?ia?a?iaieo oeaoa ii ae?iaieoeoao iniiaieo
i?iaeoeo?a ia?a?iaee ca?ia, o 1997?. — 943. Iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieie
? ieeie oa e?oii?ooee, oi/a c?inoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa a?aeaoaaeiny ii an?o
aeaeao oe?aii?iaeoeo?a. Aiaeii/an, ?icaeoie aioo??ainiiaea?nueei?
ia?a?iaee ca?ia ? iaeiei ?c oaeoi??a cieaeaiiy caaaioaaeaiino?
i?iieneiaeo ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui /anoea aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa o
ae?iaieoeoa? oe?aii?iaeoeo?a caeeoa?oueny iaea?eueoith, oi/a ??e o ??e
aiia cieaeo?oueny aiane?aeie ?icoe?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo ia?a?iaii?
i?iieneiaino? a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao. Iniaeeai oea
iii?oii ia ae?iaieoeoa? eiia?ei?i?a. Ca inoaii? i’youe ?ie?a /anoea
inoaii?o o ae?iaieoeoa? eiia?ei?i?a ca?eueoeeanue ia 13,3%. Oaea
oaiaeaioe?y iiceoeaia aeey ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe?? o noa?? ia?a?iaee
ca?iii?iaeoeoe??. Caaaeath/e ia nei?i/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oa iecueeee
oaoi?/iee ??aaiue ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa a ia?niaeoea? ?aoe?iiaeueii
ia?ainiauaiiy ?o no/anieie oaoiieia?/ieie e?i?yie c iaioith
iiooaei?noth.

Aiane?aeie c?inoaiiy caeoi?aaeueieo oe?i ia ca?ii, a oaeiae oe?i ia
aia?aiiin?? oa ?ioeo aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c oo?eiaiiyi oa aenieoaoaoe??th
ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae oe?aicaaio?aaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa, i?aeaeueeeny
a?aeionei? oe?ie noa?e caaio?aaeue. Oea ni?e/eiy? c?inoaiiy aa?oino?
ai?ioia ? e?oi ia ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoaao, ye? io?eiothoue
ca?iine?iaeio o aeaaaoi??a.

A ?acoeueoao? nei?i/aiiy aea?aeaaieo caeoi?aaeue ca?ia ? ?icaeoeii
aeueoa?iaoeaieo eaiae?a eiai caooo niinoa??aa?oueny ?icoe?aiiy ia?a?iaee
ia ai?ioii aeaaaeueieoeueeiai ca?ia. O ia?niaeoea? c a?aeiiaith a?ae
aea?aecaiiaeaiiy ai?ioiiiaeuei? i?aei?e?inoaa iiai?noth ia?aeaeooue ia
aeeiiaiiy caiiaeaiue ii ia?a?iaoe? ca?ia eiia?oe?eieo o??i caaaeath/e ia
a?aenooi?noue eioo?a ia aeanio caeoi?aeth ca?iiai? ne?iaeie.

A inoaii? ?iee ?c c?inoaiiyi oe?i oa cieaeaiiyi yeino? ne?iaeie
i?aeaeueeanue ieoiia aaaa iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao o nia?aa?oino?
oe?aiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? (?en.2). O ca’yceo c oeei iio??aai
iino?eiee eiio?ieue neoaea i?aei?e?inoa ca aeoiaeii oe?aa ye iniiaiei
e?eoa???i cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeii?noeino? oa nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe??. A
?acoeueoao? ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe?? ia ?eieo ai?ioia oe?aiiaea?i?
i?aei?e?inoaa c iaoith nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa iino?eii ooeathoue
ia?oia??a-iinoa/aeueiee?a a?eueo aeaoaaiai ai?ioia oa ?ioeo iaiao?aeieo
neeaaeiaeo ae?iaieoeoaa, ui iaee?aua a?aeiia?aeathoue oaoiieia?/iei
aeiiaai yeino?. Aieiaiei iai?yieii i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?aiiaea?ieo i?aei?e?inoa ? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
o??iiai? oi?a?ae?, yea noeioeth? c?inoaiiy ianya?a i?iaeaaeo oa
i?eaooe?a.

Ae?iaieoeoai iaea?iiieo ae?ia?a o 1997?. ii??aiyii c 1990?. ciaioeeinue
ia 76,1%. Oeae aeae oe?aii?iaeoeo?a iaea?eueo aeiiaeeaee aei ye?nii?
ne?iaeie, yeith ? ai?ioii oaa?aei? ioaieoe?. Ia aeaeue, oaea ioaieoey ia
ae?iuo?oueny a iaeano?. Iaea?iii? ae?iae, aeaioiaeai? c ai?ioia i’yeeo
ioaieoeue, iecueei? yeino?.

Aiaeii/an, ?o oe?ia caeeoa?oueny aenieith, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy
iiieoo ianaeaiiy. Ii?yae ?c oeei ianaeaiiy c ?icaeoeii i?aeniaieo
ainiiaea?noa cai?ith? aei?ia? iaea?iii? ae?iae i?iaeoeoaie aeaniiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Oiio ae?iaieoeoai ?o a iaeano? ciaioo?oueny. Noeioethaaiiy
iiieoo ia iaea?iii? ae?iae aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe o iai?yieo cieaeaiiy
?o aa?oino? ca ?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ano?niiuaaeieo oaoiieia?e, a
oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoini?iiiaeiino? ianaeaiiy.

wmetafile8? ??b?? ?7???????? ???????yyy????????????
`???

????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy???????en.2. No?oeoo?a nia?aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe?? i?aei?e?inoa anioe?aoe?? “*a?eaneoe?a”, 1992-1996??.

Ia e?aua neooaoe?y ? o eiia?ei?iia?e i?iieneiaino?. Aiane?aeie
nei?i/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oo?aaeiiai ca?ia a iaeano? a inoaii? ?iee niaae
ae?iaieoeoaa o 1996 ?ioe? aeinya 86,2% i?ioe ??aiy 1991?. Ia aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoaao oaiie nei?i/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa eiia?ei?i?aAeeiai?ea
ae?iaieoeoaa eiia?ei?i?a a *a?eanuee?e iaeano? i?aaenoaaeaia a oaaeeoe?
6.

aoee iaeiaio? ii??aiyii c ?ioeie i?aei?e?inoaaie oe??? aaeoc?. ??cei
nei?ioeee ae?iaieoeoai i?aeainiiaea?nuee? eiia?ei?iia? caaiaee c
i?eieiaiiyi ae?iaieoeoaa a iaeano? a?eeiai-a?oai?iieo aeiaaaie. I?e
oeueiio ia 13,3% ca?eueoeeinue ae?iaieoeoai eiia?ei?i?a o eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, oi/a ?o i?iaeoeoe?y cia/ii
iinooia?oueny ye?noth.

Niaae ae?iaieoeoaa eiia?ei?i?a iaoiiaeaiee ia no?eueee a?aenooi?noth
ne?iaeie, ne?eueee iia??oaiiyi noaio oaa?eiieoeueei? aaeoc?, yea ?
iniiaiei caiiaieeii oa niiaeeaa/ai i?iaeoeoe?? eiia?ei?iiai?
i?iieneiaino?. I?ecoieieoe niaae ae?iaieoeoaa eiia?ei?i?a oa ni?yioaaoe
eiai ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oaa?eiieoeoaa iiaeeeai ca ?aooiie aaeineiiaeaiiy
ca’yce?a ia?a?iaiee?a ?c n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie,
iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a yeiai ? ?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa eiia?ei?i?a ia
aeaaaeueieoeueeeo oiiaao. Oea aoaea ni?eyoe nei?i/aiith iaieaoaae?a
niiaeeaa/?a eiia?ei?i?a, i?aeaeuaiith caaaioaaeaiino? iiooaeiinoae
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa eiia?ei?iiai? i?iieneiaino?, a oaeiae
caeaoaaeaiith ?o i?iaeoeoe??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno *a?eanueei? iaeano? ia ia?niaeoeao”
iaa?oioiaaii oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oa ia?a?iaee ca?ia, ui
ia?aaeaa/athoue oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo ca’yce?a i?ae
i?aei?e?inoaaie ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia,
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e aaeocae ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo a?aeiinei o CII ia?aaeaa/a?:

-?icaeoie a?eueo o?nii? i?aeaaeocaai? ?ioaa?aoe?? oa ainiiaea?nueei?
eiiia?aoe?? oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?yieo ca’yce?a c
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oiaa?iae?iaieeaie ? ?o ?icoe?aiiy ia iniia?
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?;

-aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie oe?iiooai?aiiy;

-aeaiiiiiie?caoe?th caaio?aaeueii? oa ia?a?iaii? aaeocae.

?ioaa?aoe?ei? i?ioeane i?ae ae?iaieeaie ca?iine?iaeie oa ??
ia?a?iaieeaie (?en.3) iiaeii? aacoaaoeny ia aaeineiiaeaii? eiio?aeoii?
oi?ie a?aeiinei, yea iaea?eueo aeioe?eueia o ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiio
i?aeeiiieaen? a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo. Aiia ia?aaeaa/a? caa?aaeaiiy
iiaii? th?eaee/ii? naiino?eiino? i?e i?aeii?yaeeoaaii? ?ioa?anai
aeinyaiaiiy aenieeo e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a anueiai i?aeeiiieaeno.

Iaeiei ?c caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaeueiiai ?eieiaiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, iioiaeo ? ?icae??aieo iieoioe?a ?
noai?aiiy aa?ioi?a?aaeueieo aeii?a a ?aa?iiao, ui ? iioiaeie
i?aai?caoe?yie oi?a?ae? ca?iii ia o?eueee ia aioo??oiueiio, a e ia
ciai?oiueiio ?eieo. Oaea ?aa?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y iaea?eueoith i??ith
iaaeeaeaia ? aei oiaa?iae?iaieea ? aei niiaeeaa/a ? ? aeueoa?iaoeaith
iiiiiie?ciaaiiio iioiai-?icae??aiiio aea?aeaaiiio aaaioo — AeAE “Oe?a
Oe?a?ie”. Oea cia/iith i??ith ni?eyoeia ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe?? ia
ca?iiaiio ?eieo. Aeina?ae ?iaioe CAO “Naeyinueeee oi?a?aaeueiee ae?i
“*aeaneaa?i” na?ae/eoue, ui oaea no?oeoo?a aoaeoeaii aeeiio? ooieoe?th
aeiaaaeaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? aei iieoioey.

Aiae?c no?oeoo?e ?icae??aii? oe?ie oe?aa iiaeiaiai c ioaie/iiai ai?ioia
? aaooieo ianith 750a, ui i?iaiaeeany ia Oiainueeiio aeaaaoi?? ?
oe?aieiia?iao? noaiii ia 1n?/iy 1998?., iieacaa, ui a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? oi?io?oueny 18,89% oe?ie, a caaio?aaeuei?e noa?? — 15,9, o
ai?ioiiiaeuei?e — 8,6, o oe?aiia/aii? — iaea?eueoa — 28,4%. Oi?a?aey
caeia? 14,1% ? no?eueee ae IAeA. ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? ye i?eaooie aei
aeanieo aeo?ao, i?e ae?iaieoeoa? ioaieoe? noaiiaea 47,6%, ai?ioia —
205,6, aei?/oe? oe?aa — 45,6%. Ioaea, ae?iaieee ai?ioia, ye iaea?eueo
iiiiiie?ciaaia no?oeoo?a ciaoiaeeoueny a iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaiio
noaiiaeu?. C aiae?co noa? c?icoi?ei, ui n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea
ae?iaieoeoai iio?aao? iaeaaeii? i?aeo?eiee aea?aeaae c iaoith
caaacia/aiiy aea?aaeaioiino? i?aeaaeocaaeo a?aeiinei.

iioiee ca?ia ?
i?iaeoeoe?? caa??aaiiy aioiai?
i?iaeoeoe??

?en. 3. No?oeoo?a ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno *a?eanueei? iaeano?

22

A oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee iiee inoaoi/ii ia aoaea iiaeieaii yaeua
?aa?iiaeueiiai iiiiiie?cio iaeiei c aieiaieo aaaeae?a ? iaoiae
?aaoethaaiiy oe?i.

?ic?aooiie ?icae??aii? oe?ie na?ae/eoue ia ei?enoue ?icoe?aiiy aeanieo
ia?a?iaieo oeao?a o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao.
?aae?coth/e ca?ii ia oe?aii?eeiaeueia i?aei?e?inoai, ca?iiae?iaiee ia?
6,09% i?eaooeo a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 oe?aeio, ioaea yeui a?i nai aei?eaoeia
oe?a, oi a?i iaoeia ua 23,6% iaa?oue aac oi?a?aaeueii? iaoe?iee (noia
i?eaooe?a a?ae oe?aii?eeiaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ae?iaieoeoaa ai?ioia ?
aei?/ee oe?aa). ?ioeie neiaaie, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee oiaa?iae?iaiee
iaoeia ?aaeueiee cene a?ae ?aae?caoe?? e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe??, yeui
noai?eoue caieiooee oeeee ae?iaieoeoaa aae aei ?aae?caoe?? aioiaeo
oe?aii?iaeoeo?a. Oae, o ENI “Na?i ? iieio” Ni?eyinueeiai ?aeiio
*a?eanueei? iaeano?, yea ia? e?oii?ooeo, ieei oa oe?aiiaea?ith, ai?ioii
aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiai?noth caaacia/o? iio?aae oe?aiiaea?i?. *anoeia
?aae?co?oueny ia ?eieo oa iain?iia?ai a ?aooiie iain?e. I?e oeueiio
iia?/i? i?iaeoeoe iiiieo ca?ia aeei?enoiaothoueny ia ei?i ia ioaoioa?i?.
A?a/aia e?oia, ui ae?iaey?oueny, ?aae?co?oueny ia ?eieo oa i?aai?caoe?yi
a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy. Oea cia/ii i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue caooo
i?iaeoeoe??.

Ii i??? noaiiaeaiiy iiaiioe?iieo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iineaaey?oueny
i?yiee aieea aea?aeaae ia ae?iaie/o ae?yeuei?noue aaciina?aaei?o
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a. O ca’yceo c oeei aeieea? iio?aaa a ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo
iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy, ui a?oiooaaoeiooueny ia ?eieiaeo canaaeao.

Iaeiei c oaeeo iaoiae?a ? i?iaiicoaaiiy neooaoe?? c ae?iaieoeoaa oa
niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno c aeiiiiiaith
neeaaeaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai aaeaino. Oea aeicaiey? ia o?eueee aiae?coaaoe
i?iiiceoe?th ca?ia ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, eiai niiaeeaaiiy, anoaiiaeoe
ca?iioo?aaei? ?ano?ne iaeano?, ?o aeaea?aea, aea e i?iaiicoaaoe oe?iiao
neooaoe?th ia iaeaniiio ca?iiaiio ?eieo, ine?eueee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
noia?iiai iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? coiiaeth? oe?iiao eii’thieoo?o. Ciaioaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?ioeaaeo caian?a ca?ia aei eiai
caaaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy o 1997?. aiai?eoue, ui c?inoaoeia iiieo ia
iueiai ? oe?ie ia ca?ii o ianooiiiio ?ioe? c?inoooue.

?ic?aooiee aaeaino ca?ia na?ae/aoue, ui ae?iaieoeoai ca?ia a 2000?.
iiaea neeanoe 1750 oen.o. Caaaeueia ?eieiaa i?iiiceoe?y i?iaeiaieue/iai
ca?ia a 2000?. iiaea a aeinyaoe 2343 oen.o i?e iie?ioaii? yeino? ?
ia?iuoaaii? ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa. Caaaeueiee iiieo o ia?niaeoea? c?inoa
ia 34% ca ?aooiie ?icoe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy ca?ia ia i?iaeiaieuenoai oa
oo?aae.

?ioei iaoiaeii i?iaiicoaaiiy oa iioei?caoe?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa ?
aeiiii?ei iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee. ?ic?iaeaia iaie aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue ia?aaeaa/a? iioei?caoe?th ae?iaie/i? no?oeoo?e
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno *a?eanueei? iaeano? ca ?aooiie
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa?iiai ca?ia a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aae
iaeano? o oe?aii?iaeoeoao; caaacia/aiiy oaa?ei caaeainiaaieie ei?iaie o
ca’yceo c o?niith ?ioaa?aoe??th oaa?eiieoeueei? aaeoc? c ca?iiaei
ainiiaea?noaii oa ae?iaieoeoaii eiia?ei?i?a; caaaioaaeaiiy iayaieo
ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae ii ia?a?iaoe? ca?iine?iaeie.

Ca?aeii ?ic?aooie?a iioeiaeueiiai ieaio i?iiiio?oueny ca?eueoeoe
ae?iaieoeoai oiaa?iiai ca?ia a 2000?. ia 38,4%, a 2005?. — 63,3% i?ioe
??aiy 1996?. Aieiaieie oiaa?ieie eoeueoo?aie aoaeooue iceia ioaieoey,
eoeo?oaeca oa ai?io.

Ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ae?iuoaaiiy ca?ia ni?eyoeia ?icoe?aiith ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeo?a eiai ia?a?iaee oa iie?aueoue ?o ani?oeiaio. Oae, ae?iaieoeoai
ai?ioia aeuiai aaooieo i?aeaeueoueny ia 2,8 oen.o. o 2000?. oa ia 34,3
oen.o — o 2005?. i?e iiai?e caaaioaaeaiino? ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa
iaeano?.

?acoeueoaoe iioei?caoe?? ae?iaie/i? no?oeoo?e ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
i?aeeiiieaeno iieacothoue, ui a ia?niaeoea? iiaeeeai ca?eueoeoe
aa?o?noue oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ia 55,8%, a i?eaooeo — ia 57,5%.
?aioaaaeuei?noue ca?iiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?aeaeueoueny ia 26,2 ioieoe
(oaae.3).

Oaaeeoey 3

Iniiai? ae?iaie/? iieacieee iioeiaeueiiai ieaio

ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno *a?eanueei? iaeano?

Iieacieee1996?.2000?.2005?.Oiaa?ia i?iaeoeoe?y anueiai,
iei.a?i.297,6389,0463,9 a o./. ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa228,3314,1329,6 ia?a?iaieo
aaeocae69,3174,98134,3I?eaooie anueiai, iei.a?i.154,0205,6242,6 a
o./. ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa144,0195,0227,0 ia?a?iaieo
aaeocae10,1110,5915,6I?eaooie i?e ca?eueoaii? oe?ie ia ioaieoeth
aiane?aeie iie?auaiiy yeino? (???ee.), iei.a?i.

305,2

-I?eaooie i?e iiai?e caaaioaaeaiino? iiooaeiinoae ai?ioiiiaeueii?
i?iieneiaino?, iei.a?i.

224,5

-Ae?iaieoeoai ia 100 aa ??ee?: ca?ia, o135,7168,6172,0 oiaa?ii?
i?iaeoeoe?? CII, oen.a?i.28,637,444,6 i?eaooie, oen.a?i.14,819,823,3
a o./. a?ae ?aae?caoe?? ca?ia13,8518,7522,8Iaoa??aeuei?
aeo?aoe ia oiaa?io i?iaeoeoe?th, iei.a?i.243,6317,64329,5 a o./.
ca?iiaa ainiiaea?noai225,8250,66252,5 ia?a?iai?
aaeoc?17,7618,7829,6Aeo?aoe ia 1a?i. oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe??, a?i.:
ca?iiaa ainiiaea?noai0,990,800,77 ia?a?iai? aaeoc? (aeani?
aeo?aoe)0,260,250,22

Oaeei /eiii, iie?auaiiy ieaioaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee ca?ia
aeicaiey? oaeineiiaeeoe no?oeoo?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaeocae iniiaiiai
i?iaeiaieue/iai i?aeeiiieaeno ?aa?iio a ?eieiaeo oiiaao ?, oei naiei,
cia/ii ca?eueoeoe ae?iaieoeoai ca?ia ? i?iaeoeo?a eiai ia?a?iaee, a
oaeiae i?aeaeueoe eiai aoaeoeai?noue.

AENIIAEE

1. A oiiaao ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei noeoii?noue i?ioean?a
ae?iaieoeoaa, caaio?ae?, o?ainii?ooaaiiy, ia?a?iaee ca?ia
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny ?aeei?e iao? — ae?iaieoeoao e?ioeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a
niiaeeaaiiy. Oea ? aieiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno. Iniiaieie oeyoaie
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo a?aeiinei o ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiio
i?aeeiiieaen? ? ?icaeoie a?eueo o?nii? i?aeaaeocaai? ?ioaa?aoe?? oa
eiiia?aoe?? ia iniia? aaeineiiaeaiiy eiio?aeoii? oi?ie ca’yce?a i?ae
ia?oia?aie; oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua ia ?eieo ca?ia ?
ca?iii?iaeoeo?a oeyoii aeaiiiiiie?caoe?? caaio?aaeueii? oa ia?a?iaii?
aaeocae; ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oe?iiooai?aiiy ia iniia? ?aeeiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy oe?i c a?aooaaiiyi ii?ie i?eaooeo ia aeeaaeaiee
eai?oae a eiaei?e aaeoc?; i???ioaoe?y ia aenieo ye?noue e?ioeaai?
i?iaeoeoe?? i?aeeiiieaeno an?o eaiie ?ioaa?iaaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

I?e ioe?ioe? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ca?iii?iaeoeo?a ?aoe?iiaeueii
caaaeoaaoe ia aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo
?ano?n?a, a ia ia ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??. Aieiaiei
e?eoa???i i?e oeueiio ? caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa niiaeeaa/?a o ye?ni?e ?
aeinooii?e i?iaeoeoe??. I?e oeueiio iieacieee aoaeoo ne?ae a?aoe aac
iiaoi?iiai ?aooaaiiy.

2. A inoaii? ?iee cieaeaiiy e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo iieaciee?a ?icaeoeo
ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia a *a?eanuee?e iaeano? iaoiiaeaii ia?o ca ana
i?e/eiaie, ye? ia caeaaeaoue a?ae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa ? ? ni?eueieie aeey an??? Oe?a?ie. Na?aae ieo oae?:
aeao?oeeo iai?ioieo cania?a aeey i?eaeaaiiy iaiao?aeieo ae?iaie/eo
?ano?n?a (iaeeaii-ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a, cania?a caoenoo, aeia?ea ?
o.?i.), iayai?noue ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiiiiie?cio caaio?aaeueii? noa?e,
iacaaeia?eueiee noai o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie, aeenia?eoao oe?i
aiane?aeie iaiaa?oioiaaii? e?aa?ae?caoe??, iaaecia/ai?noue a ?icaeoeo
??cieo oi?i aeaniino?. Cieaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?, yea i?ecaaei
aei nei?i/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia ? ca?iii?iaeoeo?a, iaoiiaeaii oaeiae
a?aenooi?noth noaa?eueiiai caooo i?iaeoeoe??.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoe?? oa
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ?? ae?iaieoeoaa aeioe?eueiith ? i???ioaoe?y
aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa ia aenieo ye?noue ca?ia, ?aoe?iiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo oa cieaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo aeo?ao.
I?iaaaeaiee aeiiii?/iee aiae?c ca?iiae?iaieoeoaa a ainiiaea?noaao ??cieo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy iieacaa, ui i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie ia ?
ae??oaeueieie o i?iaeai? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, a aenooiathoue
o?eueee iaei??th ?c neeaaeiaeo caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo.
Ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiee aiae?c ? noaoenoe/i? a?oioaaiiy iieacaee, ui ia
aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa iaea?eueo aieeaathoue ??aaiue o?iaeaeiino?
ca?ia, i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, eiioeaio?aoe?? oa niaoe?ae?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa.

3. A no/anieo oiiaao a?aenooi?noue iaoai?cio ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a
ia?oia??a CII, aa?oa?ecaoe?y aeiiii?ee, iecueea aoaeoeai?noue i?iaeaaeo
ca?iiai? ne?iaeie ca?iiia?a?iaiei i?aei?e?inoaai iiyniththoue ?icoe?aiiy
aioo??ainiiaea?nueei? ?? ia?a?iaee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aoaeo
a?ae ae?iaieoeoaa ca?iii?iaeoeo?a a i?i?ia?a?iaieo oeaoao a 2 ?ace
ia?aaeuo? ?aae?caoe?th ca?iiai? ne?iaeie. I?e oeueiio a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao caeeoathoueny iia?/i? i?iaeoeoe
ia?a?iaee; i?aeaeuo?oueny aoaeoeai?noue ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? /a?ac
caoo aioiai? aei niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeoe??; iie?ioo?oueny o?iainiaa
noaiiaeua n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa. Oiio oaiaeaioe?th
?icoe?aiiy aioo??ainiiaea?nueei? ia?a?iaee aaaaea?ii iiceoeaiith.

4. Aiane?aeie nei?i/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, iia??oaiiy yeino? ca?ia, ianoa/?
eioo?a aeey caeoi?ae? ca?iiai? ne?iaeie, ?icaeoeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo
eaiae?a caooo, a oaeiae cieaeaiiy iiieoo ia e?ioeaao i?iaeoeoe?th
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ae?iaie/? iiooaeiino?
caaio?aaeueii-ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa a inoaii? ?iee aeei?enoiaothoueny
a na?aaeiueiio anueiai ia 30-40%. A?aoiaoth/e o?ce/iee oa ii?aeueiee
ciin iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace oeeo i?aei?e?inoa a iiaeaeueoiio
?aoe?iiaeueii cae?enithaaoe ?o ia?ainiauaiiy no/anieie oaoiieia?/ieie
e?i?yie iaioi? iiooaeiino? oa ia?ai???ioaoe?th ia ?iaioo c
aeaaaeueieoeueeith ne?iaeiith.

I?eaaoecaoe?y, ui i?iaiaeeoueny a caaio?aaeuei?e ? ia?a?iai?e aaeocyo
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ia i?eianea ae?enii? naiino?eiino?
i?eaaoeciaaiei i?aei?e?inoaai. I?iaeaia oey caeeoeeany ia ae??oaiith.
Aaaaea?ii ?aoe?iiaeueiei aaaaeaiiy e?oeaicoaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ii
caeoieao, caa?aaeaiith, ?aae?caoe?? ca?ia aeey oeeo i?aei?e?inoa i?e
a?aeiia? a?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaieo caaio?aaeue, ui caaacia/eoue ia?ao?ae ia
i?yi? aeiaia??i? eiioaeoe i?ae noa’?eoaie ?eieo ca?ia ? ca?iii?iaeoeo?a
?, oei naiei, i?aeaeueoue aoaeoeai?noue i?aeaaeocaaeo aca?iia?aeiinei.

5. Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo nenoaie caooo ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ?
oi?a?aaeuei? aeiia. Aeina?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy CAO “Naeyinueeee
oi?a?aaeueiee ae?i “*a?eaneaa?i”, yeee iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ? a ?ioeo
iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie, na?ae/eoue, ui oaea no?oeoo?a ? eiieo?aioiicaeaoiith ?
aoaeoeaii aeeiio? ooieoe?th aeiaaaeaiiy ca?iii?iaeoeoe?? aei
niiaeeaa/?a.

6. Noaiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeieo eaai?aoi??e ni?eyoeia iiaeieaiith
noa’?eoea?cio i?e aecia/aii? yeino? ca?ia ? ca?iii?iaeoeo?a. A?aoiaoth/e
a?aenooi?noue eioo?a aeey ?o noai?aiiy, aeioe?eueii iaaeaoe aaea
?nioth/ei eaai?aoi??yi oe?aii? ?iniaeoe?? oa iaee?aua iniauaieo
caaio?aaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa noaoono iacaeaaeieo. Oaeiae aeioe?eueii aoei
a i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co yeino? ca?ia a 2-3 eaai?aoi??yo ?c cana?ae/aiiyi
a?aeiia?aeiei na?oeo?eaoii yeino?. Oea aeicaieeoue aeinyaoe ia’?eoeaii?
ioe?iee yeino?, ui caoe?eaaeoue ae?iaieea a i?aeaeuaii? yeino? ca?ia.
Oaea nenoaia aoaea a?aooaaoe ?ioa?ane ia o?eueee oe?aii?eeiaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa ? ae?iaiee?a ca?ia, a e iieoioe?a. Oea oaeiae ni?eyoeia
aeiaaaeaiith ??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? aei na?oiaeo
noaiaea?o?a.

7. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c no?oeoo?e ?icae??aii? oe?ie oe?aa iiaeiaiai c
ai?ioia ioaie/iiai ? aaooieo iieacaa, ui a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
oi?io?oueny eeoa 18,89% oe?ie, oiae? ye a caaio?aaeuei?e noa?? — 15,9%,
o ai?ioiiiaeuei?e — 8,6, o oe?aiia/aii? — 28,4%. Aeineoue aaaiio ieoiio
aaao ia? oi?a?aaeueia iaaaaea — 14,1%. No?eueee ae IAeA. I?e oeueiio
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee oiaa?iae?iaiee io?eio? 0,48a?i. i?eaooeo ia
iaeeieoeth aeo?ao, oe?aii?eeiaeueia aaeocue — 1,27 a?i., ai?ioiiiaeueia
— 2,06a?i., oe?aieiia?iao — 0,46 a?i. Ioaea, c iaoith caaacia/aiiy
aea?aaeaioiiai iai?io n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai iio?aao?
iaeaaeii? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, a naia ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? iiaeaoeiai?
iie?oeee, i?eueaiaiai e?aaeeooaaiiy, caeiiiaeaa/iai a?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo
caooo ca?ia ? ca?iii?iaeoeo?a.

Ae??oaiith i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy aeioiae?a eiaeii? eaiee ca ?aooiie
ia?a?iciiae?eo iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae ?aae?caoe?? e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe??
ni?eyoeia noai?aiiy anioe?aoe?e th?eaee/ii naiino?eieo i?aei?e?inoa
??cieo noa? ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno. Ocaiaeaeaiiy i?ae ieie
oe?i ia i?ii?aeio i?iaeoeoe?th ? ne?iaeio oa ia?a?iciiae?e ?acoeueoao?a
ae?yeueiino? ca?aeii ?ic?iaeaii? a ?iaio? iaoiaeeee aeicaieeoue
i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia, a oaeiae caaacia/eoe
i?iieneia?noue aenieiye?niei ca?iii ?, oei naiei, iie?aueoe ye?noue
ca?iii?iaeoeo?a.

8. I?iaiicoaaiiy neooaoe?? c ae?iaieoeoaa oa niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeoe??
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? aeioe?eueii
i?iaiaeeoe c aeiiiiiaith neeaaeaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai aaeaino.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae aeicaiey? ia?aaeaa/eoe ianyae iiieoo ?
i?iiiceoe??, a oaeiae oe?iiao neooaoe?th ia ?eieo ca?ia, ui ? aeoaea
aaaeeeaei a oiiaao ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Oae ?ic?aooiee ia
2000?. iieacothoue, ui caaaeueiee iiieo ia ca?ii i?aeaeueoueny ia
339oen.o. Ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?ioeaaeo caian?a ca?ia
aei caaaeueiiai eiai aeei?enoaiiy na?ae/eoue i?i i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i o
ia?niaeoea? aei 2000?., oiio e?ioeaa? caiane nei?ioyoueny.

9. ?ic?iaeaiee iioeiaeueiee ieai ae?iaie/i? no?oeoo?e
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno *a?eanueei? iaeano? iieacaa, ui o
ia?niaeoea? (2005?.) iiaeeeai ca?eueoeoe ae?iaieoeoai oiaa?iiai ca?ia ia
63,3% i?ioe ??aiy 1996?. ca ?aooiie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioaineaieo oaoiieia?e, a oaeiae
ia?ainiauaiiy ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa; i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? ca?iiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia 26,2%, i?e oeueiio i?eaooie
a?ae ?aae?caoe?? e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe?? i?aeeiiieaeno c?inoa ia 88,6
ioieo?a.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

1. Eiceiaa I.A. ?icaeoie ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno *a?eaueie //
Aeiiii?ea AIE, 1997. — ?12. — N.15-18. (0,31ae?.a?e.)

2. Eiceiaa I.A. Aoaeoeai?noue ca?iiae?iaieoeoaa a *a?eanuee?e iaeano?//
Aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueia iie?oeea: Oaoiaee ca. iaoe.
no. — Aei.5. — *. ?? / Oee. E.I.O?eueooaei, Ae.I. Aiaeiy, A.E.Aoaeneia
oa ?i. — E??iaia?aae: E?NI, 1998. — N.207-209. (0,15 ae?.a?e.)

3. Eiceiaa I.A. Aeieia?/i? aniaeoe oa ieoii?noue i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea
i?e ae?iuoaaii? ca?iiaeo // Ca. iaoe. i?. Oiainueei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai??. — E.: Ii?a-i??io, 1997. —
N.177-179. (0,13ae?.a?e.)

4. Oeai/oe A.N., Eiceiaa I.A. Oi?ioaaiiy ainiiaea?y caie? ia *a?eauei?
// Aeiiii?ea AIE, 1997. — ?6. — N.19-21 (0,23 ae?.a?e., a o./. aaoi?a
0,18 ae?.a?e. — ca??, ia?iaea oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??).

5. Eiceiaa I.A. Aoaeoeai?noue ia?a?iaee ca?ia o *a?eanuee?e iaeano? //
A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee i?e/i?iiii?’y: Iaoe. aeo?iae — Aei.4. — Ieeiea?a.:
Ieeiea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo — 1998. —
N. 15-17. (0,19 ae?.a?e.)

Aiioaoe??

Eiceiaa I.A. Oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno
*a?eanueei? iaeano? a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02 — aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
AIE. — Ieeiea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo,
Ieeiea?a, 1999.

Caaaeaiiyi ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ? noaa?eueia caaacia/aiiy
niiaeeaa/?a ye?nieie oa aeinooiieie oe?aii?iaeoeoaie a aeinoaoiueiio
ani?oeiaio?. O ?iaio? aecia/ai? i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy i?aeeiiieaeno
?aa?iio, eiiieaenii ?icaeyiooi aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia oa
i?iaeoeo?a eiai ia?a?iaee, iei?oi?e noai aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oiaa?iae?iaieeaie oa caaio?aaeueiith ?
ia?a?iaiith noa?aie AIE. Iniiaieie oeyoaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aeeiiieaeno ? aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo ca’yce?a ia
iniia? ?ioaa?aoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo, oe?aii?eeiaeueieo oa
ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa oa i???ioaoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa e?ioeaai?
i?iaeoeoe?? ia aenieo ye?noue. ?ic?iaeaii ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai i?aeeiiieaeno ?aa?iio ia 2000?. ? 2005?. ca
aeiiiiiaith aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? ia ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoaao *a?eanueei? ?
E??iaia?aaenueei? iaeanoae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ca?iii?iaeoeoiaee i?aeeiiieaen, aoaeoeai?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeaaeocaa? ca’ycee, e?ioeaaa i?iaeoeoe?y, ?ioaa?aoe?y,
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue.

Eiceiaa I.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai iiaeeiiieaena
*a?eanneie iaeanoe a oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey ?eii/ieo ioiioaiee.

Aeena?oaoeeae yaeyaony ?oeiienue. Aeena?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie
noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02 —
yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e AIE. — Ieeieaaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiue einoeooo, Ieeieaaa, 1999.

Caaeaieai ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai iiaeeiiieaena yaeyaony noaaeeueiia
iaania/aiea iio?aaeoaeae ea/anoaaiiuie e aeinooiiuie oeaaii?iaeoeoaie a
aeinoaoi/iii anni?oeiaioa. A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaiu i?eioeeie oi?ie?iaaiey
iiaeeiiieaena ?aaeiia, eiiieaenii ?anniio?aia yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa ca?ia e i?iaeoeoia aai ia?a?aaioee, iuiaoiaa ninoiyiea
acaeiiinoiioaiee iaaeaeo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie e
caaioiaeoaeueii-ia?a?aaaouaathuae noa?ie AIE. Iniiaiuie iooyie iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai iiaeeiiieaena
yaeyaony oniaa?oainoaiaaiea iaaeio?aneaauo ioiioaiee ia iniiaa
eioaa?aoeee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo, oeaaii?eaiiuo e ia?a?aaaouaathueo
i?aaei?eyoee e i?eaioaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee ia aunieia
ea/anoai. ?ac?aaioaiu ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey ca?iii?iaeoeoiaiai
iiaeeiiieaena ?aaeiia ia 2000a. e 2005a. n iiiiuueth
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee
aiaae?aiu ia ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoeyo *a?eanneie e
Ee?iaia?aaeneie iaeanoae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ca?iii?iaeoeoiaue iiaeeiiieaen, yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaaeio?aneaaua nayce, eiia/iay i?iaeoeoeey, eioaa?aoeey,
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue.

Kozlova N.V. The formation and the development of grain-foodstuff
sub-complex of Cherkasy region under the conditions of setting up market
relations.

Dussertation is a manuscript.

Dissertation is presented for getting a scientific degree of Candidate
of Economic Sciences in speciality 08.07.02 — farm economics and AIC
(Agro-Industrial Complex). — Mykolayiv State Institute of Agriculture,
Mykolayiv, 1999.

The task of a grain-foodstuff sub-complex is a stable sypply of
consumers with high-quality and available bakery products in a
sufficient amount. The main prerequisite for the formation of such
sub-complex in region is the fact that the combination of prodaction
processes, storing up, processing of grain grows into a complete system.
It functions on the principle of its orientation on satisfying the needs
of the population, adjusting economic interests on the basis of mutually
advantageous relations, diversified forms of farming and ownership, as
well as creating a market system of selling a funished product.

The reason for a considerable decrease of the efficiency of grain
production and the products of its processing is the reduction of grain
quality with a great difference between food and fodder grain, the worse
condition of a material-technical basis of agriculture, uncertainty with
the marketing system of grain raw materials, a low level of the use of
production facilities of processing units as a result of the decline of
state procurement plan and the development of alternative channels of
grain sale. All this affects the increase of the production cost of a
finished product of a sub-complex and the decrease of its profitability.

Under these conditions it is advisable to increase grain quality by
means of improving grain culture and of growing main grain crops with
the use of intensive tecnologies and rational utilization of production
potential and the reduction of production expenses. Due to higher prices
and lack of finance for its purchase, which is typical for processing
enterprises, the switch to the production of flour and cereals as well
as mixed fodder using the raw materials of costomers is quite possible.
This will make possible a fuller use of production facilities and a
decrease of the cost of production of funished product.

The stadies show that one of the reasons of a production decline in
processing branches of a sub-complex is a considerable reduction of the
demand of consumers due to a decline of living standard of Ukrain’s
population. That is why it is worth making efforts to stimulate the
demand as a main component of the production in market conditions first
of all by means of reducing production expenses and the same time retail
prices of foodstuffs and grain.

It is possible to reduce production expenditures in processing branches:
to re-equip existing enterprises with updated tecnological lines of less
capacity and to create joint organizations of the same type. It will
make it possible both to increas the quality of finished food produce
and to widen its assortment. The creation of integrated formations such
as assosiations at district and region level will enable to solve the
problems of functioning the constituents of a grain-foodstuff
sub-complex. The distribution of a final profit will be done according
to the share of expenses of each party for the priduction of finished
produce, the calculations being presented in the dissertation.

The establishment of market relations is impossible without competitive
environment. As a result of privatization of storing enterprises
together with farm producers their monopoly pressure will considerably
weaken, the process of the development of grain market will speed up,
the conditions for non-state processing enterprises will appear. In
addition, there will be need in the budget financing of a state order in
advance. One of the measures aimed at the formation of proper market
area for farm producers, wholesalers and retailers is the creation of
agro-trading centers in regions which are wholesaling grain
organizations both at domestic and international markets. This type of a
regional organization is to a great extent closer to producers as well
as to consumers and it is an alternative to a monopolized
wholesaler-retail state agent — SSC “Bread of Ukrain”. This will
considerably favor the development of competition at grain market. The
experience of Stock Company (ZAT) “Village Trade Center “Cherkasy-agro”
shows that the enterprise of this kind is very efficient in promoting
the farm produce to consumers.The analysis of a retail price structure
of top-quality wheat bread proves that 18,9% of a price is formed in
agriculture, 15,9% — in storing enterprises, 8,6% — in flour-making, and
the highest, 28,4% — in bread baking. Trading accounts for 14,1%, so
does added value tax (PDV). The profitability as a revenue to own costs
was 162,8% in wheat production, 205,6% — in flour-making, 45,6% — in
bread baking. Thus, flour producers, being the most monopolized
structure, are in the most favorable conditions. Having analyzed the
studies, it becomes clear that farm production needs a relavant support
on the part of the state to balance inter-branch relations.

Under conditions of entering market relations, price regulation is one
of the way of improving inter-branch ties. Getting equally large profit
on advanced capital taking into account its circulation terms in each
branch of a sub-complex is absolutely required.

The culculation of an optimal plan of a production structure of a
grain-foodstuff sub-complex with the help of economic-mathematic
modeling and computers show that by means of the production reserves
such as the improvement of grain quality and the increase of grain crop
yielding capacity, the use of various factors of entensification, its
rational utilization both for food and fodder purposes, the
profitability of grain production can be encreased by 26,6 points, the
profit — by 57,5%, and the cost of commodity produce — by 55,8%.

The result of the investigation are applied at processing enterpises of
Cherkasy and Kirovograd regions.

Key words: grain-foodstuff sub-complex, production efficiency,
inter-branch ties, finished produce, integration, economic-mathematic
model.

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