IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IIE?OE*IEO ? AOIIIAOe?IIAEUeIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

OAeE 321.01 (477)

Eoeee Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/

OI?IOAAIIss OA AAIETHOe?ss OE?A?INUeEI? AeA?AEAAII? ?AeA?:

1986-1991

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.01 — oai??y ? ?noi??y iie?oe/ii? iaoee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii

a ?inoeooo? iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Iaeai?iaea Ieaenaiae? Ieeeoiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
aoiiiie?oieia?? ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo ?

aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ea?ooiia Ieaen?e Aaneeueiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aoiai?oa?ieo
aeenoeeie?i ?inoeoooo

aeiiii?ee, oi?aae?iiy oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai i?aaa

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Aa?aiue Ieaen?e Aaneeueiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa
iie?oieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

Oi?aa?neoaoo “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea
Aeaaeai?y”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 9 aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.181.01 ?inoeoooo
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252011, Ee?a, aoe. Eooociaa, 8, e. 202.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo
? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, aoe. Eooociaa, 8,
e. 218.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 3 ethoiai 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
TH. A. Eaaaiaoeue

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?noi??y oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai iiiceoe?eiiai ?ooo e?ioey 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a,
iiaeieaiiy iiiiiie?? eiiia?o?? oa iinoaiiy iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae aeine?aeaeoaaeany i?ioyaii naie ?ie?a iacaeaaeiino? iaeaea
aeiyoeiai ye ?noi??y iiae?e, a ia ?aeae. Aeeeaae iniiaieo iieiaeaiue
i?ia?aiiaeo aeieoiaio?a Ia?iaeiiai ?ooo e iiaiooai?aieo ia?o?e oa ?ioeo
aaaeeeaeo oai??a oiai/anii? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ia?aaaaeii i?aaeee aeey
aeine?aeiee?a ca ?ethno?aoe?th aiae?co iiae?e. Oei/anii aei e?ioey
c?icoi?oe i?e/eie, aca?iica’ycie ? iane?aeee oeo iiae?e, iioeae e
iaoiaee ?oi?o o/aniee?a ia iiaeia, ia aiae?coth/e ?aea?, ui ?o aenoaaea
iiiceoe?y, a iio?i ? aeaaea, caaeey ia??oiooaaiiy iio?aae ci?i
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ono?ith aea?aeaae, ?? iie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai eo?no
oa iia?e?caoe?? ian ia cae?eniaiiy oeeo ci?i. Aeine?aeaeoth/e oi?ioaaiiy
oa aaiethoe?th oyaeaiue i?i oa, yeith ia? aooe oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa,
iiaeia oaeiae c’ynoaaoe ca’ycie ?aeaeieo iiooe?a aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo oa iiia?aaei?o aiio, aeai?oieia?coaaoe oyaeaiiy i?i
aeei?enoaiiy ?aeaieiaaie iiai? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ieioeiai
niaaeeo e aiaeii/an iiaa/eoe i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?oi?o iiooe?a a ?aeayo
ianooiiiai, iacaeaaeieoeueeiai ia??iaeo. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? oaeiae —
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?e o i?aoeyo c ?noi??? iiae?e — aiae?c “aioo??oi?o”,
iia’ycaieo ?c oa?aeoa?ii naiiai iiiceoe?eiiai ?ooo, i?e/ei, c yeeo ia
aoei iiaiith i??ith c?aae?ciaaii eiai aeaiie?aoe/iee iioaioe?ae, ia
aeeiiaii aaaaoueio ioieo?a eiai i?ia?aie, ui a?aeoae ? nueiaiaei?
caeeoathoueny aeey oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa aeooaeueieie.

E??i oiai, aiae?c i?iia?aiaeenonueeiai aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaii? ?aea?
oe?a?inueeeie ae?oaie a ai?iouea? ca ?aae?caoe?th nai?o a?oiiaeo
?ioa?an?a aaaeeeaee aeey ?icoi?iiy aaiethoe?? ?oi?o ?aeaeieo ?
iie?oe/ieo iiceoe?e o iacaeaaeieoeueeee ia??iae. Canoinoaaiiy oe?iei
aaeeaaii? a no/ani?e cao?aei?e iaooe? oai??? aeeneo?no aea? ciiao
iia’ycoaaoe i?iaieiooaai? ?aea? oa caeaa?eueoiai i?eoiaoaai? ?ioa?ane
ae?o, a oaeiae aiae?coaaoe ni?eeiyooy oeeo ?aeae ianaie.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. Aeiiaaeaaia ?noi??y iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee ia aoea a Oe?a?i? ie?aiith iaoeiaith aeenoeeie?iith, a ?? ie?ai?
oai?e caeaa?eueoiai ?icaeyaeaeeny ye a?aeia?aaeaiiy
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a. Iaeiei ?c e?aniiiiaieo na?ae/aiue
oeueiai iiaeia aaaaeaoe oie oaeo, ui aein? ia iioae?eiaaii aeiaeiiai
oe?e?niiai iiiia?ao?/iiai aeeeaaeo oe??? ?noi??? — a aeiiaaeaaia ia aoei
iaa?oue aeieeaaeieo aeine?aeaeaiue niaaeueie ie?aieo i?ia?aeieo
iinoaoae. O i?ae?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? iaoia?aaeaeaia aea/aiiy ?aeaeii?
niaaeueie ieioeiai aoei ii noo? iaiiaeeeaei. Ia aeaeue, iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ii noo? ia aaeiny
e o i?aeai?ii?e Aaee/ei?; aeoaea iaei c?iaeee oaeiae iaoeiaoe?
oe?a?inueei? ai???aoe?? oa ae?anii?e (?aeeiei ?c ieo, ui i?enayoea naaa
aeine?aeaeaiith iie?oe/ii? aeoiee, aoa ?aai Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee).
A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? a?ae ?aaeeio oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee
oa iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, a caiaeii ? iiyaa naiino?eii? aea?aeaae ni?eyee
oaac? aeine?aeiee?a aei iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ieioeiai e ia?aaeon?i
aea?aeaaii? ?aea? ye ?? neeaaeieea. Iiee ui oea caeaa?eueoiai ei?ioe?
noaoo?, oi/a aaea c’yaeeiny e?eueea iiiia?ao?e ? ci aeaa aeanyoee
aeena?oaoe?eieo i?aoeue ?noi?ee?a, iie?oieia?a, o?einio?a,
i?aaiciaaoe?a. Oe? i?aoe? i?enay/ai? ia?aaaaeii oai?/ino? eeth/iaeo
iinoaoae oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee — Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Eeieinueeiai,
Aeiioeiaa, A?ooaanueeiai, O?aiea, Oaeeueiaiai oa aeayeeo ?ioeo aaoi??a,
a oaeiae oo?eaiith ?oi?o ?aeae o ia?o?eieo aeieoiaioao e?ioey XIX —
ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy oa aea?aeaaioai?/?e i?aeoeoe? Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee.

Oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? iei?oiueiai ia??iaeo ?? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
ui ii/aany iaaaeiac? i?ney i?iaieioaiiy a N?N? iie?oeee ia?aaoaeiae e
o?eaa? aeioaia?, iiuanoeei iaaaaaoi iaioa. C iaeiiai aieo, aiae?c
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, ui i?ecaaee aei ?iciaaeo N?N? ? e?aoo
oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie, ia iiaeeeaee aac ?icaeyaeo oai??a, ui noeioethaaee
e aiaeii/an a?aeaeca?eaethaaee ?icaeoie oeeo i?ioean?a. I?aoe?,
iiai?noth /e /anoeiai i?enay/ai? iie?oe/i?e ?noi???
ia?aaeiacaeaaeieoeueeiai ia??iaeo, i?eae?eythoue /eiaei oaaae
i?ia?aiiaei ? i?iia?aiaeenonueeei aeieoiaioai iiiceoe?eiiai ?ooo oa
i?aaey/i? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? Oe?a?ie. C ae?oaiai aieo, aaoi??a
oe?eaaeoue ia?aaeon?i ?noi??y iie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae oeeie
neeaie, a caaaeai? aeieoiaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny ye ?ethno?aoe?? aei
oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeo nee ? i?ioean?a ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo, a ia ye
naiiaeinoaoi? ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, — e oiio ?aaeoa iienothoueny, i?ae
aiae?cothoueny. Aaiethoe?th ?aeae, ui ?o aenoaaee i?ia?aei? iie?oe/i?
neee oiai ia??iaeo, ?oi?e ca’ycie c ?aeayie ieioeeo aiio ? i?iaeiaaeaiiy
oa ?aae?caoe?th i?ney caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino? aaoi?e oeo i?aoeue ia
aeine?aeaeothoue. Ia?ae?e i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo oiai/ani?e iie?oe/i?e
aeoioe?, iiee ui iaiaaeo?oueny e?eueeiia iaienaieie “ii aa?y/eo ne?aeao”
aeena?oaoe?yie oa noaooyie, a yeeo aiae?cothoueny ie?ai? aniaeoe
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ia iaoa??aeao i?ia?aiiaeo aeieoiaio?a ia?o?e ?
a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe?y oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaii? ?aea? a 1986-1991 ?ieao. Aaoi? iaceaa? aea?aeaaiith ?aea?th
oyaeaiiy i?i oa, yeith ia? aooe aea?aeaaa. Oea iiiyooy ?noioii
a?ae??ciy?oueny ca nai?i ci?noii a?ae iiiyooy “aea?aeaaieoeueea ?aeay”,
aaeeaaiiai uiaei ia??oiooaaiiy i?aaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia aeanio
aea?aeaao e iaiao?aeiino? oaei? aea?aeaae aeey ?icaeoeo /e e naiiai
?nioaaiiy ia?iaeo, — a a?aeoae iia’ycaiiai c oei iai?yiii iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee, ui ia? iacao iaoe?iiae?cio (a oe?ieiio, “cao?aeiiio” ?icoi?ii?
oeueiai oa?i?ia). Iaoii?noue aea?aeaaia ?aeay ? neeaaeieeii on?o
iai?yi?a iie?oe/ii? aeoiee — iaa?oue oeo, ui a?aeaiaeyoue aea?aeaa?
aeiaie? ne?iiio ?ieue o noni?eueiiio aeeoo? — e ia iaiaaeo?oueny
i?iaeaiith noaa?ai?oaoo oa ?aae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aa. Aiia
ioiieth? an? aniaeoe ?nioaaiiy aea?aeaae a ?? aca?ieiao c ?ioeie
aea?aeaaaie, a?iiaaeyiaie e ?inoeoooe?yie a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
— aeania, ana oa, ui o?eno?oueny a Eiinoeoooe?? ye oo?eaii? aea?aeaaii?
?aea? ia iaaiiio aoai? ?? ?icaeoeo.

*ania? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae iiyae a Oe?a?i?
ii??aiyii iacaeaaeiiai a?ae ?aaeeio ioae?/iiai aeeneo?no, aea noaa
iiaeeeaei ?icaeoie a?aei?iii? a?ae io?oe?eieo eaiii?a aea?aeaaii? ?aea?,
— aei ao?eaiiy oe??? ?aea? a i?iaieioaio 24 na?iiy e noaaeaio ia
?aoa?aiaeoi? 1 a?oaeiy 1991 ?ieo iacaeaaeio aea?aeaao. Oea ia??iae
iaeaeeiai?/i?oi? a?ae /an?a ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ?ie?a aaiethoe??
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? oa ?? iaea?eueoiai aieeao ia na?aeii?noue
oe?ieeo ian ?, c?aooith, ia aeieth Oe?a?ie oa anueiai na?oo. Aiaeii/an
naia oiae? oey ?aeay, ui ?ai?oa ia?aeiaeany ia?aaeon?i caaaeueieie
aniaeoaie i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, oaeaeei eiie?aoecoaaeany
oaiaoe/ii e aeai?iai, oi?eath/enue iaaeooaeueieo aeioe ieoaiue
?aaeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy aaea ia o?eueee e ia no?eueee a
ioae?oeenoe/ieo noaooyo /e i?iiiaao, a e o caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao.
Ia?aoo?, a oeae ia??iae aea?aeaaia ?aeay noaea oa?aiii i?ioenoiyiiy
ae?oieo a?oi, ui, aiaethth/e a nai?o i?iia?aiaeenonueeeo aeeneo?nao aei
ia?iaeo, aeai?thaaee i?aai ao?ethaaoe oeth ?aeath a aeeooy — oiaoi
aeaaeo iaae oeei ia?iaeii.

Aaoi? noaaea ca iaoo iieacaoe, ye oi?ioaaeeny e ci?ithaaeeny ai?iaeiaae
oeueiai ia??iaeo oyaeaiiy i?ia?aeieo ae?oieo a?oi — a i?ae ?oi?i aieeaii
? caaaeo — i?i oa, yeith ia? aooe oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa. Ia?oueny ia
oaac? ia eeoa aaiethoe?y oyaeaiue i?i aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao Oe?a?ie —
a?ae ?aae?caoe?? eiinoeoooe?eieo i?aa O?N? o neeaae? Nithco aei aeoiaeo
c iueiai oa noai?aiiy iiai?noth iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, — a e iaiiaiaiiy
aea?aeaaii? ?aea? aeaaeae? inyaei?oei iie?oe/iei ? nioe?aeueiei ci?noii
(aeaiie?ao?y, ia?eaiaio, aaaaoiia?o?ei?noue, iiae?e aeaaee, i?noeaaa
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i?aaa ethaeeie oa i?aaa aoi?/ieo a?oi, aeiiii?/ia
nenoaia, nioe?aeueiee caoeno oiui). E??i aiae?co iacaaieo neeaaeiee?a
aea?aeaaii? ?aea?, aei caaaeaiue aaoi?a aoiaeea oaeiae ?icaeyae
aeei?enoaiiy ae?oaie aea?aeaaii? ?aea? ye caniao iia?e?caoe?? ian ia
cae?eniaiiy aaaeaieo aeey ae?o ci?i ? ea??oei?caoe?? ?oiueiai i?aaiaiiy
aeaaee.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeeneo?ne ae?oieo a?oi, ye? aecia/aee
“iaee//y” aea?aeaaii? ?aea? ia eiaeiiio aoai? ?? aaiethoe?? i?ioyaii
?icaeyaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo:

nia?oo ienueiaiiee?a, ye? a?ae ia?oeo ?ie?a ia?aaoaeiae ii?oooaaee ia
noi??ieao nai?o aeaeaiue i?iaeaie iiae, aeieia??, ?noi???, i?eaa?oaee
aei ieo noni?eueio oaaao e noai?thaaee ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?aaeeeae?caoe??
ioae?/iiai aeeneo?no;

aiaeii/an ?c ienueiaiieeaie — aeeneaeaio?a, ye? noeioethaaee iiaeeaeaiiy
e ?aaeeeae?caoe?th aeeneo?n?a ienueiaiiee?a oa “iaoi?iaeueieo”
aeieia?/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieoeueeeo a?oi, a oaeiae ni?eyee oai?aiith
iiiceoe?eieo iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e;

ia ianooiiiio aoai? — Ia?iaeiiai ?ooo Oe?a?ie, yeee, ia’?aeiaaoe ?ano?ne
e aeeneo?ne ienueiaiieoeueeiai, aeeneaeaionueeiai oa “iaoi?iaeueiiai”
na?aaeiaeu, noi?ioethaaa ? aa?a o noni?eueiee ia?a i?iaeo anaioiiii?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ?noioii
iini?eya ?aaeeeae?caoe?? iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? oa i?aeaeuaiith
a?iiaaenueei? aeoeaiino? ian, ui aeyaeeiny o aenooiao ia i?aeo?eieo
iiiceoe?? oa ia?aii? iaaani? 1990 ?ieo aaaaoueio ?? i?aaenoaaiee?a aei
Aa?oiaii? oa i?noeaaeo ?aae;

ia?aoo? — aeaiooao?a iiaiai ia?eaiaioo, yeee, noaaoe ?ino?oiaioii
?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? oa aiaeii/an a?aiith iie?oe/iiai e
i?iia?aiaeenonueeiai ciaaaiiy aeaaee oa iiiceoe??, ni?eya aaiethoe??
noni?euenoaa, c?aae?coaaa /anoeio iae?aneaieo iiiceoe??th ci?i ?
caaa?oea i?aeaiooaaiiy ianiai? na?aeiiino? aei ?o ni?eeiyooy.

Io?oe?eiee aeeneo?n i?aaey/iai ?aaeeio, ?ai?acaioiaaiiai ea??aieoeoaii
OeE EIO oa i?aai?a aeaaee ?anioae?ee, aei inoaiiueiai, ia?eaiaionueeiai
aoaio ii noo? aoa eeoa ?aaeoe??th ia ?aea?, ui ?o oi?ioethaaee
Iie?oath?i OeE EI?N, c iaeiiai aieo, e oe?a?inuee? aeueoa?iaoeai? ae?oe
— c ae?oaiai. Oiio o?eueee ia inoaiiueiio aoai? oeae aeeneo?n — o eiai
i?ioenoiyii? c aeeneo?nii ia?eaiaionueei? iiiceoe?? — aoa i?aaeiaoii
nenoaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy. Ia i?iaiaeeeiny oaeiae aiae?co aeeneo?n?a
aeayeeo a?oi — ye, iai?eeeaae, “Aeaiie?aoe/ii? ieaooi?ie a EI?N”, — ui
c?iaeee ?noioiee aianie a aaiethoe?th oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? ia
iaaieo a?aeoeieao aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, aea ia iaee aecia/aeueiiai
aieeao ia ?? oa?aeoa?.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ia’?eoii (oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaaia ?aeay) oa i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy (ioae?/i? aeeneo?ne):
aeaea?aeaie aoee ia?aaeon?i aeaeaiiy, a yeeo a?aeiia?aei? ae?oi? a?oie
oi?ioethaaee e i?iia?oaaee nai? ?aea?. C iaeyaeo ia iaoo e i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?a oe?eaaeee ia a?o?ai?, a iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee, ?
aenieioe?aaei?, iania? aacaoe noaiiaeee a?eueoo oe?ii?noue, i?ae
“aioo??oiueiae?oi?” aeo?iaee. Aeeneo?n ienueiaiiee?a aiae?coaaany ia
i?aenoaa? nenoaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy aacaoe “E?oa?aoo?ia Oe?a?ia” i?ioyaii
1986-1991 ?ie?a, a oaeiae ienueiaiieoeueeeo noaoae oa ?ioa?a’th a ?ioeo
aeaeaiiyo. ?aeiino?oeoe?y aeeneaeaionueeiai aeeneo?no i?iaiaeeeany ca
iaoa??aeaie naiaeaeaaiiai aeo?iaeo “Oe?a?inueeee a?niee” 1987-1988 ?ie?a
(aeionee 7-13) oa aeieoiaioaie Oe?a?inueei? Aaeuen?inueei? ni?eee
1988-1989 ?ie?a. Aeaea?aeaie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeneo?n?a Ia?iaeiiai
?ooo, iiaeo iiiceoe?eieo ia?o?e oa Eiiia?o?? Oe?a?ie aoee ?oi?
i?ia?aiia? oa i?iia?aiaeenonuee? iaoa??aee (aieiaii a?ae 1989 ?ieo).
Ia?eaiaionueeee aeeneo?n aea/aany ia?aaeon?i ca noaiia?aiaie ieaia?ieo
can?aeaiue Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie o?aaiy 1990 — a?oaeiy 1991 ?ie?a
(aieea oeueiai aeeneo?no ia ianiao aoaeeoi??th coiiaethaaany ?aae?i- oa
oaeao?aineyoe??th). Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey aiae?co an?o iacaaieo
aeeneo?n?a aoee oaeiae aacaoe “Aa/??i?e Ee?a”, “Iieiaeue Oe?a?ie”,
“Iieiaea aaa?ae?y”, “Eiiniiieueneia ciaiy”, “Eai?inueea iieiaeue” (a?ae
ea?oiy 1990 — “Iieiaea Aaee/eia”) 1988-1991 ?ie?a, ui aeoeaii ii?oooaaee
oaie, a yeeo ?icai?oaany aeeneo?n aea?aeaaii? ?aea?. Ia?aoo?, aaoi?
iaiaaaany caeo/eoe oiai/ani? e i?ci?o? iaioa?i? e aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee
o/aniee?a ? i/aaeaeoe?a iiae?e aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa nenoaiaoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii
aaiethoe?th oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? a ia??iae, ui ia?aaeoaaa ??
ao?eaiith a iacaeaaei?e aea?aeaa?, — cie?aia, o? aniaeoe oe??? ?aea?, ui
aecia/athoue ?inoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaa “iaiiaiaiiy” aea?aeaae (aein?
?icaeyaeaeeny ia?aaaaeii oyaeaiiy i?i ?aae?caoe?th i?aaa oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?? ia naiiaecia/aiiy oa i?i aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao). Aia?oa
i?iaiae?ciaaii i?iia?aiaeenonueea aeei?enoaiiy oe??? ?aea? ae?oieie
a?oiaie aeey ?aae?caoe?? nai?o a?oiiaeo ?ioa?an?a ? iia’ycaia c iei
aeeneo?neaia i?ioenoiyiiy oeeo a?oi. Aia?oa a oe?a?inueeeo noni?eueieo
iaoeao i?iaaaeaii nenoaiaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeneo?n?a ? aeeneo?neaieo
no?aoaa?e ae?o. Aecia/aii iia? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy
iia?oiuei? ?noi??? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? oa iie?oe/ii? aeoiee caaaeii.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo ? iaa/aeueieo eo?nao c
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy oa ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee iia?oiueiai ia??iaeo, a oaeiae ye iaoa??ae aeey
eiiia?aoea?nonueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a oa ?aeae aei e
i?ney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea
canoinoaaiiy oai??? aeeneo?no aei aiae?co i?ia?aiieo ?
i?iia?aiaeenonueeeo aeieoiaio?a iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? ?oo?a oa
aeeneo?neaieo no?aoaa?e ae?oieo a?oi aeanoue ciiao aeine?aeieeai
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee aaeineiiaeeoe na?e iaoiaeieia?/iee ?ino?oiaioa??e. A
i?iaaaeaiee o aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c eiie?aoieo aeeneo?n?a iiaeia
aeei?enoaoe ye iaoiaee/iee c?acie aeey aea/aiiy aeeneo?n?a ??cieo
noni?eueieo a?oi oa ye i?aeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeey niaoe?aeueieo
iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a c aiae?co aeeneo?no.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
aa?eoee aei i?iiiiiaaii? aeena?oaoe??, ii?eethaeiaii o aenooiao aaoi?a
ia /ioe?ueio eiioa?aioe?yo aeine?aeieoeueeiai i?iaeoo “Ae?oaa
iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Iaoe?iiae?ci, iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oa ooai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa o i?ciuei- oa iinoeiioi?noe/iiio
noni?euenoa?” (Iaiiaaei, I?ia//eia, eeiaiue 1996 ?., aa?anaiue 1997 ?.,
ethoee 1998 ?.; Iineaa, o?aaaiue 1997 ?.). Ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe aoee
oaeiae aeei?enoai? a aeiiia?aeyo ? aenooiao aaoi?a ia eiioa?aioe?yo
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy e aeeeaaeaiiy i?iaeai iaoe?iiae?cio” (Euea?a, o?aaaiue
1995 ?.), “Ia?iaee, iaoe??, ?aeaioe/iino?. ?in?enueei-oe?a?inueea
cono??/” (Iueth-Ei?e, aa?anaiue 1995 ?.), “Ae?aeia oe?a?inueei? oa
?in?enueei? eoeueoo? ye oaeoi? i?aeaoi?/ii? caiaee a Oe?a?i?” (Ee?a,
aeiaoaiue 1996 ?.), “Oe?a?ia ca Eo/ie oa A?ei?onue ca Eoeaoaiea”
(Iaeioe, I?ia//eia, ea?oaiue 1998 ?.). I?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??
?acoeueoaoe aa?eoee oaeiae aei ei?ioeiai eaeoe?eiiai eo?no, ui eiai
aaoi? i?i/eoaa o eeii? 1996 ?. ia I?aeia?iaei?e oeie? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe
o Eueaia?.

No?oeoo?a. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a oa ia?ae?eo aeaea?ae ? a?ae?ia?ao??. O ia?oiio ?icae?e?
?icaeyiooi noai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? caaaeii ?
aiae?ciaaiiai a aeena?oaoe?? ia??iaeo cie?aia, a oaeiae iaoiaeieia?th,
iieeaaeaio a iniiao aeena?oaoe?eii? i?aoe?. O ianooiieo ?icae?eao
aiae?cothoueny aeeneo?ne ae?oieo a?oi ? na?aaeiaeu, ui aecia/aee
“iaee//y” oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? ia eiaeiiio c aoai?a ??
aaiethoe?? ai?iaeiaae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. ?icae?ee ae?eyoueny ia
i?ae?icae?ee a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy aeeneo?n?a. O
aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaaii iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii ?acoeueoaoe e iaaiai?aii
iiaeeeaino? ?o canoiaoaaiiy. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 181
noi??iea.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii iaoo e
caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai no?oeoo?o e
aeaea?aeueio aaco, aeacaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, a oaeiae oi?ie ai?iaaoe?? ?? ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny noai ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? ?aea?. Aeaco?oueny, ui oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a aei
oe??? i?iaeaie (aeea. “Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie”) ia
a?aeiia?aeaea aeiyoeia?e ?ie? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? a oe?a?inuee?e
noni?euei?e na?aeiiino?. Cie?aia, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe??? ?aea? a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? 1980-o ?ie?a caneoaiao? ieeueii? oaaae aiaeae c iaeyaeo ia eiai
aaeueie nai???aeia i?noea a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee. C
iaeiiai aieo, ethaee, yeei aeiaei oai?eoe oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao (nia?oo
ia iaia??, a iio?i ia i?aeoeoe?), caeaa?eueoiai ia ciaee ?aeaeiiai
niaaeeo e iie?oe/iiai aeina?aeo iiia?aaei?o aea?aeaaioai?/eo ni?ia. C
ae?oaiai aieo, cae?enithaaia Yi?aa/iaei ni?iaa c?aoi?ioaaoe iie?oe/io
nenoaio ia eeoa aiiaeeeaethaaea ?aeaei? iiooee, aea e caioi/oaaea ?o. A
aieiaia — ?aaeyinuee? aeanyoe??//y i?aeaaee i?ae oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaaio
?aeath oaa?aeee i?aeio??aie nioe?aeueieo ia?aaeoiia. Iiaea?i?caoe?y
noni?euenoaa ca?eueieea eiai a?ae no?oeoo?ii? iaiiaiioe, yea aeioe
i?e??eaea oe?a?ioe?a ia aacaea?aeaai?noue. Aaei?i?no?aoeaia
aaoiiiii?noue ? oi?iaeueii aea?aeaaiee noaoon O?N? aeaaaee ae?oai
iiooaei? aaaeae? aieeao ia iane, noeioethaaiiy ?oiuei? eieaeoeaii?
na?aeiiino?. E?aa?ae?caoe?y ?aaeeio e iineaaeaiiy oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee
a?aee?eee iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?anioae?eainueeeie ae?oaie oeeo
aaaeae?a, yea e caaacia/eei a?aoo? ?aae?caoe?th aea?aeaaii? ?aea?.

Ine?eueee caeiaoaaee aieea ia ianiao na?aeii?noue ? a?aeoae ciiao
?aae?coaaoe aaeeaeai? a ia? ?aea? ia oae ?oi? oai?oe?, ye o?aineyoi?e,
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue aooe ia o?eueee nai? ?aea?, a oaeiae ?o
i?iia?aiaeenonueea aeei?enoaiiy oa ni?eeiyooy aae?anaoii, oiaoi ia eeoa
oaenoe, a e eiioaenoe. Oea ii?aeiaiiy oaenoo e eiioaenoo ae?noaei iacao
aeeneo?no. Aiae?c aeeneo?no noaa ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y iaei??th c
iaeiiioey?i?oeo ? iaeie?aei?oeo ae?eyiie cao?aeii? iaoee. A Oe?a?i? eiai
canai?iiy e canoinoaaiiiy uieii ii/eia?oueny. C iaeyaeo ia oea a
aeena?oaoe?? ei?ioei ?icaeyiooi aeei?enoiaoaai? a nioe?aeueieo iaoeao
icia/aiiy aeeneo?no oa eiai aieiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Cacia/aii, cie?aia,
ui a?eueo?noue aaoi??a i?aee?aneththoue nooue aeeneo?no ye “iiae o
aaeeoeo”, iath/e ia oaac? eiai ia eeoa e?i?a?noe/io, aea oaeiae
nioe?aeueio i?e?iaeo. Oiio aeine?aeieee /anii aiai?youe i?i aeeneo?neaio
no?aoaa?th iiaoey, yea iiaea aooe e iaona?aeiieaiith, i?ioa
?ao?iniaeoeaii /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny. ?aeiino?oeoe?y oe??? no?aoaa?? ?
aaaeeeaei neeaaeieeii ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeeneo?no. Caaaeaii oaeiae oai??th
I?oaey Ooei i?i aca?iica’ycie i?ae iiaith oa aeaaeith ye nioe?aeueieie
oaiiiaiaie, ca?aeii c yeith aeeneo?n ? ia eeoa i?iaeoeoii, aea oaeiae
i?iaeooeaioii aeaaeieo a?aeiinei, oiaoi e aecia/a?oueny nioe?aeueiith
no?oeoo?ith, ? aieeaa? ia ia?.

Iaea?eueo? iiaeeeaino? ooaa?aeeoe e i?aeo?eioaaoe na?e aeeneo?n ye
iai?aiee iathoue ae?oe, ui eiio?ieththoue iaea?eueoa iio??aieo aeey
oeueiai ?ano?n?a. ?aeaoueny ia eeoa i?i aeaaeio e iaa?oue ia eeoa i?i
iie?oe/io ae?oo, a i?i aoaeue-yeo c /eiieo o no/anieo ?iaeono??aeueieo
noni?euenoaao “no?aoaa?/ieo ae?o”, ui iin?aeathoue iai?ai? iiceoe?? a
iaai?e noa?? ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?. Iei? a oeeo noni?euenoaao aeaaea
oa aieea ae?o /anoi ? aeeneo?neaieie e cae?eniththoueny /a?ac
ia?aaaaeiee aeinooi aei ioae?/iiai aeeneo?no. Aeeneo?neai? iaoai?cie
aieeao ia na?aeii?noue ian aeei?enoiaothoueny e o ai?iouea? ca aeaaeo:
eeaeath/e aeeeee aeaaei?e ae?o?, ?? eiieo?aioe iaiaaathoueny c?iaeoe
aaaeaeai oeneo ia ia? i?aeo?eieo nai?o i?aaiaiue ianaie, oiaoi
ciia?e?coaaoe ?o (o ??cieo oi?iao — a?ae oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii?
aeai?/i? i???ioaoe?? aei noai?aiiy ianiaiai noni?eueiiai ?ooo). Caaeey
oeueiai ae?oa, ui i?aoaiaeo? ia aeaaeo, ia? ia??oiooaaoe nai? i?aaiaiiy
ia?aae naieie ianaie ye ?aae?caoe?th caaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano, a oaeiae nai?
i?aai oeth ?aae?caoe?th i/ieeoe, oiaoi ea??oei?coaaoe naith i?ia?aeio
?ieue a ?i?oe?eiaaiiio i?ioean? ci?i.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi aeei?enoaiiy aeeneo?neaieo iaoai?ci?a
aieeao ia ianiao na?aeii?noue iaei??th c neiaie?/ieo (oiaoi oeo, ui
eiio?ieththoue caniae eiioi?eaoe?? oa ii?eothoueny oi?ioaaiiyi
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee) ae?o oe?a?inueeiai ?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa —
ienueiaiieoeueeith. Cacia/aii, ui aeiyoeiaee oni?o, yeiai aeinyaee
ienueiaiieee a ooaa?aeaeaii? aeueoa?iaoeaiiai ioae?/iiai aeeneo?no e
caeiaooo? ca eiai aeiiiiiaith aieeao ia iane, iiynith?oueny ia?o ca ana
?oi?i io?oe?eiei noaoonii ? iia’ycaieie c iei ?ano?naie. Aiaeii/an
aeoeai?noue ienueiaiiee?a o aeei?enoaii? iaaeaiiai ia?aaoaeiaith oaino
aei aaeeei? i??e coiiaethaaeany iniaeea?noth ?oiueiai noaiiaeua ye
iaei??? c ae?oieo a?oi oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa a na?aaeei? 80-o
?ie?a.

Ia?oith i?iaeaiith, ui ?? ii?ooeee ienueiaiieee, aoei, i?e?iaeii,
caoaeaiiy noa?e aaeeoeo oe?a?inueei? iiae. A?ae 1986 ?ieo aiie ii/aee
e?eoeeoaaoe oea ye ii?ooaiiy i?eioeei?a “eai?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee”. Ia’?eoii iniaeeai? oaaae ienueiaiiee?a noaei nia?oo
aeeeaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae oa e?oa?aoo?e a oeieao ?anioae?ee, a iio?i
? iiaa iaa/aiiy acaaae?: aiie ??oo/a aenooieee i?ioe cai?iaaaeaeaiiai
iai?ee?ioe? 50-o ?ie?a i?aaa a?eueiiai aeai?o aaoueeaie iiae iaa/aiiy
ae?oae, yea, ia ?oi? ia?aeiiaiiy, ni?ey? aeo?niaiith oe?a?inueei? iiae.
Ienueiaiieee i?iiiioaaee iaoii?noue i?eaanoe e?euee?noue oe?a?ii- oa
?in?enueeiiiaieo oe?e o a?aeiia?aei?noue c aoi?/iei neeaaeii ianaeaiiy,
caeeeeath/e aei?aaeyoe “niioai?aio” iiaio ?aaeuei?noue, oiaoi
“iiaa?oaoe” c?oneo?eiaaieo oe?a?ioe?a aei oe?a?inueei? iiae. Aaaaeath/e,
ui a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca caa?aaeaiiy iiaiiai na?aaeiaeua oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo ia? eaaeaoe ia eiai aea?aeaa? — O?N?, — ienueiaiieee ia ii/aoeo
1987 ?ieo aenoioee aeiiao eiinoeoooe?eii cao?enoaaoe aea?aeaaiee noaoon
oe?a?inueei? iiae e ooaaeeoe niaoe?aeueiee caeii i?i ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a on?o noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Ai?iiy/e nai? i?iiiceoe?? a?ae
caeeae?a uiaei cac?oaiue ia “aeaiie?aoe/iee i?eioeei” aeai?o iiae
iaa/aiiy, aiie caa?oaee oaaao ia i?e/eie, ui coiiaeththoue eiai ae?th
ia ia ei?enoue oe?a?inueei? iiae, — cie?aia, a?ooaeueia ii?ooaiiy canaae
?aaeyinueei? oaaea?aoe??. Oae iio?aaa caoenoo iiae caeooae?coaaea
i?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? eiinoeoooe?eii i?iaieioaiiai noaa?ai?oaoo
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Ua aaaeeea?oo ?ieue a ia??oiooaaii? aeiia ?icoe?aiiy noaa?aiieo i?aa
O?N? a?ae?a?aea aeieia?/ia i?iia?aiaea. Iaeia/a, ye iieacaii a
aeena?oaoe??, aei oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui naia *i?iiaeeue iieeaa ii/aoie
iia?e oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaai?e ?aea? oa iaoe?iiae?noe/iei iano?iyi o
noni?euenoa?, aaeeeith i??ith ni?e/eieeany ?ao?iniaeoeaia i?oioai?/?noue
iaooiaiiee?a oe??? ai?ioueae. Ai iani?aaae? e ona?aeiieaiiy iane?aee?a
eaoano?ioe aeey Oe?a?ie i?eeoei ia a?ae?aco, e iaoe?iiae?noe/iee
neiaie?ci, ui iaaieiooaaa caa?ico aeey eiaeiiai ?? iaoeaioey, c’yaeany a
ienaiiyo i?i *i?iiaeeue uieii ca e?eueea ?ie?a. Aaa??y noaeany ia naiiio
ii/aoeo ia?aaoaeiae, eiee eiiia?o?y ua caa??aaea iiiiiieueiee aieea ia
ianiao na?aeii?noue, — oiae aiia ni?iaoaaea iiaeaoe eiai ye
aei?iaoaaiiy, ui ia? cao?ooaaoe an?o ?aaeyinueeeo ethaeae. Oe?a?inuee?
ienueiaiieee nia?oo ia eeoa ia ia?aoeiaeaeaee oeueiio, a e a?eueo /e
iaio aeoeaii aeiiiiaaaee, iaceaath/e aieiaiith iaoeith c *i?iiaeey
eiia/io iio?aao anainyaeiiai yaea?iiai ?icca?i?iiy. Iaaaeiac?, iaeiae,
aiie aaea aiai?eee i?i ?ioo iaoeo — i?aai a?iiaaenueeino? (e ia?aaeon?i
naieo ienueiaiiee?a) ao?o/aoeny a aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie, inea?aeoth/e
“aocueeia?aeii/?” ooaaee iaoeiaoe?a-yaea?iee?a oa /eiiaiee?a. A i?ney
oiai, ye nithcia I?iaoiiaia??i, ??ii?oth/e aeieia?/i? oa ineoieia?/i?
iane?aeee *i?iiaeey, ae??oeei ?aaeeeaeueii ca?eueoeoe /enei aoiiieo
aia??iaeie?a o ?anioae?oe?, oe?a?inuee? ienueiaiieee e iaoeiaoe?
noi?ioethaaee naith iiiceoe?th oeei iai??ai o oa?i?iao caoenoo ?ioa?an?a
Oe?a?ie oa ?? ia?iaeo a?ae ianooio nithcieo ath?ie?ao?a. Ia?aoo?,
iai?ee?ioe? 1988 ?ieo “aoiiia” iie?oeea nithciiai oeaio?o aaea
eaae?o?eoaaeany ii noo? ye aaiioeeae i?ioe oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
(caiaeii naia oeae oa?i?i ia?aaaaeaoeia a iaoe?iiae?noe/iiio aeeneo?n?).
Ia iaio aaaeeeaa i?noea iin?aeaea a 1988-1991 ?ieao oaca i?i aeieia?/io
aaca?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oe?a?inueei? i?aaey/i? aa?o?aee, ?? aeio a
i?eoiaoaaii? a?ae ianaeaiiy i?aaaee i?i *i?iiaeeue. Aiia iineeeea
“aeaiie?aoe/iee” (aioeeiioi?noe/iee) — ia aeiaea/o aei
oa?eoi??aeueii-iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai (i?ioe?iia?nueeiai) — aei??
aeieia?/ii? i?iia?aiaee.

Ua iaei??th noa?ith ae?yeueiino?, ui ?? a?aee?eea ienueiaiieeai oa ?ioei
aoiai?oa?ieeai ia?aaoaeiaa, aoei iiaa?iaiiy a eoeueoo?iee ia?a aeeo/aieo
?c iueiai a ?aaeyinuee? aeanyoee?ooy iaoa??aeueieo iai’yoie, oai??a,
?iai, a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?e?niino? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?ii?
niaaeueie. C ia?oeo ?ie?a ia?aaoaeiae aeoea?coaaeeny coneeey, ni?yiiaai?
ia caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai caoenoo iai’yoie ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e.
Caiaeii ai?ioueaa ca caa?aaeaiiy aeayeeo iai’yoie iaaoea, ye ? eaiiai?y
i?ioe aoiiieo aeaeo?inoaioe?e, oa?aeoa?o i?ioenoiyiiy a?iiaaenueeino?
?anioae?ee iiaooi?i nithciei a?aeiinoaai ? ni?eyea iie?oecaoe??
noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?. ? oi/a ca aieeaii ia oeth na?aeii?noue
“iai’yoeiao” i?iia?aiaeo aiae? ii??aiyoe c aeieia?/iith, ienueiaiieee e
?noi?eee aeei?enoaee ?? aeey “i?iaoaeaeaiiy” ?noi?e/ii? iai’yo? ia?iaeo,
ci?oeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? e iao??ioecio. Oeueiio caaaeaiith
iaea neoaeeoe e ?aaa?e?oaoe?y oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? oa iiaa?iaiiy ?iai ?
oai??a eoeueoo?ieo ae?y/?a ieioeiai, ia?aaeon?i ienueiaiiee?a
(a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?e?niino? e aaaaonoaa oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e oa
eoeueoo?e acaaae? iieeeeaia aoei oaeiae ci?oeieoe a?oiiao ?aeaioe/i?noue
naieo ?aaa?e?oaoi??a). Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?in??, aeiaaee /an ?oeiny ii
noo? eeoa i?i a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?e?niino? oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei?
?noi???, aea “iiaa?iaiiy aei Eai?ia” aeaaaei ciiao ?icaeyaeaoe, cie?aia,
e i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo N?N?, caeiaooee e o?aaaae?th
iaoe?iiae-eiioi?no?a, “aeaoi?iaoe?th i?eioeei?a ?aaeyinueei?
oaaea?aoe??”. Oa iaeaieth/?oith oaiith ?aaeyinueeiai (? ia o?eueee)
ieioeiai Oe?a?ie aoa aieiae 1933 ?ieo, ui eiai ienueiaiieee noaaeee
ii?yae ?c *i?iiaeeai a oa?aa iaeo?aa?/i?oeo iiae?e iaoe?iiaeueii?
?noi???, oaeiae iaceaath/e eiai — iii?e caia?a/aiiy ?noi?ee?a — aeoii
aaiioeeaeo i?ioe oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

O?ao?e ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? i?enay/aii aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaii? ?aea? a aeeneo?n? aeeneaeaio?a. Aiie ii?oooaaee
caeaa?eueoiai o? ae nai? oaie, ui e ienueiaiieee, — iiae, aeieia??,
?noi???, noaa?ai?oaoo, — i?ioa ?oiy “ianaieoe?iiiaaia” i?aeo?eiea
i?iaieioaiiai ea??aieoeoaii N?N? ?aoi?i?nonueeiai eo?no ?noioii
a?ae??ciyeany a?ae ienueiaiieoeueei?. Iiaa/eaoe a oeueiio eo?n?
iiaeeea?noue aeeiiaiiy /anoeie nai?o aeiia, aeeneaeaioe i?aaiaoe/ii
iiaiaeaeoaaeeny ni?ai?aoethaaoe c Yi?aa/iaei — a iai?i ia ?icoe?aiiy e
iiaeeaeaiiy ?aoi?i a?aeiia?aeii aei ?oi?o i?iiiceoe?e. Naia oaeith aoea
nia?oo iiceoe?y a?aeiiaeaiiai ae?oeo 1987 ?ieo naiaeaeaaiiai aeo?iaeo
“Oe?a?inueeee a?niee”, ui iinoaaea nia? ca iaoo ii?oooaaoe i?iaeaie, ye?
oo?aothoue oe?ie? eiea oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaenueeino?, aea cian?i ia
aena?oeththoueny aai oaeueoothoueny io?oe?eiith i?anith. Iaeaecia/i?oei
c oi?uaieo ia eiai noi??ieao oai??a noaa “A?aee?eoee eeno” ?aaeaeoi?a
aeo?iaeo Ay/aneaaa *i?iiaiea Ieoaeeia? Yi?aa/iao, a yeiio i?aeaeaii
??ce?e e?eoeoe? iaiaaeaiee ? iaiine?aeiaiee oa?aeoa? ia?aaoaeiae,
cie?aia, a iaoe?iiaeueiiio ieoaii?, ui iieieeiny “a aeooiio eoo?
ia?aaoaeiae”. AEi?noei cayaeyth/e, ui aeiaeieo aeueoa?iaoea
aeioaia??oi?e noae?inuee?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e iie?oeoe? ia ciaeaeaii, aaoi?
oiae? ua aaaaeaa ca iiaeeeaa ooeaoe oeeo aeueoa?iaoea ia oeyoo
“iiaa?iaiiy aei eai?inueeeo ii?i”, yea iiaeiia ii/eiaoeny o aeueo
aoaeiiao ia?o?eii? oa aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Iaeia?oa, aaaaeaa a?i,
iaiao?aeii i?iaanoe niaoe?aeueiee ieaioi OeE EI?N, yeee, i?iaiae?coaaaoe
ni?aaaei?e noai iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?aa o N?N?, ia? ii?aoethaaoe eiie?aoi?
caoiaee caaeey aei?aaeaiiy noaiiaeua. *i?iia?e i?iiiioaaa ae??ooaaoe
iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy anaa?/ii, i???iooth/enue, cie?aia, ia ?aoeaioe
oe?a?i?caoe?? 20-o ?ie?a. ?oeiny e i?i ?icoe?aiiy i?aa ?anioae?e o
iie?oe/iiio, aeiiii?/iiio, eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo?, e i?i iiaa?iaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiei iiaai aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo ooieoe?e, ? i?i
?aaa?e?oaoe?th iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??? (ia eeoa ?aaeyinueei?).

Iiaeaeueoo ?aaeeeae?caoe?th iiceoe?? aeeneaeaio?a ni?e/eieei
?ic/a?oaaiiy iia?eueieie oaiiaie ia?aaoaeiae, ui cioneei ?o noii?aaoeny
a ni?iiiaeiino? cae?enithaaiiai Yi?aa/iaei eo?no ?ica’ycaoe
iaeaaaeeea?o? i?iaeaie ?yaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, ia?aaeon?i
iaoe?iiaeueio. Oea a?aeaeeiny e o ia?aioe?ioe? (cie?aia, *i?iiaieii)
aanea “iiaa?iaiiy aei Eai?ia”, e a inoaoi/iiio i?iuaii? c iaae?yie ia
ia?aaoaeiao “cai?e”, ui ?? aeaiiino?othoue aeieoiaioe i?iaaaeaii? o
Eueaia? a /a?ai? 1988 ?ieo Ia?aaee i?aaenoaaiee?a
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?oo?a ia?iae?a N?N?. I?aenoieiaa cayaa
ia?aaee i?noeoue ?aaeeeaeuei? aeiiae aeeneaeaio?a o iaoe?iiaeueiiio
ieoaii?, ni?yiiaai? ia ?icoe?aiiy noaa?aiieo i?aa nithcieo ?anioae?e. Oa
iaeiiai?oa aeneiaeaii oe? aeiiae a ii?eethaeiai?e 7 eeiiy Aeaeea?aoe??
i?eioeei?a Oe?a?inueei? Aaeuen?inueei? ni?eee, ui caaeaeea?oaaea
i?iaeiaaeaiiy i?aaicaoenieo o?aaeeoe?e Oe?a?inueei? Aaeuen?inueei? a?oie
e?ioey 70-o — ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a ? aiaeii/an i???ioaoe?th ia ea?aeueio
iiiceoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue. Oea aoea aeueoa?iaoeaia aei io?oe?eiiai eo?no
i?ia?aia anaioiiii? aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa, a ye?e ?ica’ycaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai aoei eeoa iaeiei, oae ? iaeaaaeeea?oei
neeaaeieeii. Iniiaiith ?a?aio??th caaacia/aiiy i?aa ye oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, oae ? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei Oe?a?ie OAN oaaaeaea “a?aeiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, yea nueiaiaei? ?nio? o?eueee ia iaia??”.
Iaeaooi? ni?aaeeooy ia?iae?a N?N? aaoi?e oyaeyee iiaeeeaei o oi?i?
eiioaaea?aoe?? iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa, ia?ao?aeiei aoaiii aei /iai iiaea
aooe oaaea?aoe?y noaa?aiieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?anioae?e ?c iaeneiaeueiith
iie?oe/iith, aeiiii?/iith oa eoeueoo?iith aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??th. A
aeaeea?aoe?? ie?aneaii ieceo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia a?aeiiaeaiiy
aea?aeaaiino?. ?aooa i?eioeei?a, ye? noinoaaeeny iie?oe/ieo,
aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, aeieia?/ieo, a?enueeiaeo oa ?ioeo i?iaeai,
a?aeaeaaee oyaeaiiy /eai?a ni?eee i?i aaaeaiee ono??e iaeaooiuei?
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Eoeiny, cie?aia, i?i ieth?ae?caoe?th iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy, ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a a aeiiii?/i?e noa??, neanoaaiiy
iiiaieeaoo?ieo i?ea?ea?a ? aiaeii/an a?aeiiao a?ae “c??aiye?aee”,
iaooeeueia aeio?eiaiiy i?aa ethaeeie, ia?aaeon?i i?aaa aeneiaethaaoe
nai? iiaeyaee e iioe?thaaoe ?aea?.

I?iaeiaaeoaaoe ?icii/aoo OAN aeoea?caoe?th ian aeiaei noai?aiiio ca
o/ano? ni?eee Ia?iaeiiio ?ooia? Oe?a?ie ca ia?aaoaeiao, aeeneo?n yeiai
?icaeyaea?oueny a /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe??. ?oo?anueeee aoai o
?icaeoeo iia?oiuei? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? iciaiaioaaany
ia’?aeiaiiyi ?aeaeiiai e i?aai?caoe?eiiai aeina?aeo aeeneaeaio?a c?
caeiaooeie “ana?aaeei? ?aaeeio” eiioi?eaoe?eieie iiaeeeainoyie
ienueiaiieoeueei-iaoeiai? ae?oe, oi?ioethaaiiyi i?iaeoo anaioiiii?
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa, i?aeo?eieith oeueiai i?iaeoo aeaaeae?
oe?oeie ianaie, iiaeieaiiyi iiiiiie?? eiiia?o?? ia ioae?/io noa?o e
??ceei ciaioaiiyi ?? iie?oe/iiai aieeao. Ci?ie a
?aeaeii-i?aai?caoe?eiiio iaiiaiaii? iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i? aoee
iia’ycai? c iiaei aoaiii o ?icaeoeo ia?aaoaeiae a N?N?, iicia/aiei
aeoeaiith i?aeo?eieith ?aoi?iaoi?nueeeo iai???a Yi?aa/iaa ia?aaoaeiaieie
?i?oe?aoeaaie “cieco”. I?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie 1988 ?ieo ni?iae
i?aai?caoe?eii ioi?ieoe oeth i?aeo?eieo ?iaeee a ??cieo i?noao
?anioae?ee OAN oa ?io? “iaoi?iaeuei?” i?aai?caoe??. I?ioa eeoa Ni?eoe?
ienueiaiiee?a oaeaeiny, aeei?enoiaoth/e io?oe?eiee noaoon,
eiioi?eaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? e ioae?oeenoe/io iiioey?i?noue e?aea??a,
cao?ooaaoe iiiceoe?ei? neee Oe?a?ie a ?on? ca ia?aaoaeiao. Iioae?eiaaiee
o ethoiio 1989 ?ieo i?iaeo i?ia?aie ?ooo, ca c?acie aeey aaoi??a yeiai
i?aaeee i?ia?aie aaeo?enueeeo ia?iaeieo o?iio?a oa ?o oe?a?inueeee
aiaeia — Aeaeea?aoe?y i?eioeei?a OAN, — ia i?a ia ni?eeiaoeny ye
aeueoa?iaoeaa i?ia?ai? ci?i, i?iaieioai?e eiiia?o??th. Aaoi?e oaa?aeeee,
ui aeciathoue ea??aio ?ieue EI?N ? cae?athoueny aeinyaaoe oe??? iaoe,
ni?eyth/e eiiia?o?? o noai?aii? aeaiie?aoe/iiai iaoai?cio, yeee neoaeea
ae ?icaeoeo ii??yiiai ieie noni?euenoaa. I?ioa ?oo, ie?anethaaiee ye
“caaaeueiiia?iaeiee aeya noaaeaiiy ? i?aeo?eiee ?aaiethoe?eii?,
caii/aoeiaaii? ia?o??th Ia?aaoaeiae”, aiie aa/eee ?aaeoa caniaii c?iaeoe
oeth ia?aaoaeiao ni?aaae? ?aaiethoe?eiith, iiaanoe ?? a?ae
e?aa?ae?caoe?? ?aaeeio aei anainyaeii? aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?eueiiai
aeeooy. I?i oea na?ae/eoue, cie?aia, ianoi?ni?noue i?iiiiiaaiiai i?iaeoo
c? caa?aaeaiiyi iie?oe/ii? iiiiiie?? EI?N. Oo?i, ?i?oe?aoi?e ?ooo
iaa?yae /e aaaaeaee ?aoi?i?nonueeee iioaioe?ae ia?o?? ae/a?iaiei, oiae
iiaee niiae?aaoeny, noeioethth/e eiai ?aae?caoe?th ca aeiiiiiaith
eiioi?no?a-?oo?aoe?a oa oeneo c aieo oe?ieeo ian, aeinyaoe aiaeae
/anoeie iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue “?oeaie” naiiai ?aaeeio.

Oaoiaee ?ioa?an ienueiaiiee?a ? ia?ciai?noue ?c i?aaeiaoii coiiaeee
a?eueoo oaaao aei iiaii-eoeueoo?ieo i?iaeai. I?ioa, ye ? a Aeaeea?aoe??
i?eioeei?a, ?o ?ica’ycaiiy ?icaeyaeaeiny a eiioaeno? aeaiie?aoecaoe??
an?o noa? noni?eueiiai aeeooy. ?? iniiaith iaee noaoe “aeaiiioaae
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ath?ie?aoe/ii? nenoaie” oa “ia?aoai?aiiy N?N? o
ni?aaaei?e nithc a?aoi?o noaa?aiieo ia?iae?a ia iniia? eai?inueei?
i?ia?aie oaaea?ae?cio”. Aeieeaaeiiai iieno niiae?aaiiai iie?oe/iiai
ono?ith oa niinia?a eiai aeinyaiaiiy a i?iaeo? iaia?: ia a?aei?io a?ae
aaoi??a aeaeea?aoe??, /?oei ci???ioiaaieo ia cao?aei? aeaiie?aoe/i?
c?acee, ?i?oe?aoi?e ?ooo ua ia aioia? aoee noi?ioethaoe aeueoa?iaoeao
?i?aa/ianuee?e i?ia?ai? “iiaa?iaiiy aei eai?inueeeo ii?i”. Iaoii?noue
/?oei canoa?aaeaii i?aaiaee oa?aeoa? iaeaooiuei? aea?aeaae, a ye?e
“i?aai noi?oue iaae aea?aeaaith, ?? ?inoeoooe?yie, a?iiaaenueeeie
i?aai?caoe?yie oa ie?aieie a?iiaaeyiaie”. C iaeyaeo ia i?ci?oee aoaoeci
iaoe?iiae-aeaiie?ao?a iniaeeai aaaeeeai cacia/eoe, ui ?oi?e ia?a?niee
aeaiie?aoe/iee i?iaeo ??oiooaaany ia oiio, ui “aea?aeaaa ?nio? aeey
ethaeeie, a ia iaaiaee; … aea?aeaaa iiaeiia ianoe oaeo ae
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia?aae a?iiaaeyieiii, ye ? a?iiaaeyiei ia?aae
aea?aeaaith”. Aiaeii/an ?c i?aaaie ethaeeie iaeaooi?e ?oo cae?aany
ianoithaaoe e i?aaa ia?iaeo — ianaiia?aae “i?aai naiiio ae??ooaaoe naith
aeieth”, ao?eaia, cie?aia, a ?aae?caoe?? eiinoeoooe?eieo i?aa eiai
aea?aeaae — O?N?. Oeae aeoae?ci i?inoaaeo?oueny, i?ei??ii, a aeiiii?/i?e
/anoei? i?iaeoo: aaoi?e aaaaeaee, ui o?yaeia? ?anioae?ee “ia? aooe
iaaeaia i?aai i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoe aeiiii?/i? ??oaiiy nioe?aeueiei oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iei caaaeaiiyi”. I??i?eoao eieaeoeaieo i?aa
iniaeeai iii?oiee o ?icae?e? i?iaeoo, i?enay/aiiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iei i?iaeaiai. A iueiio eoeiny i?i “iaiao?aei?noue
?aaeeeaeueieo aea?aeaaieo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?aaeueia
ooaa?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?”, cie?aia, caaacia/aiiy
oe?ieiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa anaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iiae. Oeae
e?ie, caiaaiyee aaoi?e, ia icia/aoeia ??ii?oaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a iaioei. I?ioa oeae ieth?ae?ci iioe?thaaany eeoa ia aoi?/ii — a
ia iiaii-eoeueoo?ii — ie?anethaai? ni?eueiioe. Ca ?in?enueeiiiaieie
oe?a?ioeyie i?aaa ia ?icaeoie ?oiuei? iiae ienueiaiieee e aeae? ia
aeciaaaee, aeiaaath/e ia?aaeyiooe i?aeoeeo a?eueiiai aeai?o aaoueeaie
iiae iaa/aiiy. Oey aeiiaa /e ia iaea?eueoa oneeaaeithaaea ni?eeiyooy
?aea? ia?iaeiiai ?ooo ?in?enueeiiiaieie iaoeaioeyie ?anioae?ee.

*an, ui ieioa a?ae ioae?eaoe?? i?iaeoo aei eiai ia?aoai?aiiy ia /eiio
i?ia?aio, oa?aeoa?ecoaaany oae?aciaiiyi ?? aeaiie?aoe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino?
e ?aaeeeae?caoe??th iiiceoe?eieo aanae. Coiiaethaaea oe? ci?ie ia eeoa
aeaaeae? aeoeai?oa o/anoue aeeneaeaio?a ? “iaoi?iae?a”, a ia?aaeon?i
iie?oecaoe?y na?aeiiino? ian, ui aaeeeith i??ith e oiiaeeeaeea aenoiaiiy
?aaeeeae?a ia /?euei? iiceoe??. A ooaaeai?e ia onoaiia/iio c’?cae?
i?ia?ai? aaea ia aoei caaaeee i?i ea??aio ?ieue eiiia?o?? oa a??i?noue
“nioe?ae?noe/iiio aeai?ia?”. I?iiiiiaaia i?ia?aia ci?i aeeacoaaea
i???ioaoe?th ia ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai eaaeo, a ia cai?io eiai
aeaiie?aoe/iith nenoaiith cao?aeiiai c?acea. Ao?i, ii?yae ?c
oi?ioethaaiiyie c aeieoiaio?a III uiaei i?aa ethaeeie a oaeno? i?ia?aie
cono??/aeeny ia?aaoaeia/? ooaiie ia eooaeo “noae?inueei?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie” oa “eai?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee”. Oei/anii ye iii??eiaai? e?aea?e ?ooo (ianoaiiae yeeo ? aoei
a?aeaeoi a i?ia?ai?) aaaaeaee oioae?oa?eci niioai?aiiyi i?e?iaee
nioe?ae?noe/iiai eaaeo, ?aaeeeaee c OAN a?aeeeaeaee anth n?iaeanyoe??/io
i?aeoeeo ?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio ye “eiioeoaa??iee nioe?ae?ci”. ??cieoey
aeeneo?n?a ? i?ia?ai iii??eiaaiiai e ?aaeeeaeueiiai iai?yi?a aeyaeeany e
o ieoaii? i?i aea?aeaai?noue Oe?a?ie oa noaaeaiiy aei Nithco ?N?.
Ienueiaiieee, iia’ycoth/e ii?ooaiiy i?eioeei?a ?aaeyinueei? oaaea?aoe??
c “aeieeiaiiyi noae?inueei? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie”,
ianoithaaee ia?aoai?aiiy N?N? ia “nithc ni?aaae? noaa?aiieo aea?aeaa ia
canaaeao iiaii? ??aiii?aaiino? an?o eiai noa’?eo?a”. Iaoii?noue
?noi?ee-aeeneaeaio Ieoaeei A?ae/aanueeee, ui ?iaea ia c’?cae?
aeiiia?aeue i?i aeoiee oa ia?niaeoeae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, aa/ea
ei??iiy i?iaeai o anaaeaaeiino? nithciiai oeaio?o e i?iiiioaaa iicaooeny
eiai, o?ainoi?ioaaaoe N?N? o eiioaaea?aoe?th ca c?aceii ?a?iiaenueei?
ni?eueiioe. A i?aaenoaaieee OAN, oaa?oth/e cei/eie oea?nueei? oa
a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?iia???, ?aeeiei ii?yooieii a?ae ?o i?iaeiaaeaiiy
aaaaeaee iiaio aea?aeaaio iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie.

Caoa a ieoaii? i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie oa
eieaeoeaieie i?aaaie iiceoe?? aeeneaeaionueeeo ?
ienueiaiieoeueei-iaoeiaeo ?aeaieia?a ?ooo aeyaeeeny aeoaea aeecueeeie. A
iiaiio oaeno? /?oei i?iaieioaii, ui “i?aaa ? naiaiaee ?iaeea?aea ia
iiaeii? noia?a/eoe i?aao ia?iaeo ia naiicaa?aaeaiiy oa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy”.
Oea iaaeaicia/ia i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy iniae iaoe?? ia?aaa?oaei i??i?eoaoe
Aeaeea?aoe?? i?eioeei?a: yeui oiae? iaoe?y aoea i?e?iaeiei na?aaeiaeuai,
o yeiio iniaa iiaea anaa?/ii ?ice?eoe nai? cae?aiino?, oi oaia? ?ioa?ane
iaoe?? noaaaee iaiaaeoaa/ai i?aa ethaeeie. Oey ci?ia aeoeaio?a aeaeany
aciaee e o e?eueeio ?ioeo iieiaeaiiyo i?ia?aie — ia?aaeon?i uiaei
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy: aei eiiia?aoeaii? ?aea? aca?iicoiiaeaiino? oa
aca?iini?eyiiy aoi?/ieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue oe?a?ioe?a ? iaioei aeiaeaii e
iani?eyoeeaee aeey ?oiuei? aca?iiae?? aeaiaio eiieo?aioiiai
aoiiiaoe?iiae?cio. Iaeyne?aa?oa oey oaiaeaioe?y aeyaeeany, ciiao ae
oaee, a noaaeaii? aei ?in?enueeiiiaieo oe?a?ioe?a: caa?iaiiy c’?caeo
“Aei oe?a?ioe?a, ui i?iaeeaathoue ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?inueei? ?N? ? ia?aee
nai?th ??aeiith iiaith iiao ?in?enueeo”, ae?acii a?ae??ciyeiny
iaoiea?aioi?noth oiio a?ae ?ioeo aeieoiaio?a ?ooo.

No?aoaa?/iei iai?yieii ai?ioueae ca ?aae?caoe?th ooaaeaii? i?ia?aie
i?ia?aeieee ?ooo aaaaeaee ia?aiiao iaae “neeaie canoith” ia caieaiiaaieo
ia aanio 1990 ?ieo aeai?ao aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee O?N? oa i?noeaaeo ?aae.
Ai?ioueaa ia oeueiio iai?yieo ?icii/aeany c caeiio i?i aeai?e, ooaaeaiiy
ni?eyoeeaiai aeey naaa aa??aioa yeiai iaeaea? noi?iie iaaaci?aenoaaii
aaaaeaee aieiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith iaeaooiueiai oni?oo. Iioae?eiaaiee o
na?ii? 1989 ?ieo i?iaeo i?noea on? iaaeaiie?aoe/i? ii?ie, ye?
a?iiaaenuee?noue e?eoeeoaaea i?ae /an nithcieo aeai??a ? ye? aeiaaee
aia?aoia? naith aoaeoeai?noue ye ?ino?oiaio caa?aaeaiiy aeaaee. Aoei
ia?aaeaa/aii, cie?aia, ?aca?aoaaiiy /anoeie iaiaeao?a aeey aeai??a a?ae
“a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e”, iiaeeea?noue aacaeueoa?iaoeaieo aeai??a oa
iai?yia ia?aiiy Aa?oiaii? ?aaee. Aeeneon?y uiaei oeeo ii?i aeeoea iica
iaae? aeania aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa (aaeaea aiie noinoaaeeny oaeiae
i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee) e aeaea iaaiaeo aeey ioae?/ii?
ia?aioe?iee aaaaoueio iaii?ooieo aeioe a N?N? ?aeaieia?/ieo aeiaiao?a.
Aee?enoae?coaaoe c oeueiai ?aeaeiiai a?iae?iiy /?oeo iiiceoe?eio
ieaooi?io aeiiiiiaee iaoi?iaeuei? i?aai?caoe??, ui ao?ooaaeeny aeiaeiea
noai?thaaiiai ?ooo, ia?aaeon?i ?anioae?eainueeee aeaiooaonueeee eeoa.
Iaaaeiac? i?ney ii?eethaeiaiiy io?oe?eiiai i?iaeoo ?AeE i?aeaiooaaa
aeueoa?iaoeaiee — ? ca i?oei?iai? i?aeo?eiee ian aeii?any eiai
ioae?eaoe??, ui aoei, iii?e e?eoe/i? caoaaaeaiiy uiaei aeayeeo
iieiaeaiue i?iaeoo, ni?eeiyoi ye aaaeeeao ia?aiiao iiiceoe?eieo nee.
Aaci?aoeaaeaioiee oene a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee cionea aeaaeo ua aei
?icaeyaeo caeiiii?iaeo?a Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith iiaiaeeoeny ia a?eueo?noue
aeiia iiiceoe??. A?aeoae caa?aaeaiiy o aeai?/iio caeii? aeayeeo
iaaeaiie?aoe/ieo ii?i caoeiaeeei aeaiie?aoe/iino? aeai??a iaaaaaoi
iaioa, i?ae oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeaaee oeae caeii ii?oooaaoe. Caeiaooe
aeaaeo ia aeai?ao ?ooia? ia aaeaeiny, e ai?ioeny ca ?aae?caoe?th nai??
i?ia?aie eiio aeiaaeiny aaea a ia?eaiaio?.

Aeai?e iieeaee ii/aoie iiaiio, ia?eaiaionueeiio aoaiia? aaiethoe??
aea?aeaaii? ?aea?, yeiio i?enay/aii i’yoee ?icae?e. Oeae aoai
iciaiaioaaany, ii-ia?oa, ?? aeaeueoith ?aaeeeae?caoe??th,
eiie?aoecaoe??th oa oaiaoe/iei ?icoe?aiiyi. Ii-ae?oaa, oaia? aiia
ia?anoaea aooe aeoai?ii eeoa aeueoa?iaoeaieo ae?o ? noaea oa?aiii
?oiueiai aeeneo?neaiiai i?ioenoiyiiy c ae?oaie aeaaeieie, a yeiio eiaeia
c? noi??i i?iia?oaaea aeani? oyaeaiiy i?i aaaeaiee ono??e oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae. Ii-o?ao?, ci?ieeeny oi?ie aeeneo?neaiiai aeyao aea?aeaaii?
?aea? oa oa?aeoa? ?? aieeao ia iie?oe/io ?aaeuei?noue. sseui ?ai?o?
noaoo?, i?ia?aie, i?iiiae ia i?oei?ao i?iiiioaaee ci?ie /e caeeeeaee aei
ieo, oi oaia? c’yaeeeny oaeiae caeiie e iinoaiiae, ye? o? ci?ie
cae?enithaaee, aaea ia o?eueee ie?anethth/e aaaeaio aea?aeaao, a oai?y/e
??. Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a oi?ioethaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? ?aea?
aoei oai?aiiy naiiai ia?eaiaioo ye aaaeeeai? ia?aaeoiiae e neeaaeieea
aeaiie?ao??.

Aaea ia?oa nan?y iiaiia?aii? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee yne?aai cana?ae/eea
a?aei?ii?noue no?aoaa?e ?? aeei?enoaiiy — ye i?aaio aeaaee oa ioae?/iiai
oi?oio — ?aoi?iaoi?nueeith iaio?noth e eiina?aaoeaiith a?eueo?noth,
coiiaeaio a?aei?ii?noth ?ano?n?a noi??i. Oea aeyaeeiny, cie?aia, i?ae
/an iaaiai?aiiy ?a?eaiaioo nan??, a yeiio “aeaiie?aoe” ianoithaaee nai?
i?aai ia?eaiaionueei? iaioino? e iaiaaaeenue iaiaaeeoe iiaiiaaaeaiiy
aieiae oa I?aceae?? ia?eaiaioo, a eiina?aaoi?e, iaaiaee, i?iiiioaaee oe?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy ?icoe?eoe. Ua iai/i?oei aoei i?ioenoiyiiy iiceoe?e uiaei
ii?yaeeo aeaiiiai nan??. I?iaeo, ui eiai i?aeaiooaaea I?aceae?y
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee iiia?aaeiueiai neeeeaiiy, i?iiiioaaa o ia?oo /a?ao
?ica’ycaoe i?aai?caoe?ei? ieoaiiy. Iaoii?noue a iaieioaiiio Aeaiaeieii
aeueoa?iaoeaiiio i?iaeo? ia?oeie ioieoaie noiyee aeooaeuei? a iania?e
na?aeiiino? ieoaiiy *i?iiaeey e i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo naea, a oaeiae
ca?o ea??aiee?a iiia?aaeiueiai ia?eaiaioo e o?yaeo i?i noaiiaeua a
?anioae?oe?, yeee iaa aeaoe iiiceoe?iia?ai /oaeiao iaaiaeo caoaa?oaaoe
aeaaeo. Eiee oeth aeiiao aoei a?aeeeiooi, Aeaiaeie a?aeiiaeany a?aoe
o/anoue o aeaeueoiio iaaiai?aii? ii?yaeeo aeaiiiai, oiae eiina?aaoi?ai
c?aooith oaee aeiaaeiny iinooieoeny. I?ioa aiie ciiaee iieaeoaoeny i?ae
/an aeai??a aieiae ia?eaiaioo: ni?iaa iiiceoe?? caiia?aoe ia?aiith
i?ia?aeieea EIO Aieiaeeie?a ?aaoea, aeei?enoaaoe aanei iai?eionoeiino?
noi?uaiiy ea??aieo ia?o?eieo ? aea?aeaaieo iinaae, ia iaea oni?oo.
A?aeoae “aeaiie?aoe” cayaeee i?i ooai?aiiy “eiino?oeoeaii?”
ia?eaiaionueei? iiiceoe?? — Ia?iaeii? ?aaee, — ui iieeaei ii/aoie
i?aai?caoe?eiiio ioi?ieaiith i?ioeai?noaa “aeaiie?ao?a” ? “iiiaieeaoo?e”
(yea iaaaeiac? ooai?eea oae caaio “a?oio 239”). Oeae aeaiiiae?e aecia/aa
iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a ia?eaiaio? aae aei i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? —
iii?e i?ioeane aeeaoi? no?oeoo?ecaoe??, ?acoeueoaoii yeeo noaea iiyaa
/eneaiieo a?oi. Aeaye? /eaie iiiceoe?? aaa/aee iiaeeea?noue iieeanoe
e?ae aeii?ioaaiith eiina?aaoi??a eeoa a aeino?ieiaiio ia?aia?aii?
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee, aeaiiino?oth/e aioiai?noue aei oaeoe/ii? ?aa?c??
aeai?/iai aieaaeyao ianaeaiiy e iaaei??o iioei?noe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i oaiie
“aeic??aaiiy” eiai na?aeiiino?. Oea ieoaiiy noaei i?aaeiaoii na?eicieo
?ica?aeiinoae i?ae ?aaeeeaeueieie e iii??eiaaieie iiiceoe?iia?aie, ui
?noioii caoeiaeeei caeiiioai?/?e ? i?iia?aiaeenonuee?e ae?yeueiino?
Ia?iaeii? ?aaee.

Aieiaiei ci?noii ae?yeueiino? ia?eaiaioo, iicia/aii? aca?iiae??th oa
aiaeii/an i?ioenoiyiiyi aeaio eiai oaai??a, noaei ooaa?aeaeaiiy
noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie, i?iaeaia yeiai iin?aeaea oeaio?aeueia i?noea a
eiiieaen? oyaeaiue, ui eiai aaoi? iaceaa? aea?aeaaiith ?aea?th. sse
iieacaii a iiia?aaei?o ?icae?eao, ?aeay ?aae?caoe?? eiinoeoooe?eii
aeaeea?iaaiiai noaa?ai?oaoo ?anioae?ee noaea eia?/iei ?acoeueoaoii
noeioeueiaaiiai ia?aaoaeiaith ioae?/iiai inieneaiiy i?e/ei e?ece, ui
ioiieea ??ci? noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy, e a?aeiia?aeiiai iiaeeaeaiiy a
iacaeaaeieo aeeneo?nao cai?iiiiiaaiiai “cai?e” i?iaeoo ?aoi?i. Ia
aeai?ao aei Aa?oiaii? oa i?noeaaeo ?aae aanei Oe?a?ie iieieeiny ia
/?eueiiio i?noe? a i?ia?aiao a?eueoino? eaiaeeaeao?a, o o?i /ene? e
iiiaieeaoo?ieo. “Aeaiie?aoe”, aae ae??cieoe nai? i?iiiceoe??,
?icoeo?iaoaaee oea aanei a iai?eeiyoieo aeey iiiaieeaoo?iee?a eiie?aoieo
neeaaeieeao ? ?eoi?e/ieo ie?aneaiiyo. Caeioaa/oth/e nithciee oeaio? a
iae?aaeaii? ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie, aiie aiaeii/an caeioaa/oaaee eiai i?noeaaeo
noaaeaiee?a o ni?eyii? oeueiio a?aaoieia?. Oei/anii iiiaieeaoo?a, c
iaeyaeo ia aeaaeae? a?eueoo iiioey?i?noue ?aea? noaa?ai?oaoo oa
iaooeeueio ?aaeeeae?caoe?th iia’ycaieo ?c iath noni?eueieo niiae?aaiue,
ioneea e aeaiiino?oaaoe a??i?noue oe?e ?aea?, e ooaa?aeaeoaaoe aeania
i?aai ?? ao?ethaaoe. ?aaeeeae?coth/e naith iiceoe?th, aiia aiaeii/an
i?ioenoaaeyea ?aaiethoe?eiiio ?iiaioeciia? “aeaiie?ao?a” iii??eiaai?oee
iiaeyae ia ianya ? oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy noaa?ai?oaoo, cina?aaeaeaiee
ia?aaeon?i ia aeiiii?/i?e naiino?eiino? ?anioae?ee. Ie?aneeeeny e ia?o?
?ica?aeiino? a iiaeyaeao aeaio /anoei iiiaieeaoo?e — ia?oooieoe?iia??a ?
ainiiaea?iee?a.

Ai?ioueaith ??cieo iiaeyae?a aoee iicia/ai? e ia?eaiaionuee? aeaaaoe
uiaei Aeaeea?aoe?? i?i aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao, yea iaea noaoe
nai???aeiith ia?ao?aeiith eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie, eaeii?/iei
oi?ioethaaiiyi aea?aeaaii? ?aea?. I?aeaioiaeaiee ?iai/ith a?oiith
(“io?oe?eiee”) i?iaeo, aeaeea?oth/e “i?/ei ? i?eei ia iaiaaeaiee
aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao Oe?a?ie”, aiaeii/an ia?aaeaa/aa ?? aoiaeaeaiiy
aei c?aoi?iiaaiiai Nithco. Oiaoi eoeiny ana-oaee i?i ie?aneaiiy iaae
noaa?ai?oaoo, ui ?o i?iaeo aecia/aa, ia?ae?/oth/e iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ye?
?anioae?ea ia cae?aeany ia?aaeaaaoe a eiiiaoaioe?th Nithco (oaeoe/ii,
cae?aeany caa?aoe a?ae oeaio?o), ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue Ee?aa oa
Iineae o noa?ao oae caaii? ni?eueii? eiiiaoaioe?? oa iaoai?ci ooaaeaiiy
iiaiai Nithciiai aeiaiai?o, yeee ea??oei?coaaa ae aaaeaiee aeey
oe?a?inueei? aeaaee ia?a?iciiae?e. Oaeee ai??i?? iaiaaeaiee noaa?ai?oao
ea??aieoeoai EIO i?aaioei iiaeaoe ye ?aeeii iiaeeeaee, aeiaiaey/e
eiia/io iio?aao i?aeienaiiy ?anioae?eith Nithciiai aeiaiai?o.

Iaoii?noue iiiceoe?iia?e aaaaeaee ie?aneaiiy noaa?ai?oaoo a
“io?oe?eiiio” i?iaeo? iacaaeia?eueiei, a caaaeee i?i Nithciee aeiaia?? —
iaaei?a/ieie e iaaacia/ieie. Aiie ia eeoa aenooiaee i?ioe ai??i?iiai
iaiaaeaiiy noaa?ai?oaoo “?aieaie” Nithciiai aeiaiai?o, a e noaaeee i?ae
noii?a o/anoue Oe?a?ie a oaeiio aeiaiai?? acaaae?. ?oi? canoa?aaeaiiy
noinoaaeeny e ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei, ?
no/anieo iaiaaaiue E?aiey noai?eoe “iiiaeaio oaaea?aoe?th” c? noa?ei
oeaio?ae?noe/iei ci?noii. Ia a?aei?io a?ae eiina?aaoi??a, “aeaiie?aoe”
i?aaioee cao?enoaaoe a aeaeea?aoe?? yeiaea?eueoa eiie?aoieo iciae
noaa?ai?oaoo, aae, cie?aia, iicaaaeoe ea??aiee?a ?anioae?ee iiaeeeaino?
ci?ithaaoe naith iiceoe?th ia ia?aaiai?ao ?c oeaio?ii. Iiiceoe?ei?
i?iiiaoe? ianoithaaee naiino?eiee eiio?ieue ?anioae?ee ca aeiiii?eith,
aaciaeith oa aeio?eiaiiyi aeanieo caeii?a. Aeaaaoe uiaei aeaeea?aoe?? ua
?ac cana?ae/eee iaiaeii??aei?noue ia?eaiaionueei? a?eueoino?:
i?aaenoaaieee ainiiaea?nueei? iiiaieeaoo?e, noaaoe, oae ae iiaeoe,
iii?ae ia?oaia?aoieeaie e “aeaiie?aoaie”, ciaioeee aino?ioo ?oiueiai
i?ioenoiyiiy e aiaeii/an iini?eyee ?aaeeeae?caoe?? iinoaae anueiai
aeaiooaonueeiai ei?iono. Caa?oath/e oaaao ia “i?ica?/iee” a?e
noaa?ai?oaoo, aiie i?iiiioaaee eiie?aoi? caoiaee, ui iaee c?iaeoe eiai
?aaeueiei, — ia?aaeon?i aeiiii?/i?. Ainiiaea?nueea iiiaieeaoo?a, iaeiae,
i?iiiioaaea caaaeii oie naiee i?aeo?ae aei noaa?ai?caoe??, ui iieyaaa
ia?aaeon?i o ci?i? ??aiy oi?aae?iiy c nithciiai ia ?anioae?eainueeee — a
ia a ci?i? oa?aeoa?o oeueiai oi?aae?iiy. I?eeiaoii, ui oaia? oeae
i?aeo?ae ii noo? i?aeo?eiaea iiiceoe?y, ye?e iiaeeea?noue aeinyaoe
noaa?ai?oaoo a nithc? c iiiaieeaoo?ith aeaeaeany i?eaaaeea?oith, i?ae
ai?ioueaa i?ioe iaioaaiiy iiiaieeaoo?e c ?eceeii i?i?aaeoe iaaiaeo
ae?aaoe Oe?a?io c-i?ae aeaaee Iineae. A naieoe?iiiaaiiio ea??aieoeoaii
?anioae?ee i?iaeo? aeaeea?aoe?? “aeaiie?aoe” e?eoeeoaaee ia??oo/?noue ?
iaiine?aeiai?noue a ooaa?aeaeaii? noaa?ai?oaoo, a ia naio eiai
aaei?i?no?aoeaio iiaeaeue. Ia i?eoeoieaiiy ieie aioeoioae?oa?iiai
neeaaeieea nai?? i?ia?aie eiina?aaoi?e a?aeiia?ee caiaeith
c?aaeeeae?coaaoe aeiiae uiaei noaa?ai?oaoo, ui aiiaeeeaeei eiii?ii?n
i?ae aieiaieie ia?eaiaionueeeie neeaie, aeyaii yeiai noaei ii?aeiaiiy
“io?oe?eiiai” i?iaeoo aeaeea?aoe?? c i?aeo?eiaieie i?ae /an aeaaao?a
iieiaeaiiyie aeueoa?iaoeaieo i?iaeo?a.

I?ney ooaaeaiiy aeaeea?aoe?? eiina?aaoi?e e “aeaiie?aoe” iiaa?ioeeny aei
i?ioenoiyiiy, aeeneo?neaiei ci?noii yeiai oaia? aeaaeae? a?eueoa noaaaea
?aeay noaa?ai?oaoo, cie?aia, oeoia/aiiy naii? aeaeea?aoe??. Aeaaea
aa/eea a i?e aeo?aeiee ioieo ? ea??oeiaoe?th oeyoo aei noaa?ai?oaoo a
neeaae? “iiiaeaii? oaaea?aoe??”, ui ?? iaa ioi?ieoe Nithciee aeiaia??.
Iiiceoe?iia?e ??oo/a aenooiaee i?ioe i?aeienaiiy Oe?a?iith oeueiai
aeiaiai?o e iaa?oue o/ano? a ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoo, aaaaeath/e aoaeue-yeee
eiai aa??aio caaaeaiiyi aeaeea?aoe?? iai?aaoeue. Aiaeii/an
aaiethoe?iioaaee a a?e ?aaeueiiai noaa?ai?oaoo e iiaeyaee naii?
iiiaieeaoo?e, iaeyne?aa?oei na?ae/aiiyi /iai noaea ci?ia iiceoe?? iiaiai
aieiae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Eaii?aea E?aa/oea. Noaaeaiiy aei Nithciiai
aeiaiai?o noaei aieiaiei ioieoii aeaaeae? ae?aci?oeo ?ica?aeiinoae i?ae
iiceoe?yie E?aa/oea oa iiaiia?aiiai ea??aieea EIO Noai?neaaa Ao?aiea e
iiaeaeueoiai aeie?aieaiiy a na?aaeiaeu? iiiaieeaoo?e a?oi, ui ae?noaee
iacae “noaa?ai-“ oa “?iia?-eiioi?no?a”. Oe? ?ica?aeiino? noaee iniaeeai
iii?oieie iaia?aaeiaei? i?ecia/aiiai ia 17 aa?aciy 1991 ?ieo
ananithciiai ?aoa?aiaeoio uiaei caa?aaeaiiy N?N?. E?aa/oeia? aaeaeiny
iaa?aaeii naaiooaaoe ?i?oe?eiaaiee Yi?aa/iaei i?ney ?aoa?aiaeoio i?ioean
i?aeaioiaee Nithciiai aeiaiai?o, iineeath/enue ia iinoaiiao Aa?oiaii?
?aaee i?i “ia?aae/ani?noue” i?aeienaiiy Oe?a?iith oeueiai aeiaiai?o aei
ooaaeaiiy iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? ?anioae?ee. I?ney iaaaea/? na?iiaaiai
caeieioo a?i noaa ia /ie? i?ioeano aeinyaiaiiy iiaii? iacaeaaeiino?
Oe?a?ie, iine?aeiaii caia?a/oth/e, cie?aia, i?ioe iaiiaiaiiy
i?iaieioaii? Ni?aae?oaeiino? iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa iaa?oue
eiioaaea?aoeaiei ci?noii.

I?iaaaeaiee o aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaii? ?aea? a 1986-1991 ?ieao aea? ciiao iai?ee?ioe? c?iaeoe
caaaeuei? aeniiaee uiaei i?noey oe??? aaiethoe?? a ?noi??? aea?aeaaii?
?aea?, ?? ?icaeoeo i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeaiiai ia??iaeo, aieeao ia
noni?eueio na?aeii?noue ? iie?oe/i? i?ioeane oa aeei?enoaiiy noa’?eoaie
oeeo i?ioean?a.

1. Iieacaii, ui ?icaeyiooee ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaeaeeiai?/i?oith
a?ae /ano ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920 ?ie?a aaiethoe??th oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaii? ?aea?, yea aeyaeeany e o ?aaeeeae?caoe??, ? a ?icoe?aii?
oaiaoe/iiai niaeo?a, ? a ci?i? oi?i aeeneo?neaiiai ao?eaiiy.

2. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iie?oe/ia aeoiea ieioeiai ia iaea ?noioiiai aieeao ia
?aea? oa ae?? oai?oe?a iia?oiuei? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ine?eueee aoea
aeey ieo aaeeeith i??ith iaa?aeiia e iacanoiniaia, a aeei?enoaiiy
iiae?aieo a??oiaio?a coiiaeaia ia?aaaaeii iiae?ai?noth aeayeeo
caaaeaiue, ui noiyee ia ??cieo aoaiao aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

3. A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaiiino?iaaii, ye aieeaaee ia oi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaaii? ?aea? ia eeoa na?oiaeyaei? ianoaiiae ?? oai?oe?a, aea oaeiae
a?oiia? ?ioa?ane ?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, — ? ye aeaeea?iaai? na?aaeiaeuaie
?aea? aieeaaee ia ?oi? noni?euei? ?ie?, i?noea a no?oeoo?? aeaaee.

3. Ca i?aenoieaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia aeae?eeoe a ?icaeyiooiio
ia??iae? o?e aoaie, ia eiaeiiio c yeeo oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaaio ?aeath
?icaeaaee, aecia/ath/e ?? oiae?oi? “iaee//y”, ia?aaeon?i i?aaenoaaieee
yei?nue iaei??? ae?oii? a?oie /e na?aaeiaeua.

5. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieaco?, c iaeiiai aieo, ?iiaioe/i?noue ?
?icieea/ano?noue oyaeaiue a?eueoino? “aeaiie?ao?a” i?i aeaiie?ao?th, a c
ae?oaiai — ?oith noeeuei?noue a?aenooiaoe a?ae oeo oyaeaiue caaeey
aeinyaiaiiy eiie?aoii? iie?oe/ii? iaoe, a oaeiae i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ieo caaaeaiue aea?aeaaieoeueeei. Oea aeicaiey? e?aua
c?icoi?oe o?ainoi?iaoe?th iie?oe/ieo ?ieae iiiceoe?eieo e?aea??a i?ney
i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie.

6. Aeena?oaoe?y ?ice?eaa? i?e/eie, /iio a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaia ?aeay caeiaoea aaee/aciee aieea ia noni?eueio
na?aeii?noue, ui iaoa??ae?coaaany, cie?aia, a i?aeo?eioe? iacaeaaeiino?
ia ?aoa?aiaeoi? 1 a?oaeiy 1991 ?ieo, — aea oaeiae iaiaaeai?noue oeueiai
aieeao, yea oneeaaeith? ?aae?caoe?th aeaiie?aoe/iiai neeaaeieea
aea?aeaaii? ?aea?.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii a oaeeo noaooyo
aaoi?a:

1. Iiooee iino?aaeyinueei? ?aeaioe/iino? a Oe?a?i? oa ?in?? //
Iie?oieia?/i? /eoaiiy. — 1995. — ? 3. — N. 44-67.

2. The Search for Post-Soviet Identity in Ukraine and Russia and its
Influence on the Relations between the Two States // The Harriman
Review. — 1996. — Vol. 9. — No 1-2. — P. 16-27.

3. Iaoe?iiae?cie a no/ani?e Oe?a?i? // Aeoo ? e?oa?a. — 1997.- ? 1-2. —
N. 61-87.

4. Ienueiaiieoeueea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy: oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaia ?aeay a
aeeneo?n? “iiiceoe?? ana?aaeei? ?aaeeio” ia?oeo ?ie?a ia?aaoaeiae //
No/ani?noue. — 1998. — ? 1. — N. 54-79.

Aiioaoe?y

Eoeee A. I. Oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe?y oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? ?aea?:
1986-1991. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.01 — oai??y ? ?noi??y iie?oe/ii? iaoee.
?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.
Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aiae?cia? oi?ioaaiiy oa aaiethoe?? a 1986-1991
?ieao oyaeaiue i?i oa, yeith ia? aooe oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa.
Aeine?aeaeaii aeeneo?ne /ioe?ueio ae?oieo na?aaeiaeu, ui aecia/aee
“iaee//y” oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? ?aea? ia ??cieo aoaiao ?? aaiethoe??
ai?iaeiaae oeacaiiai ia??iaeo. I?iaiae?ciaaii aeei?enoaiiy oeeie ae?oaie
aea?aeaaii? ?aea? ye caniao aieeao ia na?aeii?noue ian, ooaa?aeaeaiiy
nai?? noni?eueii? ?ie?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aeaaia ?aeay, aeeneo?n, aiae?c aeeneo?no, ae?oa,
aea?aeaaa, noaa?ai?oao, aeaiie?ao?y, aeaaea, iiiceoe?y.

Summary

Kulyk V. M. Formation and evolution of the idea of Ukrainian state:
1986-1991. — Manuscript.

The dissertation for a degree of a candidate of political sciences in
speciality 23.00.01 — theory and history of political science. Institute
of Political and Ethnonational Studies, National Academy of Sciences of
Ukraine, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the analysis of the formation and
evolution in 1986-1991 of ideas of what kind of Ukrainian state there
should be. Discourses of four elite groups determining the character of
the idea of Ukrainian state on different stages during this period have
been studied. These groups’ using the idea of the state as a mean to
influence masses, to strengthen their own role in the society, has been
analyzed.

Key words: idea of state, discourse, discourse analysis, elite, state,
sovereignty, democracy, authority, opposition.

Aiiioaoeey

Eoeee A. I. Oi?ie?iaaiea e yaiethoeey oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae:
1986-1991. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iieeoe/aneie iaoee.
Einoeooo iieeoe/aneeo e yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee IAI Oe?aeiu.
Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco oi?ie?iaaiey e yaiethoeee a 1986-1991
aiaeao oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae — eiieaena i?aaenoaaeaiee i
oii, eaeei aeieaeii auoue oe?aeineia ainoaea?noai. Ianiio?y ia
eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiia ianoi ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae a oe?aeineii
iauanoaaiiii niciaiee, enneaaeiaaoaee ia i?eaeaeyee yoie i?iaeaia
aeinoaoi/iiai aieiaiey. Iniaaiii aeooaeueiui yaeyaony eco/aiea i?ioeanna
?acaeoey yoie eaeae a ia?eiae, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoee i?iaicaeaoaieth
iacaaeneiinoe oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa, — ia?eiae naiie aeeiaie/iie ni
a?aiai ?aaiethoeee 1917-1920 aa. yaiethoeee oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiie
eaeae e aa iaeaieueoaai aeeyiey ia niciaiea oe?ieeo iann, ia noaeueao
Oe?aeiu e, a eiia/iii eoiaa, anaai ie?a.

I?eiaiyy oe?iei eniieuecoaiue a nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie iaoea iaoiae
aiaeeca aeeneo?na, aaoi? enneaaeoao aeeneo?nu /aou?ao yeeoiuo a?oii,
ii?aaeaeyaoeo “eeoei” oe?aeineie ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae ia ?acee/iuo
yoaiao yoiai ia?eiaea. I?iaiaeece?iaaii oaeaea eniieueciaaiea yoeie
yeeoaie ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae eae n?aaenoaa aeeyiey ia niciaiea iann,
ooaa?aeaeaiey naiae iauanoaaiiie ?iee.

Ia ia?aii yoaia eco/aaony aeeneo?n ienaoaeae, n ia?auo eao ia?ano?ieee
iiaeieiaaoeo ia no?aieoeao naieo ecaeaiee i?iaeaiu ycuea, yeieiaee,
enoi?ee, i?eaeaeaaoeo e iei iauanoaaiiia aieiaiea e nicaeaaaaoeo
i?aaeiinueee aeey ?acaeoey iacaaeneiiai io aeanoae ioaee/iiai aeeneo?na.
Ae?oaei i?aaeiaoii aiaeeca aue ?acaeaaaoeeny a oi aea a?aiy a naiecaeaoa
aeeneo?n aeenneaeaioia, eioi?ua noeioee?iaaee oaeoaeaiea e
?aaeeeaeecaoeeth aeeneo?nia ieaoaeae e “iaoi?iaeueiuo” yeieiae/aneeo e
eoeueoo?ieiae/aneeo a?oii, a oaeaea niaeaenoaiaaee nicaeaieth
iiiiceoeeiiiuo iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia neaaeothuai yoaia eeth/aaoth ?ieue nua?ae ?oo (Ia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea
Oe?aeiu ca ia?ano?ieeo), eioi?ue, iauaaeeiea ?ano?nu e aeeneo?nu
ienaoaeae, aeenneaeaioia e “iaoi?iaeia”, noi?ioee?iaae e aaae a
iauanoaaiiue iaeoiae i?iaeo anaioaaouaathuae aeaiie?aoe/aneie
o?ainoi?iaoeee oe?aeineiai iauanoaa, nouanoaaiii niinianoaiaae
?aaeeeaeecaoeee iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey e iiauoaieth iauanoaaiiie
aeoeaiinoe iann, /oi i?iyaeeinue a eo aunooieaieyo a iiaeaea?aeeo
iiiiceoeee e eca?aiee aaniie 1990 aiaea iiiaeo aa i?aaenoaaeoaeae a
Aa?oiaiue e ianoiue Niaaou. Aeayoaeueiinoue ?ooa iciaiaiiaaea
ieii/aoaeueiia i?aiaeieaiea iiiiiieee eiiia?oee ia ioaee/ioth noa?o e
?aceia oiaiueoaiea aa iauanoaaiiiai aeeyiey, — ia i?eaaaeoaa, iaeiaei, e
ii?aaeaieth ia auai?ao e iioa?a aeanoe.

Auai?u noaee ia/aeii iiaiai, ia?eaiaioneiai yoaia yaiethoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae, oa?aeoa?eciaaaoaainy ia oieueei aa aeaeueiaeoae
?aaeeeaeecaoeeae, eiie?aoecaoeeae e ?anoe?aieai oaiaoe/aneiai niaeo?a,
ii e ia/aeii aa ?aaeecaoeee a ia?eaiaioneii caeiiioai?a/anoaa e
nicaeaiee (eee iaiieiaiee ?aaeueiui niaea?aeaieai) einoeoooia
noaa?aiiiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue naiiai
ia?eaiaioa. Aianoa n oai ia yoii yoaia ainoaea?noaaiiay eaeay noaea
iieai aeeneo?neaiiai i?ioeainoiyiey aeueoa?iaoeaiie e aeanoiie yeeo, a
eioi?ii eaaeaeay ec noi?ii ionoaeaaea e no?aieeanue aiaae?eoue a
niciaiea iann nianoaaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeaeaoaeueiii ono?ienoaa
oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa. Aeaaiui niaea?aeaieai aeayoaeueiinoe
ia?eaiaioa noaei ooaa?aeaeaiea noaa?aieoaoa Oe?aeiu, i?iaeaia eioi?iai
caieiaea oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a eiiieaena i?aaenoaaeaiee, iacuaaaiuo a
ianoiyuae aeenna?oaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeaae.

I?iaaaeaiiue aaoi?ii aiaeec oi?ie?iaaiey e yaiethoeee oe?aeineie
ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae a 1986-1991 aa. iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiaeu
ioiineoaeueii ianoa a enoi?ee ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae, aa ?acaeoey ia
i?ioyaeaiee enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea, aeeyiey ia iauanoaaiiia niciaiey e
iieeoe/aneea i?ioeannu, a oaeaea eniieueciaaiey noauaeoaie yoeo
i?ioeannia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainoaea?noaaiiay eaeay, aeeneo?n, aiaeec aeeneo?na,
yeeoa, ainoaea?noai, noaa?aieoao, aeaiie?aoey, aeanoue, iiiiceoeey.

Eai?inueeee A. Ia ia?ao?aeiiio aoai?. “Aeani?noue”, “ia?aaoaeiaa” ?
“aeaiie?aoecaoe?y” ia Oe?a?i?. — Ithioai, 1990; Aa?aiue I. Oaeoe
ae?aeiia. C ?noi??? ?ooo oa iiaeo ia?o?e Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1993; Kuzio
T., Wilson A. Ukraine: Perestroika to Independence. — Edmonton, Toronto,
1994; Eeoaei A. Iie?oe/ia a?aia Oe?a?ie. Ae?eia? iniae oa aeeiiaaoe?. —
Ee?a, 1994; ?onia/aiei A. I?iaoaeaeaiiy. ?ia?oie/ee ?oo ia Oe?a?i? a
1989-1993 ?ieao. — Ee?a, 1995; ?onia/aiei A. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee
?oo a Oe?a?i?. Na?aaeeia 1950-o — ii/aoie 1990-o ?ie?a. — Ee?a, 1998.

?oaai A. Aeiaaa aei?iaa aei naaa. Iie?oe/ia aeoiea a Oe?a?i? 1991 ?ieo
// No/ani?noue. — 1992. — ? 1. — N. 90-106; Oiiaiei I. A. I?iaeaia
aea?aeaaiino? a i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaioao oa ae?yeueiino? no/anieo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e Oe?a?ie (?noi?eei-iie?oe/iee aiae?c). Aeen. eaiae.
?no. iaoe. — Ee?a, 1992; Aieaao O. A. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in a
aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee Aeiiaanna (aoi?ay iieiaeia 80-o
— ia/aei 90-o aiaeia). Aeenn. … eaiae. eno. iaoe. — Aeiiaoee, 1993.

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