IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Ae?AeAIEI IEEIEA IA?EIAE*

OAeE 330.36.4:339.13(477)

OI?IOAAIIss ??AIIAAAE AIE A OIIAAO ?EIEIAI?

O?AINOI?IAOe?? AEIIII?EE OE?A?IE

08.01.01-Aeiiii?/ia oai??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oai?aoe/ii? oa i?eeeaaeii?
aeiiii?eeIaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?I?EIEAIEI TH??e Aaneeueiae/,

Aeaaeai?y ioi?oeeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy,caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e OAAIAI?UAANUeEEE Iao?i
I?ieiiiae/,

?aaea aea/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie,Canooiiee Aieiae
?AIN c iaoeiai? ?iaioe;

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?EAANITHE Ai?en ?aaaiiae/,

?inoeooo aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie,canooiiee aee?aeoi?a
?inoeoooo;

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio OAAIIANOAAA? Ai?en
Eineiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei EIE Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a iie?oe/ii?
aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «23» ea?oiy 1999? i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii?niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.001.13 o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai?Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith 252022, i Ee?a aoe
Aaneeuee?anueea, 90A, e?i 704.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith 252033 i Ee?a, aoe
Aieiaeeie?nueea, ^8,e?i 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «18» aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eaiiaiei I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No?aoaa?/iee eo?n ia aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?,
i?i?ea ia iia? ?oaaae? ?icaeoeo a eiioaeno? caaaeueii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy oaeoi??a, ye?
caaacia/eee a aoaeoeai? oeyoe iinooiiaiai aoiaeaeaiiy aei oace
aeiiii?/ii? noaeino? ? c?inoaiiy an?o aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa,
cie?aia aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno. Ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeo?a
caiea?ianoaa ? oaa?eiieoeoaa aeeeeea? iano?eio iaiao?aei?noue
iine?aeiaiiai ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace aa?ii?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, eiai oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai ia?ainiauaiiy. Aaaeeeaiai
oai?aoe/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy
??aiiaaae AIE. A?ae ?? oni?oiiai ae??oaiiy aaaaoi a /iio caeaaeaoue
oaiie aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy, iiaeeeaino? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy, ui iaiao?aeii
aeey noaiiaeaiiy oeea?e?ciaaieo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? i?aeaeuaiiy
aeia?iaooo ethaeae.

Aiae?c iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o o/aieo-aeiiii?no?a, iaoa??ae?a iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e ? aeeneon?e, i?enay/aieo aeine?aeaeaiith ??cieo aniaeo?a
oe??? aaaaoia?aiii? ? aeooaeueii? i?iaeaie, iieacaa, ui aiia ia? ua
aaaaoi ia aeine?aeaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue. Iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy
oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia iaaeinoaoiueiio aea/aii?
iineeaiiy eiiieaeniiai nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo o cae?eniaii? aiae?co ?
ioe?iee o iiaiio aniaeo? iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?iaeai ? oai?aoe/ieo iniia
a?aeoai?aiiy, iaea?eueo ae?eiaeo cania?a ? oi?i no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue c
iaoith oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae ? iioeiaeueii? caaeainiaaiino?
aa?a?ii-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, noai?aiiy ii?iaeueieo aioo??oi?o oiia
eiai noaa?eueiino? c ia?aoiaeii aei no?eeiai c?inoaiiy. Iiaeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aeoiae?a aeiaaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy noo? oi?ioaaiiy
??aiiaaae, iaoai?cio ?? noaiiaeaiiy, nenoaie eiiieaenieo oa?eoi??aeueieo
i?iii?oe?e aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a,
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueei? ??aiiaaae ? caaeainiaaiino?.
Iayai?noue c ?yaeo ieoaiue aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie ??cieo, ?iiae?
i?ioeeaaeieo aeoiie coiiaeth? a?aei?ii?noue o iiooeao aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a
? iaoiae?a, ye? iai?aaeai? ia ?icaeoie i?iaiicoaaiiy, ieaioaaiiy,
neeaaeaiiy i?ia?ai aaeineiiaeaiiy i?iii?oe?e, ciaoiaeaeaiiy ?o
iioeiaeueieo aa??aio?a. I?aeaeuaiiy oaaae aei iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia
coiiaeaiee oaeiae noaiiaeaiiyi ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Iaoa ii/aoeiaa oyaa
i?i ieai aeiaaa? ia?aioe?iee c iiceoe?? aeiiii?/ii? iacaeaaeiino?
ae?iaiee?a ? iiai? ?ie? oi?aae?iiy a ?aaoethaaii? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

I?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae AIE ye ? anueiai noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy
neeaaeia ? aaaaoia?aiia. Aiia o?nii ii?aeiaia c aeeaeiieie i?ioeanaie
?icaeoeo noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
?aoi?i, ui o?ainoi?iothoue a?aeiineie aeaniino? a aa?ii?iieneiaiio
ae?iaieoeoa?. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ? iaei??th ?c aieiaieo
caaaeaiue aeiiii?/ii? oai???.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aea?aiee iai?yi
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith eiiieaenii? oaie iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ia 1995-2000??. Oai?aoe/i? ?
aeiiii?ei-i?aai?caoe?ei? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio oa
no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, yea ? neeaaeiaei iai?yiii Aea?aeaaii?
i?ia?aie oi?aa?neoaoo ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaaiino? (1997-2000??.). Aeaia
aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaeiae neeaaeiaith iniiaiiai iai?yio
IAe? eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? oa i?eeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee ia 1995-2000??.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a
ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie. ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai?
a oai? “Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie”,
yea aeeiioaaeanue ia caiiaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie” (?icii?yaeaeaiiy
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 24.01.1997?. ?52/97-?i). C?iaeai? aeena?oaioii
?ic?aooiee uiaei no?oeoo?ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue o i?iaeoeoiaeo
i?aeeiiieaenao, ioe?iee iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae i?aeeiiieaen?a,
?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a i?ae i?aeeiiieaenaie aoee aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
?icae?eo Aa?ii?iieneiaee eiiieaen Aea?aeaaii? I?ia?aie Aeiiii?/iee ?
nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie Iie?nny(Aeia?aeea ?25/137 a?ae 04.12.1996?.).
Aeiiia?aeia caienea uiaei iniiaieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo iieiaeaiue
?aoi?ioaaiiy Caaaeueiiai eeaneo?eaoi?a aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
(CEAIA) Oe?a?ie aoea aeei?enoaia i?e ?ic?iaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
eeaneo?eaoi?a aeae?a aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (EAAAe) (Aeia?aeea
Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie ?24/66 a?ae 22.04.98?.).

Oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae, iai?yie iioei?caoe?? ni?aa?aeiioaiue, iaoai?ci
?aae?caoe?? no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a aa?a?ii-i?iieneiaiio eiiieaen?
Oe?a?ie ioe?iththoueny c oi/ee ci?o oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Iiae?aieo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i? ia nueiaiaei? iaia?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aecia/eoe iaea?eueo ae?eia? caniae ?
oi?ie no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a aa?ii?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa? c iaoith
noaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae, iioei?caoe?? i?iii?oe?e, aeoiaey/e ?c no/aniiai
noaio aeiiii?ee oa caaaeaiue ia?aoiaeo aei nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaiiai
noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iinoaaeaiith iaoith a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/ai? oae?
iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

1) Aeine?aeeoe i?iaeaio aeinyaiaiiy ??aiiaaae ? no?oeoo?ii
caaeainiaaiiai aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa Oe?a?ie. Aecia/eoe
iae?aoe?iiaeuei?o?, iioeiaeuei? i?iii?oe?? a AIE; 2) I?iaiae?coaaoe
caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ? oaiaeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy i?iii?oe?e, no?oeoo?e
aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? cao?ao
noni?eueii? i?aoe? ia iniia? anaa?/ii? ?ioaineo?eaoe??; 3) Aeaoe
ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a ?ic??c? ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie ca
aeiiiiiaith e?i?eieo eiao?oe??io?a no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue ca aaeocyie, ye?
caaacia/othoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an; 4) Aecia/eoe ??ai?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a ia iniia? caaaeaiiai
eiao?oe??ioo aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo; 5) Ia iniia?
anaa?/iiai aiae?co ? ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee no/anieo i?ioean?a ?
oaiaeaioe?e a aeiiii?oe? oa c o?aooaaiiyi na?oiaiai aeina?aeo
iaa?oiooaaoe ? cai?iiiioaaoe eiioeaiooaeueii oe?e?nio nenoaio
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ioe?iee no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue, ?o nioe?aeueii?
ni?yiiaaiino?, o?ainoi?iaoe?? no?oeoo?e, aaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy i?iii?oe?e aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iae?iaeiiii?/i?, ?aa?iiaeuei?, i?aeaaeocaa? ?
aaeocaa? i?iii?oe??, i?aei?e?inoaa AIE Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia iniia? eiioeaiooaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo
i?iaiaeeeinue iaoiaeieia?/ia ? oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueieo
caeiiii??iinoae, iaeaaaeeea?oeo oaiaeaioe?e ? niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae
noaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai AIE Oe?a?ie. A i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie canoiniaoaaeenue iaoiaee aiae?co ? neioaco,
?iaeoeoe?? ? aeaaeoeoe??, ?ic?aooieo ? ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??:
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?nioth/eo eiioeaioe?e, iiaoaeiaa noai, a?ao?e?a,
ae?aa?ai, oaaeeoeue, noaoenoe/ieo a?oioaaiue, aaeainiaee iaoiae.
Canoiniaoaaany ea?oia?ao?/iee iaoiae aeey ioe?iee ? aiae?co aaaaoueio
yaeu ? i?ioean?a o /an? ? i?inoi??.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai?: niaoe?aeueia e?oa?aoo?a,
noaoenoe/i? ui??/ieee, iaoe?iiaeuei? ?aooiee, io?oe?ei? iaoa??aee ?
aeieoiaioe I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie, ?AA OAAI, ?AIN Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee IAI
Oe?a?ie ? ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? iaoeia?
oaa?aeaeaiiy, uiaei e?euee?nii? oa ye?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ??aiiaaae,
iaoa??aeueieo iniia ?? oi?ioaaiiy, ye? neeaaeathoue iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?eioeeie aiae?co ??aiiaaae aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa eiai
aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. Iniaenoi aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? io?eiai? iia? iaoeia?
?acoeueoaoe, ye? a noeoiiino? neeaaeathoue eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee
oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae ia iniia? aeinyaiaiiy no?oeoo?ii? iioei?caoe?? oa
caaeainiaaiino? AIE Oe?a?ie. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? o oaeeo
eiie?aoieo ?acoeueoaoao:

? cai?iiiiiaaii aaoi?nueeo eiioeaioe?th oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae AIE
Oe?a?ie. Oey eiioeaioe?y ia’?eoeaii iaiao?aeia ye iaoiaeieia?/iee
i?eioeei aeey aecia/aiiy iai?yi?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeaoi?iiaaii?
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie a ?eieiao nenoaio, a oaeiae ioe?iee ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ea?aeeiaeueii iiaeo iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy ? ieaioaaiiy;

? c i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iiceoe?e cai?iiiiiaaia oai?aoe/ia o?aeoiaea noo?,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo caeiio i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? oa eiai
?ie? a nenoai? aeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? noaiiaeaii? ?eieiai?
??aiiaaae;

? iaa?oioiaai? aeo?aei? iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy aca?iic’yceo
??aiiaaae, i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino?, caaeainiaaiino? ? noaeiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aa?a?ii? noa?e; iniaeeaino?
aca?iica’yceo ?eieo ? ??aiiaaae, ui iathoue iaoeiao ? i?aeoe/io
oe?ii?noue; ?ice?eo? i?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? a AIE
a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iei? ?nioth/i? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a
Oe?a?i?;

? canoiniaai? aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ae?iaie/iai ? ?ano?niiai
oei?a aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iioeiaeueii? caaeainiaaiino? i?ae oaeoe/iei
a?ieia?/iei iioaioe?aeii i?e?iaeieo cii Oe?a?ie ? aaiaoe/iei
iioaioe?aeii n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ? aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
iai?yi?a no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a aa?ii?iaeiaieue/iio iioaioe?ae?.
I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee i?iii?oe?e e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo ia ??ai? noa? ?
aaeocae aeiiii?ee ia iniia? Iaoe?iiaeueieo ?aooie?a Oe?a?ie. Aeaia
ioe?iea iieaciee?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiaeeaaiiy e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo o
?aa?iiaeueiiio ?ic??c?. Iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo ia
??ai? naeoi??a oa aaeocae aeiiii?ee aeaea iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe
i?iii?oe?? ? i??i?eoaoe o ae?iaieoeoa? ? niiaeeaaii? i?iaeoeoe??
oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino?.

? ia iniia? aiae?co aeua iaaaaeaieo ?ic?aooie?a aeiaaaeaiee aeniiaie,
ui i?eaaoecaoe?y i?aei?e?inoa, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia e?ioeaaeo noaae?yo
aai a na?aaeei? oaoiieia?/ieo eaioetha?a, iiaea i?eianoe iaeneiaeueiee
aoaeo ? i?i?iaeuei? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee o?eueee ca oiiae, yeui
iine?aeiaii cae?enith?oueny o?ainoi?iaoe?y a?aeiinei aeaniino? ia
i?aei?e?inoaao ii anueiio eaioethao. Ioaea, oaiie o?ainoi?iaoe??
a?aeiinei aeaniino? o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? coiiaeththoue oaiie
aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie o anueiio aa?ii?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?;

? ?ice?eoee aca?iica’ycie ? aca?iicoiiaeai?noue ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo ? aeiiii?/ii? ??aiiaaae. Aeaia ioe?iea oaeoi??a, ui
aieeaathoue ia ?iaanoeoe?eiee iioaioe?ae, niaoeeo?/ieo i?e/ei, ye?
aeeeeeathoue ?iaanoeoe?ei? oeeeee o o?ainoi?iaoe?eiee ia??iae.
Cae?eniaii eiiieaenia oai?aoe/ia oa i?eeeaaeia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aca?iica’yceo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ? caaeainiaaiino? c iaoith
iiooeo iioeiaeueiiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo. Aeoeaioo?oueny, ui a?aeoai?thaaiee i?ioean
coiiaeth? i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue ?iaanoeoe?e, iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ?
niiaeeaaiiy, aeinyaiaiiy caaeainiaaiino? iaeaaaeeea?oi?
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? i?iii?oe??: ?iaanoeoe?eiee iioaioe?ae —
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy — niiaeeaaiiy;

? ii iiaiio ?icaeyiooi oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae a ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueiiai ?
iaiaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaa?oioiaai? aeniiaee i?i oa, ui
i??i?eoaoiei iai?yiii aaeocaai? no?oeoo?ii? iie?oeee ia? noaoe
ia?aianaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? c ia?aeiieo aaeocae o ia?a?iai?.
A?ae ieo o iaoeii?noe? aaeoc?, a iineoae, ?ioi?iaoeeo, ?io?ano?oeoo?o;

? cai?iiiiiaaii o?ainoi?iaoe?eiee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ??ai?a
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a, yeee iieyaa? o iiaoaeia? ?aiaee?iaaiiai
?yaeo ca caaaeaieie eiao?oe??ioaie aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo
iaeanoae. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o
iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? oa?eoi??aeueii-aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ii?iaoea?a ?
?aaoethaaii? i?iii?oe?iiaeueiiai ? caaeainiaaiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee
?aa?ii?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ? iaea?aeai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe uiaei
noaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae a aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey iaa?oioiaaii? ioe?iee ? i?aeoe/iiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
ye?nii iiaeo iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy, ieaioaaiiy ? neeaaeaiiy i?ia?ai a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aecia/aiiy ??ai?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a ia
iniia? ?o ?aiaee?oaaiiy ca caaaeaieie eiao?oe??ioaie aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ioe?iee no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a ?ic??c? ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?aoiaaieo e?i?eieo eiao?oe??io?a no?oeoo?ieo
c?ooaiue, ?ic?aooiee ia aac? aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ae?iaie/iai
? ?ano?niiai oei?a, no?oeoo?ii-eia?/i? noaie iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue
iaeanieie ? caaaeueii?anioae?eainueeeie i?aaiaie a i?ioean?
i?iaiicoaaiiy, ieaioaaiiy ? ?ic?iaee oe?eueiaeo eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai.

Ie?ai? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaee ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy:
1) a ?icae?e? Aa?ii?iieneiaee eiiieaen Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie Aeiiii?/iee
? nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie Iie?nny; 2) a iaoeiaeo ca?oao eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee
i?e?iaeie/eo oaeoeueoao?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea; 3) a aeiiia?aei?e caienoe? ? i?iiiceoe?yo a Aea?aeeiioe?i
eieeoiueiai N?N? c i?iaeai ?aaeeeaeueii? ?aoi?ie nenoaie oe?i (?
Ae-1595/02 a?ae 25.07.88?.), aeiiia?aei?e caienoe? a Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao
noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie uiaei iniiaieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo iieiaeaiue
?aoi?ioaaiiy Caaaeueiiai eeaneo?eaoi?a aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa (CEAIA) Oe?a?ie, yea aoea aeei?enoaia i?e ?ic?iaoe?
Aea?aeaaiiai eeaneo?eaoi?a aeae?a aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (EAAAe).

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oaeiae aeei?enoiaothoueny a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e /eoaii? iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a I?e?iaeiiii?ea,
Iae?iaeiiii?ea, Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???, i?iaaaeai? i?aeoe/ieo
caiyoue, i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaioaie eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o, a
ea??aieoeoa? iaienaiiyi eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?e ani??aioaie. Ca
iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? iniaeno? iiiia?ao??: «AIE:
no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy ? noaa?euei?noue ?icaeoeo».-E.:Oe?IO?, 1992;
«I?aei?e?iieoeoai a Oe?a?i?».-E.:Oe??IOA?, 1995. E??i oiai, iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo: i?ae?o/ieeao
Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???: O 2 ei. E.:Eea?aeue.-1994, 1998??.; Iaa/.
iin?aiee, Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai??? a 4-o /anoeiao — E.:OIEAI, 1992,
Oe?a?inuee?e Aioeeeeiiaae??, aeo?iae? «Oe?a?inueeee i?iieneiaaoeue»,
?anioae?eainueeeo i?aea?aeii/eo iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, a?nieeao
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea na?. «Aeiiii?ea».

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe,
ye? iathoue i?noea o aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? — Eai?ia?aae, 1983?. ? Anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, a oiio /ene?: Ee?a, 1978, 1981, 1987, 1995, 1996,
1997??., a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI, ia can?aeaii?
iaoiaeieia?/iiai nai?ia?o eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee i?e?iaeie/eo oaeoeueoao?a,
eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? ? i?eeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee, eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oa
nioe?aeueii? aaia?ao?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?ae /an
/eoaiiy eaeoe?e ani??aioai, i?iaaaeaii? iaoiaeieia?/iiai nai?ia?o
ani??aio?a aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea a 1994-1997??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue a ?aieao oaie
aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii naiino?eii ? a ni?aaaoi?noa? iioae?eiaaii 27 ?ia?o,
caaaeueiei ianyaii iiiaae 30 ae.a., a oiio /ene?: ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 2-o iiiia?ao?yo, iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo a
4-o /anoeiao, 2-o i?ae?o/ieeao a 2-o eieaao, Oe?a?inuee?e
Aioeeeeiiaae??, noaooyo, o aeo?iaeao, iaoeiaeo a?nieeao, iaoeiaeo
ca??ieeao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? aeeth/a? 393
noi??iee, anooi, 6 ?icae?e?a, 15 ia?aa?ao?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, 9 aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?y ?ethno?iaaia 53
oaaeeoeyie, 21 ?enoieii, 14 ae?aa?aiaie oa a?ao?eaie, 6 noaiaie, 1
ea?oinoaiith, 4 noaoenoe/ieie a?oioaaiiyie, 22 oi?ioeaie. Nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 255 aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anioi? ?ice?eaa?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa ?o i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui ieoaiiy oai???, iaoiaeieia?? ? i?aeoeee oi?ioaaiiy
??aiiaaae ?ic?iaeai? a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iaaeinoaoiuei, a ia?oiio
?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia aeine?aeaeaiith
oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a aiae?co ??aiiaaae i?e ia?aoiae?
aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? aeneiaeaii ?yae i?iiiceoe?e oai?aoe/iiai ?
iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, iai?aaeaieo ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
aeiiii?/ii? oai???.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny oai?aoe/iee aeniiaie, ui eiioeaioe?y ??aiiaaae
AIE ia’?eoeaii iaiao?aeia ye iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeey aecia/aiiy
iai?yi?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeaoi?iiaaii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie a
?eieiao aeiiii?/io nenoaio, ye iiaiai ainiiaea?nueeiai ii?yaeeo. Ae?acii
e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ? ianya noni?eueiiai
i?iaeoeoo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e noni?eueiiai i?iaeoeoo, a ioaea
oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia eiai no?oeoo?o ? aeeiai?eo, i?iaiaeeoueny
ia iniia? e?euee?nieo i?iii?oe?e, ye? ae?aaeathoue ye?noue aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei. Oiaoi ye?noue aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ? ia o?eueee noeoii?noth
neeaaeiaeo ?? aeaiaio?a, aeanoeainoae, a ?o ?aei?noth ? oe?e?ni?noth.

O ?aoa?iaai?e ?iaio? aeneiaeth?oueny aeoiea, ui oaeee i?aeo?ae aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy ??aiiaaae ? caaeainiaaiiino? ? iaoiaeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii
ioe?iee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ea?aeeiaeueii iiaeo iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy ?
ieaioaaiiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Aac oeueiai
iaiiaeeeai i?iaiicoaaoe o?ae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ?ic?iaeyoe
iaoiaeieia?/i? ? oai?aoe/i? iniiae ieaioaaiiy.

Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui o oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? ??aiiaaaa — oea noai
yei?-iaaoaeue nenoaie, a yeee aiia iiaa?oa?oueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
aeanieie aioo??oi?ie caeiiii??iinoyie, ye? iino?eii a?aeoai?ththoue ??
iaea?eueo nooo?a? aeanoeaino?. ??aiiaaaa anoaiiaeth?oueny, yeui
i?ioeeaaei? neee o??aiiaaaeothoueny, aea aioo??oiy iai?oaa iiaea
caa??aaoeny ? a iiaaae?ioe? ethaeae aeieea? no?eeee eiii?ii?n. Uia
noi?ioaaoe ??aiiaaaeiee noai iaiao?aeii ia?o ca ana anoaiiaeoe: 1)caeiie
? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo, ye? noai?ththoue ? iino?eii a?aeoai?ththoue
??aiiaaao; 2)aioo??oi?e noai ia iniia? niaoeeo?/ieo aioo??oi?o
caeiiii??iinoae; 3)iaoai?ci aioo??oiueiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

O aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? ??aiiaaaa ? noai e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo i?iii?oe?e
aca?iiae?? ae?iaiee?a ? niiaeeaa/?a, a yeiio AIE ?iciiae?ey? iaiaaeai?
?ano?ne, ui ? a eiai ?icii?yaeaeaii?, aeey oiai uia ae?iaeoe e?ioeaaee
i?iaeoeo. Aeinyaioaoe iioeiaeueiiai noaio, ae?iaieee eiai ia iieeiooue
aei oiai /ano, iiee ia ci?iyoueny oiiae. Naia oiio oaeee noai
iaceaa?oueny ??aiiaaaith. O ??aiiaac? ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy ia? no?eea
i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue i?ae, c iaeiiai aieo, niiaeeaa/aie c nai?i
ieaoini?iiiaeiei iiieoii, c ?ioiai, ae?iaieeaie c i?iaeoeoe??th, ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue oeae iiieo caaeiaieueieoe. ??aiiaaaa anoaiiaeth?oueny a
oaeeo aeaeao: no?eea, iano?eea, ?iaeeoa?aioia. No?eea — eiee nenoaia
i?ney iacia/iiai a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?iaeueiiai noaio ciiao a iueiai
iiaa?oa?oueny, eiee oea a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ??aiiaaae ia c?inoa? o /an?.
Iano?eea — eiee i?ney iaeiai a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae noaio ??aiiaaae nenoaia ia
iiaa?oa-?oueny a iiia?aaei?e noai, a, iaaiaee, ana a?eueoa a?ae iueiai
a?aeoiaeeoue. ?iaeeoa?aioia — eiee nenoaia i?ney iaeiai a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae
noaio ??aiiaaae i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoeny o ??aiiaac? a iiaiio noai?.
??aiiaaaa ??aiicia/ia iioeiaeuei?e i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? eeoa ca oiiae,
ui aeinyaiaiiy ??aiiaaae ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaoa aeiiii?ee.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui i?ciaiiy
oiia oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae i?aeaeania anacaaaeueiei i?eioeeiai. Iaeiei ?c
oeeo i?eioeei?a ? caeii i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino?. I?ciaiiy eiai aea? ciiao
cae?enithaaoe ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue ia iaoeia?e iniia?,
noaa?e?coaaoe ? i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, o i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaiio ca’yceo caeiio
i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? ye aieiaii? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae, a yeino?
i?e/eie aenooia? ia’?eoeaii iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue caaeainiaaiino? ? aeo?ao
i?aoe? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iiaei ??aiai ? oa?aeoa?ii noni?eueieo iio?aa
? oiia ae?iaieoeoaa. ??aiiaaaa noai?th?oueny ia’?eoeaii aace?//th
aca?iiae?th/eo oiia.A oiiae iiaeooue aooe ??ci?. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? o ca’yceo c oeei ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui ia’?eoeaia
iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae iineeth?oueny ?nioaaiiyi iio?aa
ethaeae. ?nioaaiiy iio?aa aeeeeea? iaiao?aei?noue iiae?eo i?aoe?. Iiae?e
i?aoe? ni?e/eith? iai?i ?acoeueoaoaie ae?yeueiino? ethaeae. Iai?i
aeeeeea? aei aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue, yea
?aae?co?oueny /a?ac iaoai?ci ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Ae?iaieoeoai ?
niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeoo aecia/athoueny oiiaaie, a ye? iinoaaeai?
niiaeeaa/? ? ae?iaieee, a nai? oe? oiiae aacothoueny ia noia?a/iinoyo. A
aeena?oaoe?? aeieaco?oueny, ui i?eioeei i?ioeano-i?e/eie aai
eaocaeueiino? (a?ae eaoeinueeiai “causalis”, a?ae causa — i?e/eia)
aecia/a? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaee ca’ycie.Eiie?aoia yaeua, yea
aaciina?aaeiuei coiiaeth? aeieeiaiiy ie?aiiai yaeua, ? i?e/eiith ? eiai
aeaea?aeii. A yaeua, ui ii?iaeaeo?oueny ae??th iaaii? i?e/eie, ?
iane?aeeii. I?ae i?e/eiith ? iane?aeeii ?nio? aaiaoe/iee, oiaoi oie, ui
aeaco? ia iioiaeaeaiiy, aaiacen ? ?icaeoie.I?e/eia ii?iaeaeo? ? aecia/a?
iane?aeie. Oea aea? ciiao /a?ac iacaai? eaoaai??? ?ice?eoe nooue
aeieeiaiiy yaeu. Oae, iai?eeeaae, oea iiaeia aecia/eoe o ni?aa?aeiioaii?
oaeeo eaoaai??e: ae?iaieoeoai-niiaeeaaiiy; iiieo — oe?ia; i?iiiioaaiiy —
oe?ia; aeo?aoe — oe?ia; i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? — ianya i?iaeoeoe??.
Aeine?aeaeoaai? eaoaai??? ia?aoiaeyoue iaeia a ?ioo. Oea icia/a?, ui
iaeia ? oa ae yaeua iiaea aooe ? i?e/eiith ? iane?aeeii. Oae, ca oiiae
ca?eueoaiiy oe?ie oiaa?o, yeee i?iaea?oueny ia iaaiiio naaiaio? ?eieo,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy iiieoo ia oeae oiaa? (ooo: oe?ia — i?e/eia, a
iiieo — iane?aeie). Ciaioaiiy iiieoo ia oie /e ?ioee oiaa? aaaea aei
cieaeaiiy oe?ie (ooo: oe?ia — iane?aeie, a iiieo — i?e/eia). *a?ac
aeayeee /an oe?ia ciiao c?inoa?, a iiieo ciaioo?oueny. ?c ?icaeyiooeo
eaoaai??e iaeaaaeeea?oith ? i?e/eia, o ye?e i?iyaey?oueny aeoeaiee a?e
?icaeoeo yaeua. Iaeiae aieeaath/e ia oe?io, iiieo ia?aoai?th?oueny ?c
iane?aeeo a i?e/eio.

?aeo/e ca oe??th eia?eith, a ?iaio? a?aei?/a?oueny, ui yeui i?e/eia
ii?iaeaeo? yaeua, oi oiiae eeoa aecia/athoue iaoa??ae aeey aeieeiaiiy
yaeu. Oae ye iaeiiii?yaeeia? ca’ycee i?e/ei ? iane?aee?a a aeiiii?oe?
cono??/athoueny aeoaea ??aeei, oi ainiiaea?nuee?e i?aeoeoe? oa?aeoa?ia
aaaaoiiai?oi?noue i?e/ei ? iane?aee?a. ? i?e/eie aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi?.
Aioo??oi? i?e/eie i?iyaeythoueny ana?aaeei? yaeua, a?aeaeaathoue ye?nio
eiai iniaeea?noue. Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoue caaaeuei? iaiao?aei? iciaee
yaeua. Ciai?oi? i?e/eie ia aecia/athoue noo? yaeua, aiie ? aeiaaeeiaeie
ii a?aeiioaiith aei yeino?, a iin?yie ?o ? ?io? yaeua. Oae? i?e/eie
aeieeaathoue ?c ae?? noeo?eieo yaeu i?e?iaee ? aecia/athoue
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue yaeua. *ei aeoeai?oa ae?thoue aioo??oi? i?e/eie,
oei a?eueoa aiie iaiaaeothoue ae?th ciai?oi?o i?e/ei.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy oeueiai iieiaeaiiy aoaeo?oueny ia oiio, ui i?iii?oe?? e
no?oeoo?a i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ? i?iii?oe?? e no?oeoo?a i?iaeoeoo
ooai?ththoue aeaa iiethne ae?iaieoeoaa, a naia ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoo ?
a?aeoai?aiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee neeaaeathoue aea? i?aai?/ii ii?iai? i?ae
niaith oace ?icaeoeo. ?o ?aei?noue ? aca?iiae?y caaacia/othoue
aacia?a?ai?noue oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae, ui aecia/a? aioo??oi? aeaea?aei
naii?icaeoeo ? naii?ooo. Oiaoi, ooieoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?iaeoeoo neoaeeoue a?aeoai?aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, a ooieoe?y
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee — ae?iaieoeoao i?iaeoeoo. Oea ? aeaa i?e?iaei? iiethne
?aeeiiai i?ioeano ?ooo ? ?icaeoeo i?iii?oe?e ae?iaieoeoaa. I?e oeueiio
aecia/aeueia ?ieue a ?o aca?iiae?? iaeaaeeoue i?iaeoeoeaiei neeai, ye?
coiiaeththoue ia o?eueee ianya i?iaeoeoo, aea e no?oeoo?o ? noni?eueiee
oa?aeoa? eiai niiaeeaaiiy. ?icoe?aia a?aeoai?aiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie, ye? a?aeaeaathoueny ia
ae?iaieoeoa? i?iaeoeoo. Oiaoi, i?ae ieie ?nio? i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue,
yea ?aae?co?oueny o e?euee?ni?e ? ye?ni?e aeeiai?oe?. E?euee?nia
c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee aecia/a? aenoaineaiee niin?a ?icoe?aiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoo, a ye?ni? c?ooaiiy a i?iaeoeoeaieo neeao
aecia/athoue ?ioaineaiee niin?a eiai ?icoe?aiiy.

I?e ?icaeyae? ci?noo oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae a ?iaio? aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa
ia oiio, ui aiia ii?aeio? oae? aea? ooiaeaiaiaoaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee:
ae?iaieoeoai ? iio?aae. Aoaeue-yea ae?iaieoeoai, ianya ? no?oeoo?a yeiai
(m) ia? e i?iii?oe?iiaeueio oeueiio ianyao ? no?oeoo?? iio?aao (r, a?ae
aiae. — reguirement — iio?aaa) c a?aooaaiiyi oaiio c?inoaiiy iio?aa a?ae
IOI (w). Oaii c?inoaiiy iio?aa a?ae IOI: no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue (w) iiaeia
aecia/eoe oaeith oi?ioeith: w = w1 + w2 , aea: w1 — oaii c?inoaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa a?ae IOI. Oea aaoiiiiiee IOI: ca ?aooiie aioo??oi?o
?aca?a?a naiiai ae?iaieoeoaa; i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??; iaoeiai?
i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?; w2 — oaii c?inoaiiy IOI, iai?eeeaae: aaaiaiee
cai?iy?oueny neioaoe/ieie iaoa??aeaie; iaoae — cai?iy?oueny ieanoianith,
ea?ai?eith. I?e oeueiio iaiiaeeeaa ?nioaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aac iio?aae, a
iio?aae aac ae?iaieoeoaa. Oea icia/a?, ui ia iiaeia oeoia/eoe caeii
i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? ye caeii caaeainiaaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? iio?aa, ye
oea cono??/a?oueny /anoi a e?oa?aoo??. Caeii anoaiiaeth?
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaee aca?iica’ycie oeeo ??cieo iiethn?a, a ia onoaa? ?o
a?aei?ii?noue, ii?aeio? aea? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? eaoaai??? aeiiii?ee:
ae?iaieoeoai (ianya ? no?oeoo?o) e iio?aae (ianya ? no?oeoo?o). Ia
aeoieo aeena?oaioa e?euee?nio aecia/ai?noue caeiio i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino?
iiaeia ae?aceoe o aeaeyae? oi?ioee, yea ?ic?aoiaaia aia?oa:

r = m(w1 +w2 ) 2
(1)

aea: r — ianya ? no?oeoo?a iio?aa, oiaoi caaaeueia i??a an?o oi?i ?ooo
iio?aa, no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue, aia?a?y aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?e?i- ?
iae?iia’?eo?a; m — ianya ? no?oeoo?a ae?iaieoeoaa (eiai iana), i??a
e?eueeino? ? yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? ia i?e?i- ? iae?i??ai?, i??a canoith aai
noaa?eueiino?; w1 — oaii c?inoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa a?ae IOI; w2- oaii
c?inoaiiy IOI ; (w1 +w2)2 — eaaae?ao oaeaeeino? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy IOI. Oey
oi?ioea, ye iieacaii a aeena?oaoe??, ae?aaea? nooue ??aiiaaae
ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a oa iineoa (ye i??e noaa?eueiino? aace?/? e?eueeino?
? yeino? oiaa??a ? iineoa oa ?o aca?iiae??) e iio?aa (caaaeueii? i??e
an?o oi?i ?ooo oiaa??a ? iineoa). Aiia ? iaeiei ?c ao?eaiue o???
?aeiino? i?ioeeaaeiinoae, yea i?iieco? anth aeiiii?/io nenoaio. Aiae?c
iieaco?, ui iiiyooy ae?iaieoeoaa ? iio?aa ?noi?e/ii aoee iicia/ai?
aeiiii?/iith oai???th iacaeaaeii iaeia a?ae iaeiiai ? iaeiia?/ii
o?enoaaee i?ioeeaaei? aeanoeaino?. Ae?iaieoeoai oa?aeoa?eco?
noaa?euei?noue ainiiaea?nueeeo ia’?eo?a, aeanoeao ?i no?ee?noue. A
iio?aae, iaaiaee, oa?aeoa?ecothoue i??o ?ooo ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a oa
iineoa. ?ic?aoiaaia aeena?oaioii oi?ioea: r = m(w1 +w2)2, ii?aeio? oe?
i?ioeeaaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee, aeyaeyth/e ?o aioo??oi?e aca?iica’ycie.
Iio?aaa ye i??a ?ooo aai ci?ie ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a oa iineoa
ciaoiaeeoue a?aeia?aaeaiiy o nai?e i?ioeeaaeiino? — ae?iaieoeoa? ye i???
noaa?eueiino?. Oaeee ci?no aieiaii? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae.

O ca’yceo c oeei a aeena?oaoe?? aenoaa?oueny ? a?aoiaioo?oueny
iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui i?ciaiiy noia?a/iinoae ??aiiaaae aeaei ciiao
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i?e?iaeiiii?/i? ia’?eoe oae ye ? iae?iaeiiii?/i?
iathoue oaeeueiao i?e?iaeo. Ooo iaiao?aeii iaoe ia oaac?, ui o
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaiio ca’yceo ia ia?oiio i?noe? (a yeino? i?e/eie)
aenooia? ia’?eoeaii iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue i?iii?oe?e ? aeo?ao i?aoe? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c iiaei ??aiai ? oa?aeoa?ii noni?eueieo iio?aa ? oiia
ae?iaieoeoaa. Oea iao?aiey? ia iiaeeeaino? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
aeinyaiooee ??aaiue ? niin?a i?aeo?eiaiiy i?iii?oe?e ? aeo?ao i?aoe?, a
oea, a naith /a?ao, ca’ycaia c iaiao?aei?noth ca?eueoaiiy ianyao ?
iaaii? no?oeoo?e cania?a i?aoe? ? i?aaeiao?a niiaeeaaiiy, ?icoe?aiiy
ianooaa?a nioe?aeueii? noa?e. Ioaea, noai?aiiy iiaiai i?iaeoeoo aeiaaa?
iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e, ui ca’ycaii c aeiaeaoeiaeie aeo?aoaie i?aoe?, caa?o
oiai ??aiy, yeee iaiao?aeiee aeey i?inoiai a?aeoai?aiiy noeoiiiai
i?iaeoeoo. ?icaeoie IOI coiiaeth? iiaee a?eueo aenieee ?o ??aaiue. Oea
icia/a?, ui iiaee ??aaiue ? oa?aeoa? noni?eueieo iio?aa ? oiia
ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiioeaeueiei ?iioeuenii iine?aeiaiiai c?inoaiiy
noaa?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, a ioaea ? aeia?iaooo ethaeae.

Aeiaaa? oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ? iiiyooy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
noaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae, yea i?aeoe/ii ia i?eaa?oaei oaaao
a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a. O e?oa?aoo?? ? eeoa o?ea/anoee ? iaiiaiee aiae?c
i?iaeaie. Aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, oea eeoa iaeei ?c
aaaaoueio aeaiaio?a, anaa?/iee aiae?c yeeo aeicaiey? aeiiii?/i?e oai???
ae?iaeyoe nai? ocaaaeueiaiiy. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie aeieeaa?
?c oiai, ui aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae aeieea? o
eiie?aoieo oiiaao i?ae aieeaii ii/aoeiaiai ?iioeueno a nenoai?
aca?iiae?? yaeu ca iaaieo oiia. Noni?euei? oiiae: cie?aia i?eaaoia
aeani?noue, ii?iaeaeoth/e eiieo?aioe?th, aieeaa? /a?ac oe?io. Oe?ia ?
?iioeuenii, yeee aea? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oiiae ?eieo. Ca oeei ?iioeuenii
ainiiaea?thth/? noa’?eoe ca??ythoue na?e aea??, ?aae?coth/e
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ?ioa?an. ?eieia? oiiae noai?ththoue neooaoe?th eiee
?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa, aeinyaiooee ??aaiue aeo?ao aecia/athoueny
aeeiai?eith oe?i. A oe?ie a ?acoeueoao? no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue o
ae?iaieoeoa?, ci?i i?iii?oe?e iiieoo ? i?iiiioaaiiy oaeiae ciaoiaeyoueny
o aeeiai?oe?. A ?acoeueoao? oeueiai aeieeathoue iaiao?aei? i?iii?oe??
ae?iaieoeoaa, oi?iothoueny i?i?iaeuei? aeo?aoe i?aoe? ia ae?iaieoeoai
iaeeieoe? i?iaeoeoe??. Ana oea ?aaoeth? ye ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aeo?aoe
i?aoe?, oae ? ?iciiae?e noeoiieo aeo?ao. Aea a oiiaao ?eieo e?ioeaaee
?acoeueoao oi?ioaaiiy aeo?ao i?aoe? aeiaaa? ae?iaieoeoaa ? iai?io oiaa?o
ia aac? a?aeiia?aeii? oe?ie.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui neeaaeiaeie
aeaiaioaie aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae ?: 1) aeo?aeia
yaeua; 2) caaa?oaeueia yaeua; 3) aanue aeiiii?/iee i?ioean, yeee
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae oeeie yaeuaie. Aca?iica’ycie ? aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue
aeaiaio?a aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae iieacai?
ia ?en.1. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c no?oeoo?ii-eia?/ii? noaie iieacaa,
ui oa?aeoa?enoeeith aeo?aeiiai yaeua ? noaoeea aac a?aooaaiiy oaeoi?o
/ano, a caaa?oaeueiiai yaeua — aeeiai?ea c a?aooaaiiyi oaeoi?o /ano.
Iiaeeo?eaoe?y aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae ii?iaeaeo?
aaaaoi/enaeueio e?euee?noue aoi?eiieo aeiiii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a, yeo iiaeia
?ic?aooaaoe ye aeiaooie /enea ?iioeuen?a ia /enei ?nioth/eo
aca?iica’yce?a aeiiii?/ieo yaeu. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iniiaiei
e?eoa???i eeaneo?eaoe?? oeeo aeiiii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a iiaeia acyoe
oa?aeoa? ?acoeueoao?a ?o ae??. ?acoeueoaoii ae?? aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae ? oa, ui aiia ia a?aeoai?th? aeo?aeia yaeua, a
caii/aoeiao? iniiao iiai? na??? aeiiii?/ieo yaeu. Nai ?acoeueoao eeaaea
iniiao aeieeiaiiy ?ioiai, a?aei?iiiai a?ae aeo?aeiiai, aeiiii?/iiai
yaeua.

A ?aoa?iaai?e ?iaio? iieaco?oueny, ui ianya ? no?oeoo?a niiaeeaaiiy
iioi/iiai ia??iaeo caaaeaee iaiaaeai? ianyaii ? no?oeoo?ith
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ia’?eoeaii iaiao?aei? aeo?aoe i?aoe?Oe?ia ? ye?noue — iniiai? ?aaoeyoi?e
i?iii?oe?e

Ieaoini?iii-aei?noue ethaeae

?eieia?

Noni?eueia ae?iaieoeoaiIioeiaeueia

??aiiaaaaNoni?euei? iio?aae

Oiiae

I?iiiioaaiiy?iaeeeaoeaiee ieai — aeiaeaoeiaee ?aaoeyoi? i?iii?oe?e

Iiieo

?en. 1. Iaoai?ci anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae

A?aei?/a?oueny, ui i?ae oeeie i?ioeanaie ?nio? ia??ai?noue.
A?aei?ii?noue ae?iaieoeoaa a?ae niiaeeaaiiy aecia/a?oueny: 1) nooiaiai
aeinooiiino? aei i?ciaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy; 2) ??cieie iiaeeeainoyie
ciai?oiuei? ae?? ia oe? aea? oace a?aeoai?aiiy; 3)??ciith ?ieeth o
ae?iaieoeoa? ? niiaeeaaii? oaeoi?o /ano.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny, ye aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci anoaiiaeaiiy
??aiiaaae aca?iiae?? ?c ?ioeie aeiiii?/ieie iaoai?ciaie i?ae aieeaii
ii/aoeiaiai ?iioeueno. Oae, iaoai?ci oe?i ci?ith?oueny a ?acoeueoao?
ci?i caaaeueieo aeo?ao ca aeaio oiia: a) eiee i?e/eie (?iioeuene)
ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao aoee a?eueo nooo?a?, i?ae i?e/eie ?o cieaeaiiy; a)
eiee ae?y ?iioeuen?a ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia no?eio?oueny ? iaeii/anii
ae?y ?iioeuen?a cieaeaiiy aeo?ao caaaeueiiao?oueny aai aeieo?oueny
yeei-iaaoaeue aeiiii?/iei iaoai?ciii. A ?iaio? a?aei?/a?oueny, ui
ine?eueee ?iioeuene ca?eueoaiiy ? cieaeaiiy aeo?ao iiaeooue aooe ye
nioe?aeuei?, oae ? aeiiii?/i?, oi ? iaoai?ci oe?i ia? nioe?aeuei? ?
aeiiii?/i? ei?ai?. Ioaea, aaaeeeai ciaeoe ia oo oe?io, yea aecia/a?oueny
i?iii?oe??th i?ae iiieoii ? i?iiiioaaiiyi, a oo oe?io, yea iiaea
caaeiaieueieoe an? ni?aaaaeeea? aeiiae. Oiaoi oo oe?io, ca yei?
ciiaeooue ?nioaaoe an? o/anieee ?? ooai?aiiy: iieoioe?; i?aoe?aieee, ye?
o?oaeyoueny iaae ae?iaieoeoaii i?iaeoeoo; eieaeoeae i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo
oi?i aeaniino?, ye? ae?iaeythoue i?iaeoeo; oi?a?aey, yea ?aae?co?
i?iaeoeo i?aoe?. I?iaiae?coaaaoe ??ci? oi/ee ci?o c oeueiai ieoaiiy,
aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui ia’?eoeaii aeieeathoue aeaa iaiao?aei?,
nooo?a?, aeeaeii?, ye? iino?eii iiaoi?ththoueny i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia?
iiethne aeiiii?/ieo yaeu ? i?ioean?a. C iaeiiai aieo, iaeaeua i??a oiai,
ui niiaeeaa/ noeeueiee aeaoe, a?aeiia?aeii nai?e iio?aa? ? nai?e
ieaoini?iiiaeiino?. C ?ioiai aieo, nia?aa?o?noue ae?iaieea iethn
ii?iaeueiee i?eaooie. I?ae oeeie aeaiia iiethnaie eieeaa?oueny oaeoe/ia
oe?ia, a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?iii?oe?? i?ae iiieoii ? i?iiiioaaiiyi. Oaeei
/eiii, ?aaeueia i?iii?oe?y i?ae iiieoii ? i?iiiioaaiiyi ? ae?eniei
?aaoeyoi?ii ? aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii oe?i ??aiiaaae. Ia iniia?
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui a ?aaeuei?e
ainiiaea?nuee?e i?aeoeoe? ?nio? aeaa oeie aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae. Iaeei caaacia/o? i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue i?ae
ae?iaieoeoaii ? niiaeeaaiiyi yeiainue eiie?aoiiai oiaa?o, ?ioee —
aaeeei? e?eueeino? oiaa??a. A naith /a?ao aeai? iaoai?cie aca?iiae?thoue
c iaoai?ciaie oe?i, aii?oecaoe??, ?iaanooaaiiy, ?ioeyoe??, o?iainiaei,
aaethoiei oa ?ioeie iaoai?ciaie.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui ieoaiiy, ye? iia’ycai? c
ii/aoeiaei noaiii ??aiiaaae c oei, /iio aiia naia oaea, yeith ie
ni?eeia?ii nueiaiaei?, ana ua caeeoa?oueny iaae??oaiei. O ca’yceo c oeei
aeey ?icoi?iiy no/aniiai noaio iaiao?aeii aeine?aeeoe iniiai? aoaie ??
?icaeoeo. Uia ioe?ieoe ?icaeoie ??aiiaaae ie iiaeii? ciaoe, yea ??
i?e?iaea acaaae?, ? ye aiia iiaeeo?eo?oueny o eiaeio ?noi?e/ii aeaio
aiioo. Ne?aeoth/e oe?e eia?oe?, a aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui
??aiiaaaa i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac caaeainiaai?noue, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae
iaiao?aeieo oiia: 1) aaiaoe/ii? no?oeoo?e ae?iaieoeoaa; 2)
i?aeainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a; 3) ?icoe?aiiy oiia ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/eo
a?aeiinei, a?aeiinei aeaniino?. Oea ni?e/eith?, ii-ia?oa, iiai?io aei
iiia?aaeiueiai noaio; ii-ae?oaa, iaa?aeiia?aeiino?, aeeni?iii?oe?? oa
?io? aeiiii?/i? oai?iae; ii-o?ao?, iiaee noai.

Aeneiaeaia a aeena?oaoe?? aeoiea c oeueiai ieoaiiy caiaeeoueny aei
ianooiiiai. Oae ye i?ioean noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?aei?noue
a?aeoai?aiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ? ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei, oi ? ??aiiaaaa
ioiieth? ye ?icaeoie i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, oae ? ?icaeoie ae?iaie/eo
a?aeiinei. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie aeaa iiaeeea?noue o naiiio
caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? aeyaeoe aoaie ?icaeoeo ??aiiaaae ? caaeainiaaiino?.
A aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? aaeeeiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo i?iaaaeaii
e?eoe/iee aiae?c aoai?a ??aiiaaae ? caaeainiaaiiino? o ?icaeoeo aaeocae
aeiiii?ee. Oea aeaei ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeo?ae aa?a?iiai
naeoi?o, ye ? an??? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ?c e?ece coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo nenoaiieo ia?aoai?aiue. Aieiaiee oeyo caaacia/aiiy
??aiiaaae aeiiii?ee — oea ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, cieaeaiiy
iaoa??aeii?noeino?, iaoaei?iiino? ? aia?ai?iiino? i?iaeoeoe??, cao?ao
i?aoe? ia ?? ae?iaieoeoai. Iaeaaaeeea?oith iniaeea?noth no/aniiai
?icaeoeo ? aeeaie? ye?ni? ia?aoai?aiiy cania?a i?aoe?. A aeena?oaoe??
iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui ia’?eoeai? caeiie ?icaeoeo aeiaaathoue ia i?inoi
cai?ie cania?a i?aoe?, ye? aeaoaathoue ?c aeiiii?/iiai i?ioeano, a?eueo
i?iaeoeoeaieie ? no/anieie, a aeiei??iia cai?ia oaoiieia?/ii? aace,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo aeae?a cia?yaeue i?aoe? ? oaoiieia?e
(i?e?ii?ioeani??a, ?iaio?a, eiii’thoa??a, a?ioaoiieia??), ye?
aeicaieythoue cae?enithaaoe ?ano?nicaa??aath/o ?aoe?iiae?caoe?th ?
i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeoiaey/e ?c oeueiai iiaeia
caeeth/eoe, ui aeey onoiaiiy no?oeoo?ieo aeeni?iii?oe?e a aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie ? noai?aiiy o?aiaeo aeiaaino?ieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy
iio??aia ?aaeeeaeueia ?aeiino?oeoe?y oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aaceno
aeiiii?ee.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e o ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iniaeeaino? aca?iica’yceo ?eieo ?
??aiiaaae aaeaeiny c’ynoaaoe, ui iai?i oiaa??a cae?enith?oueny ca
noni?eueiith ioe?ieith, oiaoi i?iii?oe?? eoi?ae? — i?iaeaaeo
aeinyaathoueny ca aeiiiiiaith oe?i. Oea ia? iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy, oiio ui aecia/aiiy oe?iiino? oiaa?o o iaoa??aeueii-?a/ia?e
oi?i?, /e o oi?i? iineoae, /e ?ioi?iaoe?? — iaeia c aieiaieo ooieoe?e
?eieo. ?eiie aeeiio? ?ieue iaoai?cio, /a?ac yeee aeinyaa?oueny ??aiiaaaa
?icaeoeo i?ae ae?iaieoeoaii ? niiaeeaaiiyi. Aei inoaiiueiai /ano,
iaeiae, ia aoea c’yniaaia ?ieue ci?i ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ie?aieo
eiiiiiaio?a nenoaie aca?iica’yceo ?eieo ? ??aiiaaae. Ae?enii, aeniiaee
aeiiii?no?a noiniaii ?ie? aa?oino? ? i?aoe? o aeeiai?oe? aca?iica’yceo
?eieo ? ??aiiaaae ana ua iinyoue noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa?. O ca’yceo c
oeei, aoei i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie. Aaeaeiny c’ynoaaoe,
ui ie?ai? i?eaaoi? ?iaioe, ye? aeeiiothoueny iacaeaaeii iaeia a?ae
iaeii? caaaeaee caiaeyoueny aei nai?? noni?eueii i?iii?oe?iiaeueii?
i??e”. Ia aoai? aeoiaeo i?iaeoeoo i?aoe? ?c noa?e ae?iaieoeoaa ae??
caeii aa?oino?, ui aecia/a? iiia?aaeith aa?o?nio i?iii?oe?th
iaeaooiueiai ?eieiaiai iai?io oiaa?o caeaaeii a?ae eiai ?eieiai?
aa?oino?. Aeii?ioth/eie caeiiaie oe?iiooai?aiiy noathoue caeii iiieoo ?
caeii i?iiiioaaiiy, caeii a?aie/ii? ei?eniino?, ye? ei?eaothoue
aa?o?noue a?aeiia?aeii aei niiaeeaii? aa?oino? oiaa?o, noa’?eoeaii?
ioe?iee ei?eniino? oiaa?o niiaeeaa/ai. Oe?ia i?iiiioaaiiy ? oe?ia iiieoo
coiiaeththoue aeayeo na?aaeith aaee/eio oe?ie ?eieiai? ??aiiaaae.
??aiiaaaa ?eieiai? oe?ie a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiieoo ? i?iiiioaaiiy aoaea
ia’?eoeaii iaiaaeaia a ae?aiacii?, a yeiio aeey ae?iaieea ieaeiy iaaea
aecia/a?oueny aa?o?noth na?aaei?o aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa, a aa?oiy — ??aiai
ieaoini?iiiaeiiai iiieoo niiaeeaa/a. Ioaea, ?eieiaa oe?ia oieono?
neeaaei? aeiiii?/i? aca?iica’ycee ??aiiaaae, caaeainiaaiino?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ye ?
noni?eueiiai a oe?eiio. A aeena?oaoe?? aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea ae?eiaeo
cania?a ? oi?i no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue c iaoith iioei?caoe??o ??aiiaaae: 1)
o?ainoi?iaoe?y aeaniino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee;
2)ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeocae aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa cae?enith?oueny a
oiiaao ia?aieaoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ? i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a; 3) iiaeaeueoa
iiaeeaeaiiy noni?eueiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?, iiaeeaeaiiy ? oneeaaeiaiiy
a?aeoai?thaaieo ca’yce?a i?ae n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii ? i?iieneiaeie
aaeocyie, ye? iinoaaeythoue n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noao caniae
ae?iaieoeoaa, ia?a?iaeththoue ne?iaeio; 4)oaiie ? aoaeoeai?noue
aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a AIE, ye ? a ae?iaieoeoa? a
oe?eiio, ia’?eoeaii caeaaeeoue a?ae aeiiii?/ieo oiia, a yeeo aiie
cae?eniththoueny; 5)caaeainiaaiee ?icaeoie aaeocae aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno ia no/aniiio aoai? coiiaeth?oueny aa?a?iith iie?oeeith o
iei?oi?o oiiaao; 6) ??aiiaaaa iaaoaa? niaoeeo?/ieo ?en; 7) iino?eia
i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy ??aiiaaae ? caaeainiaaiino? a ?icaeoeo an?o
no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a ae?iaieoeoaa, a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy
an?o aeae?a ?ano?n?a ? iie?ioaiiy yeino? i???ioo? aaeoc? aa?a?iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa o a?eueo?e i??? ia ia cia/ia c?inoaiiy ?ano?n?a, a ia ?o
iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueia ? aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy; 8)i?aai?/ia ?aei?noue
aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo aenooia? ye ia’?eoeaia
iaiao?aei?noue. Na?aae iaea?eueo ae?eiaeo cania?a aeiiii?/ii?
noaa?e?caoe?? ? c?inoaiiy, aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? iioei?caoe?y ??aiiaaae.
A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy, ui iioeiaeuei?noue — oea
noai aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, iaee?auee a?aeiinii ?? iaoe ca aeaieo
ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o oiia. Iioeiaeueia ??aiiaaaa — oea o?a?eoi??y
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, iaee?aua a?aeiinii oe?eae aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ca
aeaieo ?ano?n?a, noni?eueieo iio?aa ? oiia ae?iaieoeoaa. Iioeiaeueia
??aiiaaaa aecia/a?oueny ia’?eoeaieie aeiiii?/ieie a?aeiineiaie ?
caeiiaie. I?aaio/e aeinyaiooe iioeiaeueiino?, noni?euenoai
oe?eani?yiiaaii noai?th? iaiao?aei? aeey oeueiai oiiae ?icaeoeo.

Na?aae ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy e?eoa???a iioeiaeueii? ??aiiaaae
iaea?eueo iaa?oioiaaiei, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ? i?aeo?ae, o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeei e?eoa???i iioeiaeueii? ??aiiaaae iiaea aooe
iaeiiia?aiao?e/iee e?eoa??e, yeee oa?aeoa?eco? nooi?iue caaeiaieaiiy
?aaeueieo noni?eueieo iio?aa. ?acii c oei, a ?iaio? aeieaco?oueny, ui
oeae caaaeueiee i?aeo?ae oi/ ? ?aoe?iiaeueiee, aea iio?aao? aeayeiai
ooi/iaiiy ? no/aniiai i?aeoiaeo. Ae?enii, aeine?aeaeoth/e aeaio
i?iaeaio, aaeaeiny c’ynoaaoe, ui iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeai?
iaeiiia?aiao?e/i? e?eoa??? iioei?caoe??. I?iaiae?coaaaoe ??ci? oi/ee
ci?o c i?eaiaeo oeueiai ieoaiiy, aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui
iaoiaeieia?/ii i?aaeeueii aoaea aeei?enoiaoaaoe e?eoa??e iioeiaeueii?
??aiiaaae aa?oiueiai ??aiy : ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeee e?eoa??e ?
?aa?iiaeueieo e?eoa???a: iioeiaeueieo e?eoa???a ??aiiaaae a ?icaeoeo
ainiiaea?noa, eiiieaen?a, i?aeeiiieaen?a. O ca’yceo c oeei aeena?oaioii
aoei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaciee?a iioeiaeueii? ??aiiaaae a
aa?a?iiio ae?iaieoeoa?. A ?acoeueoao? aoei aeyaeaii, ui aeey aecia/aiiy
iioeiaeueii? ??aiiaaae aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe oae? iniiai?
iieacieee. 1. A?aeiioaiiy ae?iaeaiiai e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo aei noeoiieo
aeo?ao ia eiai ae?iaieoeoai :

AAIO=EI / (A+IO+ICa+Ci),
(2)

aea AAIO — aoaeoeai?noue aa?ii?iieneiaeo oi?ioaaiue; EI — e?ioeaaee
i?iaeoeo; A- aii?oecaoe?ei? a?ae?aooaaiiy; IO — aa?o?nia aaee/eia
iai?ioieo oiiae?a; ICa — iaoa??aeuei? cao?aoe o ae?iaie/?e noa??,
ae?iaie/iio ? iaoeiaiio ianeoaiaoaaii? aa?ieiiieaeno; Ci — iaoa??aeuei?
cao?aoe o noa?? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy. 2. A?aeiioaiiy
i?e?inoo e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo aei i?e?inoo eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao ia
?aeiino?oeoe?th ae?th/eo aa?ii?iieneiaeo oi?ioaaiue :

AEA=EI/Ea,
(3)

aea AEA — aoaeoeai?noue eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao; EI — i?e??no e?ioeaaiai
i?iaeoeoo; Ea — i?e??no eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao. 3. Ii??aiyeueia
aoaeoeai?noue ca aa??aioaie eiiiiiaioii-i?iii?oe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo :

AI=(ICa-Ci) /(Ei-Ea) ,
(4)

aea AI — iieaciee ii??aiyeueii? aoaeoeaiino?; ICa — aeo?aoe ia
ae?iaieoeoai on??? i?iaeoeoe?? ? iineoa o ae?iaie/?e noa??; Ci — aeo?aoe
o noa?? ianeoaiaoaaiiy; Ei — eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe o noa?? ianeoaiaoaaiiy;
Ea — eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe ia ae?iaieoeoai on?o aeae?a i?iaeoeoe?? ?
iineoae o ae?iaie/?e noa?? aa?ieiiieaen?a. 4. Ni?a?aeiioaiiy cao?ao ia
ae?iaieoeoai ? o?ainii?ooaaiiy iaeeieoe? i?iaeoeoe?? a ?aa?iiaeueiiio
eiiieaen? ? a e?a?i? a oe?eiio :

Ec=N?aa/NIA,
(5)

aea Ec — iieaciee ii??aiyiiy cao?ao; N?aa — nia?aa?o?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ?
aeinoaaea iaeeieoe? i?iaeoeoe?? aei niiaeeaa/a o ?aa?iiaeueiiio
eiiieaen?; NIA — nia?aa?o?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?aaacaiiy iaeeieoe?
i?iaeoeoe?? aei niiaeeaa/a a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?. Oeae iieaciee
aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaii? eiieo?aioe??
?aa?iiaeueieo aa?ieiiieaen?a ia iniia? ii??aiyiiy nia?aa?oino? iaeeieoe?
i?iaeoeoe?? aeaiiai ?aa?iio ?c nia?aa?o?noth iaeeieoe? oe??? i?iaeoeoe??
a eiieo?oth/eo ?aa?iiao. Eiee oeae iieaciee iaioee iaeeieoe?, oi
ae?iaieoeoai aeaii? i?iaeoeoe?? a ?aa?ii? iiaeia aaaaeaoe aoaeoeaiei.

C iaoith aeinyaiaiiy iioei?caoe?? ??aiiaaae aa?ii?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa Oe?a?ie aoea i?iaaaeaia na??y ?ic?aooie?a ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae. Cai?iiiiiaai? eiie?aoi? iai?yie ci?i
i?iii?oe?e o caaacia/aiino? ?ano?naie aeaiaio?a aa?ii?iaeiaieue/iai
iioaioe?aeo. sse na?ae/eoue aiae?c ?ic?aooie?a c?iaeaieo ia aac?
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, c iaeiiai aieo, i?iii?oe?? iiaeii?
?aaoethaaoeny aea?aeaaith, a c ?ioiai aieo, ?aaoethaaoeny a?aeiineiaie
i?ae oiaa?iae?iaieeaie ia iniia? i???ioaoe?? ?o a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?
? aeai?o iaeaea?aei?oi? niaoe?ae?caoe??, yea a?aeiia?aea? caaaeaiith
aeinyaiaiiy eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa ye ie?aieo i?aei?e?inoa, oae ? aa?a?ii?
noa?e a oe?eiio.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaia eiioeaioe?y iiaoaeiae
iiaeae? aca?iica’yceo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ? ??aiiaaae c iaoith
iiooeo iioeiaeueiiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?e. Aoei aeyaeaii
aca?iicaycie ? aca?iiaieea a ?icaeoeo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ?
??aiiaaae, yeee ae?aaea?oueny a oiio, ia iaoo aeoieo, ui, ii-ia?oa,
?iaanoeoe?eiee iioaioe?ae iieaco? ye?niee ??aaiue, a oaeiae oiiae
cae?eniaiiy ??aiiaaae; ii-ae?oaa, anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae ?icoe?aiiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy, yea a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a,
aeicaiey? cia/ii i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue ?icaeoeo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaeieia?/iee i?eioeei
iiaoaeiae iiaeae? aca?iica’yceo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ? ??aiiaaae.
Nooue eiai iieyaa? o oiio, ui: ii-ia?oa, ia’?eoeaiith iaiao?aei?noth
anueiai a?aeoai?thaaiiai i?ioeano aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ? niiaeeaaiiy.
sseui ?iaanoeoe?? ? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo
a?ae?eaathoueny a?ae aeiia ia?eoeaii? iaiao?aeiino?, oi aiie noathoue
ia?iioieie, a ioaea aaaeeei oyaa?ai eyaathoue ia aeiiii?eo, aeeooaaee
??aaiue ethaeae. Aaeaea a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo ethaee a?aeoeiaeiaothoue
caaaeaee oe? ia?aoe?iiaeuei? aeo?aoe. Ii-ae?oaa, ia?eoeaiith aeiiaith
?iaanoeoe?e ? caaacia/aiiy c?inoaiiy /enoiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo, a
a eiai no?oeoo?? iioei?caoe?? oiiae?a iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ? niiaeeaaiiy.
A?eueoa oiai oea c?inoaiiy iiaeiia cae?eithaaoeny oae, uia eiaeia
aeiaeaoeiaa iaeeieoey ?iaanoeoe?e caaacia/oaaea iaeneiaeueiee i?e??no
aeioiaeo, i?ae aeo?aoe, ui eiai ni?e/eieee. Oea iacaia?a/iee caeii
iioeiaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ethai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie. Ii-o?ao?,
iioei?caoe?y ??aiiaaae aecia/a? iai?yi ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?? ?iaanoeoe?e
ia o?eueee uiaei c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo, aea ? ca?eueoaiiy
oiiaeo niiaeeaaiiy. Oea aeinyaa?oueny ca oiiae: 1) eiee caa??aa?oueny
iino?eia ii?ia iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy; 2) eiee ii?ia iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
ciaioo?oueny, aea ye aeueoa?iaoeaa a?aeaoaa?oueny iineeaia a?aeaea/a
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo. I?e oeueiio aeoaea aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
??aaiue aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?e. *ei aeua aoaeoeai?noue ?iaanoeoe?e,
/ei oaeaeoa ? iiai?oa aiie o?ainoi?iothoueny a iniiaiee eai?oae, /ei
i?ia?aneai?oee oaoiieia?/iee ??aaiue cania?a i?aoe?, oei oaeaeoa
c?inoathoue oaiie i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, ca?eueoo?oueny ae?iaieoeoai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo.

Aiae?c iieacaa, ui a no/anieo oiiaao i?iii?oe?y i?ae ?iaanoeoe?yie
aea?aeaae, i?aei?e?inoa ? o?ce/ieo in?a (ianaeaiiy) o aaeiaeo
?iaanoeoe?yo neeaaea?: 26:69:5 i?ioe 27:70:3 o 1990 ?. Ioaea ?noioieo
ci?i ia a?aeaoeiny. Oiae?, ye i?iii?oe?? a e?a?iao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
i?ae ?iaanoeoe?yie i?aei?e?inoa, ciai?oi?ie ? aea?aeaaieie neeaaeathoue
60:30:10. I?e/iio aeani? ?iaanoeoe?? ?iciaaeathoueny ia ia?iciiae?eaiee
i?eaooie — 30% ? aii?oecaoe?ei? a?ae?aooaaiiy — 40%. Aeey
aeiaaino?ieiaiai o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo aeei?enoaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo oae? i?iii?oe?? ? i???ioe?ii uiaei
iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo aeaea?ae ?iaanooaaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei
aeiaeaoeiai i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui i?iii?oe?y i?ae
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaeie oa aaei?i?no?aoeaieie iaoiaeaie ?iaanooaaiiy
aea?aeaaith a Oe?a?i? noaiiaeoue19% : 51%. A oie aea /an, ye o
?icaeiaieo e?a?iao oey i?iii?oe?y i?ioeeaaeia. Oae, o NOA aiia neeaaea?
: 73,4% : 11,8%, ssiii?? — 73,2% : 9,7%, I?ia//ei? — 72,2% :9,9%,
O?aioe?? 59,8% :27,5%. Oe? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iaiao?aeii
noai?eoe oiiae, ye? a noeioethaaee iioeiaeuei? i?iii?oe?? i?ae
o?iainiaei, i?iieneiaei, aai/o?iei, no?aoiaei oa ?ioeie oi?iaie
?iaanooaaiiy aeiiii?ee.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?iaaaeaia na??y ?ic?aooie?a ? aeaia ioe?iea
aaeocaaei i?iii?oe?yi ?iaanoeoe?e. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?ic?aooie?a
c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui nueiaiaei? i??i?eoaoieie iai?yiaie
?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee ia iae?iaeiiii?/iiio ??ai? iiaeiia aooe
o?ainoi?iaoe?y ?iaanoeoe?e ia ei?enoue ?iaanoeoe?eieo aaeocae ?
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. I?iaaaeaia ioe?iea oaeoe/ieo aeaieo aeaea
iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe, ui a iaoa??aeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? naiith aenieith ?
aoaeoeai?noue ?iaanoeoe?e a aoae?aieoeoa?, iio?i o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?. Aeae? ?aea oi?a?aey, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia iinoa/aiiy ?
caaio?ae?, a ca ieie — i?iieneia?noue, a iio?i aaeocue o?ainii?oo ?
ca’yceo. Oaeee ae?iai?/iee ?yae aaeocae iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
iiaea neeanoeny, yeui ca aeo?aeio ioe?ieo acyoe aoaeoeai?noue
?iaanoeoe?e, ui a ieo ?aae?co?oueny.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny iaoiaeieia?/iee i?eioeei oi?ioaaiiy
??aiiaaae a ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueiiai ? iaiaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ia
iniia? ?ic?aooie?a ? oi?ioe aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aeaaeocaa? i?iii?oe??
a ?iciiae?e? i?aoe? ci?iththoueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c o?ainoi?iaoe??th
iio?aa ? ??aiai i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a ie?aieo aaeocyo ? naeoi?ao
aeiiii?ee. I?e oeueiio aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
c?inoaiiy noa?e iaiaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae
c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? o noa?? iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. O
iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aaeaeiny aeyaeoe, ui anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae
i?ae noa?aie iaoa??aeueiiai ? iaiaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aecia/a?oueny iioei?caoe??th caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ii? i?iii?oe?? i?ae
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi ? niiaeeaaiiyi. C iaoith ae??aoaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy
aoea i?iaaaeaia na??y ?ic?aooie?a. Aoei aeyaeaii, ui neeaaeathoueny
iani?eyoeea? oiiae noaaiaoe?? aeiiii?ee, eiee aaeiaa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
iniiaiiai eai?oaeo noa? iaioa, i?ae aii?oecaoe?y. Oiaoi, eiee a
aeiiii?oe? ca ??e niiaeeaa?oueny a?eueoa eai?oaeo, i?ae ae?iaey?oueny, a
/enoa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ia? ciae i?ion. Oea icia/a?, ui a aeiiii?oe?
iiaeooue ?icii/aoeny i?ioeane aea?iaanooaaiiy, oiaoi nei?i/aiiy
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy. I?i oea na?ae/eoue eiao?oe??io i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino?
i?ae aaeiaei iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi iniiaiiai eai?oaeo ? aii?oecaoe??th, yeee
o 1990 ?. noaiiaea 2,1:1, o 1993 ?. — 1,6:1, a o 1995 ?. aaea 1,2:1.
Oiaoi aii?oecaoe?y ia? no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei ia?aaeuaiiy aaeiaeo
iaa?iiaaeaeaiue. Oaeei /eiii, aea?aeaaa ia aeeiio? nai?? iaeaaaeeea?oi?
ooieoe?? — ?aaoethaaiiy ii?ie iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo. Aiaeia?/iee
?acoeueoao aoa io?eiaiee ? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? naeoi?ii? no?oeoo?e
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaeiaiai ? /enoiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eai?oaeo. Aiia
iieaco?, ui aeeiai?ea i?iii?oe?e i?ae aaeiaei ? /enoei iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi
eai?oaeo a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei? aecia/a?oueny aeaiia
naeoi?aie: iao?iainiaeie ei?ii?aoe?yie; naeoi?ii caaaeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ?aa?iiaeueiiai ? i?noeaaiai ??ai?a.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei aeyaeaii, ui aeey oiai
uia iicaooeny aeeni?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? a ?icaeoeo i?ae noa?aie
iaoa??aeueiiai ? iaiaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaiao?aeii i?aeo?eioaaoe
ii?io iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ia iioeiaeueiiio ??ai? ca oaeeo aeiiii?/ieo oiia:
a)i?aeaeuaiiy a?aeaea/? ae?iaie/eo aeo?ao; a)a eiaeiee aeaiee iiiaio
??aaiue iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ia? aooe oaeei, ia ne?eueee oea aeicaiey?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an ? iiaeeeaino? inai?iiy eiai noni?euenoaii;
a)iaiao?aeii a 3-4 ?ace nei?ioeoe aeeoo?aee oeeee iiiaeaiiy i?iaeoeoe??;
a)aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy iiaeiia cae?enithaaoeny aac ca?eueoaiiy
iaoa??ae?a, ne?iaeie ? iaeeaa; ae)a?aeo?ae a?ae ?nioth/i? nenoaie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiae?a i?enei?aii? aii?oecaoe??.

Ia iniia? Iaoe?iiaeueieo ?aooie?a Oe?a?ie a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeai?
?ic?aooiee i?iii?oe?e e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo ia ??ai? noa? ? aaeocae
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ? iaa?oioiaaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee iieaciee?a
ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiaeeaaiiy e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo. C oe??th iaoith aoei
i?iaiae?ciaaii aeeiai?eo no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue ?aae?ciaaieo noni?eueieo
iio?aa o neeaae? e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo. Aiae?c iniiaieo iieaciee?a
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ? i?iii?oe?e i?ae ae?iaieoeoaii ?
niiaeeaaiiyi e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo aeaa iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe oae? iniiai?
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee, ye? coiiaeee cieaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeoe?? oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? a?eueo i?ae o 2 ?ace. Ia?oith
i?e/eiith aoei cia/ia cieaeaiiy ianya?a e?ioeaaiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?iaeoeoo. Ae?oaith — ??cea iaae?iiy
?aaeueieo aeioiae?a ethaeae, ui cieceei caaaeueio ieaoini?iiiaei?noue, a
ioaea, iaiaaeeei iiaeeeaino? i?eaeaaiiy ieie aaaaoueio i?iaeoeo?a
oa?/oaaiiy. O?aoueith i?e/eiith noaei cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ?iii?oo
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy, ui nei?ioeei iiieo ia a?o/eciyi? i?iaeoeoe
oa?/oaaiiy. ?icae??ai? ae oe?ie ia /anoeio ?iii?oieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a
neeaeenue ieae/eie, i?ae ia a?o/eciyi?. *aoaa?oith i?e/eiith ? oa, ui
cia/ii ciaioeany iiieo ethaeae ia iineoae aaeocae a?iiaaenueeiai
oa?/oaaiiy. Oe? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee iaaaoeaii aieeioee ?
cieceee ??aaiue oa?/oaaiiy ethaeae, yeee a?aenoa? iaa?aeue a?ae iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo i?i?iaeueieo o?c?ieia?/ieo ii?i niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeo?a
oa?/oaaiiy, ye? aaaaeathoue iaiao?aeieie c o?aooaaiiyi e?eciaiai noaio a
aeiiii?oe? oa oaeoe/iiai ??aiy niiaeeaaiiy, ui neeaany o ca’yceo c oeei.
O ii??aiyii? c iioeiaeueiith ii?iith a 1995 ?. o?eueee niiaeeaaiiy oe?aa
? oe?aii?iaeoeo?a ia?aaeuoaaei oeth ii?io ia 11,3%, a ??aaiue
niiaeeaaiiy iyna ? i’ynii?iaeoeo?a, iieiea ? iieieii?iaeoeo?a, ie??,
iai/?a oa aaooaiieo, o?oeo?a oa ya?ae ia aeinyaaa iioeiaeueii? ii?ie
niiaeeaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii ia 53; 39,5; 12,1; 24,3 ? 62,1%.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy a aa?ii?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?
/aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo aaeaeiny c’ynoaaoe, ui aeaoi?iiaai?noue no?oeoo?e
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace ? aieiaiei oaeoi?ii, yeee coiiaea aenie?
aeo?aoe ii/aoeiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue. A ?acoeueoao?
i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoee anoaiiaeai? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? oaeoe, ye?
a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo iaaoaathoue aaaeeeaiai
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy. Oae, yeui ca inoaii?
55 ?ie?a iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa c?inea ca
?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy o?aeoi??a o 4,3 ?ace, eiiaaei?a ca?iicae?aeueieo — o
3 ?ace, oi o?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo c?inea o 2 ?ace, a ae?iaieoeoai
ca?iiaeo ia aeooo ianaeaiiy c?inei eeoa ia 2%. Iio?aaa n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa a ?iaanoeoe?yo aeey e?ea?aeaoe?? i?ioyaii 10 ?ie?a iayaieo
aeeni?iii?oe?e a ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace neeaaea? 147
ie?ae.aeie. I?eaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui nooo?aith oiiaith
caaacia/aiiy ye?niiai ?acoeueoaoo ? ??aiiaaae ? eiiieaenia, aa?iii?eia
ii?aeiaiiy an?o aeaiaio?a nenoaie caiea?ianoaa. Aeyaeaii, ui
aoaeoeai?noue iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace aa?ii?iieneiai? nenoaie
caeaaeeoue ia?o ca ana a?ae nooiaiy aeoeaiiai aeieeao ia a?ieia?/ia
na?aaeiaeua, iaea?eueo iiaii? ?aae?caoe?? eiai iioaioe?eii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? /a?ac iioei?caoe?th ??aiiaaae i?ae oaeoi?aie aeiiii?/ii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? a?ieia?/ieie oaeoi?aie. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui iaaaea/?, aeeni?iii?oe?? a
caaacia/aii? noaa?eueii? o?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?
iathoue a nai?e iniia? i?yia ? iiina?aaeeiaaia ?aii?oaaiiy, a ia??aeei
? iaciaiiy aeiia i?e?iaeieo caeii?a caiea?ianoaa (caeiio i?i?ioio,
iioeioio ? iaeneioio, caeiio noeoiii? ae?? oaeoi??a aeeooy ?ineei oa
?i.), ?o aca?iiae?? c ??aiiaaaith.

O iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeyaeaii, ui ia’?eoeai? i?ioeane
i?iyaeythoueny a iaiao?aei?e aeiic? e?ea?aeaoe??
aeeni?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? a ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? aaeocae
i?iieneiaino?, ye? caaeiaieueiythoue eiai ae?iaie/i-oaoi?/i? iio?aae, a
oaeiae aaeocae, ii?aeiaieo c ia?a?iaeith n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe??, ?? o?ainii?ooaaiiyi, caa??aaiiyi ? caooii. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee ocaaaeueieoe, ui Oe?a?ia i?ae?eoea o nai?io
?icaeoeo aei oaei? iaae?, eiee aeaeueoa aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, a ioaea, ?
aeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe?? an?ia oi?iaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy noa? ia?aoe?iiaeueiei ?
caeoeiaei ?c-ca iecueeiai ??aiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae ??? noa?e
aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Oea — caaio?aey, caa??aaiiy, ia?a?iaea
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ? aeinoaaeyiiy e?ioeaai?
i?iaeoeoe?? aei eiie?aoiiai niiaeeaa/a. I?e oeueiio aeiaaaeaii, ui
iaiao?aeia ?aaeeeaeueia o?ainoi?iaoe?y ?iaanoeoe?e o ?icaeoie aaeocae
caaio?ae?, caa??aaiiy, ia?a?iaee ? eiiieaeno ia?eaoeiao.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e iai?yie iioei?caoe?? ?aa?iiaeueieo ? i?aeaaeocaaeo
i?iii?oe?e aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui
??aiiaaaa i?ae aaeocyie, i?aeaaeocyie, e?oiieie eiiieaenaie iiaeiia
aecia/aoeny aca?iica’ycaiith e?euee?niith ? ye?niith ioe?ieith
noeoiiino? oaeoi??a: ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a, ne?iaeie, iaoa??ae?a, iaeeaa,
aia?a??, aiaee, o?ainii?oo oa ?i. O ca’yceo c oeei, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, aei cania?ano?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue, ye? eaaeaoue a iniia?
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue uiaei ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoa, noaiiaeaiiy
??aiiaaae ? aeai?o i?iii?oe?e i?ae oaeoi?aie, a?aeiinyoueny oae?: 1)
caaeainiaaiee ? eiiieaeniee ?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa; 2) iiaeeaeaiiy
noni?eueiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?; 3) iaaeeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo aaeocae aei
aeaea?ae ne?iaeie; 4) ae??aithaaiiy ??ai?a aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo; 5) ?aoe?iiae?caoe?y oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?ee; 6)
aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaa i?aeia?iaeiiai iiae?eo i?aoe? a iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?anao. Aei caaaeueieo oaeoi??a noaiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae a?aeiinyoueny:
1) aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a; 2) ??aaiue ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee ?
oaoiieia?e; 3) aeiiii?/ia i?ecia/aiiy aioiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ? naaiaioaoe?y
?eie?a ?? niiaeeaaiiy; 4) o?ainii?oaaaeuei?noue ne?iaeie ? i?iaeoeoe??;
5) aiaeiiinoa/aiiy; 6) iaoa??aeii?noe?noue; 7) aia?aii?noe?noue; 8)
o?oaeii?noe?noue. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii
aeniiaie, ui i?ae ?aa?iiaeueiith nenoaiith oaeoi??a ?icoi??oueny
aca?iiii?aeiaia, aca?iicoiiaeaia o ae?iaie/iio i?ioean? ?ioaa?iaaia
noeoii?noue nioe?aeueieo, eoeueoo?ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a
? oiia, ye? aecia/athoue caaeainiaai?noue i?ae aeo?aoaie ? ?acoeueoaoaie
ae?iaieoeoaa, ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue ?aa?iiaeueiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?,
iioei?caoe?th i?iii?oe?iiaeueii-eiiiiiaioiiai ii?aeiaiiy ae?iaieoeoa,
oiiae ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, ?icaeoie
an?o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a (aeea. ?en.2). I?eaaaeai? ia
?en.2. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
aieiaiei niiioeaeueiei oaeoi?ii ? oaeoi? i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueei?
noaa?eueiino?. Oeae oaeoi? caeia? aaaeeeaa i?noea o noai?, a oaeiae
aecia/a? iiaiith i??ith i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a
aa?ii?iieneia?e nenoai?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaeoi?
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueei? noaa?eueiino? aecia/a? iioeiaeueio ??aiiaaao
i?ae e?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii ? aeo?aoaie aeeai? ? o?a/aaeaii? i?aoe? ia
eiai aeinyaiaiiy. A iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aaeaeiny c’ynoaaoe, ui
aeey aeyaeaiiy iai?yi?a iioei?caoe?? ?aa?iiaeueieo ? i?aeaaeocaaeo
i?iii?oe?e ia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? ieoiieo aaa
no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ? ao?eaii? a inoaii?e
iaeneiaeueii? no?oeoo?ii? aaaaoiiai?oiino?. Oaea i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue
ia? naith e?euee?nio ioe?ieo a i?iii?oe?? naeoi??a ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa — 62:38. Oea nooue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?eaaoiei ?
ononi?eueiaiei ??aiai o an?o naeoi?ao ? noa?ao aeeooy, yea aecia/a?
iioeiaeueio ??aiiaaao aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaia
i?iii?oe?y ? oi?aa?naeueiith

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?WWW?XXX?YYY?ZZZ?[[[?]]]?^^^?___?«`?aaa?bbb?ccc?ddd?eee?fff?ggg?hhh?iii
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|??~~~???????en.2. Noaia caaeainiaaieo aca?iica’yce?a ?aa?iiaeueii?
nenoaie oaeoi??a

aeey an??? i?e?iaee a ianooaa? an?o no?oeoo?ieo ii?yaee?a ia’?eoeaiiai
na?oo ? ae?aaea? ia’?eoeaio iai?aaeai?noue caeiio i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino?.
Aiia ae?aaea? eiioeaiooaeuei? i???ioe?e o?ainoi?iaoe?? no?oeoo?e
aeiiii?ee aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. A iniia? eaaeeoue iiooaeia oai?/a
eiiiiiaioa noni?eueiiai i?aai?cio, aacith yei? ? aeeaioai?yua neea
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ainiiaea?noa, ooieoe?iioth/eo ia iniaenoiio ?ioa?an? ?
caoe?eaaeaiiino?. Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iioeiaeueii? ??aiiaaae i?ae
aea?aeaaiei ? i?eaaoiei naeoi?aie caaacia/o? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueio
aa?iii?th, a ioaea, iaeneiaeueio aoaeoeai?noue ae?e an?o o/aniee?a
?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano. E?eoa???i ? oae? iciaee ?iiiaaoe?e, ye
ca?eueoaiiy a?aeaea/? a?ae ianooaao ? c?inoaiiy a?aeiioaiiy /anoee
eai?oaeo aei /anoee i?aoe? o ae?iaieoeoa? i?iaeoeoo i?e i?ioiaeaeaii?
cieioiai ia?aoeio. Oeei ia?aoeiii ? i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue i?ae /anoeith
i?aoe? ? /anoeith eai?oaeo o ae?iaieoeoa? i?iaeoeoe??, yea e?euee?nii
ioe?ith?oueny ye 0,3:0,7.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui ia ?ioaa?iaaiiio ??ai? ??aiiaaaa ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee
aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueii? ??aiiaaae i?ae i?iieneiaei
? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei ae?iaieoeoaii. Ia i?iieneia?noue
i?eoiaeeoueny 3/4 caaaeueiiai ianyao noeoiii? i?iieneiai? ?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae ie?ai? iaeano?
nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny ca ??aiai iaoeiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa (eiao?oe??io
oaoi?caoe??). Eiao?oe??ioe oaoi?caoe?? iaeanoae oa?aeoa?ecothoue
i?iii?oe?? i?ae i?iieneia?noth ? n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii. Aiie
aecia/aeeny ca oi?ioeith:

EO = (Q — Q N/A ) :Q ,
(6)

aea Q — noeoiiee noni?eueiee i?iaeoeo; QN/A — aaeiaa i?iaeoeoe?y
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Ia iniia? aiae?co aeaieo c?iaeaii aeniiaie
i?i oa, ui o an?o iaeanoyo, ca aeeeth/aiiyi A?iieoeueei?, Aieeinueei?,
Ieeiea?anueei?, ??aiainueei?, Noinueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei?,
Oa?niinueei?, *a?eanueei?, *a?i?aaoeueei?, ca ia??iae 1975-1995??.
a?aeaoeiny c?inoaiiy ieoiii? aaae n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Iniaeeai a
iaeanoyo c aenieei ??aiai oaoi?caoe??: Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e,
Aeiiaoeuee?e, Caii??cuee?e, Eoaainuee?e oa aeayeeo ?ioeo, oeth
o?ainoi?iaoe?th i?iii?oe?e iiaeia a?aeianoe aei i?ia?aneaieo c?ooaiue,
oiio ui a aeaieo iaeanoyo aiie aaaeooue aei iii’yeoaiiy a?ia?o?io??,
aeeni?iii?oe?iiaeueiino?, i?aeaeuothoue aoaeoeai?noue eiiieaeniiai
?icaeoeo ia iniia? ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?. ?acii c oei
no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy o i?iii?oe?yo i?ae i?iieneia?noth ? n?euenueeei
ainiiaea?noaii ne?ae ioe?ithaaoe a o?niiio ca’yceo c oe?iiooai?aiiyi,
c?inoaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, aoaeoeai?noth i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo
ca’yce?a iinoa/aiiy i?iaeoeoe?? aa?a?iiai naeoi?o. A aiae?c? aeeiai?ee
i?iii?oe?e aeiiii?ee iaeanoae aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue no?oeoo?i?
c?ooaiiy ii aaeocyo, ye? caaacia/othoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an.

Aeey ae??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy aoea i?iaaaeaia na??y ?ic?aooie?a
e?i?eieo eiao?oe??io?a no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue ca aaeocyie, ye?
caaacia/othoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an a aeeiai?oe? iaeanoae Oe?a?ie.
Aiae?c ? ioe?iea aeeiai?ee eiao?oe??io?a no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue i?iaaaeai?
ca noeoii?noth /ioe?ueio aaeocae: iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy; o?i?y ? iaooio?i?y;
aeaeo?iaia?aaoeea; i?iieneia?noue aoaeiaoa??ae?a, ye? a cia/i?e i???
aecia/athoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an. Aoei aeyaeaii na?aaeith
?ioaineai?noue ci?i a ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iii?oe?yo c 1975?. aei 1995?.
(aeea. Oaae.1.). Oae, aei iaeanoae Oe?a?ie c iaea?eueo aenieei
cia/aiiyi eiao?oe??ioa no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a?aeiinyoueny
Oa?iii?euenueea, Oiaeueieoeueea, ??aiainueea, Caea?iaonueea,
*a?i?a?anueea, oa ?io?. A oeeo iaeanoyo ye na?ae/aoue aeai? i?ney 1980?.
a aaeocyo, ye? caaacia/othoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an, ??cei c?inea
ieoiia aaaa i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. A oanoe iaeanoyo
?ioaineai?noue no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue ia? aeoaea iecueea cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioo no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue. Oea iaea?eueo ?icaeioo? o
i?iieneiaiio a?aeiioaii? iaeano? Oe?a?ie: Aeiiaoeueea,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea, Oa?e?anueea, Eoaainueea, Ieeiea?anueea, Iieoaanueea.
Aei 1995?. aeey oeeo iaeanoae ca noeoii?noth aaeocae iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,
o?i?? ? iaooio?i??, aeaeo?iaia?aaoeee, i?iieneiaino?
aoaeiaoa??ae?a aoea oa?aeoa?iith noaa?euei?noue ieoiii? aaae
i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/iai ia?niiaeo. I?e oeueiio aaeaeiny c’ynoaaoe, ui
i?ae ?aeiiaie ? iaeanoyie caaaeaee ?niothoue iniaeeaino? a ??aiyo
aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ye? coiiaeai? ae??th
ia’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a: a?aei?ii?noth o?oaeiaeo, iaoa??aeueieo,
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a, iniaeea?noth ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo

Oaaeeoey 1.

No?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy ca aaeocyie, ye? caaacia/othoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee
i?ia?an a aeeiai?oe? iaeanoae Oe?a?ie (ca /enaeuei?noth
i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/iai ia?niiaeo)** Aiae?c ? ioe?iea i?iaaaeai? ia
iniia? aeaieo I?inoaoo Oe?a?ie ca /ioe?ia

aaeocyie: iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, o?i?y ? iaooio?i?y, aeaeo?iaia?aaoeea,

i?iieneia?noue aoaeiaoa??ae?a.

Iaeano? E?i?ei? eiao?oe??ioe no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue1975?.***
1975?. — aaciaee.* 1980?. 1985?. 1990?. 1995?. Oe?a?ia 1 1.4
1.7 1.6 1.4 Iaeano? c aenieei
cia/aiiyi eiao?oe??io?a

no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiueAaoiiiiia
?anioae?ea E?ei 1 5.0 4.7 4.6 3.8AEeoiie?nueea
1 4.4 6.8 6.5 5.9Caea?iaonueea 1 1.3 7.3
6.8 5.9?aaii-O?aie?anueea 1 4.5 7.4 7.2
6.6Ee?anueea 1 3.9 5.0 4.7 4.0E??iaia?aaenueea 1
3.9 5.0 4.9 4.1??aiainueea 1 5.4 8.3
8.4 7.7Oa?iii?euenueea 1 6.6 9.6 10.2
8.9Oiaeueieoeueea 1 6.8 9.7 9.8 8.5*a?eanueea 1
2.9 6.3 6.3 5.5*a?i?a?anueea 1 7.6 8.4
8.8 7.4*a?i?aaoeueea 1 4.2 5.7 5.3 4.6
Iaeano? c na?aaei?i cia/aiiyi eiao?oe??ioo

no?oeoo?ieo
c?ooaiueA?iieoeueea 1 1.1 3.6 3.5
3.1Aieeinueea 1 3.0 5.5 5.6 5.2Caii??cueea
1 1.3 1.8 1.7 1.5Euea?anueea 1 3.7
2.4 2.4 2.0Iaeanueea 1 -0.6 3.2 2.9
2.4Noinueea 1 3.1 3.2 3.2 2.9Oa?niinueea
1 3.8 1.8 1.7 1.5
Iaeano? c iecueeei cia/aiiyi eiao?oe??ioo

no?oeoo?ieo
c?ooaiueAei?i?iiao?ianue ea 1 0.5 1.0 -1.1
-1.2Aeiiaoeueea 1 -1.6 -2.1 -2.2 -2.5Eoaainueea 1
0.5 -1.6 -1.8 -2.0Ieeiea?anueea 1 -0.5 1.1
1.1 -1.1Iieoaanueea 1 0.3 1.1 1.1
-1.0Oa?e?anueea 1 1.4 0.5 -2.1 -2.7aeiiii?ee
?aeiio, iaeano?, aeiiii?/ia ? i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy. Oaeei
/eiii, ioe?iea ??ai?a eiiiiiaioii-i?iii?oe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie
aeaea iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe, ui /ei aeua cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa
no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue, oei a?eueo ?icaeiaia a ?aa?ii? aaaeea
i?iieneia?noue, a ioaea ? aeuee ??aaiue eiai i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo.

Nueiaiaei?, ye na?ae/aoue io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy,
o?ainoi?iaoe?y aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aei ?eieo aeeeeeaea ia’?eoeaio
iaiao?aei?noue ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? i?iii?oe?e i?ae aaaeeith ? eaaeith oa
oa?/iaith i?iieneia?noth, i?ae i?iieneia?noth ? n?euenueeei
ainiiaea?noaii, i?ae ?ineeiieoeoaii ? oaa?eiieoeoaii a a?e iioei?caoe??
?aa?iiaeueieo, i?aeaaeocaaeo ? aaeocaaeo i?iii?oe?e. A aeoaea cia/i?e
i??? oe? ia’?eoeai? no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy a?aeaoaathoueny a Eoaainueeiio,
Aeiiaoeueeiio, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio, Caii??cueeiio, Oa?e?anueeiio
?aa?iiao aea, iai?eeeaae, no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy i?ae aaaeeith
i?iieneia?noth ? eaaeith e oa?/iaith i?iieneia?noth a?aeaoaathoueny ia
ei?enoue inoaii?o. Oae, aaeoc? aaaeei? i?iieneiaino? ii??aiyii c
ieioeeie ?ieaie nei?ioeeeny aei 50%.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aaeineiiaeaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae aa?ii?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ? iieacaii, ui o?ainoi?iaoe?y aa?a?iiai naeoi?o aei ?eieo
ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee noaaeoue i?iaeaio aoiai?caoe?? ??aiiaaae ?
caaeainiaaiino?. Aoiai?caoe?y ??aiiaaae ? caaeainiaaiiino? icia/a?
noeoii?noue ethaenueeeo ae?e, ui ni?yiiaai? ia noai?aiiy iaoa??aeueieo
oiia, iaiao?aeieo aeey caaeiaieaiiy ethaenueeeo iio?aa, ?aae?co?oueny o
i?eioeei?: ae?iaeyoe oa, ui iaiao?aeii ethaeei?, a ia i?iaeaaaoe oa, ui
ae?iaey?oueny. Aiae?c ? ioe?iea aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie aeyaeee iniiai?
iai?yie aoiai?caoe?? ??aiiaaae ? caaeainiaaiino?: 1.Oi?ioaaiiy oiia aeey
naiiooaa?aeaeaiiy, naiiae?aaeaiiy iniae, aeyaeaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae
ethaeeie. 2. Aeoea?caoe?y noeioe?a, iioea?a aeey i?iyao oai?/eo nee
ethaeeie a caaaeuei?e nenoai? oe?iiinoae noni?euenoaa ? iniaenoino?. 3.
C?inoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e o ethaeeio. 4.?aae?caoe?y iineeaiiy ?ie?
nioe?aeueieo ? aeieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aei iaoei ? oaoiieia?e.
5.Iioei?caoe?y ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ?ioa?anaie iniaenoeo ainiiaea?noa ?
eieaeoeaieo i?aei?e?inoa.

O ?aoa?iaai?e ?iaio? a?aei?/a?oueny, ui i?iaaaeaiiy ?aaeeeaeueii?
aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie, noai?aiiy ?eieiaeo canaae ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
aeinyaiaiiy caaeainiaaiiai ? noaa?eueiiai ?icaeoeo AIE caeaaeeoue a?ae
oiai, iane?eueee aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaai? i?iii?oe?? i?ae
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi ? niiaeeaaiiyi a oe?e noa?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.
Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui o iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aaeaeiny
aeyaeoe, ui ia i?ioean ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? i?iii?oe?e i?ae iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi
? niiaeeaaiiyi neeueii aieeaathoue oae? aca?iiae?th/? ?ioaineai?
aeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e, ye caaaeueia i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?,
oiiaeia?aeaea/a, nia?aa?o?noue, ei?eni?noue iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo
aeaa. C iaoith ae??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy aoa i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo. Aoei aeyaeaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? iaaoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo oiiae?a eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa ao?aoe /enoiai
aeioiaeo ca 1965-1990??. aei??aiththoue aaeainia?e aa?oino?
ooieoe?iioth/eo ?iai/eo iaoei ? iaeaaeiaiiy.

Ia iniia? iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aaeaeiny c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
aaee/eia oiiae?a iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ? niiaeeaaiiy a aa?a?iiio naeoi??, ye ?
a ?ioeo aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, aaciina?aaeiuei ca’ycaia c
??aiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?noa, c ianyaii ? oaiiaie i?e?inoo
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo. Iaooeeueia c?inoaiiy inoaiiueiai noai?th?
iaoa??aeueio iniiao aeey ca?eueoaiiy ? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ? niiaeeaaiiy.

A o?ainoi?iaoe?eiee ia??iae aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a?aeaoaathoueny
?noioi? ci?ie o oi?iao aeaniino? ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Oea coiiaeth?
o?ainoi?iaoe?th nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, ci?io oa?aeoa?o aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei i?ae ae?iaieeaie ? niiaeeaa/aie. Oeaio?aeueiith eaieith a
no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ith ae?yeuei?noth a oeeo oiiaao noa?
ia?eaoeia. O ca’yceo c oeei a aeena?oaoe?? aenoaa?oueny ?
a?aoiaioo?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui iioei?caoe?y i?aeainiiaea?nueeeo
ca’yce?a noaiiaeaiiy no/anii? ia?eaoeiaiai? nenoaie iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny
oeyoii o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?nioth/eo ?aeiiieo na?a?nieo,
?aiiioii-o?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa, ca o/anoth ENI ? aecia/aiiy
iioeiaeueiiai ianyao caie?. A ?acoeueoao? noai?ththoueny
i?aeainiiaea?nuee? iaoeii-oaoiieia?/i? eiiiai?? o aeaeyae? aeoe?iia?iiai
oiaa?enoaa ia aac? caeo/aieo ia iniia? e?aaeeo?a aai ?iaanoeoe?e cania?a
i?aoe?. I?e oeueiio io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeee, ui
aieiaieie oaeoi?aie iioeiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ?ano?nii-oaoi?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy oe?eueiaeo ?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai ca ?aooiie ?iaanoeoe?e ? :
1) i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeno ia?eaoeiao; 2) i?aeaioiaea a?cian-ieaio; 3)
inai?iiy ?iaanoeoe?e ca neii?aeeiiaaiith ?iaanoeoe?eiith i?ia?aiith i?ae
?aa?iiaeuei? aa?aio?? iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??; 4) caniae i?aoe? ION
ia?aaeathoueny ia ?? aaeain, a IOC caeeoathoueny ia aaeain? ei?ii?aoe??
? aenieoaoothoueny a no?oeoo?? IOC, aai ia?aaeathoueny ION, aai
i?iaeathoueny n?eueainiae?iaieeai ia e?ceiaia?e iniia?.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe a?aei?/a?oueny, ui nueiaiaei? a?aenooi?
aoaeoeai? iaoai?cie ?aae?caoe?? iniaeeainoae ? ia?niaeoea ?aa?iiaeueiiai
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo. A no/anieo oiiaao iaiao?aeia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia
iie?oeea aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a a ?aeeiiio
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiio eiiieaen?. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a iaeaooi?e eiioeaioe?? aeia?iaooo ethaeae a
Oe?a?i? iaiao?aeii i?eae?eeoe ia?oi/a?aiao oaaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e
eiie?aoecaoe?? : 1) aeinyaiaiiy ethaenueeiai ye?niiai noaiaea?oo
aeia?iaooo a oe?eiio, ??aiy aeeooy, niiaeeaaiiy, o?oaeiai? ?
nioe?aeueii? aeoeaiino? i?aoethth/eo, oiia ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?; 2)
a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo ianooaa?a aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aeia?iaooo, iioi/iiai
niiaeeaaiiy, oiia nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo; 3) i?ioean?a o noa??
aeia?iaooo, ye? aeiaaathoue aea?aeaaieo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e aeey
eiaeii? ethaeeie; 4) ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ? aca?iicai?ii?noue ??cieo aeaea?ae
? oaeoi??a aeia?iaooo : ?ano?nieo, ieaoieo, aaceiooiaieo,
?iciiae?eueieo, aa?aioiaaieo, ?ooiieo, ei?ioeino?ieiaeo,
aeiaaino?ieiaeo, athaeaeaoieo, ?aa?iiaeueieo ? o.i.; 5) oa?aeoa?o
aca?iica’yceo aeeiai?ee AII, e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo, iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeioiaeo, aaeiaiai aeioiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ?aa?iiaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? c
noni?eueiei ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei aeia?iaooii ie?aieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi,
n?iaeiei aeia?iaooii; 6) iniaeeainoae aeia?iaooo ??cieo nioe?aeueieo,
i?ioan?eieo, oa?eoi??aeueieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo, ?ioeo a?oi ethaeae o
ca’yceo ?c ci?iaie niiniao aeeooy, iiaeae? i?aoe?, aeiiii?/ii?
aeoeaiino?, iiaooo, niiaeeaaiiy, ye? aecia/athoueny aaeoi?ii ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei.

O iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aaeaeiny aeyaeoe, ui ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeia?iaooo, eiai noaiaea?o yeino?
ae??oaeueiee aieea ia? oei aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. Iniaeea?noue aoai?a
aeia?iaooo a o?ainoi?iaoe?eiee ia??iae aecia/a?oueny noaiiaeaiiyi
?ioaineaiiai oeio aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy, aeey yeiai oaiie, i?iii?oe??,
ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa, i?e??no iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo, iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy,
niiaeeaaiiy – ? ??cieie, aea i?aai?/ii aca?iica’ycaieie ?
aca?iinoeioethth/eie oaeoi?aie oe?e?niiai i?ioeano a?aeoai?aiiy. Ioaea,
ia?oei ? aaaeeeaei e?eoa???i aeae?eaiiy aoai?a i?aeaeuaiiy aeia?iaooo ?
iieacieee aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy eiai ?ioaineaiiai oeio. O
ca’yceo c oeei, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, a o?ainoi?iaoe?eiee ia??iae
nioe?aeueia ni?yiiaai?noue no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue aecia/a?oueny noaiii
niiaeea/iai ?eieo. Ioaea, yeui aeoiaeeoe c oiai, ui ia /an ia?aoiaeo aei
noaeeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?aaoeyoi?ii ianyao aeia?iaooo aenooia? noai
niiaeea/iai ?eieo, oi aoaea eia?/iei aeciaoe, ui i?ii?aeiith eaieith
i?ae ieie iiaeiai noaoe ?ioaa?aeueiee iieaciee – ?iaeeeaoi? : aa?o?noue
iaaiiai noaiaea?oo athaeaeaoo. Aaeaea, ye na?ae/eoue na?oiaee aeina?ae,
naia ?ici?? i?i?iaeueiiai niiaeea/iai athaeaeaoo iiaea a ?ioaa?iaai?e
oi?i? a?aeaeaaoe noai niiaeea/iai ?eieo, eiai ianeuai?noue, ??aaiue oe?i
ia ie?ai? oiaa?e, ? iaiao?aei?noue ei?eaoaaiiy i?i?iaeueii? ca?ieaoe. O
ca’yceo c oeei, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, eiie?aoi? nioe?aeuei? i?ia?aie
?icaeoeo naea iiaeii? aacoaaoeny ia eiiieaeni?e nenoai? iaa?oioiaaieo
ii?i ? ii?iaoea?a, ui aecia/athoue no?aoaa?/i? iai?yie ?icaeoeo iio?aa,
oiaoi noaiaea?o? i?i?iaeueiiai niiaeea/iai athaeaeaoo naea, ?aeiio,
iaeano? (NINA). Inoaii?e iiaeiai aeeth/aoe oae? iaoa??aeuei? aeaaa ?
iineoae, ye?, ii- ia?oa, ? iaea?eueo nooo?a?, no?ee? o oaeoe/iiio
niinia? aeeooy, a, ii-ae?oaa, a?aeaeaaee a ia?niaeoeai? i?ia?aneai?
oe?e? oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iio?aa. Oea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
aecia/eoe aaeoi?e ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iio?aa o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c NINA. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
aeyaeai? iia? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? oaeoe, iniiaieie c yeeo ? o?, ui oeyoii
ioe?iee ? aiae?co iieaciee?a i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo iaeano?, caaeainiaaiino?
an?o ?ano?n?a ?c nenoaiith iio?aa ia aeiaaino?ieiaee ia??iae a NINA
aeioe?eueii aecia/aoe ii?ie ? ii?iaoeae iaiao?aeieo iio?aa ia i?e?i- oa
iae?i??aiyo ye a iaoo?aeueiiio, oae ? a a?ioiaiio ae?ac?. Oea ? aacith
aeey ?ic?iaee ieaiiaeo i?i?iaeueieo niiaeea/eo athaeaeao?a (IINA). A
no/anieo oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo nenoaia ii?i ? ii?iaoea?a IINA
ae?aaea? e?euee?nii iaiao?aei? ye?ni? iio?aae a iaoa??aeueieo aeaaao ?
iineoaao i?e iaiaaeaieo aeioiaeao ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?nao o ieaiiaiio
ia??iae?. ?aae?caoe?y IINA ? aoaiii, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei NINA, aei
o?ainoi?iaoe?? eiai o iioi/iee niiaeea/ee athaeaeao. O ci?iao ii?i ?
ii?iaoea?a IINA ?aaeueii a?aeaeaathoueny oaiie no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a
nenoai? iio?aa, oaiie ia?aoiaeo aei iiaiai ??aiy aeia?iaooo ethaeae
naea.

AENIIAEE.

1. Aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo i?enay/aii ?ica’ycaiith oai?aoe/ii? ?
i?aeoe/ii? i?iaeaie, yea iia’ycaia c iaa?oiooaaiiyi ??aiiaaae AIE a
i?ioean? ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Aecia/aii, ui iaeiei
?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yi?a iineeaiiy eiiieaeniiai, nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo
o cae?eniaii? aiae?co ? ioe?iee iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?iaeai ?aoe?iiaeueii?
i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? oa iioeiaeueii? caaeainiaaiiino? ? nai?/ania,
iinooiiaa ? iine?aeiaia oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue
ona?aeiieoe, ui ia iiaeia noai?eoe iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee aac
ciaoiaeaeaiiy iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueieo, caaeainiaaieo
i?iii?oe?e, iaee?aueo aa??aio?a aoiaeaeaiiy aa?a?iiai naeoi?o a ?eieiaa
na?aaeiaeua. Oea caeaaeeoue a?ae ??cieo aeae?a iiaeeo?eaoe?? ??aiiaaae,
yeo a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo iiaeeeai ioe?ieoe aai aecia/eoe o
aca?iiae?? c e?euee?nieie oa ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie caeii?a
i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? iiieoo, i?iiiioaaiiy oa ?ioeo.

2. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iioeiaeueia ??aiiaaaa an??? aeiiii?ee,
ye ? aa?a?iiai naeoi?o cie?aia, ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac noeoii?noue oiia,
ye? neeaaeathoue aeaiaioe nenoaie iaae iioeiaeueii? ??aiiaaae. Oey
nenoaia iaae iioeiaeueii? ??aiiaaae aieeaa? ia o?ae ? ?acoeueoao
aeiiii?/iiai i?ioeano (eii’thieoo?iee oeeee). Aea?? iaee?auiai aa??aioo
?c aeueoa?iaoeaieo aaco?oueny ia ?aae?caoe?? anueiai i?ioeano
iioei?caoe?? ??aiiaaae o oiae? ?oa?aoeaieo ocaiaeaeaiue ia iniia? ye
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai e?eoa??th iioeiaeueii? ??aiiaaae, oae ?
?aa?iiaeueieo e?eoa???a ca ii?aeiaiiy ?ioa?an?a ?aa?ii?a ? aeiiii?ee a
oe?eiio.

3. Ii??aiyiiy iaea?aeaieo i?iii?oe?e ? ?ic?aooieiaeo iieaciee?a ca
?icaeyiooeie iiaeeo?eaoe?yie aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae c
?aaeueieie i?iii?oe?yie ? iieacieeaie iieacaei, ui ?nioth/a no?oeoo?a
iin?aieo ieiu aeinoaoiuei a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iioeiaeueii? ? iio?aao?
ea?aeeiaeueieo no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue. C iaeiiai aieo, i?iii?oe?? iiaeii?
?aaoethaaoeny aea?aeaaith, a c ?ioiai aieo, ?aaoethaaoeny a?aeiineiaie
i?ae oiaa?iae?iaieeaie ia iniia? i???ioaoe?? ?o a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?
? aeai?o iaeaea?aei?oi? niaoe?ae?caoe??, yea a?aeiia?aea? caaaeaiith
aeinyaiaiiy eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa ye ie?aieo i?aei?e?inoa, oae ?
aa?a?iiai naeoi?o a oe?eiio. Oiiaaie aeey oaei? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iiaeii?
noaoe caaa?oaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy caiaeueieo a?aeiinei, e?aaeeoii-o?iainiai?
nenoaie, caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a aa?ii?iaeiaieue/ee naeoi?
Oe?a?ie.

4. Ia oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae a AIE aieeaathoue i?iii?oe?? oaii?a c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoe?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? i?iieneiaino?. Io?eiai? aeai?
ia iniia? ?ic?aoiaaiiai eiao?oe??ioo i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? na?ae/aoue, ui
i?ae i?aeeiiieaenaie AIE ?nio? aeeni?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue. Ianyae
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? oie?athoueny o iaae? ae?iaie/eo iiaeeeainoae.
??aaiue oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?e cia/ii iaiaaeo? niiaeeaa/a, a aeiiii?ea ia
iiaea ae?aaoeny ca iaaeo nai?o iioaioe?eii ia aeei?enoaieo ae?iaie/eo
iiaeeeainoae. ?aae?coaaoe ia’?eoeaio aeiiao ??aiiaaae iiaeia oeyoii
iiaeeaeaiiy ia?a?iaee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, ia?iuoaaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa aioiaiai aei niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeoo, iai?aoaa?eeao?a,
eoe?ia?ieo ae?ia?a. Aeo?aeiei ? caaa?oaeueiei ioieoii o i?ioean?
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia? aooe e?ioeaaee i?iaeoeo, yeee aenooia? o
aeaeyae? iane niiaeeaieo aa?oinoae iioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e, yea a
iaea?eueo?e i??? caaeiaieueiy? noni?euei? iio?aae.

5. A no/ani?e no?oeoo?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aenieo ieoiio aaao caeiathoue
ne?iaeii? aaeoc?, a oaeiae ae?iaieoeoai i?ii?aeiiai i?iaeoeoo. I?aeoe/ii
an? no?oeoo?i? i?iii?oe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ia a?aeiia?aeathoue iio?aaai
ethaeeie, ia caaacia/othoue ?e ii?iaeueieo noaiaea?o?a aeeooy.
Nueiaiaei? i??i?eoaoieie iai?yiaie ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee ia
iae?iaeiiii?/iiio ??ai? iiaeiia aooe o?ainoi?iaoe?y ?iaanoeoe?e ia
ei?enoue ?iaanoeoe?eieo aaeocae ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ui
aecia/a?oueny iioei?caoe??th caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ii? i?iii?oe?? i?ae
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi ? niiaeeaaiiyi.

6. A no/anieo oiiaao ye?noue oaii?a a?aeoai?aiiy a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? caeaaeeoue a?ae caaeainiaaiino? i?ae no?oeoo?ieie
aeaiaioaie nenoaie ??cii??aeieo i?eioeeiiai iiaeo ?ano?nicaiuaaeaeoth/eo
? i?e?iaeicaa??aath/eo iaoei. O?ainoi?iaoe?eiee ia??iae aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo iano?eii aeiaaa? aeeaieeo no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue, ia?aoiaeo aei
i?eioeeiiai iiai? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?e, a ioaea ?ioaineo?eaoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa. ?ioa?ane aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aeiaaathoue e?ea?aeaoe??
?nioth/i? aeeni?iii?oe?? i?ae ae?iaieoeoaii n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe?? ? iayaieie ae?iaie/eie iiooaeiinoyie aeey ?? i?eeiaiiy,
caa??aaiiy ? ia?a?iaee ia iniia? ?eieiaeo i?eioeei?a i?e ?aaoethth/?e
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae ia aac? i?iaiic?a, ?iaeeeaoeaieo ieai?a ?
i?ia?ai.

7. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ioe?iea iioei?caoe?? ?aa?iiaeueieo ? i?aeaaeocaaeo
i?iii?oe?e aeeth/athoue o?e iai?yie. Ii-ia?oa, iiooe ? eeaneo?eaoe?y
oaeoi??a ca nooiaiai ?o aieeao ia i?iii?oe?iiaeueii-eiiiiiaioiee
?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa, ii-ae?oaa, aca?iiii?aeiaiee ? acaiiiaoiiaeaiee
aiae?c oaeoi??a o aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?, ii-o?ao?, aeiiii?/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy aa?o?nieo ioe?iie oaeoi??a ? ?o ?aa?iiaeueieo
eiao?oe??io?a, aeoiaey/e ?c aeo?ao aeeai? ? o?a/aaeaii? i?aoe?. Oea
aeaei iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe eiao?oe??io ??aiiaaae i?ae ieoiiith aaaith
aaeocae aaaeei? i?iien-eiaino? ? ieoiiith aaaith aaeocae eaaei? ?
oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino?. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe
aeey aecia/aiiy iai?yi?a iioei?caoe?? ?aa?iia-eueieo, i?aeaaeocaaeo ?
aaeocaaeo i?iii?oe?e aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia oe?e iniia?
?ioaa?iaaiiai i?noey eiaeiiai ?aa?iio ca ??aiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo a ?aeeiiio ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiio eiiieaen? Oe?a?ie.

8. Iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo ae?eiaeo cania?a no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a
aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie ? aeia?aaeaeath/a c?inoaiiy e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo,
ii??aiyii c i?ii?aeiei i?iaeoeoii. Aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy ae?iaie/iai
i?ioeano a noai? ??aiiaaae iaiao?aeii, uia niiaeeaaiiy e?ioeaaiai
i?iaeoeoo a?aeiia?aeaei i?iiiioaaiith oiaa??a ? iineoa. A iiieo, aai
aeo?aoe ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa (?iaanoeoe??) a?aeiia?aeaa i?iiiioaaiith
cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa (?iaanoeoe?e). Oea ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey
ieaioaaiiy i?aeainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a ? aeeiai?ee niiaeeaaiiy ?
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy. Iieaciee e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo — iniiaa aeey ioe?iee
??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeeiai?ea
c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, yea ioe?iaia ia iniia? e?ioeaaiai
i?iaeoeoo, oa?aeoa?eco? aeiiii?th aeeai? oa o?a/aaeaii? i?aoe?.

9. Iioeiaeueia ??aiiaaaa aeinyaa?oueny oiae?, eiee iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ?
eiai oaiie noai?ththoue oiiae aeey iaea?eueoiai i?e?inoo niiaeeaaiiy ia
ia ei?ioeee ia??iae, a ia aeiaaino?ieiao ia?niaeoeao ? caaacia/othoueny
i?e oeueiio noaa?euei? oaiie a?aeoai?aiiy. C?inoaiiy aeioiae?a
i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aoe?aiee?a AIE ia iniia? iioei?caoe?? ?aaeueieo
i?iii?oe?e a ?iciiae?e? ? aeei?enoaii? aaeiaiai aeioiaeo i?ae oiiaeii
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ? niiaeeaaiiy iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia e?euee?nieo ?
ye?nieo c?ooaiiyo, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny i?ae aieeaii ?icai?oath/iai
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ca aaea
aeinyaiooiai nooiaiy ononi?eueiaiiy.

10. Iaeaoaeoeai?oei oaeoi?ii noaiiaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?eioeei?a o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e i?aeoeoe? ? ni?eeiyooy ia?eaoeiao ye
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai ?ioaa?oth/iai iai?yio, ui caaacia/o? oni?o
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao, ye iiaiai niiniao ieneaiiy
aaeaeaaoiiai ia’?eoeaiei aeiiii?/iei oiiaai. Caaaeyee eiiieaeniiio
i?e?i- ? iae?iia?eaoeiao ? aeiiaai caeii?a uiaei iioei?caoe?? ianooaa?a
oa ??aiy niaoe?ae?caoe?? i?aei?e?inoa, cie?aia a ia?a?iaieo aaeocyo,
caiaeii cia/io ia?aaaao ia ?eieo caeiooue n?eueainiae?iaieee ia aac?
?aoe?iiaeueieo oi?i aeoiaeo ia ?eiie ? aca?iiaea?aeii? ni?ai?aoe? c
ia?a?iaieie i?aei?e?inoaaie.

11. Nioe?aeueia ni?yiiaai?noue no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue a ?aa?iiao ? i?ae
?aa?iiaie ca’ycaia c iiooeii iioeiaeueieo aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaiai aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio, yeee iaoe?eaiee ia
caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino? i?ae ?eieii ? aea?aeaaiei ?aaoethaaiiyi a oiiaao
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aeaniino? ? ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aecia/aiiy
oa ioe?iea ?aaeueieo noeoiieo aeioiae?a n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy,
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y eiai ca ??aiyie iaea?aeaieo aeioiae?a aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue aeyaeyoe ? i?iaiicoaaoe nioe?aeueio ni?yiiaai?noue
no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue ? noia?a/iino? ia?iaeiiai aeia?iaooo o ca’yceo c
o?ainoi?iaoe??th aei ?eieo ? ?icoe?aiiyi naiioi?aae?iiy ? aeiiii?/ii?
naiino?eiino? ia i?noeaaiio ??ai?.

12. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue nooo?aa
cia/aiiy aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo iai?yi?a ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo
aa?a?ii-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, oaeineiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo iaoiae?a ?
i?eeii?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ye? /anoeiai ?aae?ciaai? o i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino?. Oeueiai aeinyaiooi ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? i?iiiceoe?e o i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue caoe?eaaeaieo
i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e, aee?aeoeaieo i?aai?a ia ??cieo
??aiyo oi?aae?iiy.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.Ae?aeaiei I.I. AIE: no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy ? noaa?euei?noue
?icaeoeo.-E.: Oe?IO?, 1992.-9,8 oi.ae?.a?e.-152n.

2.Ae?aeaiei I.I. I?aei?e?iieoeoai a Oe?a?i?.-E.: Oe??IOA?, 1995.-5,12
oi.ae?. a?e.-90n.

3.Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???: I?ae?o/iee: O 2 ei.Ei.2: I?aei?e?iieoeoai,
ia?eaoeia, iaiaaeaeiaio. A?aeoai?aiiy a iaoe?iiaeueiiio oa na?oiaiio
ainiiaea?noa? /TH.A.I?eieaiei, I.I.Ae?aeaiei, A.A.Oaaaea oa ?i.
A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione I.I.Ae?aeaiei.- E.:Eea?aeue, 1994.- 14,38
oi.ae?.a?e. Aao.iaoa??ae 1,3oi.ae?.a?e.

4.Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???: I?ae?o/iee: O 2 ei.Ei.1: Noni?eueia
ae?iaieoeoai. ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea //Ca ?aae. TH.A.I?eieaiea.
A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione I.I.Ae?aeaiei.- 2-aa aeae., ia?a?ia. ?
aeii.-E.:Eea?aeue, 1998.- 14,38 oi.ae?.a?e. Aao.iaoa??ae 0,7 oi.ae?.a?e.

5.Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???: I?ae?o/iee: O 2 ei.Ei.2: :
I?aei?e?iieoeoai, ia?eaoeia, iaiaaeaeiaio. A?aeoai?aiiy a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oa na?oiaiio ainiiaea?noa? /TH.A.I?eieaiei,
I.I.Ae?aeaiei, A.A.Oaaaea oa ?i. Ca ?aae.
TH.A.I?eieaiea.-A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione I.I.Ae?aeaiei.- 2-aa aeae.
Ia?a?ia. ? aeii.- E.:Eea?aeue, 1998.- 14,38 oi.ae?.a?e. Aao.iaoa??ae 1,9
oi.ae?.a?e.

6.Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???. A 4-o /anoeiao: Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee /Eie.
aaoi??a. Ca ?aae.TH.A.I?eieaiea (iaoe.ea??aiee), I.I.Ae?aeaiea
(a?aeiia?aeaeueiee ?aaeaeoi?).-E.:IIEAI, 1992.- 24,43 oi.ae?.a?e.
Aao.iaoa??ae 1,8 oi.ae?.a?e.

7.Ae?aeaiei I.I. Aaeineiiaeaiiy i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? a ?icaeoeo
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace c??eiai nioe?ae?cio // Ieoaiiy iie?oe/ii?
aeiiii??. I?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiaee ca??iee. Aei.144. E.: Aeae-ai
Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo, 1979.- N.50-56.

8.Ae?aeaiei I.I. Aaeineiiaeaiiy i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? – iaeaaaeeea?oee
oaeoi? c?inoaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo c??eiai nioe?ae?cio // Ieoaiiy
iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??. I?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiaee ca??iee. Aei.156. E.:Aeae-ai
Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo, 1981.-N.54-59.

9.Ae?aeaiei I.I. I?iii?oe?? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa /O?A –E.: O?A,
1983.-o.9.-0,5 oi.ae?.a?e.-N.32.

10.Ae?aeaiei I.I. I?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue ? caaeainiaai?noue o ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo c??eiai nioe?ae?cio // Ieoaiiy iie?oe/ii?
aiiii??. I?aea?aeii/ee ca??iee, Aei.168.- E.: Aeae-ai Ee?a.oi?aa?neoao,
1983.-N.17-22.

11.Ae?aeaiei I.I. ?oo i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?
// Ieoaiiy iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??. I?aea?aeii/ee ca??iee. Aei.202. Aeae-ai
Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo,1989.-N.90-96.

12.Ae?aeaiei I.I. No?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy ye oaeoi? noaa?eueiino? ?ooo
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino? // Ieoaiiy iie?oe/ii?
aeiiii??. I?aea?aeii/ee ca??iee. Aei.220.- E.: Eea?aeue, 1992.-N.79-84.

13.Ae?aeaiei I.I., Ae?aeaiei I.I. Oa?aeoa? ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? a aa?ii?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa? // I?iaeaie
noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i?.-E.:Oe??IOA?.-1995.-N.25-29.

14.Ae?aeaiei I.I N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea i?aei?e?iieoeoai ?
iae?iaeiiii?/ia noaa?e?caoe?y // I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio
oa no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiy a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie. Oace aenooi?a ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 160-??//th EO ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.-E.:
Oe??IOA?, 1995.-N.12-13.

15.Ae?aeaiei I.I. Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? nenoaie a?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa // A?niee Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeiiii?ea.
Aei.2.-E.:1995.-N.19-26.

16.*a?aaiueia Ae.I., Ae?aeaiei I.I. Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy — aaaeeeaee
iai?yiie ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo // A?niee Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo.
Aeiiii?ea. Aei.36.-E.:?AOeEO, 1996.-N.3-12.

17.Ae?aeaiei I.I.N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea i?aei?e?iieoeoai ?
iae?iaeiiii?/ia noaa?e?caoe?y//A?niee
Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo.Aeiiii?ea.Aei.36.-E.:?AOeEO,1996.-N.52-60

18.Ae?aeaiei I.I. ?acoeueoao ye aaciina?aaeiy iaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa // A?niee Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo.
Aeiiii?ea. Aei.37.-E.: ?AOeEO, 1997.-N.155-160.

19.*i?iion A.I., Ae?aeaiei I.I. Iniiai? iai?yie iioei?caoe??
no?oeooe?ieo c?ooaiue a aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? // A?niee
Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeiiii?ea. Aei.37.-E.:?AOeEO, 1997.-N.192-199.

20.Ae?aeaiei I.I., Ia?oeiianueea I.A. Iniiai? iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy
no?oeoo?e aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa // A?niee Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeiiii?ea.
Aei.38.-E.:?AOeEO, 1997.-N.59-16.

21.Ae?aeaiei I.I. I?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?aeiinei aeaniino? a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee // A?niee Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeiiii?ea.
Aei.38.-E.: ?AOeEO, 1997.-N.52-56.

22.Ae?aeaiei I.I. Iai?yie iioei?caoe?? ?aa?iiaeueieo ? i?aeaaeocaaeo
i?iii?oe?e aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa // Oai??? i?e?i-iae?iaeiiii?ee.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aei.1.-E.: 1998.-N.45-50.

23.Ae?aeaiei I.I. A??eee noai nieiaeeiai aeeooy aai /e aoaea
oe?a?inueeee oeoei? eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiei: aaeocaaee aiae?c //
Oe?a?inueeee i?iieneiaaoeue.-E.:1998.- ?6.-N.4-7.

24.Ae?aeaiei I.I. I?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue o ?icaeoeo aaeocae
i?iieneiaino? ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?nueaa – aaciaa iniiaa
noaa?eueiino? aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e Oe?a?ie // Oe?a?inueeee
i?iieneiaaoeue.-E.:1998.- ?7.-N.8-11.

25.Ae?aeaiei I.I. Noaa?e?caoe?y e c?inoaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa — iaaaeueia iio?aaa: aaeocaaee aiae?c // Oe?a?inueeee
i?iieneiaaoeue.-E.:1998.-?9.-N.8-10.

26.Ae?aeaiei I.I. ?iaanoeoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ? i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue:
aca?iica’ycie ? aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue // A?niee Ee?a.oi?aa?neoaoo.
Aeiiii?ea. Aei.39.-E.: AOeEO, 1998.-N.20-24.

27.Ae?aeaiei I.I. ?icaeoie i?iii?oe?e, ye oaeoi?
i?e?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueei? noaa?eueiino? Oe?a?ie: aaeocaaee aiae?c //
Oe?a?inueeee i?iieneiaaoeue.-E.:1998.-?12.-N.9-13.

AIIOAOe?ss.

Ae?aeaiei I.I. Oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae AIE a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01-aeiiii?/ia oai??y.-Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ica’ycaiith oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii? i?iaeaie,
yea iia’ycaia c iaa?oiooaaiiyi oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaae a
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiio aa?a?ii-i?iieneiaiio eiiieaen?. O aeena?oaoe??
?ic?iaeai? aeey canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeinyaiaiiy caaeainiaaiiai ? no?oeoo?iaaiiai
aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa Oe?a?ie a iai?yi? iioei?caoe??
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? ??aiiaaae, aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo i?iii?oe?e
a AIE. Cie?aia aecia/aiiy ??ai?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a ia
iniia? ?ic?aoiaaieo e?i?eieo eiao?oe??io?a no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue.
Cai?aiiiiaai? a ?iaio? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iaa?oioiaai? oai?aoe/ii ?
i?aeoaa?aeaeai? i?aeoe/ii. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ciaeoee nai?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? oa o i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ??aiiaaaa, i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue, iioei?caoe?y,
caaeainiaai?noue, i?iii?oe?y, no?oeoo?i? c?ooaiiy.

SUMMARY.

Didenko M.M. AIC equilibrium formation in the condition of the Ukrainian
ekonomy market transformation.- Manuscript.

The thesis for academic degree of doctor of economics, speciality
08.01.01-economics theory.-National Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv,
1998

The thesis is dedicated to solving a theoratical and practical problem
which is connected with basing the equilibrium formation in the national
economy agro-industrial complex (AIC). The scientific and methodical
recommendations for reaching the balanced and structured agro-industrial
production in Ukraine in the direction of the national economy
equilibrium optimization and determining the rational proportions in the
agro-industrial complex are developed for practical use in the
dissertation, in particular, the determination of the region economic
development levels on the basis of the calculated linear coefficients
for structural displacements. The given recommendations are
theoratically based and practically supported. The results of the
research have been in teaching and practical work.

Key words: equilibrium, proportionality, optimization, balance,
proportion, structural displacements.

AIIIOAOeEss.

Aeeaeaiei I.I. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?aaiiaaney AIE a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
o?ainoi?iaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu.-?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea
o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
08.01.01-yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey.-Iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana
Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeeth iinayuaii ?aoaieth oai?aoe/aneie e i?aeoe/aneie
i?iaeaiu, eioi?ay naycaia n iainiiaaieai oi?ie?iaaiey ?aaiiaaney a
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiii aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena. A aeenna?oaoeee
aeoeaioe?oyony, /oi i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia ?aaiiaanea io?aaeaao a
eiee/anoaaiiii e ea/anoaaiiii aniaeoa acaeiiaeaenoaea i?iecaiaeeoaeae e
iio?aaeoaeae, a eioi?ii AIE ?aaoee?oao eiathueany ia?aie/aiiua ?ano?nu a
i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiee eiia/iiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. A
?aaiiaanee, ii iiaieth nieneaoaey, ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaao
onoaiiaeaoayny onoie/eaay i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue iaaeaeo, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iio?aaeoaeyie ni naiei ieaoaaeaniiniaiui ni?inii, n ae?oaie,
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie n i?iaeoeoii, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue yoio ni?in
oaeiaeaoai?eoue. ?anniao?eaay aici?iecaiaenoaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann
oi?ie?iaaiey ?aaiiaaney a eneaaeiaaiee aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oii,
/oi ii niaaeeiyao oaeea aeaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee:
i?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaiinoe. Aaoi?ii ioia/aaony, /oi a
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiie nayce aeaenoaey caeiia i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe eae
aeaaiiai oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey ?aaiiaaney, a ea/anoaa i?e/eiu aunooiaao
iauaeoeaii iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue naaeaine?iaaiiinoe e cao?ao o?oaea a
niioaaonoaee n iiaui o?iaai, aini?iecaiaenoaaiiie iai?aaeaiiinoueth
aeeiaiecia iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae e oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa.
oai?aoe/anee a?aoiaioe?oaony, /oi ?aaiiaanea i?iyaeyaony /a?ac
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue, eioi?ay caaeneo io iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee:
1)aaiaoe/aneie no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa; 2)iaaeoicyenoaaiiuo naycae;
3)aeeiaiecia, iai?aaeaiiinoe ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee,
nenoaiu ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe. Yoi ii?aaeaeyao, ai-ia?auo, aica?auaiea
e i?aaeiaio ninoiyieth; ai-aoi?uo, ianiioaaonoaey, aeeni?iii?oeee;
a-o?aoeo, ea/anoaaiii iiaia ninoiyiea.

A aeenna?oaoeee oai?aoe/anee iainiiauaaaony iieiaeaiea, /oi aeeiaie/ii
noaaeeueiay iioeiaeueiinoue — yoi ninoiyiea yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu,
iaeeo/oaa ioiineoaeueii aini?iecaiaenoaaiiie oeaee i?e eiathueony
aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo oneiaeyo. Iioeiaeueiia ?aaiiaanea aunooiaao
o?aaeoi?eae ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, au?aaeathuae oeaee yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu
i?e aeaiiuo ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo ?ano?nao, iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoyo e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa. Aiciiaeiinoe
aeinoeaeaiey iioeiaeueiiai ?aaiiaaney ii?aaeaeythony iauaeoeaiuie
yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie e caeiiaie.

A aeena?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa inouanoaaiu ?an/aou e aeaia no?oeoo?iay
ioeaiea enoiaeiui io?aneaaui i?iii?oeeyi eiaanoeoeee. Naeaeai auaiae i
oii, /oi naaiaeiy i?ei?eoaoiuie iai?aaeaieyie eiaanoeoeeiiiie iieeoeee
ia iae?iyeiiiie/aneii o?iaia aeieaeia auoue o?ainoi?iaoeey eiaanoeoeee a
eiaanoeoeeiiiua io?anee e naeueneia oicyenoai. Aiaeec iieacae, /oi
aeinoeaeaiea ?aaiiaaney iaaeaeo iaoa?eaeueiui e iaiaoa?eaeueiui
i?iecaiaenoaii ii?aaeaeyaony iioeiecaoeeae iauayeiiiie/aneie i?iii?oeee
iaaeaeo iaeiieaieai e iio?aaeaieai. Aianoa n oai a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
neeaaeuaathony iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey, io?aaeathuea ninoiyiea
noaaiaoeee yeiiiieee, eiaaea iaeiieaiea iniiaiiai eaieoaea i?aauoaao aai
aii?oecaoeeth.

Ia iniiaa iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia Oe?aeiu auee i?iaaaeaiu ?an/aou
i?iii?oeee eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa ia o?iaia noa? e io?aneae yeiiiieee e
iainiiaaia iaoiaeeea ioeaiee iieacaoaeae i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey
eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa. Auei i?iaiaeece?iaaii aeeiaieeo no?oeoo?iuo
naeaeaia ?aaeeciaaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae a ninoaaa eiia/iiai
i?iaeoeoa. Aiaeec aeeiaieee i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaenoaii e
iio?aaeaieai eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa aeae aiciiaeiinoue i?ineaaeeoue
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua nayce, eioi?ua aucaaee nieaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aieaa /ai a 2 ?aca.

Enneaaeiaaiea iioeiecaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiuo, iaaeio?aneaauo, io?aneaauo
i?iii?oeee aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iicaieeei naeaeaoue auaiae,
/oi ia eioaa?e?iaaiiii o?iaia ?aaiiaanea ?aaeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee iiaeao
aeinoeaaoueny oi?ie?iaaieai iioeiaeueiiai ?aaiiaaney iaaeaeo
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e naeueneei oicyenoaii. Eiie?aoii-aeiiiie/aneay
ioeaiea o?iaiae eiiiiiaioii-i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey Oe?aeiu
iicaieeea onoaiiaeoue, /oi /ai auoa cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa no?oeoo?iuo
naeaeaia, oai aieaa ?acaeoay a ?aaeiia oyaeaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii e aeinoeaiooue o?iaaiue i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey. Iiaui
caeanue anoue iiiuoea i?ineaaeeoue oanioth naycue aeeiaie ?ann/eoaiiuo
eeiaeiuo eiyooeoeeaioia no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee n caiyoinoueth ?aai/ae
neeu e o?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia.

A ?aaioa enneaaeoaony i?iaeaia niaa?oainoaiaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai
iaoaiecia oi?ie?iaaiey ?aaiiaaney aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii
iiaieth aeenna?oaioa o?ainoi?iaoeey aa?a?iie yeiiiieee ia ?uii/iie
iniiaa iauaeoeaii o?aaoao ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu aoiaiecaoeee ?aaiiaaney e
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iao/iiai iainiiaaiey iioeioia i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai
niioiioaiey iaaeaeo iaeiieaieai e iio?aaeaieai, iioeiecaoeee
iaaeoicyenoaaiiuo naycae noaiiaeaiey nia?aiaiiie ia?eaoeiaiaie nenoaiu.
Enneaaeothony oaeaea aii?inu nioeeaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoe ?aaiiaaney a
?uii/ii ?aoi?ie?oaiie yeiiiieea.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu aeey i?eiaiaiey ia i?aeoeea
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aeinoeaeaieth naaeaine?iaaiiiai e
no?oeoo?e?iaaiiiai aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa Oe?aeiu a iai?aaeaiee
iioeiecaoeee ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai ?aaiiaaney, ii?aaeaeaiey
?aoeeiiaeueiuo i?iii?oeee a AIE. A /anoiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiea o?iaiae
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia ia iniiaa ?ann/eoaiiuo eeiaeiuo
eiyooeoeeaioia no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia. I?aaeeiaeaiu a ?aaioa
?aeiiaiaeaoeee iainiiaaiu oai?aoe/anee e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu i?aeoe/anee.
Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee naia aiaae?aiea a o/aaiii i?ioeanna e
a i?aeoe/aneie ?aaioa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aaiiaanea, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue, iioeiecaoeey,
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue, i?iii?oeey, no?oeoo?iua naeaeae.

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