Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

O?ce/iee oaeoeueoao, eaoaae?a iioeee

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Aeaoeaiei Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 535.732:62-405.8

Oi?ioaaiiy oa??a ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th c aenieei eaaioiaei aeoiaeii
oioiethi?ianoeaioe??

/01.04.05 — Iioeea, eaca?ia o?ceea/

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? iioeee o?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaeoeaiei Ieaa Aaneeueiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie

Eaaaiiae/ Aea Ai?en?aia,eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, caa?aeoaa/
I?iaeaiii? eaai?aoi??? o?ceee oa oaoi?ee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a
?aae?io?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Ne?eoaanueeee Aaea??e Aioiiiae/

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiae. 30 oa. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.23 i?e Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252127, Ee?a-127, i?.
Aeooeiaa, 6.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? o?ce/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 ”aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.A.Io??iaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. C iiiaioo a?aee?eooy ?ioaineaii? aeaeeii?
oioiethi?ianoeaioe?? (OE) ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th (IE) i?e e?iiaoi?e
oaiia?aoo?? oeae iaoa??ae noaa ia’?eoii i?aeaeuaii? oaaae c aieo
iaoeiaoe?a. Ca yeeenue aeanyoie ?ie?a, ye? ieioee i?ney ia?oiai
iia?aeiieaiiy i?i aei?ii?iaiiy aeaeeiiai na?oea aiiaeiaaiei e?aii??i,
c’yaeeany aaeeea e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo noaoae, i?enay/aieo IE ?, cie?aia,
eiai ethi?ianoeaioiei aeanoeainoyi. I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia caeo/aiiy
cia/ii? aenia?eiaioaeueii? aace, ia coneeey /eneaiieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
a?oi, ia i?iaaaeaiee ieie aaee/aciee ia’?i ?iaioe ii aea/aiith IE, ana
ua ?nio? ?yae aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai, aac ae??oaiiy yeeo aeei?enoaiiy IE ye
ethi?ianoeaioiiai iaoa??aeo o ae?iaieoeoa? cia/ii oneeaaeith?oueny.

Cie?aia, aein? iac’yniaaiei caeeoa?oueny ieoaiiy i?i o?ceei-o?i?/io
i?e?iaeo oeaio??a aeaeeii? ethi?ianoeaioe?? IE. Iaei? iiyniththoue oea
iai?aeeia?ia yaeua niaoeeo?/ieie aeanoeainoyie ii?oieia?? ii?oaaoeo
oa??a Si. ?io? — iayai?noth e?aii??aeo niieoe ia iiaa?oi? iaiino?oeoo?e.
A?oiooth/enue ia oeeo aeaio iaa?no?aeueieo iai?yieao, aeine?aeieee
?ic?iaeee aaeeeo e?euee?noue iiaeaeae aei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe??
IE. Iei? ?niothoue aeieace ia ei?enoue a?eueo ye aeaio aeanyoe?a ??cieo
iiaeaeae eeoa /a?aiii? ethi?ianoeaioe??. Cacia/eii, ui a IE
niinoa??aa?oueny ua e neiuei-caeaia aeaeeia nioaa OE, a oaeiae nioae a
aeeaei?e ?io?a/a?aii?e oa oeueo?ao?ieaoia?e iaeanoyo, c’ynoaaiiy
i?e?iaee yeeo ua ia caaa?oaia. Ioaea, aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia oi?ioaaiiy
oeaio??a aeaeeii? ethi?ianoeaioe?? ? ooi/iaiiy, oaeei /eiii, iaoai?ci?a
aei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe?? a IE ? aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a.

Aecia/aiiy i?e?iaee ethi?ianoeaioe?? ii?oaaoiai Si ia? iaoeiaee ?ioa?an
ua e o a?eueo caaaeueiiio ieai?, ine?eueee aei?ii?ithaaiiy ?ioaineaii?
aeaeeii? OE no?oeoo?ith c e?aii?th — iai?yiiciiiiai iaoa??aeo c
aocueeith caai?iiaiith ciiith — ? yaeuai aeiyoeiaei, ? ?icoi?iiy eiai
i?e?iaee caaacia/eoue aaaeeeaee aianie o ?icaeoie ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
iieiaeaiue o?ce/ii? iioeee.

Iniiai? ia?niaeoeae i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy IE aeine?aeieee aaa/athoue
o aeei?enoaii? eiai ethi?ianoeaioieo aeanoeainoae a iioiaeaeo?ii?oe?.
E?aii?e ? cia/ii aeaoaaoei, i?ae a?ia?i? iai?ai?ia?aeieeia? niieoee oeio
AIIBVI ? AIIIBV, ye? ca?ac ? iniiaieie aeey noai?aiiy
na?oeiaei?ii?ithaaeueieo i?eeaae?a. Ianeaiee e?aii?e aeey oeueiai
iai?eaeaoiee, ine?eueee ? iai?yiiciiiei iai?ai?ia?aeieeii, ? aeo?ae eiai
ethi?ianoeaioe?? ? iaaenieei. Iaeiae o ?acoeueoao? oaoiieia?/ii
ianeeaaeii? ? aeineoue aeaoaai? aiiaeii? ia?iaee a?i ia?aoai?th?oueny ia
iaoa??ae, caeaoiee aei aei?ii?ithaaiiy ?ioaineaiiai na?/aiiy, aei oiai
ae o aeaeeiiio ae?aiacii?. Oeei iiynith?oueny nueiaiaei?oi?e ?ioa?an aei
IE c i?aeoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o.

A oaoiieia?/iiio ieai? ia?aae aeine?aeieeaie noiyoue aea? iniiai?
caaea/?. Iaeia c ieo — i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo ethi?ianoeaioe??
aeine?aeaeoaaieo no?oeoo?. Oi/a aeey iioiaeaeo?ii?ee iaea?eueo oe?eaaith
? aeaeo?iethi?ianoeaioe?y, i?ioa ye?niith oa?aeoa?enoeeith
aei?ii?ithaaeueii? caeaoiino? ethi?ianoeaioiiai iaoa??aeo iiaea aooe
eaaioiaee aeo?ae OE. Iaeneiaeueiee io?eiaiee ciai?oi?e eaaioiaee aeo?ae
OE c?ace?a IE, ca?aeii c e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie, noaiiaeoue ia a?eueoa
10%. Aeey oni?oiiai aeei?enoaiiy c?ace?a o i?iieneiaeo oaoiieia?yo
aeiaaa?oueny eiai cia/aiiy ii?yaeea 5-10% ? aeua. I?ioa, ine?eueee
aoaeoeai?noue aeaeo?iethi?ianoeaioe?? iaaaaaoi iaioa ca aoaeoeai?noue
OE, aeanyoea?aenioeiaee aeo?ae OE iiaea aeyaeoeny caiaeei aeey
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy IE a iioiaeaeo?ii?oe?. Oiio aeioe?eueii
i?iaiaeeoe iiaeaeueoee iiooe oeyo?a ca?eueoaiiy ethi?ianoeaioiiai
iioaioe?aeo IE. Ia iaio aaaeeeaith ? ?ioa caaea/a — caaacia/aiiy
noaa?eueiino? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae io?eiaieo no?oeoo? ?c /anii.
A?aeiii, ui IE ? o?i?/ii aeoaea aeoeaiith no?oeoo?ith. Ii?oaaoee oa? ia?
aaeeeo ieiuo iiaa?oi?, ia yeo aaeni?aothoueny aoiie oa aoiii? a?oie c
ciai?oiueiai ioi/aiiy. O?eaaea aeo?eioaaiiy c?ace?a IE a aoiinoa?iiio
na?aaeiaeu? i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo ci?i o eiai o?i?/iiio neeaae?, ui
ia iiaea ia aieeaaoe ia eiai ethi?ianoeaioi? aeanoeaino?.

Ia nueiaiaei? cacia/ai? i?iaeaie aei e?ioey ia ae??oai?. A e?oa?aoo??
aaea iienaii iaoiaeeee io?eiaiiy c?ace?a IE c? noaa?eueieie ca cae/aeieo
oiia o?i?/iei neeaaeii oa o?ce/ieie ia?aiao?aie, iaeiae eaaioiaee aeo?ae
OE oaeeo c?ace?a ona ua caeeoa?oueny caiaaeoi iecueeei. Oiio ?
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaeiaaeoaaoe ?iaioe a iai?yieo i?aeaeuaiiy
?ioaineaiino? ethi?ianoeaioe?? IE — aaeineiiaethaaoe a?aeii? iaoiaeeee e
ooeaoe iia?. Aeooaeueiith caeeoa?oueny oaeiae i?iaeaia noaa?eueiino?
aeanoeainoae IE, oa aiia ia? aooe ae??oaia eeoa eiiieaenii c i?iaeaiith
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ethi?ianoeaioe??. Iaoiaeeea noaa?e?caoe??
aeanoeainoae ii?oaaoiai oa?o, ye i?i?ioi, ia iiaeiia nooo?ai iia??ooaaoe
eaaioiaee aeo?ae ethi?ianoeaioe?? c?acea. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii iaoe
iiaia oyaeaiiy i?i i?ioeane ia iiaa?oi? IE, cie?aia i?i ci?ie a
ii?oaaoiio oa?? i?e eiai eiioaeo? c iia?o?yi. Oaea iinoaiiaea caaea/?
iio?aao? aaaaoiieaiiaeo, eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aeaaeooue ciiao
iiaeeaeoe ciaiiy i?i ia?aiee iaoa??ae ? ni?eyoeiooue aecia/aiith
iaoai?cio ethi?ianoeaioe?? IE.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeany a ?aieao oaie “?ic?iaea ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo aaciaeo
oaoiieia?e oa aeaioiaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a aeey ?aae?aoe?eiino?eeeo
ethi?ianoeaioieo ?iaeeeaoi?ieo aeaiaio?a ia iniia? ii?enoiai e?aii?th
aeey nenoai a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??” ia i?aenoaa? Iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 13.05.1996 ?. ? 517.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe aoei: 1) c’ynoaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo oiia, ye? aecia/athoue aenieee eaaioiaee aeo?ae OE c?acea
IE; 2) aeyaeaiiy i?ioean?a o?i?/iiai oa no?oeoo?iiai ia?aoai?aiiy, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a ii?oaaoiio oa?? i?e eiai eiioaeo? c iia?o?yi ?
ni?e/eiythoue ianoaa?euei?noue aeanoeainoae IE a aoiinoa?iiio ioi/aii?.

Iciaeith ae??oaiiy ia?oi? caaea/? iiaeiia aooe a?aeiia?aeue ia ieoaiiy,
/e ? ethi?ianoeaioiee iioaioe?ae IE aeinoaoiuei aenieei aeey
aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai na?oeiaei?ii?ithaaeueiiai iaoa??aeo a
iioiaeaeo?ii?oe?. Iiceoeaiith a?aeiia?aeaeth ia ieoaiiy iaei a noaoe
aeaioiaeaiiy c?ace?a IE ?c eaaioiaei aeoiaeii > 10%. A ?acoeueoao?
ae??oaiiy ae?oai? caaea/? iaea aooe anoaiiaeaia o?ceei-o?i?/ia i?e?iaea
ianoaa?eueiino? IE ia iia?o??, a oaeiae, o ?ac? iiaeeeaiai, noai?ai?
noaa?euei? c?acee IE c aenieei eaaioiaei aeoiaeii OE. Aiae?coth/e
io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, ie ieaioaaee c’ynoaaoe, yea c iiaeaeae
OE IE iaee?aua iieno? ?? aeanoeaino?.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoei caieaiiaaii:

1. Aea/eoe ae?th iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue i?aeeeaaeee ia ethi?ianoeaioi?
aeanoeaino? noi?iiaaiiai ia i?e ii?oaaoiai oa?o.

2. Aeine?aeeoe aieea o?i?/ii? ia?iaee c?ace?a IE a HF ia aoaeoeai?noue
?o OE

3. Aeine?aeeoe aieea aoiinoa?iiai na?aaeiaeua ia ethi?ianoeaioi?
aeanoeaino? oa o?i?/iee neeaae IE.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui eaaioiaee
aeo?ae OE c?ace?a IE iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe cia/aiiy 10%.

Aeyaeaii aieea iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue i?aeeeaaeee ia i?e?iiaoai?/i? oa
ethi?ianoeaioi? aeanoeaino? io?eiaiiai ii?oaaoiai oa?o.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iiyniaiiy aieeao aoiinoa?iiai na?aaeiaeua ia
ethi?ianoeaioi? aeanoeaino? ii?oaaoiai oa?o a iiaeae? nainea?e?ciaaii?
OE. Anoaiiaeaii iaoai?ci aieeao na?oea ia ci?io ethi?ianoeaioieo
aeanoeainoae IE i?e aeniiioaaii? c?acea ia iia?o??. Iieacaii, ui
noa??iiy IE — i?ioean, yeee cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue ia eeoa a?ae
ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoiai oa?o, aea e a?ae noaio aoiinoa?e, cie?aia a?ae
aieiaino? oa caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieacaii, ui ieeniaiiy ii?oaaoi?
no?oeoo?e a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaaaeii a i?eiiaa?oiaa?e iaeano? oa?o IE ca
?aooiie oiai, ui ooai?aia ia iiaa?oi? c?acea ieenia ie?aea ia?aoeiaeaea?
iiaeaeueoiio i?iieeiaiith iia?o?y aaeea oa?o. Oea aeaei ciiao iiynieoe
oae? a?aeii? yaeua, ye iaiaeii??aei?noue ethi?ianoeaioieo aeanoeainoae
ii?oaaoiai oa?o ca aeeaeiith, caeaaei?noue iieiaeaiiy iaeneioio niaeo?a
OE a?ae aeiaaeeie oaee? caoaeaeaiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci aei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe?? caoaeaeaieo
iin??a o iiaeae? nainea?e?ciaaii? OE ii?oaaoiai oa?o, a oaeiae
?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue OE o aaoa?iia?aoiaeao ia iaae? niieoee Si oa
e?aii?th.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
OE c?ace?a IE ye aeiaiiaeiith ia?iaeith e?aii??aeo ieanoei (aaaaeaiiy
iai?oaeaiue o i?aeeeaaeeo), oae ? i?neyaiiaeiith ia?iaeith ii?oaaoiai
oa?o. Canoinoaaiiy iienaieo o ?iaio? iaoiae?a aea? ciiao io?eioaaoe
c?acee IE c aaeeeith aei?ii?ithaaeueiith caeaoi?noth.

Aia?oa io?eiaii c?acee IE ?c ciai?oi?i eaaioiaei aeoiaeii /a?aiii? nioae
OE aeecueei 20%, oiae? ye a?aeiia?aeia iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy c a?aeiieo
iai e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo noaiiaeoue 10%. Oaea aeniea aaee/eia eaaioiaiai
aeoiaeo OE IE aeaco? ia aeioe?euei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei aeei?enoaiiy eiai ethi?ianoeaioieo aeanoeainoae o
i?iieneiaino?.

Aeaoaeueii aea/aii aeeiai?eo ci?ie ethi?ianoeaioieo aeanoeainoae IE i?e
eiai aeniiioaaii? a aoiinoa?iiio na?aaeiaeu?. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith caiia?aaiiy
aoiinoa?i?e ianoaa?eueiino? aenieoaoaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a i?eeaae?a ia
iniia? oeueiai iaoa??aeo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Caeiaoaa/ a?aa o/anoue o i?aeaioiaoe?
aenia?eiaio?a, aeeiioaaa on? ethi?ianoeaioi? aei??e, a?aa o/anoue a
iaaiai?aii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, i?aeaiooaaa iaoa??aee oa
aeaieinea aeiiia?ae? ia ?yae? eiioa?aioe?e, ioi?ieya iaoeia? i?aoe? ca
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aaenoaaeai? ia XII
?anioaeieainuee?e oeie? – naiiia?? «Niaeo?ineiiiy iieaeoe oa e?enoaeia»
(i. Iiaeei, 1995 ?.), NATO Advanced Study Institute «Frontiers in
Nanoscale Science of Micron/Submicron Devices» (i. Ee?a, 1995 ?.), 1995
MRS Fall Meeting (NOA, 1995 ?.), 1996 E-MRS Fall Meeting (O?aioe?y, 1996
?.), IV Oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiio nai?ia?? c o?ceee f-niieoe (i. Ee?a,
1996 a.), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Optical Diagnostics of Materials
and Devices for Opto-, Micro- and Quantum Electronics» (i. Ee?a, 1997
?.), MRS 1997 Fall Meeting (NOA, 1997 ?.)

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 noaoae o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ?
ca??ieeao i?aoeue eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Iaoa??ae
aeeeaaeaii ia 145 noi??ieao, ?iaioa i?noeoue 37 ?enoie?a caaaeueiei
ianyaii 15 noi??iie, 1 oaaeeoeth ? nienie e?oa?aoo?e c 132 iineeaiiyie
ia 13 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaaiai?th?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa
?iaioe, iieno?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa ?o
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue, iaaiaeyoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny
ia caoeno, ei?ioei aeeeaaeaii ci?no ?iaioe oa cacia/aii eiioa?aioe??,
aea i?aaenoaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e ia? iaeyaeiaee oa?aeoa?. A iueiio ei?ioei iienaii
iaoiaeeeo io?eiaiiy IE, i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny i?ae /an aiiaeiiai
o?aaeaiiy e?aii?th, oa iia?aeiiey?oueny i?i iniiai? no?oeoo?i? oa
aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? ii?oaaoiai oa?o. Aeeeaaeaii e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i
ia?aiao?e ? aeanoeaino? ethi?ianoeaioe?? IE, ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i
iaoai?ci aei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe??. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui,
iacaaaeath/e ia iaeiie/aiee aaaaoee oai?aoe/iee oa aenia?eiaioaeueiee
iaoa??ae i?i ethi?ianoeaioe?th IE, aein? ia aaeaeiny io?eiaoe c?acee c?
cia/aiiyi ciai?oiueiai aeoiaeo OE, caaeia?eueiei c oi/ee ci?o
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy IE ye ethi?ianoeaioiiai iaoa??aeo a
iioiaeaeo?ii?oe?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaii iaoiaeeeo aeaioiaeaiiy c?ace?a IE, iniiai?
iaoiaee eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c?ace?a IE, a oiio /ene? aeaoae?
aenia?eiaio?a ii aea/aiith i?e?iiaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ii?oaaoiai oa?o,
aiae?co o?i?/iiai neeaaeo IE ca aeiiiiiaith ?aioaai?anueeiai
i?e?iaiae?caoi?a oa niaeo?ineii?? ?*-iiaeeiaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoiai oa?o ae?iniiao?e/ieie iaoiaeaie.

Aeeeaaeaii iniaeeaino? ethi?ianoeaioieo aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia
iaoiaeeeo aei??thaaiiy niaeo??a OE IE, ia?aooieo oa a?ao?/iiai
i?aaenoaaeaiiy io?eiaieo aeaieo; “oaeaeeiai” aei??thaaiiy ?ioaa?aeueii?
(iiaii?) ?ioaineaiino? OE ca aeiiiiiaith oioiaeaiaioo. Iienaii oaeiae
iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo na?/aiiy iaoiaeii ii??aiyiiy
niaeo??a OE aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a IE ? ?iaeai?io 6AE.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii aea/aiith aieeao iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue
e?aii??ai? i?aeeeaaeee ia ethi?ianoeaioi? aeanoeaino? noi?iiaaiiai ia
i?e ii?oaaoiai oa?o. Ia ia?oiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiue aea/aany aieea
iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue, noai?aieo oeyoii iaianaiiy iiae?yiei
eiio?ieueiaaii? aeeaeie ia cai?ioiiio aioe? e?aii??ai? ieanoeie ia?aae
?? aiiaeoaaiiyi. Iiae?yieie iaiineeeny aeiaciith i??ai?aeith A?eea?na ca
aeiiiiiaith i?e?ioaa?aeii??o IIO-3 i?e iaaaioaaeaii? ia ?iaeaioi? 10200
a. Oe?eia iiae?yiei neeaaeaea a?aeiia?aeii 523 iei, a aeeaeia
aei??aithaaea 1/7 oe?eie.

sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?oaaoee oa? a iaeano? i?aeeeaaeee
iaai?ioe iiae?yiei aeyaeany o i?aoi?a-aeaa ?ace oiauei, i?ae o
iaiai?oaeaieo iaeanoyo ieanoeie. I?e?ioaa?ae?noue IE ca A?eea?nii a
iaeano? iiae?yieie neeaaeaea a?aeiia?aeii iaioo aaee/eio, i?ae o cii?,
aea iai?oaeaiiy ooo/ii ia noai?thaaeeny. Oe?eia iaeano? ciaioaiiy
cia/aiue i?e?ioaa?aeino? ia c?aceo noaiiaeoue aaee/eio 1.52 ii, ui ia
e?eueea ii?yaee?a ia?aaeuo? oe?eio naii? iiae?yieie. ?ioaineai?noue OE,
caoaeaeaii? a iaeano? iaai?ioe iiae?yieie, aoea aeuith, i?ae a iaeano?
iaiai?oaeaii? i?aeeeaaeee, a iaeneioi niaeo?aeueii? nioae aoa
a?aeiia?aeii ci?uaiee a iaeanoue ei?iooeo oaeeue.

Aoei oaeiae aeine?aeaeaii c?acee IE, ae?iuai? ia ieanoeiao, caaeiy
(eaoiaeia) iiaa?oiy yeeo iiia?aaeiuei ia?iaeyeany iaaeaeaeii aeey
aaaaeaiiy iai?oaeaiue ii an?e ieiu? i?aeeeaaeee. Aenia?eiaio iieacaa, ui
ii?oaaoee oa? ia oeeo c?aceao oiauee, a ?ioaineai?noue OE a?eueoa, i?ae
ia c?aceao, aeaioiaeaieo i?e iaeiaeiaeo ia?aiao?ao aiiaeoaaiiy, aea aac
iai?oaeaiue o i?aeeeaaeoe?.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?ae /an
aeaeo?e/iiai aiiaeoaaiiy e?aii??ai? ieanoeie a iaeano? iaoai?/ieo
iai?oaeaiue oi?io?oueny oa? IE a?eueoi? ii?oaaoino? ? oiaueie, i?ae o
iaiai?oaeai?e iaeano? i?aeeeaaeee.

I?e/eiith aeacaieo yaeu aaaaea?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e i?ioiaeaeaiiy
aiiaeiiai no?oio /a?ac iai?oaeaio i?aeeeaaeeo i?e ia?iuoaaii? ii?oaaoiai
oa?o: i?e?ieaiaee i?io?eaiiy no?oio oi?iothoueny a i?noeyo i?enooiino?
i?e?iaeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e, noai?aieo aiane?aeie ia?iaee
ieanoeie Si aa?aceaii /e i?eeeaaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue.

A ieai? iiooe?a iiaeeeaiai i?aeaeuaiiy eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo c?ace?a IE
aeine?aeaeoaaany ua iaeei aa??aio aeiaiiaeii? ia?iaee i?aeeeaaeie, a
naia aeeooc?y ai?a a eaoiaeio (cai?ioio) iiaa?oith. Aiia i?iaiaeeeany a
iiaa?oith i?aeeeaaeee ca aeiiiiiaith aeeoocaioo H3BO3 ia aeeaeio aei 2
iei, ?ic?aoiaaia i?eiiaa?oiaaa eiioeaio?aoe?y aaaaeaiiai ai?a noaiiaeea
1020 ni-3. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoei niaoe?aeueii aeaioiaeaii
eiio?ieueiee c?acie ?c aeeooc??th a iieiaeio aiiaeii? (?iai/i?) iiaa?oi?
ieanoeie.

sse aeyaeeiny, i?e?ioaa?ae?noue a cii? aeeooc?? ai?o ia ii?yaeie ieae/a
ca i?e?ioaa?ae?noue o iaia?iaeai?e iaeano?. Iaeiaioa cia/aiiy HV
ii?oaaoiai oa?o ca?a?no?iaaii ia a?aieoe? i?ae ia?iaeaiith oa
iaia?iaeaiith aeeoocaioii /anoeiaie ieanoeie. Ni?anoaaeaiiy oeeo aeaieo
c? niaeo?aeueieie aei??aie OE aeaei ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a cii?
aeeooc?? ii?oaaoee oa? ia? a?eueoo oiaueio ? ii?oaao?noue, i?ae o
iaia?iaeai?e iaeano? i?aeeeaaeee, ine?eueee niaeo?aeueia nioaa OE a cii?
aeeooc?? cnoiooa a ei?ioeioaeeueiaee a?e a?aeiinii nioae OE IE o
iaia?iaeai?e iaeano? i?aeeeaaeee, a ?ioaineai?noue OE o cii? aeeooc??
a?aeiia?aeii aeua. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue einiai oe?oo o?aaiaioa
c?acea oaeiae ca?a?no?iaaii ca?eueoaio oiaueio IE a cii? aeeooc?? ai?o.

Iiceoeaiee aieea aeeooc?? ai?o ia ??no IE ? eiai ethi?ianoeaioi?
aeanoeaino? aoei iiyniaii noai?aiiyi iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue oa
ia?a?iciiae?eii i?io?eaiiy aiiaeiiai no?oio /a?ac i?aeeeaaeeo aiane?aeie
oi?ioaaiiy i?e?ieaiae?a i?ioiaeaeaiiy iin??a ca?yaeo a iaeanoyo
i?aeeeaaeee, aea ? noaoenoe/i? a?aeoeeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aaaaeaiiai
ai?o oa aeeaeie eiai aeeooc?? a?ae na?aaei?o cia/aiue.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?ae?a c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aeeooc?y ai?o ii
an?e ieiu? eaoiaeii? iiaa?oi? nooo?ai i?aeaeuo? oiaueio oa?o IE oa
?ioaineai?noue OE, ye ? o aeiaaeeo iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee caaeiuei? iiaa?oi?
i?aeeeaaeee aa?aceaii.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii iaoiaeeeo ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieeao o?i?/ii? ia?iaee a ieaaeeia?e eeneio? oa aoiinoa?iiai ieeniaiiy
ia c?acee IE.

Iieacaii, ui iaa?oue ei?ioei/ania ia?iaea a HF c?ace?a ?c neeueiith OE
(eaaioiaee aeo?ae >10%) i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeaeeiai ciaioaiiy
?ioaineaiino? OE (?OE). Aeey c?ace?a ?c eaaioiaei aeoiaeii <5% caeaaei?noue ?ioaineaiino? a?ae /ano o?aaeaiiy iaiiiioiiia. I?ioyaii ia?oeo oaeeei a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aei?ii?iaiiy, aea caiaeii ?OE iia?eueii a?aeiiaeth?oueny. C?acee, ye? ia ii/aoeo aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aeyaeyee ethi?ianoeaioe??, i?ney e?eueeio oaeeei o?aaeaiiy a HF ii/eiaee aei?ii?ithaaoe neaaeo ethi?ianoeaioe?th, neaiae yei? aeoiaeea ia iaeneioi /a?ac 4-5 aiaeei o?aaeaiiy. Iiaeaeueoa ia?iaea eeoa ciaioo? ?ioaineai?noue ethi?ianoeaioe??. Aeey c?ace?a aac ii/aoeiai? ethi?ianoeaioe?? i?iaiaeeeeny aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao /ano iiia?aaeiueiai o?i?/iiai o?aaeaiiy a HF ia aeeiai?eo ia?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? OE i?e noa??ii? oeeo c?ace?a o e?iiaoieo oiiaao. C?acee IE aeniiioaaeeny ia iia?o?? i?e i?e?iaeiueiio aeaiiiio ina?oeaii?. Aei??e iieacaee, ui o?i?/ia o?aaeaiiy a HF nooo?ai i?aeaeuo? oaeaee?noue ia?inoaiiy ?OE i?e caa??aaii? c?acea ia iia?o??. Aaee/eia ?OE c /anii iiiioiiii ca?eueoo?oueny ? aeoiaeeoue ia iiee/eo. Oaeaee?noue iane/aiiy ? cia/aiiy ?ioaineaiino? a iane/aii? ca?eueoothoueny i?e i?aeaeuaii? o?eaaeino? o?aaeaiiy c?acea. Iaeiae i?e aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo /anao ia?iaee a HF cia/aiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE a iane/aii? iiaea aeyaeoeny iaioei, i?ae i?ney iaio o?eaaeiai o?aaeaiiy. Aeaoaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?? ethi?ianoeaioieo aeanoeainoae IE ia iia?o?? aoei i?iaaaeaii ia c?aceao, eaaioiaee aeo?ae yeeo ia ia?aaeuoaaa 5%. C’ynoaaeiny, ui i?e aeniiioaaii? c?ace?a ia iia?o?? eaaioiaee aeo?ae ethi?ianoeaioe?? i?aeaeuo?oueny, i?e/iio i?e ina?oeaii? c?acea cae/aeiei aeaiiei na?oeii ?ioaa?aeueia ?ioaineai?noue OE c?inoa? iaaaaaoi oaeaeoa, i?ae aeey c?acea, yeee ia?aaoaa? a oaiiio?. Ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE aeey ina?oeaieo c?ace?a o?eaa? eeoa aeayeee /an (aeecueei aeaio i?nyoe?a), i?ney /iai e?ea? aeoiaeyoue ia ieaoi. Aeey c?ace?a, i?io?aaeaieo o ieaaeeia?e eeneio?, cia/aiiy ?ioaineaiino? a iane/aii? o e?eueea ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae aeey iaia?iaeaieo. Aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae aieea ia IE, ye? ia?aaoaathoue ia iia?o??, eaca?iiai na?oea (337 ii; 3,7 iAo). Iaei? c?acee aaciina?aaeiuei ina?oethaaeeny eaca?ii, ?io? ia ii?ii?ithaaeeny, i?ioa caciaaaee ae?? iia?o?y, i?iiecaiiai eaca?iei io/eii. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeathoue ciiao i?eionoeoe, ui aieea na?oea iia’ycaiee c? ci?iaie ia a c?aceo, a a iaaeieeoi?e aoiinoa??. I?iaaaeaiee ye?niee aiae?c o?i?/iiai neeaaeo c?ace?a ? aeine?aeaeaiiy niaeo??a ?*-iiaeeiaiiy iieacaee cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ca’ycaiiai eenith a c?aceao IE ia iia?o??. Ca i?eiouaiiyi, na?oei /anoeiai eii?co? iaeiio?ieueiaai? aoiinoa?i? aeii?oee ?/aai ni?e/eiy? oioiaeenioe?aoe?th iieaeoe iaaeieeoiueiai iia?o?y, ui ni?ey? ?aaeoe?? aoiinoa?ieo eeniaai?nieo iieaeoe ? a?oi ?c e?aii??i. C oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui noa??iiy IE — i?ioean, yeee ?noioii caeaaeeoue ia eeoa a?ae ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoiai oa?o, aea e a?ae noaio aoiinoa?e, cie?aia a?ae aieiaino? oa caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y. I?ae /an aeniiioaaiiy c?acea IE ia iia?o?? e??i caaaeueiiai i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE ca?a?no?iaaii nooo?ao ci?io oaeeo ia?aiao??a niaeo?a OE, ye iieiaeaiiy iaeneioio ? oe?eia niaeo?aeueii? nioae ethi?ianoeaioe??. A ?acoeueoao? ei?ioei/anii? ia?iaee c?acea a HF niaeo? IE cacia? aeiaaioaeeueiaiai cnoao. I?e ia?aaoaaii? c?acea ia iia?o?? iaeneioi niaeo?a oaeaeei, i?ioyaii aeae?eueeio oaeeei, a?aeiiaeth? nai? iieiaeaiiy ? i?iaeiaaeo? ?ooaoenue o a?e aenieeo aia?a?e — na?/aiiy iaaoaa? aeiaooaaoiai eieuei?o. Ei?ioeioaeeueiaee cnoa iiai?noth i?eieiy?oueny i?eaeecii /a?ac aeanyoue ae?a i?ney ia?iaee c?acea, oiae? ye ?ioaineai?noue OE i?iaeiaaeo? ia?inoaoe ? aeoiaeeoue ia iaeneioi /a?ac aeaa i?nyoe?. Oe?eia niaeo?a OE ia iieiaei? aenioe a ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee a HF i?aeaeuo?oueny, iio?i oaeaeei niaaea?. I?ney ia??iaeo oaeaeeiai ciaioaiiy oe?eia nioae ci?ith?oueny iaei, ia ??ai? iioeaee, i?ioa caa??aa? caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th aei iiaeaeueoiai niaaeo. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a c?iaeaii aeniiaee uiaei i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a IE, eio?ee ia?aaoaa? ia iia?o??. Ia aeiaea/o aei iioe?aiiai a e?oa?aoo?? i?eiouaiiy i?i oa, ui c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac ianeaoaaeueio ae?th ieeneo, yeee ooai?th?oueny ia iiaa?oi? iaiino?oeoo?e, aenoiooi ua aea? a?iioace i?i iiaeeeao i?e/eio i?aeaeuaiiy eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo OE: 1) ca?eueoaiiy iane ieeneo, yeee, ia iaoo aeoieo, a?a? ?ieue nainea?e?caoi?a OE a IE, ? 2) iioiioaiiy no?oeoo?e Si aiane?aeie ieeniaiiy, oiaoi ooai?aiiy iiaeo eaaioiai-?ici??ieo o?aaiaio?a e?aii?th, caeaoieo aei?ii?ithaaoe ?ioaineaio aeaeeio ethi?ianoeaioe?th. C iaoith iiyniaiiy ?yaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaeo?a aeneiaeaii i?eiouaiiy, ui iiaeeco iiaa?oi? IE iiaeeeaee “aoaeo ae?aioaaiiy” ii?oaaoiai oa?o ieeniith ie?aeith. I?e ieeniaii? e?aii??aiai neaeaoo oe?eia ii? (ii?iaeiei i?ae “a?eeaie” no?oeoo?e) ciaiooaaoeiaoueny, ine?eueee ia’?i e?aii??ai? niieoee a?eueoee ca ia’?i iiiie?enoae?/iiai e?aii?th, aeo?a/aiiai ia ?? oi?ioaaiiy; ieenae iinooiiai caiiaithaaoeia iaeanoue ii?e. Iiaeeco ciai?oiuei? iiaa?oi? ii?oaaoiai oa?o iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny ooai?aiiy iiiie?oii? (aac ii?) ie?aee ieeneo ?c aio?iaaieie e?enoae?oaie, yea caaaaea? iiaeaeueoiio i?iieeiaiith iia?o?yiiai eenith oaeea oa?o IE. Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a niaeo?iae?iniiao??? ia ie?aieo c?aceao IE aoei io?eiaii iioe/i? eiinoaioe a?aeaeaii? nenoaie “IE – i?aeeeaaeea”, cie?aia iieacieee caeiieaiiy ? oiaueie ii?oaaoiai oa?o oa iieacieee iiaeeiaiiy i?aeeeaaeee. Aeoiaey/e c iaea?aeaieo cia/aiue iioe/ieo eiinoaio, c?iaeaii ioe?ieo ia’?iii? aeie? iaca’ycaiiai (e?enoae?/iiai) e?aii?th o oa?? IE, yeee ?icaeyaeaany ye noeoii?noue iaiie?enoae?o?a Si, ae?aieaieo o iao?eoeth SiO2. Ia/eneaiiy iieacaee, ui a ieeniiio oa?? ia c?aceo c ?ioaineaiith OE ia'?iia aeiey c-S? ia ia?aaeuoaaea 10%, oiae? ye aeey c?acea c? neaaeith ethi?ianoeaioe??th aiia neeaaeaea aaee/eio ii?yaeea 40%. A ?iaio? aea?oueny iiaa oeoia/aiiy ei?ioeioaeeueiaiai cnoao niaeo?a OE i?ae /an noa??iiy IE. O?aaeeoe?eii oea yaeua iiynith?oueny caoaeaiiyi eaaioiai? yie i?e ciaioaii? na?aaeiueiai ?ici??o e?aii??ai? no?oeoo?e i?e ieeniaii?. Ia iaoo aeoieo, ci?uaiiy niaeo?a a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ?ic?eao eaaioiai-?ici??ieo ae?ioeiie Si (aeaiaei??i? eaaioia? yie aeey iin??a ca?yaeo) ia ie?ai? e?enoae?oe (o?eaei??i? eaaioia? yie). Ua iaeia eiia??ia i?e/eia cnoao niaeo?a ethi?ianoeaioe?? IE — ae?eaaiiy iaii?ici??ieo ooai?aiue Si ieeneii, oiaoi na?aaeiaeuai ?c aaeeeith ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieeeea?noth. A ?acoeueoao? oeueiai ci?ith?oueny aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? noai?a, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ca aei?ii?ithaaeueio ?aeiia?iaoe?th. Ca e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie, aaciina?aaeiueith i?e/eiith oeueiai ? ae?aeaeo?e/ia ae?aioaaiiy eoeii?anueeiai iioaioe?aeo ca?yae?a, ?icoaoiaaieo o eaaioiaeo ae?ioeieao. A ?aieao ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? aoiinoa?iiai ieeniaiiy ii?oaaoiai oa?o iiynith?oueny ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a ii ia?iaoe? IE ieaaeeiaith eeneioith. Cie?aia, i?e/eiith iiceoeaiiai aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai o?i?/ii? ia?iaee a HF ia aaiethoe?th ?ioaineaiino? ethi?ianoeaioe?? ii?oaaoiai oa?o, aeniiiiaaiiai ia iia?o??, aaaaea?oueny ?ico??neoaaiiy iiaa?oi? ii?oaaoi? ie?aee, ui ni?ey? i?iieeiaiith eeniaai?nieo iieaeoe aoiinoa?e oaeea IE. Aeey c?ace?a IE c iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiith OE aei??yii cia/aiiy ?? ciai?oiueiai eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaiiaeiith ia?iaeith i?aeeeaaeee ? i?neyaiiaeiei aeo?eioaaiiyi c?acea ia iia?o?? iiaeia aeinyaoe eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo OE >10%. Aoaeoeai?noue aea aeayeeo c?ace?a,
ye? caciaaaee ei?ioei/aniiai o?i?/iiai o?aaeaiiy a HF ? iiaeaeueoiai
noa??iiy ia iia?o??, ia?aaeuoaaea aaee/eio 20%, oiae? ye iaeneiaeueia
iaaaaeaia a e?oa?aoo?? cia/aiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yiiai
ciai?oiueiai eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo IE noaiiaeoue aaee/eio 4%.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a aoei c?iaeaii
aeniiaee uiaei iaoai?ci?a OE a IE. Oe? iiaeaeuei? oyaeaiiy i?i
ethi?ianoeaioe?th i?aenoiiaai? o i’yoiio ?icae?e?. Iaea?eueo caaaeueiei
aeniiaeii ? oa, ui aeey aei?ii?iaiiy ii?oaaoei oa?ii ?ioaineaii?
aeaeeii? ethi?ianoeaioe?? iaiao?aeia ye iaii?ici??ia no?oeoo?a, oae ?
oe?ieiciiia niieoea ia iiaa?oi? oe??? iaiino?oeoo?e.

Cie?aia, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aoiinoa?iiai ieeniaiiy
ii?oaaoiai oa?o ia eiai ethi?ianoeaioe?th aeia?a iiyniththoueny a
iiaeae? nainea?e?ciaaii? OE eaaioiai-?ici??ieo e?enoae?o?a Si,
ae?aieaieo a ieenio ie?aeo – nainea?e?caoi?. Iaoai?ci OE ?icaeyiooi a
noai? aaoa?iia?aoiaeo i?ae e?aii??aith niieoeith ? eaaioiai-?ici??iei
e?aii??i. I?e iiaeeiaii? eaaioo e?aii??aith niieoeith iiaeeco
eaaioiai-?ici??iiai e?enoae?oa S? ooai?th?oueny aeaeo?ii ? ae??ea, ye?
i?inoi?iai ?iciinyoueny iieai aaoa?iia?aoiaeo. Iaeei ?c iin??a
aoyao?oueny o eaaioiao yio, yeo a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo yaey? niaith
e?enoae?o. Aein? iaeo?aeueiee e?enoae?o iaaoaa? aeaeo?e/iiai ca?yaeo,
aiane?aeie /iai c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue aeey aoyaoaaiiy aei aeacaiiai
e?enoae?oo iin?y ca?yaeo i?ioeeaaeiiai ciaeo. A ?acoeueoao?
aei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe?? iin??a ooai?eoueny eaaio na?oea c
aia?a??th, yea ia?aaeuo? oe?eio caai?iiaii? ciie ianeaiiai e?aii?th.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue ? i?eeiyoiith ianaiia?aae c oi/ee ci?o iiyniaiiy
ci?ie aeanoeainoae OE IE i?ae /an ??ciiai oeio ia?iaie c?ace?a.
Oaiia?aoo?ia /e o?i?/ia ia?iaea c?acea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?i o neeaae?
?/aai no?oeoo?? ieenii? niieoee-nainea?e?caoi?a ia iiaa?oi?
iaiino?oeoo?e, a ?acoeueoao? /iai iiaeooue ci?ieoeny ethi?ianoeaioi?
aeanoeaino? ii?oaaoiai oa?o. Caaaeuei? aeanoeaino? ethi?ianoeaioe?? IE
iiyniththoueny noaiaea?oii a ?aieao eaaioiai-?ici??ii? a?iioace.

Oioicaoaeaeaiiy ? aei?ii?ithaaeueia ?aeiia?iaoe?y ca?yae?a iiaeooue
oaeiae a?aeaoaaoeny a aaoa?iia?aoiaeao ia iaae? e?aii?th ? niieoee Si.
Oiae? ooai?aiiy aeaeo?iiii-ae??eiai? ia?e a?aeaoaa?oueny a iaaeao
aaoa?iia?aoiaeo. Iin?? ca?yaeo ?aeaenothoue, ao?a/ath/e aia?a?th, ?
caiaeii ?aeiia?iothoue, aei?ii?ithth/e eaaio na?oea. A ?aieao oe???
iiaeae? iiaeia iiynieoe aeaye? e?iaoe/i? iniaeeaino? OE, caeaaei?noue
iieiaeaiiy iaeneioio niaeo?a ethi?ianoeaioe?? a?ae aeiaaeeie oaee?
caoaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae aieea ??ciiai oeio ia?iaie ia ethi?ianoeaioi?
aeanoeaino? ii?oaaoiai oa?o.

Iiaeaeue OE ia aaoa?iia?aoiae? ia ? aeueoa?iaoeaiith aei iiaeae?
nainea?e?ciaaii? ethi?ianoeaioe??. Iaeaeaa iaoai?cie iiaeooue aooe
i?enooi? iacaeaaeii, ? eiaeai ?c ieo ?iaeoeia na?e aianie o OE.
?niothoue, iaeiae, oiiae, ca yeeo iaeei ?c iaoai?ci?a aoaea ia?aaaaeaoe.
Oae, o aeiaaeeo neeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy caoaeaeaiiy o iiaa?oiaa?e niieooe?
aeii?ioaaoeia nainea?e?ciaaia ethi?ianoeaioe?y. O aeiaaeeo ae neaaeiai
iiaeeiaiiy caoaeaeoaaeueia na?oei aac ia?aoeiae aeioiaeeoeia aei
a?aieoe? i?ae niieoeith ? e?aii??i, ? niaeo? OE oi?ioaaoeia
aei?ii?ithaaiiy a aaoa?iia?aoiae?. Inoaii?e iaoai?ci ia?aaaaeaoeia ? a
oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee no?oeoo?a ia ? eaaioiai-?ici??iith.

I?eiouaiiy i?i aeaa iacaeaaei? iaoai?cie OE o IE aa?oa oaaae, ine?eueee
ii?oaaoa no?oeoo?a acaaae? ? ianoaa?eueiith nenoaiith, /ooeeaith aei
ciai?oi?o oiia. Iacia/i? ci?ie a oiiaao aeaioiaeaiiy aai caa??aaiiy
c?acea iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe aei iiaeeo?eaoe?? iiaa?oi? iaiino?oeoo?e, a
oiio /ene? e aei ooai?aiiy ia oe?e iiaa?oi? ??ciiai oeio niieoe,
caeaoieo aei ethi?ianoeaioe??. ??ci? aeine?aeieee iiaeooue niinoa??aaoe
/a?aiio ethi?ianoeaioe?th, iaoiiaeaio ??cieie iaoai?ciaie ?aeiia?iaoe??,
?ieiee e?eueeiia c?aco.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii o?ceei-oaoi?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a, ui
aecia/athoue aoaeoeai?noue ethi?ianoeaioe?? c?ace?a IE. Aia?oa
iia?aeiiey?oueny i?i aeinyaiaiiy aaee/ei eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo,
caaeia?eueieo c oi/ee ci?o iiaeeeaiai aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai iaoa??aeo a
oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy na?oeiaei?ii?ithaaeueiee i?eeaae?a. Aea/aii
oaeiae i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ii?oaaoiio oa?? i?e ia?aaoaaii?
c?ace?a ia iia?o??, oa ?o aieea ia ethi?ianoeaioi? aeanoeaino? IE. Ia
iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy
i?i iaoai?cie OE a aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?aceao. I?iaiae?coaaaoe io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe, ie i?eeoee aei ianooiieo aeniiae?a:

1. Aaaaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue o i?aeeeaaeeo oa caaaa/aiiy ai?ii
eaoiaeii? i?eiiaa?oiaai? iaeano? ieanoeie Si ? aoaeoeaieie caniaaie
i?aeaeuaiiy aei?ii?ithaaeueii? caeaoiino? oa??a IE, ye? ae?iuothoueny ia
oeeo i?aeeeaaeeao iaoiaeii aiiaeiiai o?aaeaiiy. Ii?oaaoa ie?aea,
io?eiaia ia oaeeo ieanoeiao, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ioaineai?oith ? a?eueo
ei?ioeioaeeueiaith OE, i?ae IE ia iaia?iaeaieo i?aeeeaaeeao. Ca
i?eiouaiiyi, i?e/eiith aeacaieo aoaeo?a ? ia?a?iciiae?e i?io?eaiiy
no?oio /a?ac ia?iaeai? i?aeeeaaeee. O aeiaaeeo ieanoeie c iaoai?/ieie
iai?oaeaiiyie eaiaee i?ioiaeaeaiiy iin??a ca?yaeo aecia/athoueny
/eneaiieie i?e?iaeaoaeoaie e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e. O i?aeeeaaeoe?, yea
caciaea aeeooc?? ai?o a eaoiaeio iiaa?oith, i?e/eiith ia?a?iciiae?eo
aiiaeiiai no?oio iiaeooue aooe noaoenoe/i? a?aeoeeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
aaaaeaiiai ai?o oa aeeaeie eiai aeeooc?? a?ae na?aaei?o cia/aiue.

Eaaioiaee aeo?ae OE c?ace?a, ye? ae?iuai? ia oaeeo i?aeeeaaeeao ?
aeo?eiai? a aoiinoa?iiio na?aaeiaeu?, iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe 10%, ui ?
aeieacii ia ei?enoue aeei?enoaiiy IE a i?iieneiaino? ye
ethi?ianoeaioiiai iaoa??aeo.

2. Aeiaaio?eaaea caa??aaiiy c?ace?a IE ia iia?o?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
c?inoaiiy eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo ?o OE ? cnoao iaeneioio niaeo?a a a?e
aaeeeeo aia?a?e. Iineeaiiy ethi?ianoeaioe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny a?eueo
oaeaeei ? aoaeoeaii, yeui c?acee iiia?aaeiuei i?io?aaeoe a HF.
Aeo?eioaaiiyi c?ace?a IE ia iia?o?? iiaeia ca?eueoeoe aaee/eio
eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo OE aei 20%.

3. Ci?ie a ethi?ianoeaioieo aeanoeainoyo c?ace?a i?e ?o aeniiioaaii? ia
iia?o?? cia/ii i?enei?ththoueny ca oiia ina?oeaiiy ii?oaaoiai oa?o.
Aieea ina?oeaiiy iia’ycaiee ia c oioio?i?/ieie ia?aoai?aiiyie a c?aceo,
a nei??oa c eii?caoe?eiith ae??th aei?ii?iaiiy ia iaeiio?ieueiaai?
aoiinoa?i? aeii?oee oa c oioiaeenioe?aoe??th iieaeoe iaaeieeoiueiai
iia?o?y, ui ni?ey? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ?aaeoe?? aoiinoa?ieo eeniaai?nieo
iieaeoe ? a?oi ?c e?aii??i. Oea icia/a?, ui noa??iiy IE — i?ioean, yeee
cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue ia eeoa a?ae ia?aiao??a ii?oaaoiai oa?o, aea
e a?ae noaio aoiinoa?e, cie?aia a?ae aieiaino? oa caa?oaeiaiino?
iia?o?y. Oiio canoinoaaiiy c?ace?a IE a i?eeaaeao aeiaaa? noaa?e?caoe??
?o aeanoeainoae.

4. Ia?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE i?e aeniiioaaii? IE ia iia?o??
a?aeaoaa?oueny, i/aaeaeii, aiane?aeie: 1) ianeaaoe?? iiaa?oi?
aei?ii?ithaaeueii? no?oeoo?e ieeneii; 2) ca?eueoaiiy iane
nainea?e?caoi?a ethi?ianoeaioe??, yeei ? ieenae; 3) ciaioaiiy
na?aaeiueiai ?ici??o aeaiaio?a iaiino?oeoo?e Si, caaaeyee /iio
i?aeaeuo?oueny ?o aei?ii?ithaaeueia caeaoi?noue.

Oi?ioaaiiy ieeneo a?aeaoaa?oueny a iniiaiiio a?ey iiaa?oi? ii?oaaoiai
oa?o. A IE ooai?th?oueny i?eiiaa?oiaaee ieeniee oa? ?c aio?iaaieie a
iueiai iaii?ici??ieie aei?ii?ithaaeueieie e?enoae?oaie Si, yeee
ia?aoeiaeaea? iiaeaeueoiio i?iieeiaiith eenith aaeea IE. Iiceoeaiee
aieea iiia?aaeiueiai o?aaeaiiy a HF ia iiaaae?ieo ?ioaineaiino? OE
c?acea i?ae /an noa??iiy iiynith?oueny ?ico??neoaaiiyi ii?oaaoiai oa?o a
?acoeueoao? o?aaeaiiy, aiane?aeie /iai iia?o?y a?euei?oa i?iieea? aaeea
IE.

5. Ei?ioeioaeeueiaa ci?uaiiy niaeo?a OE a i?ioean? i?e?iaeiueiai
ieeniaiiy c?acea ia iia?o?? a?aeaoaa?ouecy, eiia??ii, ca o?ueio i?e/ei:
1) ?icoe?aiiy caai?iiaii? ciie IE aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy na?aaeiueiai
?ici??o o?aaiaio?a e?aii??ai? ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e (caoaeaiiy eaaioiai?
yie); 2) ?icaeooy eaaioiai-?ici??ieo ae?ioeiie Si ia ie?ai? e?enoae?oe
(ia?aoai?aiiy aeaiaei??ii? eaaioiai? yie ia o?eaei??io); 3) ooai?aiiy ia
iiaa?oi? iaiino?oeoo?e ieeniiai oa?o c aaeeeith ae?aeaeo?e/iith
i?iieeeea?noth, caaaeyee /iio a?aeaoaa?oueny ae?aeaeo?e/ia ae?aioaaiiy
eoeii?anueeiai iioaioe?aeo ca?yae?a, ?icoaoiaaieo o eaaioiaeo ae?ioeieao
? e?enoae?oao.

6. Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeia?a iiyniththoueny a
iiaeae? nainea?e?ciaaii? OE IE. Ca?aeii c ?ic?iaeaiith iiaeaeeth,
iiaeeiaiiy caoaeaeoaaeueiiai na?oea a?aeaoaa?oueny a ieene? ia iiaa?oi?
e?aii??aiai neaeaoo, a i?ioean aei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe?? — a
iaiie?enoae?oao Si, caai?iiaia ciia yeeo ?icoe?aia caaaeyee
eaaioiai-?ici??iei aoaeoai. Aeey ethi?ianoeaioe?? IE oaeiae iiaea aooe
ni?aaaaeeeaith iiaeaeue caoaeaeaiiy-?aeiia?iaoe?? a aaoa?iia?aoiae? ia
iaae? iaiino?oeoo?e Si c e?aii??aith niieoeith. Iaeaea? cai?iiiiiaai?
iiaeae? OE a?aoiaothoue iaiao?aei?noue ye ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e Si, oae ?
oe?ieiciiii? e?aii??ai? niieoee ia ?? iiaa?oi?, aeey ?nioaaiiy
?ioaineaii? aeaeeii? OE.

7. Ine?eueee IE ? ianoaa?eueiith nenoaiith, /ooeeaith aei ciai?oi?o
oiia, oiio i?e c’ynoaaii? iaoai?cio aei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe??
aa?oi caaaeeoe ia oa, ui oaeeo iaoai?ci?a iiaea aooe e?eueea. Iacia/i?
ci?ie a oiiaao aeaioiaeaiiy aai caa??aaiiy c?acea iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe
aei iiaeeo?eaoe?? iiaa?oi? iaiino?oeoo?e, ui nooo?ai aieeaa? ia
ethi?ianoeaioi? aeanoeaino? ii?oaaoiai oa?o.

A??ia?aei?noue io?eiaieo o ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/aia aeei?enoaiiyi
no/anieo iaoiaeee aei??thaaiiy ? ia?iaee aeaieo, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
oe?ieith ai?iaaoe??th ?acoeueoao?a ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa ?o
ioae?eaoe??th a aaoi?eoaoieo ca?oa?aeieo aeaeaiiyo oa ocaiaeaeaiiyi
?yaeo iia?/ieo aeaieo ?c ?acoeueoaoaie ?ioeo aaoi??a.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe i?aaenoaaeaii a noaooyo:

1. V.A.Makara, M.S.Boltovets, O.V.Vakulenko, O.I.Datsenko,
V.I.Kryvohyzhyna, O.V.Rudenko. Effect of substrate defects on the
luminescent properties of porous silicon layers // in Frontiers in
Nanoscale Science of Micron/Submicron Devices, Nato ASI Series, Vol.
328, edited by A.-P.Jauho and E.V.Buzaneva.- 1996.- P. 409-413.

2. V.A.Makara, M.S.Boltovets, O.V.Vakulenko, O.I.Datsenko, O.V.Rudenko.
Formatoin of intensive photoluminescence in porous silicon // in
Surface/Interface and Stress Effects in Electronic Material
Nanostructures, MRS Symp. Proc., Vol. 405, edited by S.M.Prokes,
R.C.Cammarata, K.L.Wang, and A.Christou (MRS, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania).
— 1996.- P. 193-196.

3. A.A.Iaea?a, I.N.Aieoiaaoeue, I.A.Aaeoeaiei, I.I.Aeaoeaiei,
I.A.?oaeaiei. Oi?ioaaiiy oa?ia ii?oaaoiai e?aiiith c aenieei eaaioiaei
aeoiaeii oioiethiiianoeaioei? // OOAE.- 1996.- O. 41, ? 11-12.- N.
1090-1092.

4. V.A.Odarych, O.I.Dacenko, M.S.Boltovec, O.V.Rudenko, V.O.Pasichnyj.
Structure and optical parameters of the system with porous silicon:
Ellipsometric study // in Optical Diagnosis of Materials and Devices for
Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum Electronics 1997, Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 3359,
edited by S.V.Svechnikov and M.Ya.Valakh (Kiev, Ukraine).- 1998.- P.
59-64.

5. M.S.Boltovec, O.I.Dacenko, S.M.Naumenko, T.V.Ostapchuk, O.V.Rudenko.
Light-activated photoluminescence of porous silicon // in Optical
Diagnosis of Materials and Devices for Opto-, Micro-, and Quantum
Electronics 1997, Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 3359, edited by S.V.Svechnikov and
M.Ya.Valakh (Kiev, Ukraine).- 1998.- P. 227-231.

6. I.A.Aaeoeaiei, I.I.Aeaoeaiei, A.A.Iaea?e/, A.A.Iaea?a,
I.N.Aieoiaaoeue. Aeiiniiao?e/ii aeii?thaaiiy ia?aiao?ia oa
oioiethiiianoeaioeiy nenoaie ia iniiai ii?oaaoiai e?aiiith // OOAE.-
1998.- O. 43, ? 3.- N. 348-353.

7. A.I.Oooia, I.?.Aeaoeaiei. I?e?iaea /a?aiii? ethi?ianoeaioe?? a
ii?oaaoiio e?aii?? // OOAE.- 1998.- O. 43, ? 4.- N. 489-491.

8. V.A.Makara, O.V.Vakulenko, O.I.Dacenko, V.M.Kravchenko,
T.V.Ostapchuk, O.V.Rudenko, M.S.Boltovets, V.O.Fesunenko. Effect of
boron diffusion doping of silicon on the micromechanical and
luminescence properties of porous layers // Thin Solid Films.- 1998.-
Vol. 312, ? 1-2.- P. 202-206.

9. I.I.Aeaoeaiei. Aieea ina?oeaiiy ia oioiethi?ianoeaioe?th «noa?iai»
ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th // Ainiee Ee?anueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo, na?.: Oic.-iao.
iaoee.- 1998, aei. 2.- C. 399-407.

Aeaoeaiei I. ?. Oi?ioaaiiy oa??a ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th c aenieei eaaioiaei
aeoiaeii oioiethi?ianoeaioe??.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.05 – iioeea, eaca?ia
o?ceea; Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie ca?eueoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oioiethi?ianoeaioe?? (OE) c?ace?a
ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th (IE), aea/aiiy aaiethoe?? ethi?ianoeaioieo
aeanoeainoae ii?oaaoiai oa?o ia iia?o??. Iieacaii, ui aaaaeaiiy
iai?oaeaiue o e?aii??ao i?aeeeaaeeo ia?aae aiiaeoaaiiyi ? aoaeoeaiei
iaoiaeii i?aeaeuaiiy eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo OE IE. Iienaii iaoiaeeeo
i?neyaiiaeii? o?i?/ii? ia?iaee IE a HF c ianooiiei ieeniaiiyi c?ace?a ia
iia?o??, yea aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe c?acee c eaaioiaei aeoiaeii OE aei
20%. Aeyaeaii, ui ?aaeoe?? ieeniaiiy ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e i?io?eathoue
ia?aaaaeii a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?o IE, ui iiynith? niaoeeo?eo ci?ie
ethi?ianoeaioieo aeanoeainoae c?ace?a, aeniiiiaaieo ia iia?o??.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ia ?icaeyae aea? iiaeae? OE ii?oaaoi? no?oeoo?e: iaoai?ci
nainea?e?ciaaii? OE eaaioiai-?ici??iiai e?enoae?oo, ae?aieaiiai a ieenae
– nainea?e?caoi?, oa iiaeaeue caoaeaeaiiy ? ?aeiia?iaoe?? a
aaoa?iia?aoiae? “e?aii?e – e?aii??aa niieoea”. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui
ethi?ianoeaioi? aeanoeaino? IE ? ianoaa?eueieie ? a cia/i?e noaiai?
caeaaeaoue a?ae oiia caa??aaiiy c?ace?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?oaaoee e?aii?e, niaeo? oioiethi?ianoeaioe??,
eaaioiaee aeo?ae, iaoai?ci ethi?ianoeaioe??.

Aeaoeaiei A. E. Oi?ie?iaaiea neiaa ii?enoiai e?aiiey n aunieei eaaioiaui
auoiaeii oioiethieianoeaioeee.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.05 – iioeea,
eaca?iay oeceea; Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao ei. Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee eceiaeaiu yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey
i?iaeaiu oaaee/aiey yooaeoeaiinoe oioiethieianoeaioeee (OE) ia?acoeia
ii?enoiai e?aiiey (IE), eco/aiey yaiethoeee ethieianoeaioiuo naienoa
ii?enoiai neiy ia aicaeooa. Iieacaii, /oi aaaaeaiea iai?yaeaiee a
e?aiieaaoth iiaeeiaeeo ia?aae aiiaee?iaaieai yaeyaony yooaeoeaiui
iaoiaeii iiauoaiey eaaioiaiai auoiaea OE IE. Iienaia iaoiaeeea
iineaaiiaeiie oeie/aneie ia?aaioee IE a HF n iineaaeothuei ieeneaieai
ia?acoeia ia aicaeooa, eioi?ay iicaieyao iieo/aoue ia?acoeu n eaaioiaui
auoiaeii OE aei 20%. Iaia?oaeaii, /oi ?aaeoeee ieeneaiey ii?enoie
no?oeoo?u i?ioaeatho i?aeiouanoaaiii a iiaa?oiinoiii neia IE, /oi
iauyniyao niaoeeoeeo eciaiaiey ethieianoeaioiuo naienoaao ia?acoeia,
yeniiie?othueony ia aicaeooa. I?aaeeiaeaiu e ?anniio?aieth aeaa iiaeaee
OE ii?enoie no?oeoo?u: iaoaieci naineaeeece?iaaiiie OE
eaaioiai-?acia?iiai e?enoaeeeoa, ae?aieaiiiai a ieenae – naineaeeecaoi?,
e iiaeaeue aicaoaeaeaiey e ?aeiiaeiaoeee a aaoa?iia?aoiaea “e?aiiee –
e?aiieaaia niaaeeiaiea”. Aeaeaaony auaiae, /oi ethieianoeaioiua naienoaa
IE yaeythony ianoaaeeueiuie e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaenyo io oneiaee
o?aiaiey ia?acoeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ii?enoue e?aiiee, niaeo? oioiethieianoeaioeee,
eaaioiaue auoiae, iaoaieci ethieianoeaioeee.

Dacenko O. I. Formation of porous silicon layers with high quantum yield
of photoluminescence.

The thesis for scientific degree of physics and mathematician candidate
on 01.04.05 speciality — Optics, Laser Physics; Kyiv Taras Shevchenko
University, Kyiv, 1999.

The experimental results of investigation of the problem of increasing
the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of porous silicon (PS) samples and
study of the evolution of the porous layer luminescent properties in the
air are reported in the thesis. Pre-anodic introducing mechanical
stresses into the Si substrate as well as such ways of post-anodic
treatment of porous layers as etching the samples in hydrofluoric acid
and natural oxidation of the porous structure when storing the samples
in the air are investigated as possible methods to increase the PS
luminescence intensity. It is shown that introducing the stresses into
the silicon substrate before anodizing is an effective method to
increase the PL efficiency of PS and, in combination with the further
atmospheric oxidation, enables one to reach the PL quantum yield values
which exceed 10%. The technique of post-anodic chemical treatment and
further oxidation of the PS in the air, which allows obtaining the
samples with PL quantum yield up to 20%, is described. It is established
that, besides the luminescence efficiency rise, the PL spectrum peak
shifts to higher energies and the spectrum band width decreases slightly
when storing the PS in the atmospheric ambient. It is demonstrated that
the indicated changes in the luminescence spectra can be explained by
the effects of porous structure oxidation. Thus, the PL intensity rise
can occur for several reasons which are passivation of the emitting
structure by oxide; increase of the mass of the luminescence sensitizer
being the oxide; decrease of the mean size of Si nanostructure
fragments, which is favourable to their emitting ability rise. The PS
band gap extension due to decrease of the mean size of the silicon
porous structure fragments (narrowing the quantum well), partition of
quantum-sized Si wires into the separated crystallites (transformation
of the two-dimensional quantum well into the three-dimensional one) and
formation of the oxide layer with high dielectric constant, which
promotes the dielectric screening of Coulombic potential of the charges
located in the quantum wires and crystallites, are the reasons for the
short-wave shift of the PL spectrum when exposing the sample to the air.
The changes in the samples exposed to the natural conditions are found
to be essentially accelerated while the porous layer is illuminated. The
illumination effect is shown to be most likely related to the emission
ionizing action on the atmospheric impurities, which is favourable for
the reaction of air oxygen-containing molecules with silicon, rather
than to photochemical transformations in the sample. With the aim to
explain the features of sample luminescence properties modification in
the atmospheric ambient, it is suggested that the reactions of porous
structure oxidation take place mainly in the surface layer of PS,
causing the formation of a silicon oxide layer with embedded Si
crystallites at the porous film surface. The luminescence properties of
PS are concluded to be instable and substantially dependent on the
storage conditions of the sample. The obtained experimental results are
well explained within the suggested model of sensitized PL in PS.
According to the model, the absorption of exciting light occurs at the
surface of silicon skeleton, whereas the radiative recombination process
takes place in the Si nanocrystallites whose band gap is extended due to
the quantum-size effect. The model of excitation/recombination in the
heterojunction at the boundary between the Si nanostructure and the
silicon compound may also be true for the PS luminescence. Either
suggested model presumes availability of both the Si porous structure
and silicon wide-gap compound at its surface.

Keywords: porous silicon, photoluminescence spectrum, quantum yield,
luminescence mechanism.

Похожие записи