7

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

NIAIE?A Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 330

OI?IOAAIIss ?EIEIAI? ?IO?ANO?OEOO?E A IA?AO?AeI?E AEIIII?Oe?
?IAeONO??AEUeIIAI OEIO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.01.01 — aeiiii?/ia oai??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?eoeaiei
Aiae??e Aiae??eiae/, Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee Nae?aoa??aoii
Eii?oaoo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue o?iain?a oa aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai?iaeia ?aaai Ieoaeeiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa.
eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ao?aae/ia Ia?en Ieoaeeiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa. eaoaae?e caaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? oai???

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ca??yeia Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/, Iaeanueea iaeania aee?aeoe?y AIA “Oe?a?ia”,
ia?oee canooiiee aee?aeoi?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?iina?oe
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aeiiii?/ii? oai???, i. Aeiiaoeuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “3”aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 15.15 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.01 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 310077, i. Oa?e?a, ie.
Naiaiaee, 4, aoae.5-67.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
310077, i. Oa?e?a, ie.Naiaiaee, 4, 8 iiaa?o, Oeaio?aeueia iaoeiaa
a?ae?ioaea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “22”06 1999 ?.

A.i. a/aiiai nae?aoa?y

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Caaei?iaeiee A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?iaeaia ?ie? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?
iaeaaeeoue aei iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaieo o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo??, ui
ni?e/eiaii ?yaeii oaeoi??a.

Ii-ia?oa, a oiiaao aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie ?io?ano?oeoo??
a?aeaiaeeeany i?ae?yaeia ?ieue na?aae i??i?eoao?a ?icaeoeo ie?aieo
aaeocae oa naeoi??a aeiiii?ee, aiane?aeie /iai ? ?? iaoeiaa aea/aiiy ia
iiaei aooe aeciaia aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaei ? iaiao?aeiei.

Ii-ae?oaa, ca /an ?nioaaiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie ona?aeiieaiiy
aaaeeeaino? ?io?ano?oeoo?iiai caaacia/aiiy ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i oae ? ia
aeinyaei oiai ??aiy, ca yeiai aea?aeaaa ?icaeyaea? ?io?ano?oeoo?io
iie?oeeo ye iaeei c iaa?ae’?iieo aeaiaio?a iie?oeee ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i.

Iiae?aia neooaoe?y oeiiaa ia o?eueee aeey Oe?a?ie, aea e aeey ?ioeo
aea?aeaa eieeoiueiai N?N?, cie?aia ?in??, yea ia? iaai? c?ooaiiy ia
oeyoo ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i e?aa?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Iaeiae aeina?ae inoaii?o
10 ?ie?a ?aoi?i iieacaa, ui o?aaeeoe?ei? ?aoeaioe e?aa?aeueieo
aeiiii?/ieo oai??e aeyaeeeny iai?eaeaoieie aeey eiie?aoieo oiia oaeeo
e?a?i, ye ?in?y aai Oe?a?ia. E?aa?ae?caoe?y aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy ia
caaacia/eea ?i niiae?aaiiai aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. Oi/a a aeayeeo
e?a?iao, aea e?aa?ae?caoe?y ia iaea i?noey (iai?eeeaae, a A?ei?on??),
aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny.

Oea icia/a?, ui a aeiiii?oe? e?a?i eieeoiueiai N?N? ? uinue oaea, ui
ni?aaey? iano?eueee a?ae/ooiee aieea ia aeiiii?/ia aeeooy, ui iiaea
iaeo?ae?coaaoe aoaeue-ye? eia?/ii aacaeiaaii? ?aoi?iaoi?nuee? e?iee ?
iaa?oue i?ecaanoe aei ?acoeueoao?a, i?yii i?ioeeaaeieo ia?aaeaa/oaaiei.
Ca?aene aeieeaa? iaiao?aei?noue aeeaieiai oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oeueiai oaiiiaio.

Ianooiiei i?ney oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co iaeaaaeeea?oei e?ieii ia? noaoe
aeiaaaeaiiy eiai ?acoeueoao?a aei ?ic?iaiee?a aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.
?iaeoa iiaeaeueoa aenieoaoaoe?y e?aa?aeueieo ?aoeaio?a caeaoia inoaoi/ii
a?aeeeiooe Oe?a?io ia oca?//y ?noi?e/iiai i?ia?ano.

Naia a?aenooi?noue aaeaeaaoii? ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e (??N) ? ? ioa
“uinue”. O?eueee iayai?noue ??N caaacia/o? ii?iaeueiee o?ae aeiiii?/ieo
?aoi?i, a ?? a?aenooi?noue i?e??ea? ?o ia iaaoaeoeai?noue. Aea yeui oea
oae, oi o?aaa ciaoe, yeo ?ieue a?ae?a?a? ?io?ano?oeoo?a a ?eieia?e
aeiiii?oe?, a /iio iieyaathoue ?? ooieoe??, ye caaacia/eoe ??
uiiaeoaeaeoa oi?ioaaiiy, ne?eueee oea aeiaaaoeia /ano oiui. Aac
a?aeiia?ae? ia oe? caieoaiiy i?ye? aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie ia iiaeooue aeaoe
iaiao?aeieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oae naii iaa?oue i?enei?aia ianaaeaeaiiy oeo
/e ?ioeo ?eieiaeo ?inoeooo?a ia iai?aeaioiaeaiee a?oio iiaea iaa?oue
aeene?aaeeooaaoe naio ?aeath ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo.

Neacaia aeua aeiaiaeeoue aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, ui ? i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeai?e ?iaio?.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. I?e aiae?c? i?ioean?a
oi?ioaaiiy ??N iaiiaeeeai ia?eoeny aac aea/aiiy caaaeueieo i?iaeai
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. E?oa?aoo?a c oeeo ieoaiue aaeueie /eneaiia.
Cia/iee aianie a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueieo i?iaeai ? ie?aieo ieoaiue
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo aianee oae? oe?a?inuee? ? ?in?enuee? a/ai?, ye
E.Aan/aniee, A. Aieeinueeee, ?.Aaeaea?, A.Aa?oeue, N.Aeacue?a,
A.Aio, A.A?eoeaiei, N.Aei?iaoioeia, I.?uaiei, I.Ca??yeia,
A.?eea??iiia, ?.Eoe?iia, A.Iao, A.Iie?eoai, A.*ooii oa ?i. ?ioee
ianea e?oa?aoo?e i?aaenoaaeaiee ?iaioaie N.Iaeaoiaa, A.Iiananyia,
Ae.Ii?oa, ?.Io???aa, A.Ieaeieea, I.O?eueyiniia, E.Oano?oea,
I.ss?aiaiea, ye? ?ic?iaeythoue i?iaeaie ?inoeoooe?iiaeecio. Inoaii?i
/anii c’yaeeeny ?iaioe, aaoi?e yeeo — I.Aioeiaa, A.Eiei??a, A.Iaeann
oa ?io? — niaoe?aeueii aiae?cothoue ?io?ano?oeoo?i? i?iaeaie ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee.

Caaaeii aea no/ania a?o/eciyia aeiiii?/ia oai??y iiee ui ia ia i?eae?ey?
iaeaaeii? oaaae aei ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo i?iaeai, ui ? iane?aeeii
iaaeinoaoiueiai ona?aeiieaiiy aaaeeeaino? oeeo i?iaeai.

O oie aea /an ca ei?aeiiii ?i i?eae?ey?oueny aeineoue na?eicia oaaaa.
Aeineoue a?aecia/eoe eeoa, ui aiie, ii-ia?oa, aoiaeyoue aei i??i?eoaoieo
iaoeiaeo i?iaeai, ?ic?iaeith yeeo caeia?oueny Anana?oi?e aaie ? eiai
onoaiiae, ? ii-ae?oaa, caeiathoue iaeia c aaaeeeaeo i?noeue a i?iaeoao
?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, o?iainoaaiiy
yeeo a?i cae?enith?.

C o??? oaaae, yeo i?eae?ey? na?oiaa ni?eueiioa i?enei?aiiio ?icaeoeo
aoaeoeaii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e naia a e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny, aeieeaa?,
ui caaaeaia i?iaeaia ae?enii iaeaaeeoue aei aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo aeey
oe??? /anoeie na?oo, ine?eueee a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao aiia oni?oii
ae??oaia.

Inue /iio Oe?a?ia, ye e?a?ia, ui ?icaeaa?oueny, ui ia? ae?enii aino??
i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c ia?icaeiai?noth ?io?ano?oeoo?e ? ?? neaaeith
i?enoiniaai?noth aei iio?aa ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, iiaeiia iaoe aeanio
i?ia?aio ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui a?aoiao?, c iaeiiai aieo,
na?oiaee aeina?ae (i?e/iio ye a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao, oae ? a e?a?iao, ui
?icaeaathoueny), a c ?ioiai aieo, nai? iniaeeaino?. A aeey oni?oii?
?aae?caoe?? oaei? i?ia?aie iaiao?aeia ?? aeeaiea iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy,
yea, a naith /a?ao, iaiiaeeeai aac oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiioaaeany a ?aieao ieaiiaeo oai iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? e aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai aeiiii?/iiai
eaaeo Oe?a?ie” oa “?inoeoooe?eia o?ainoi?iaoe?y aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie”,
ni?aaeeiiaaoeai yeeo aoa a 1996-1999 ??. aeena?oaio.

I?aaeiaoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?eieiaa ?io?ano?oeoo?a, a eiai
ia’?eoii — ia?ao?aeia aeiiii?ea ?iaeono??aeueiiai oeio. I?e oeueiio
iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe o?e iiiaioe. Ii-ia?oa, aiae?cia? aoei i?aeaeaii
no/anio ia?ao?aeio aeiiii?eo. Ioaea, ia?aoiaee a?ae iaei??? aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie aei ?ioi?, ui iaee i?noea a ieioeiio, aeaaaeai? ca iaae?
aiae?co. Ii-ae?oaa, c onueiai ?icia?ooy no/anieo ia?ao?aeieo noai?a
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ie coieieeeny ia ?iaeono??aeuei?e ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?, ? ia ca/?iaee no/ani? ia?aoiaee a?ae aei?iaeono??aeueii?
aiioe aei ?iaeono??aeueii?. Ia?aoo?, ii-o?ao?: ine?eueee ie aiae?co?ii
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, yea aaea ?nio? a ?icaeiaieo
e?a?iao, eio?? cae?eniththoue ia?ao?ae aei iino?iaeono??aeueiiai
noni?euenoaa, i/aaeaeii, ui a aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a e?a?iao, ye? ia?aoiaeyoue aei ?eieo a?ae
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie.

Iaoa e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeoiaey/e c aeooaeueiino? e nooiaiy
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie, aaoi? acya ca iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy
eiiieaeniee iie?oeei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c i?e?iaee, aoaeiae oa aeiiii?/ieo
ooieoe?e ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ?? aaiethoe?? a eiiaiaei?e ? ?eieia?e
aeiiii?eao, iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy o ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoaiao.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iio??aii aoei iinoaaeoe ? ae??oeoe ianooii?
caaaeaiiy:

1. Aeaoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia aecia/aiiy noo? ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e e
aecia/eoe ?? i?noea a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?.

2. Aeoiaey/e ?c noo? e i?noey ?io?ano?oeoo?e a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?,
aeyaeoe ?? ooieoe??, ?ice?eoe ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa aaiethoe?th a
i?ioean? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

3. Aecia/eoe neeaae ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ? e?eoa??? aeae?eaiiy
ie?aieo ?? aeaiaio?a.

4. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo oyaeaiue i?i neeaae ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e
i?iaiae?coaaoe ?? neeaaeia? /anoeie ? aecia/eoe iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiaeii? c ieo o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.

5. Aeoiaey/e c iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?e a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? ?iaeono??aeueiiai oeio, aecia/eoe no?aoaa?th aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee c oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ui a?aoiao? ye
na?oiaee aeina?ae, oae ? niaoeeo?eo Oe?a?ie.

Aecia/ai? oaeei /eiii iaoa e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeee eiai
eia?eo ? iine?aeiai?noue ?icaeyaeo ie?aieo i?iaeai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio.

1. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao eiioeaioe?th ?io?ano?oeoo?e ye a?aeiinii
naiino?eii? i?aenenoaie, ui caaacia/o? ooieoe?iioaaiiy e ?icaeoie
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai ?? o?aeooaaiiy ye
oaei?, ui ianeoaiao? inoaiith, ? ia iniia? oe??? eiioeaioe?? aeyaeaii ?
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iniiai? ooieoe?? ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e —
caaacia/oth/o ? ?aaoethth/o, ?ice?eoi ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, aeaii
eeaneo?eaoe?th oa oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?o aeanoeainoae.

2. Iaa?oioiaaii oi?aa?naeueiee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e ye ?inoeoooe?eiaaii? o?ainaeoe??, yeee ?aae?ciaaii
noiniaii ?aaeueiiai ? o?iainiaiai naeoi??a aeiiii?ee, a oaeiae
noiniaii nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a, ? ia aac? yeiai ?c canoinoaaiiyi
nenoaie e?eoa???a aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? iniiae eeaneo?eaoe?? ?io?ano?oeoo?
??cieo oei?a (ca oeiaie ?eie?a, ca oi?iaie aeaniino?, ca ??aiyie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ca nioe?aeueieie ? ?noi?e/ieie oeiaie), aeaii
aecia/aiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, aeyaeaii ?? neeaaeia? aeaiaioe,
ca?oiiaai? ca aioo??oi?i ? ciai?oi?i ci?noii (aioo??oi?e ci?no ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e aecia/aiee ye ?aei?noue ?inoeoooe?eiiai oa
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai aeaiaio?a, a ciai?oi?e i?aaenoaaeaii ye ?aei?noue
ii?iioai?/iai ? iaioaeueiiai aeaiaio?a); noi?ioeueiaaii aieiaio oiiao
?aae?caoe?? aeoeaii? ooieoe?? ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e — ii?aeiai?noue ?
i?aai?/i?noue ?icaeoeo an?o ?? aeaiaio?a.

3. Aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a iiiyooy “i?iioneia ni?iiiaei?noue
?io?ano?oeoo?e” ? “caeaoi?noue ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee aei inai?iiy
?eieiaeo ?inoeooo?a”, ia iniia? yeeo cai?iiiiiaaii oi?aa?naeueiee
e?eoa??e ioe?iee nooiaiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ?nioth/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e aei
iio?aa ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee — i?iioneia ni?iiiaei?noue ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ui
aeicaiey? ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio iieaciee?a aeey ie?aieo noa? ?io?ano?oeoo?e
(oiaa?i? ?eiee, a?ioia? ?eiee, o?iainia? ?eiee) c iaoith aecia/aiiy
??aiy ?o ?icaeoeo.

4. Noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy “oanoeeooiee oe?eae iae?iaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?”, aei yeiai aeeth/aii, ii?yae c o?aaeeoe?eieie
i’youeia oe?eyie iae?iaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, i??i?eoaoieie aeey e?a?i c
?icaeiaiith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith (iiaia caeiyo?noue, aeiiii?/ia
c?inoaiiy, noaa?euei?noue a?ioiaiai ia?ao, ??aiiaaaa aea?aeathaeaeaoo,
??aiiaaaa ieao?aeiiai aaeaino), oaeiae oinoo iaoo — aaeaeaaoio ?eieiao
?io?ano?oeoo?o, yea a?ae?a?a? aecia/aeueio ?ieue a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieo; aeyaeai? iniiai? iai?yie e oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ia?ao?aeii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue cai?iiiiiaai?e eeaneo?eaoe?? ??
neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae oaiaeaioe?? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e a Oe?a?i? oa caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy ?? ?inoeoooe?eii?
neeaaeiai?.

5. Aeyaeaii ia’?eoeai? i?ioe??//y i?e?iaeii? iiiiiie?? a ia?ao?aei?e
?io?ano?oeoo?? ?aaeueiiai naeoi?a, ia iniia? /iai ?ice?eoi i?ioe??//y
?? aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??, iioaioe?ae ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? o i?ioean? ??
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae, iiaeeeaino? eiaeiiai c /ioe?ueio iniiaieo
aeaea?ae ?? o?iainoaaiiy ? aa??aioe ?o aca?iicai?uaiiy.

6. Noi?ioeueiaaii e ?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a??aeiaiai iaoai?cio a ia?ao?aei?e ?io?ano?oeoo?? (naiiaeinoaoi?e
?icaeoie a??aeiaeo ?inoeooo?a, ui aeia?aaeaea? c?inoaiiy ?aaeueiiai ?
o?iainiaiai naeoi??a aeiiii?ee; aeei?enoaiiy a??aeiaeo ?inoeooo?a aeey
i?aai?caoe?? ?ooo iaa??aeiaeo oiaa?ieo ? o?iainiaeo aeoea?a;
iaaaeaeaaoia caeiiiaeaanoai; neaaea e iaaoaeoeaia aea?aeaaia
?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo a??aeiaeo ?inoeooo?a), o ca’yceo c /ei
cai?iiiiiaaii ? ?ic?aoiaaii iieaciee ??aiy a?aeiia?aeiino? iayaiiai
a??aeiaiai iaoai?cio i?e?iae? a??ae?.

7. Aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? ?iaa?n?eii? iiaeae? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo
i?aoe?, noi?ioeueiaaii aieiai? iai?yie ?? ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?, ?ice?eoi
oaiiiai caieiaiiai eiea c?inoath/iai aeao?oeeoo o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe e
aenoiooi i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, cie?aia a?aeiiaeaiiy i?aaa caeiiiaeaa/i?
?i?oe?aoeae i?ioni?eie, aeoea?caoe?th ii?iioai?aiiy, ni?yiiaaio ia
iaeo?ae?caoe?th o?iueiaeo oa e?ei?iaeueieo iaoai?ci?a ?ooo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a.

8. Iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue ?icaeoeo a oiiaao Oe?a?ie iniaeeai?
iiaeae? aaie?anueei? nenoaie, ui nie?a?oueny ia a?eueo o?eaaea ii??aiyii
c o?aaeeoe?eiith iiaeaeeth ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo ca ?ici??aie aaie?a,
aeeth/ath/e ae??ai? e na?aaei?, a oaeiae iaiao?aei?noue i’yeiai, a ia
aei?noeiai aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia aaie?anueeo eiioeaio?aoe?th ?
oeaio?ae?caoe?th.

9. Cai?iiiiiaaii iieacieee ioe?iee i?iioneii? ni?iiiaei?no? e
e?aaeeoiiai iioaioe?aeo oe?a?inueei? aaie?anueei? nenoaie, a oaeiae
caoiaee c ?o iioei?caoe?? ? ?icoe?aiiy c o?aooaaiiyi aeaoi?iaoe?e
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?ici?uaiiy iayaieo aaie?anueeeo ?inoeooo?a ?
iaiioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e ?ici???a aaie?anueeeo onoaiia.

10. Ie?aneaii iniiai? iai?yie ci?oeiaiiy i?ia?aeii? ?ie? oeaio?aeueiiai
aaieo a ia?ao?aei?e aaie?anuee?e nenoai? ? cai?iiiiiaaii ei?aeoe?th
???a?o?? oe?eae eiai iie?oeee a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeueii?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a e?a?i?.

11. Aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iaaaie?anueeeo o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo
?inoeooo?a a ?iaa?n?ei?e aeiiii?oe?, iieacaii ?o cai?uoaaeuei?
iiaeeeaino?, ?ice?eoi iniiai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ?o iioaioe?aeo i?e
?ica’ycaii? i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? ?ooo o?iainiaeo iioie?a c iaoith
iioei?caoe?? nenoaie ?inoeooo?a o?iainiaiai ?eieo.

12. ?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? iiaeae? oe?a?inueeiai
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo, aeyaeaii neeaae eiai ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ?ice?eoi i?yio
caeaaei?noue i?ae ??aiai ii?iioai?aiiy oa aoaeoeai?noth aeeiiaiiy nai?o
ooieoe?e ?inoeoooaie oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ? noi?ioeueiaaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio eiai oi?ioaaiiy ? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy c
o?aooaaiiyi ?aaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a iiia?aaeiueiai ?icaeoeo ?
iniaeeainoae noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?.

13. Aeae?eaii ? ?ice?eoi o?e a?oie i?ioe??/ ?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
ia?aae ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e- oaoi?/i?, th?eaee/i? e iie?oe/i?,
iaa?oioiaaii ?nioaaiiy aeae?eueeio aeae?a ?aioiiai aeioiaeo o noa??
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e — aeiiii?/ii? ? iie?oe/ii? ?aioe, ?ice?eoi iiceoeai? e
iaaaoeai? iia?/i? aoaeoe ?icaeoeo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e o ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?, ui aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe ia?aaeien oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e ?
c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a
noni?eueiiai eiio?ieth ca oaeaeiioi?eaoe?yie c iaoith aeieoaaiiy
iaaaoeaieo iia?/ieo aoaeo?a ?o ?icaeoeo.

14. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiiaeeea?noue iiaoaiii? ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa??
?aoi?ioaaiiy ia?ao?aeii? aea?aeaae a oe?a?inueeeo oiiaao ? i?i
iaiao?aei?noue iaeii/anii? ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?/ieo caaaeaiue
?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a; noi?ioeueiaaii ia?oi?yaei?
caaaeaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaae, ae??oaiiy yeeo caaacia/o? aoaeoeaiee
aieea aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia ?icaeoie ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ?
cai?iiiiiaai? aea? a?oie i?aeoe/ieo caoiae?a aea?aeaae c? ni?eyiiy
?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e — i?yi? e iai?yi?, aeeth/ath/e aaei?i?no?aoeaio
?aoi?io.

15. O iaoeiaee ia?a aaaaeaii eaoaai??th “eaac?aea?aeaai? ?inoeoooe”,
ooi/iaii neeaae oeeo oi?i o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? (ath?ie?ao?y,
o?iueiaa aeiiii?ea, ?aa?iiae?ci o aeae?eueeio iiaeeo?eaoe?yo), ?ice?eoi
?o niaoeeo?eo a ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie ?inoeoooaie ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e ? ?ic?iaeaii i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy ia iae?i- ? i?e?i??aiyo c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo ? ?aaeueieo i?ioe??/
ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

16. Ia iniia? ?iciaaeoaaiiy o?iueiai? ? e?ei?iaeueii? aeiiii?ee
?iciaaeiaaii io?oe?eio e o?iueiao ?io?ano?oeoo?o ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee,
?ice?eoi iaoai?ci ?o aca?iiiai ia?aoiaeo, aeyaeaii “aoaeo o?iueiaiai
o?aiiaeea” ? /eiieee eiai iineaaeaiiy.

17. Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?ueio aeaea?ae caeo/aiiy
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a aea?aeaaith (iiaeaoee, ai?n?y, aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo)
c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue iioei?caoe?? o?iainiaeo iioie?a oa
?o ia?a?iciiae?e i?ae oeeie aeaea?aeaie ia ei?enoue aea?aeaaiiai
e?aaeeoo, ?ice?eoi ?ieue ? iioaioe?ae aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo a nenoai?
aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?.

18. Nenoaiaoeciaaii ?io?ano?oeoo?i? aiiiae?? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ye
caeiiii??iee ?acoeueoao iaocaiaeaeaiino? ?icaeoeo iniiaieo aeaiaio?a
ia?ao?aeii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ?ice?eoi oaiiiai o?iainiai? i??ai?aee ye
?iaiaioii i?eoaiaiiee ?eieia?e ?io?ano?oeoo??, aia?oa iiaoaeiaaii
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue o?iainiai? i??ai?aee o aeaio
iiaeeo?eaoe?yo -aacia?a?ai?e ? aeene?aoi?e, aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? ?o
?icaeoeo, noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy no?eeino? o?iainiai? i??ai?aee, ui
aeicaiey? a iaaeao, ui caaeathoueny ?ic?iaeaiith iiaeaeeth, ea?oaaoe
?icaeoeii o?iainiai? i??ai?aee ia i?e?i- oa iae?i??aiyo, cie?aia o
i?ioean? i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie aea?aeaaieo caiice/aiue, c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? o?iainiai? nenoaie.

Iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, aeeeaaeai? o ii. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14,
17, 18, noi?ioeueiaaii aaoi?ii oia?oa, a noi?ioeueiaai? a ii. 5, 7, 8,
10, 12, 15, 16 — ?noioii aeiiiaiththoue o?, ui ? a e?oa?aoo??, ?
aiinyoue o ieo /anoeiao iiaecio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ne?ae iaaieineoe, ui
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ia aoa naiioe?eeth, a?i i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee noai?aiith
iioeiaeueii? iiaeae? ?io?ano?oeoo?ii? iie?oeee a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.
Aino?ioa no/anii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece a Oe?a?i? aeeeoo?
iaiao?aei?noue yeiaeoaeaeoi? a?aeiiae a?ae eii’thieoo?ieo i??eoaaiue i?e
?ic?iaeaii? ??oaiue ia iaeaeuiio ??ai? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?
ia?aoiaeo aei ?aae?noe/ii? iie?oeee, ui a?aoiao? ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino?
noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae e nie?a?oueny ia ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c noaio ni?aa
a aeiiii?oe?.

Aeniiaee e ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? aaoi?ii a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iathoue
iiaea?eio i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue.

Ii-ia?oa, aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoue aoaeoeai?noue ?inoeoooe?eiiai c??co a
aiae?c? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ? ?icoe?ththoue ?ino?oiaioa??e i?ciaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? ae?eniino?. Aaaaoi i?iaeai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo iica
iaaeaie ?inoeoooe?eiiai aiae?co ia iiaeooue aooe ia o?eueee ae??oai?,
aea e iaa?oue iinoaaeai?. Caaaeyee ?ic?iaeai?e aaoi?ii eiioeaioe??
c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue aeae?eaiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo i?iaeai o
naiino?eiee iai?yi oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co. Aeniiaee e ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy o i?aeoe/i?e aeeeaaeaoeuee?e ?iaio?,
yeo aaoi? e?eueea ?ie?a aaaea ia aeiiii?/iiio oaeoeueoao? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. ?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii iieiaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e /eoaii? eo?n?a “Iae?iaeiiii?ea”, “Aeiiii?/ia
nenoaia Oe?a?ie”, niaoeeo?n?a “?eieiaa ?io?ano?oeoo?a”, “Aaie?anueea
nenoaia Oe?a?ie”, “?icaeoie oiiaeiaiai ?eieo a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?”.

Ii-ae?oaa, oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?io?ano?oeoo?e aeicaieeei
iaa?oiooaaoe ieceo i?aeoe/ieo i?iiiceoe?e oa caoiae?a uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii oi?ioaaiiy
?io?ano?oeoo?e ? cai?iiiioaaoe ?io?ano?oeoo?io iie?oeeo ye naiino?eiee
iai?yi aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee a ia?ao?aeiiio noni?euenoa?. I?iiiceoe??, ui
i?noyoueny a ?iaio?, iiaeooue aooe iai?aaeai? aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee,
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaaii? eii?n?? c
oe?iieo iaia??a ? oiiaeiaiai ?eieo, Aioeiiiiiieueiiai Eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeniiaee e ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? a oiae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaoi? c?iaea naiino?eii ? io?eiaa oia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??. Aianie aeena?oaioa a ioae?eaoe??, iaienai? o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, a?aeia?aaeaii a ia?ae?eo iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o iai?ee?ioe?
aaoi?aoa?aoo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee caneooai? ia 8 iaoeiaeo ?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao: iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueeee ?eiie oe?iieo iaia??a: noai, ia?niaeoeaa ?
oeyoe ?icaeoeo” (Ee?a, o?aaaiue 1992); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie
oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa” (Ia?i, n?/aiue 1993);
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? ?ano?niiai
iioaioe?aeo ?aa?iio” (Eooeuee, o?aaaiue 1993); i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie ? iia? ?aae?? o na?oiaiio
a?cian? e iaiaaeaeiaio?” (Oa?e?a, aeiaoaiue 1993); i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie
iiaiai oeio: niaoeeo?ea, iiaeeeaino?, i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy” (Oa?e?a,
a?oaeaiue 1993); i?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia??
“?aa?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae” (Oa?e?a,
o?aaaiue 1995); 3 eiia?an? I?aeia?iaeii? oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?/ii?
anioe?aoe?? “No?oeoo?i? ci?ie oa ?iaanoeoe?ei? i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei?
aeiiii?ee” (Oa?e?a, o?aaaiue 1996); I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie noaa?e?caoe?? oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo” (Oa?e?a,
ea?oaiue 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy e aeniiaee i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii a ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e iiiia?ao?? aaoi?a “Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ?iaeono??aeueiiai oeio:
caaaeuei? ?ene ? iniaeeaino? a Oe?a?i?” ianyaii iiiaae 17
iae?eiai-aeaeaaie/eo a?eoo?a. Aaoi?ii oaeiae iaeiiin?aii iaienaii 4
?icae?ee a eieaeoeai?e iiiia?ao?? “Iaiaaeaeiaio a aaeoc? ?iaanoeoe?e ?
ia?niiaeo: iniaeeaino? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?” (aeaeaii 1996 ?ieo)
ianyaii 4,5 ae.a.

Ie?ai? aeniiaee e ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaeeny oi?iaeiaae 1990
-1999 ?ie?a o 22 iaoeiaeo noaooyo (caaaeueiee ianya 12,1 ae.a.),
iioae?eiaaieo o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, caoaa?aeaeaieo AAE Oe?a?ie,
cie?aia 13 noaoae (ianyaii 7 ae.a.) aaoi? iaienaa iaeiiin?aii. O 9
?ioeo noaooyo, iaienaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa? (caaaeueiee ianya 5,1 ae.a.),
/anoea aaoi?a noaiiaeoue 3 ae.a.

E??i noaoae o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, aaoi?ii aeiaeaoeiai
iioae?eiaaii 5 iaeiiin?aieo noaoae (ianya 1,1 ae.a.) a ae?oeiaaieo
caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? noa?e
?iciianthaeaeaiiy.

E??i oiai, aeniiaee e ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ioae?eoaaeeny 1997 ?ieo
a o/aiaiio iin?aieeo “Iae?iaeiiii?ea” ianyaii 14 ae.a. (/anoea aaoi?a —
12 ae.a.), ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiio I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie aeey nooaeaio?a
aeiiii?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae aoc?a, a oaeiae a o/aiaiio iin?aieeo aaoi?a
“Aaethoia nenoaia a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?” ianyaii 3 ae.a. (aeaeaii 1996
?.). Aaoi?ii iaeiiin?aii oa a ni?aoi?noa? oaeiae iaienaii ?yae
?icae?e?a ua o 3 o/aiaeo iin?aieeao, aeaeaieo a 1991, 1993 ? 1995 ??.
(/anoea aaoi?a — 10,8 ae.a.).

Ioaea, caaaeueiee ianya a?eueo ye 30 iiiia?ao?e ? noaoae ca oaiith
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaienaieo iniaenoi aaoi?ii, noaiiaeoue 56,4 ae.a., c ieo
23 — iniiai? iaoeia? ioae?eaoe?? ianyaii 27,6 ae.a., a yeeo
aeeeaaeathoueny an? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, ui yaeythoue niaith
iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa a aeine?aeaeoaaio i?iaeaio.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, naie
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoeo.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 478 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a
oiio /ene? iniiaiee ianya (anooi, iniiaia /anoeia ? aeniiaee) ia? 385
noi??iie. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 19 oaaeeoeue a iniiai?e /anoei?, a
oaeiae 6 oaaeeoeue ? 10 iaethie?a o aeiaeaoeo. Ia?ae?e aeaea?ae aeeth/a?
411 iaca.

Anooi.

?icae?e 1. Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

1.1. Nooue ? ooieoe?? ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

1.2. Aoaeiaa ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

?icae?e 2. ?io?ano?oeoo?a ?eie?a ?ano?n?a ? i?iaeoeo?a o

ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.

2.1. Caaaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e oiaa?ieo
?eie?a.

2.2. Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eie?a ?ano?n?a.

2.3. ?io?ano?oeoo?a oiaa?ieo ?eie?a caaaeii.

2.4. Oiaa?ia a??aea ye aeaiaio ia?ao?aeii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

2.5. ?io?ano?oeoo?a ?eieo i?aoe? oa ?? iniaeeaino?.

?icae?e 3. ?io?ano?oeoo?a a?ioiaiai ?eieo ? ?? noaiiaeaiiy.

3.1. Oi?ioaaiiy aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie.

3.2. Iaaaie?anuee? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoi? ?inoeoooe.

?ICAe?E 4. ?icaeoie ?io?ano?oeoo?e oiiaeiaiai ?eieo.

4.1. ?eiie oe?iieo iaia??a ? o?iainia? iina?aaeieee.

4.2. ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? aeaiiceoa?ii? nenoaie.

?ICAe?E 5. ?ieue ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.

5.1. Oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? ia?aae?: ?ieue a ?io?ano?oeoo??.

5.2. ?io?ano?oeoo?i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo iiae.

?ICAe?E 6. Aea?aeaaa a ?io?ano?oeoo?? ia?ao?aeii?

aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

6.1. Ia?ao?aeia aea?aeaaa a eiioaeno? caaaeueiina?oiaiai
?icaeoeo.

6.2. ?ieue eaac?aea?aeaaieo ?inoeoooe?eiuo oi?i o ia?ao?aei?e ?io?a-
no?oeoo??.

?ICAe?E 7. ?io?ano?oeoo?i? aiiiae?? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

7.1. Iniiai? oi?ie ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo aiiiae?e oa ?o i?e/eie.

7.2. O?iainia? i??ai?aee: ?icaeoie ? iiaeaethaaiiy.

Aeniiaee.

A?ae?ia?ao?y.

Aeiaeaoie A. Iiaeaeue o?iainiai? i??ai?aee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e” ?ice?eaathoueny nooue ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e (??N), ??
ooieoe?? oa aoaeiaa. O iao?e e?oa?aoo?? ia?aaaaea? o?aeooaaiiy
?io?ano?oeoo?e aai ye eiiieaeno aaeocae, ui ianeoaiaothoue
i?iieneia?noue ? n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, aai ye noeoiiino? ia’?eo?a oa
?inoeooo?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeocae iaoa??aeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa e caaacia/aiiy oiia aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae oaeiai i?aeoiaeo (caniiaaiiai, ii-ia?oa, ia ?icoi?ii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e ye ianeoaiaoth/iai eiiieaeno, ii-ae?oaa, ia aeciaii?
i??i?eoaoo aaeocae iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ii-o?ao?, o caaaeaii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e aei noeoiiino? iaaeeaeo ia’?eo?a), aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui
a no/anieo oiiaao, eiee, ii-ia?oa, iaoa??aeueia ae?iaieoeoai ia?anoa?
aooe iniiaith ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa ? i?ia?aeia ?ieue
ia?aoiaeeoue aei noa? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??;
ii-ae?oaa, ?noioii c?inoa? ?ieue ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo, ? ii-o?ao?, eiee
no?oeoo?a noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iano?eueee oneeaaeith?oueny, ui
?iciiae?e eiai ie?aieo noa? ia aieiai? ? ae?oai?yaei? ia?anoa? aooe
aei?aaaeaiei, iaiao?aeiee ?ioee iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei ?ice?eooy
i?e?iaee ? ?ie? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?, yeee ie iaceaa?ii
iae?iaeiiii?/iei.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai i?aeoiaeo, ?io?ano?oeoo?a a aoaeue-ye?e
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e nenoai? — oea noeoii?noue aeaiaio?a, ui
caaacia/othoue (a ia ianeoaiaothoue) aacia?aa?eia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aca?iica’yce?a ia’?eo?a ? noa’?eo?a aeaii? nenoaie. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai,
?io?ano?oeoo?a aeeiio? aea? iniiai? ooieoe?? — oo, ui caaacia/o?
(ianeaio) ? ?aaoethth/o (aeoeaio). Uiaei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, oi ?eieiaa
?io?ano?oeoo?a — oea noeoii?noue aeaiaio?a, ui caaacia/othoue ?
?aaoeththoue aacia?aa?eia aaaaoi??aiaaa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo
aca?iica’yce?a, aca?iiae?th noa’?eo?a ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? ?oo
oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo iioie?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeaio iniiaieo ooieoe?e ??N,
aeeiioth/e ye?, aiia, c?aooith, ni?ey? iioei?caoe?? ?ooo
oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo iioie?a, aeinyaiaiith i?iii?oe?eiino? a ?iciiae?e?
?ano?n?a, ui, a naith /a?ao, aaaea aei i?i?i?caoe?? aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c
?iciiae?eii ?ano?n?a ? i?iaeoeo?a. Naia oiio ?io?ano?oeoo?a nai?ie
ooieoe?yie caaacia/o? aoaeoeai?noue aeiiii?ee, i?e/iio a o?e i??? ?
/a?ac o? iaoai?cie, ye? i?eoaiaii? o?eueee ?e, ? ?iaeoue oea aiia
ia?aaeon?i ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaie ?inoeooo?a. Oiio ca naiith nai?th
i?e?iaeith ??N ? ia ui ?ioa, ye ?inoeoooe?eiaaia o?ainaeoe?y.

Oaea ?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee ??N aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoe ? aei
?ica’ycaiiy ieoaiiy i?i ?? aoaeiao. Aeena?oaio iaa?oioiao? ?aeath i?i
oa, ui ?inoeoooe yaeythoue niaith aeo?aeiee aeaiaio ??N, oi/a ??N ia
iiaeia caiaeeoe aei ?inoeooo?a. I?e oeueiio a aeena?oaoe?? ia?oi?yaeia
oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aeine?aeaeaiith ?inoeooo?a o ?icoi?ii? onoaiia, ia
a?aei?io a?ae iioe?aiiai a no/aniiio ?inoeoooe?eiiio aiae?c? o?aeooaaiiy
?inoeooo?a ye noeoiiino? ii?i, i?aaee, o?aaeeoe?e. ?inoeoooe?eia
neeaaeiaa ??N, c oi/ee ci?o ia’?eo?a, ?oo yeeo aiia caaacia/o?,
i?aaenoaaeaia aeaiia a?oiaie ?inoeooo?a — ?inoeoooaie oiaa?iiai ?eieo oa
?inoeoooaie a?ioiaiai ?eieo. Ca iciaeith oi?ie aeaniino? anth
noeoii?noue ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo ?inoeooo?a iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea?aeaai? e
i?eaaoi?. ?inoeoooe?eiee aeaiaio caeaa?eueoiai i?aeiaaea? i?ae ianeaio
ooieoe?th ??N, aenooiath/e ?? iaoa??aeueiei iin??i.

Ae?oaei aeaiaioii ??N, aeae?eaiei a aeena?oaoe??, ? ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
ia?aae? e iioiee, a oaeiae ?inoeoooe, ui ?o caaacia/othoue (aeeth/ath/e
caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ia?aae? Internet, ?ioi?iaoe?eiee oa
?aeeaiiee a?cian), oiaoi ?aae?ciaothoue aeoeaio ooieoe?th ??N.

O nai?e ?aeiino? ?inoeoooe?eiee oa ?ioi?iaoe?eiee aeaiaioe ooai?ththoue
aioo??oi?e ci?no ??N. ?ioi?iaoe?eia neeaaeiaa caaacia/o? ca’ycie ??N ?c
ciai?oiei na?aaeiaeuai, yeei ? aeey ia? any ?ioa /anoeia aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie. Aea ?ioi?iaoe?y ia eeoa eaea c ??N iaciai?, a e iiaa?oa?oueny a
?inoeoooe ??N. A?aeaoaa?oueny aacia?a?aiee iai?i ?ioi?iaoe??th i?ae
i?aenenoaiaie, yeee ia iiaea aooe iaeo?aeueiei i?ioeanii, a ?, aeania,
aacia?a?aiei ?o aca?iiei i?enoinoaaiiyi. A a?aeoae cyaey?oueny
iaiao?aei?noue o ia??iaee/iiio cae??ieaii? neaiae?a i?yiiai oa
cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo, ye aeey onoaeaiino? ?iaioe nenoai, oae ? aeey
o?enoaaiiy aeinyaiooiai iioeioio. Oi?iith ?aae?caoe?? oaeiai cae??ieaiiy
neoao? ii?iioai?aiiy, ?aaeaiaioaoe?y ae?yeueiino? naieo ?inoeooo?a.
Caniaaie ?ioi?iaoe??, i?e aacia?a?ai?e ?? oee?eoeyoe?? cae?enith?oueny
eiio?ieue ca i??ith ?inoeoooe?eiino? naiiai ?inoeoooo, a oea noa?
iiaeeeaei o?eueee caaaeyee ii?iioai?aiith. I?eaeaoi?noue aai
iai?eaeaoi?noue naiiai ?inoeoooo, a oaeiae eiai a?aeiia?aei?noue aei
iio?aa aeiiii?ee, ia iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? ?iaeoa ye oeyoii
?aaeaiaiooaaiiy eiai ae?yeueiino? e eiio?ieth, ia?aaeon?i c aieo
aea?aeaae.

?c oe??? ia’?eoeaii? iaiao?aeiino? ae?inoa? o?ao?e aeaiaio no/anii? ??N
— caeiiiaeaanoai, ui ?aaoeth? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee e
?aaeaiaioo? ye ae?yeuei?noue ?inoeooo?a ??N, oae ? iiaaae?ieo
ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a acaaae?, oiaoi caaea? “i?aaeea a?e» a
?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?. Oaeei /eiii, aioo??oi?e ci?no ??N aeiiiaith?oueny
?? ciai?oi?i ci?noii — ii?iioai?aiiyi. Aea ia oeueiio ia iiaeia
coieiyoeny. An? o?e aeaiaioe ??N iathoue iaaeeaee oa?aeoa?, iicaaaeai?
ethaenueeiai ia/aea. ? yeui ia oeueiio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ??N caaa?oeoe, oi
i?iaeaio noai?aiiy no/anii? ??N a Oe?a?i? iiaeia aoei a ae??oeoe
aeineoue i?inoi: o?aaa anueiai eeoa ia?anaaeeoe ia iao a?oio ?inoeoooe,
?ioi?iaoe?ei? ia?aae? ? caeiiiaeaa/? ii?ie, ye? aeia?a ca?aeiiaiaeoaaee
naaa a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao. I?eaeecii oae aein? e /eiyoue ethaee, ye?
oi?iothoue aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo. A ?acoeueoaoe i?eioeeiiai ?io?, i?ae
naiai /ano aoee i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? a?aeiia?aeieo aeaiaio?a a ?icaeiaieo
e?a?iao. *iio?

Iaei??th c i?e/ei ? ?aii?oaaiiy oe?eeii ?aaeueiiai /aoaa?oiai aeaiaioa
??N — iaioaeueiiai, oi?iith aeyao yeiai ? ??aaiue ?eieiaiai ieneaiiy e
iiaaae?iee ianaeaiiy, eiai aioiai?noue i?aeei?yoeny i?aaeeai ?
caeiiii??iinoyi ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo. Iaoooaaiiy oeei aeaiaioii
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaaaaeaieo iane?aee?a aeey ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue o
ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo nenoaiao, cie?aia a oe?a?inuee?e. Aeeth/aiiy
eiai aei neeaaeo ??N caaa?oo? oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?? ciai?oiueiai ci?noo,
ia?aoai?th? ?? ia oe?e?niee i?aai?ci, ia’?eo aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

O?aeooaaiiy neeaaeo ??N, cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe??, ? ni?anoaaeaiiy
?aeaaeueii? iiaeae? ??N, ui a?aeiia?aea? oeueiio o?aeooaaiith, c
oe?a?inueeeie ?aae?yie, aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe aeniiaie i?i
oanoeeooiee oe?eae aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, ia
a?aei?io a?ae eeane/iiai o?eeooieea (aeioiaeeoue ? aei i’yoeeooieea), ui
ca cae/a?i ?icaeyaea?oueny a iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iiaeaeyo aeiiii?ee
?icaeiaieo e?a?i. Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? aei
oaeeo oe?eae, ye aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, iiaia caeiyo?noue, noaa?euei?noue
a?ioiaiai ia?ao, ??aiiaaaa ieao?aeiiai aaeaino ? i?aeo?eiea i?eeiyoiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao, ??aiicia/iith aeiaea?oueny ua iaeia — oi?ioaaiiy
aaeaeaaoii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

Eiie?aoecoth/e aeoeaio ?ieue ?io?ano?oeoo?e a noni?eueiiio a?aeoai?aii?,
aeena?oaio cai?iiiioaaa aaaaeaoe e?eoa???i ?? aaeaeaaoiino? c oiiaaie
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee i?iioneio ni?iiiaei?noue ?nioth/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. C
?ioiai aieo, aiai?y/e i?i oi?ioaaiiy ??N o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, o?aaa
noaaeoe ieoaiiy ? i?i caeaoi?noue naii? aeiiii?ee aei inai?iiy
iiaiooai?aieo ?eieiaeo ?inoeooo?a. Iaaeinoaoiy i?iioneia ni?iiiaei?noue
?io?ano?oeoo?e, oae naii ye ? neaaa “iiaeeiath/a” caeaoi?noue aeiiii?ee,
iiaeooue ye ii?iaeaeoaaoe cia/io o?iueiao ?io?ano?oeoo?o, oae ?
aaia?oaaoe ?io?ano?oeoo?i? aiiiae??.

Ia iniia? eiioeaioe?? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, cai?iiiiiaaii? a ia?oiio ?icae?e?,
a ianooiieo ?icae?eao aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny ie?ai? aeaiaioe ??N.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?io?ano?oeoo?a ?eie?a ?ano?n?a ? i?iaeoeo?a o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?” ?icaeyiooi i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo
?io?ano?oeoo?ieo ?inoeooo?a ?aaeueiiai naeoi?a ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. O
aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaaii ? ?ice?eoi oae? 5 i?eioeei?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
?io?ano?oeoo?e oiaa?ieo ?eie?a (?NO?): ii-ia?oa, ae??ciaiiy aeaeo
(aei?iae e e?i??) oa niiniao (aeae o?ainii?oo) ia?ai?uaiiy oiaa?ieo
iioie?a; ii-ae?oaa, ?iciaaeoaaiiy iaoa??aeueii-?a/iaiai ci?noo ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oi?ie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia’?eoa; ii-o?ao?,
aeae?eaiiy aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a ?icaeoeo; ii-/aoaa?oa,
a?aooaaiiy iniaeeai? ?ie? aea?aeaae; ii-i’yoa, aeiiiaiaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
aiae?co aeine?aeaeaiiyi iaaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a ?icaeoeo ?NO?.

Canoinoaaiiy oeeo i?eioeei?a aeicaieeei aeae?eeoe ia ni?aiaaeath/? i?ae
niaith aa??aioe ?icaeoeo ie?aieo aeaiaio?a ?NO?, iiai?oa a?aooaaoe
niaoeeo?eo eiaeiiai c aeaiaio?a, ?aae?noe/ii ioe?ieoe ia?niaeoeae
no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue o a?aeiia?aeieo eaieao ? ?ieue ciai?oiueiai
oaeoi?a a no?oeoo?i?e ia?aaoaeia? ?NO?, iaa?oiooaaoe iaiaaeai?noue
o?aeooaaiiy ae?? iiiiiieueieo iaoai?ci?a o oe?e noa?? ye i?e?iaeii?
iiiiiie??, a oaeiae aeyaeoe eeaiiaee oa?aeoa? oi?aae?iiy iath, ui
neeaany a oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe? ca inoaii? ?iee.

Aeo?aeia iiceoe?y aaoi?a c oeueiai ieoaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?nioth/a
iei? ?io?ano?oeoo?a oiaa?ieo ?eie?a ia a?aeiia?aea? e?eoa??yi ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, oiio ui aiia noai?thaaeany ?ai?oa ia aeiaiaeo iio?aaai
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie. A ?acoeueoao? o niaaeie a?ae AEN
ia?ao?aeia aeiiii?ea io?eiaea aenieiaeo?aoiee oei ?NO?, ui iana oyaa?
iaaei??iiai oeneo ia aeieia?th. Aeaoi?ioth/ee aieea AEN ia oa?aeoa? ?N
oiaa?ieo ?eie?a aeyaeyany, ii-ia?oa, a caeeoeiaiio i?eioeei? aeae?eaiiy
?iaanoeoe?e ia ?? ?icaeoie ? aaeineiiaeaiiy, e ii-ae?oaa, o ia?inoaii?
?ic?eao a ??aiyo ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/i? oa nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

Oiio ca?ac oey noa?a aeiiii?ee a?ae/oaa? cia/ii a?eueoee ?iaanoeoe?eiee
aieiae o ii??aiyii? c on?ia ?ioeie noa?aie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?e
oiio, ui cia/ia ?? /anoeia aeyaey?oueny i?inoi iai?eaeaoiith aeey iio?aa
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, oi/a e aeiaaa? cia/ieo ?ano?n?a aeey nai??
i?aeo?eiee.

Aeaeueoee aeeeaae i?iaeaie a aeena?oaoe?? iiaoaeiaaiee c iaeyaeo ia
?iciaaeoaaiiy aeaio a?oi oiaa?ieo iioie?a — iioie?a ?ano?n?a ? iioie?a
i?iaeoeo?a. Oaea ?iciaaeoaaiiy aeicaiey? iiaa/eoe ye caaaeuei? aeey iaio
a?oi i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ?N, oae ? niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? eiaeii? c ieo.

C iaeiiai aieo, /anoeia ?NO? caaacia/o? iio?aae iaio a?oi iaeii/anii, ?
c oe??? oi/ee ci?o a?aeiia?aei? ia?aoai?aiiy ca/?iathoue iaoai?cie
ia?ai?uaiiy iaio a?oi oiaa?ieo iioie?a. Oae, aei?iae e e?i?? yaeythoue
niaith oeiiaee i?eeeaae iaeii/aniiai caaacia/aiiy c?ooaiue ye ia ?eieao
?ano?n?a, oae ? ia ?eieao i?iaeoeo?a.

C ?ioiai aieo, ?niothoue ia’?eoe ?NO?, i???ioiaai? ia ia?aaaaeia
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ?eie?a ?ano?n?a. Cie?aia, iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee
eiiieaen ia? niaoeeo?/io ?io?ano?oeoo?o (ia?aaeon?i nenoaio iaooi- ?
aacii?iaiae?a, iaooiaeo oa?i?iae?a ? i?aecaiieo aacinoiaeu, e?i??
aeaeo?iia?aaea/ oa ?i.), ui caaacia/o? ia?ai?uaiiy naia ?ano?n?a (a ia
i?iaeoeo?a) ye oa?eoi???th e?a?ie, oae ? ca ?? iaae? (oi/a, c ?ioi?
oi/ee ci?o, iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/i? ?ano?ne iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ? ye
i?iaeoeoe ae?yeueiino? eiiieaeno a?aeiia?aeieo aaeocae aeiiii?ee).

?icaeyaeath/e caaaeuei? i?iaeaie ?NO? oe?e?nii — ye aeanoea? ?eieai
?ano?n?a ? ?eieai i?iaeoeo?a, aeena?oaio ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui iaei??th c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo oiia noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii? ?NO? ? iiaeieaiiy
aea?aeaaii-iiiiiie?noe/iiai oa?aeoa?o ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, i?e
ona?aeiieaii?, ui aeiione i?eaaoiiai eai?oaeo a oeth noa?o nai ii nia?
aaoiiaoe/ii ia i?eaaaea aei ?? aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe, ye ? aeo?ae aea?aeaae
ia iiaeiai noi?iaiaeeoeny aeieuaiiyi iaoai?ci?a aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth
ca ?? ?icaeoeii a ?ioa?anao noni?euenoaa. O i?ioean? aeaiiiiiie?caoe??
aeooae?co?oueny ieoaiiy i?i ?aaeuei? o?iainia? aeaea?aea eioo?a aeey
iiaea?i?caoe?? ?NO?.

Oai?aoe/ii ?niothoue i’youe oeyo?a caeo/aiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a —
e?aaeeoe eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo, i?eaaoi? iae?aaoe?ei?
iiceee, ai?n?y aeoe?e ? athaeaeaoia o?iainoaaiiy, i?e/iio aeaea?aea
eiaeiiai c ieo iiaeooue aooe ye aioo??oi?, oae ? ciai?oi?. Oa iani?aaae?
c on?o iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy aeey ?io?ano?oeoo?e
iathoue: i?aeaea?aeaai? caiice/aiiy ii e?i?? Anana?oiueiai aaieo aai
?A??; iiceee o i?aeia?iaeieo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a; ai?n?y aeoe?e;
iae?aaoe?ei? iiceee. O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii iiaeeeaino? eiaeiiai
?c oeeo aeaea?ae.

O i?ioean? iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?NO? a aeena?oaoe??
aiae?cothoueny niaoeeo?/i? i?iaeaie ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo ?ano?n?a ia
i?eeeaae? iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie, c o?aooaaiiyi
aeina?aeo cae?eniaiiy eiai i?eaaoecaoe??.

Aeae? ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo ? aaeineiiaeaiiy o??? /anoeie
?NO?, yea aeeiio? caaaeuei? ooieoe?? caaacia/aiiy ?ooo oiaa?ieo iioie?a,
oiaoi aei?iae, e?i??, o?ainii?o. I?e oeueiio iaaiein ?iaeoueny ia ia
aaeocaaiio aniaeo?, a ia ci?noia?e noi?ii? i?ioean?a, iia’ycaieo ?c
iiaeieaiiyi aea?aeaaiiai iiiiiie?cio a ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeieo noa?,
?icaeoeii iaoai?ci?a eiieo?aioe??, i?aeaeuaiiyi i??e i?ici?ino?
i?eaaoecaoe??, a oaeiae aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoieo ?ano?n?a.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ?ie? a??aeiaiai iaoai?cio, caaaeath/e ia
i?noea a??ae? o nenoai? ?inoeooo?a ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. Aiae?c
iieacaa, ui ?icaeoie a??aeiaeo ?inoeooo?a a Oe?a?i? ia a?aeiia?aea?
na?oiaiio aeina?aeia?. Ii-ia?oa, oea noino?oueny /enaeueiino? a??ae, ui
yaii ia?aaeueea ?aaeuei? iio?aae aeiiii?ee. Ii-ae?oaa, i?io?eue
ae?yeueiino? a??aeiaeo no?oeoo? — ye noai?aieo ?ai?oa, oae ?
i?aoethth/eo nueiaiaei? — ia a?aeia?aaea? i?e?iaeo a??ae?. sseui a
?icaeiaieo e?a?iao a??ae? iathoue ni?aao ia c iaeiei, a c e?eueeiia
a??aeiaeie oiaa?aie, oi a ?iaa?n?ei?e oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe?
oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa? oiaa?ii? a??ae? aeyaey?oueny a oiio, ui aiia
iia?o? aaeeeith e?euee?noth iaa??aeiaeo (inaaaeia??aeiaeo) oiaa??a.
C’ynoaaaoe i?e/eie oaeiai noaiiaeua, aeena?oaio i?iiiio? aeei?enoaoe
iieaciee /anoee a??aeiaeo oiaa??a o caaaeueiiio ianyc? a??aeiai?
oi?a?ae? ye ?iaeeeaoi? a?aeiia?aeiino? a??aeiaiai iaoai?cio, ui ? a
e?a?i?, aei i?e?iaee a??ae?. Caaaeii o 1994-1996 ??. oey /anoea
aei??aithaaea, ca iaoeie ?ic?aooieaie, a?aeiia?aeii 3,7%, 42,3% ? 34,5%.

Ia caaa?oaiiy aiae?co ?NO? o aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi noai ? oaiaeaioe??
?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo i?aoe?. Iaiao?aei?noue oaeiai iaeyaeo
coiiaeaia iniaeeaith ?ieeth i?aoe? a nenoai? ?ano?n?a ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, aei ia? iio??aii aeeth/aoe, ii-ia?oa,
?inoeoooe, ui caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo iaae/ie: o/aia?
caeeaaee ??cieo oei?a ? ??ai?a, ui aeathoue na?aaeith, na?aaeith
niaoe?aeueio, aeuo ina?oo ? i?neyaoc?anueeo i?aeaioiaeo (ani??aioo?a ?
aeieoi?aioo?a); ii-ae?oaa, ?inoeoooe, ui caaacia/othoue niaoe?aeueio
i?aeaioiaeo ? ia?ai?aeaioiaeo eaae??a ia iae?i- (?inoeoooe i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo a?aeiinoa) ? i?e?i??aiyo
(aioo??o??iia? eo?ne i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? oa ?io? ina?oi? nenoaie,
ui aioothoue eaae?e aeey ie?aieo aeae?a ?eie?a, iai?eeeaae, aeey
oiiaeiaiai, aaie?anueei? nenoaie oiui); ii-o?ao?, ?inoeoooe, ca
iina?aaeieoeoaa yeeo cae?enith?oueny ?iciiae?e i?aoe?aiee?a ii ?iai/eo
i?noeyo (aea?aeaai? e iaaea?aeaai? nenoaie i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy,
aeeth/ath/e a??ae? i?aoe?, eaae?ia? aaaionoaa oa ?i.); ia?aoo?,
ii-/aoaa?oa, ?inoeoooe, ui caaacia/othoue nioe?aeueio aca?iiae?th e
nioe?aeueia ia?oia?noai ia ?eieo i?aoe? (i?ioni?eee, ni?eee
i?aei?e?ioe?a, /anoeiai — iie?oe/i? ia?o?? ? ?io? a?iiaaenuee?
i?aai?caoe??). E??i aeacaieo ?inoeooo?a, aei neeaaeo ?N?I ne?ae
aeeth/aoe a?aeiia?aeio /anoeio nioe?aeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa (ia?aaeon?i
o?oaeiaa), a oaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ia?aae? e no?oeoo?e, ui cae?eniththoue
cae?aiiy ? iioe?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai ?eieo i?aoe?. A oiae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeyaeai? ianooii? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oe??? /anoeie
?NO?.

1. Iiaeieaiiy aea?aeaaiiai iiiiiie?cio a aaeoc? i?aeaioiaee e
ia?ai?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a, no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a aea?aeaai?e nenoai?
ina?oe ? oi?ioaaiiy iaaea?aeaaii? ia?aae? ina?oi?o ?inoeooo?a.

2. Oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeaii? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae ? ia?aae? iaaea?aeaaieo
neoaea i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy.

3. Oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ?inoeooo?a ?aaeueiiai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
i?aoe?aiee?a.

4. I?eaaaeaiiy ii?iioai?aiiy ia ?eieo i?aoe? o a?aeiia?aei?noue c
noni?eueieie iio?aaaie, aeeth/ath/e iaeo?ae?caoe?th oa onoiaiiy
aioeaoiaiieo ? o?iueiaeo iaoai?ci?a caeo/aiiy aei i?aoe? e iineaaeaiiy
aea?aeaaii? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?io?ano?oeoo?a a?ioiaiai ?eieo oa ?? noaiiaeaiiy”
ii/eia?oueny aiae?c ?io?ano?oeoo?e o?iainiaiai naeoi?a, yea, c
?inoeoooe?eii? oi/ee ci?o, aeeth/a? a naaa ?inoeoooe a?ioiaiai ?eieo
(aaiee ? iaaaie?anuee? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoi? onoaiiae) oa ?inoeoooe
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo.

Nii/aoeo aeine?aeaeo?oueny noaiiaeaiiy aaie?anueei? nenoaie ?eieiaiai
oeio. Iniaeea?noue ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iieyaa? a oiio, ui, ia
a?aei?io a?ae ?icaeiaieo e?a?i, aea aaie?anueea nenoaia (ye ? o?iainiaee
naeoi? caaaeii ) nie?a?oueny a nai?io ?icaeoeo ia c?inoath/ee ?aaeueiee
naeoi?, o iaoeo oiiaao o?eaaeiai aeiiii?/iiai niaaeo oae? iiaeeeaino?
aaeueie iaiaaeai?. Oiio iaeaaaeeea?oith i?iaeaiith aaie?anueei? nenoaie
(aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui i?iaeaio ia?aeiiiai e?euee?niiai c?inoaiiy
aaie?anueeeo ?inoeooo?a a iniiaiiio ?icaycaii) ? eai?oaeioai?aiiy.

?icaeyaeath/e oea ieoaiiy, aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i
iaiao?aei?noue aeai?o ia’?eoeaiiai e?eoa??th aeey aecia/aiiy
aeinoaoiino? (aai, iaaiaee, iaaeinoaoiino?) iioaioe?aeo iayaii?
aaie?anueei? nenoaie. Oeae e?eoa??e iiaeiai iaoe ciai?oi?e oa?aeoa?, o
oiio ?icoi?ii?, ui aaie?anueea nenoaia aieiaiith iaoith naiai ?nioaaiiy
ia? ia aeania ooieoe?iioaaiiy, a caaacia/aiiy iio?aa aeiiii?ee o
cae?eniaii? ieaoaae?a oa ?? e?aaeeooaaiiy. Eiie?aoieie iieacieeaie, ui
aeicaieythoue oi/a a i?eaeecii ioe?ieoe oeth caeaoi?noue aaie?anueei?
nenoaie, ?, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ii-ia?oa, a?aeiioaiiy noia?iiai
noaoooiiai oiiaeo an?o eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a aei ??/iiai ianyao AAI, ?
ii-ae?oaa, a?aeiioaiiy aeaniiai eai?oaeo aaie?a aei ??/iiai ianyao AAI.
Ia?oee iieaciee iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey ioe?iee i?iioneii?
ni?iiiaeiino? aaie?anueei? nenoaie, ae?oaee — ?? e?aaeeoiiai
iioaioe?aeo. Aeena?oaioii aoei ?ic?aoiaaii a?aeiia?aei? cia/aiiy iaio
iieaciee?a aeey oe?a?inueei? aaie?anueei? nenoaie.

?inoeoooe?eiee aniaeo i?iaeaie i?iioneii? ni?iiiaeiino? aaie?anueei?
nenoaie aeaiaeeoue aiae?c ia ieoaiiy i?i ?ieue ? ia?niaeoeae ae??aieo ?
na?aaei?o aaie?a. Iiceoe?y a?eueoino? aeine?aeiee?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? aaie?a o i?ioean? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?
i?ia?aneaiei ? caeiiii??iei i?ioeanii. Iaeiae, c iaoi? oi/ee ci?o,
i?iaiaey/e aei?noeo iie?oeeo ia?iuoaaiiy noaoooieo oiiae?a, caeaoio
ni?e/eieoe cae?eooy iaaaeeeeo aaie?a, iani?iiiaeieo caaacia/eoe
nai?/ania aeinyaiaiiy aeacaieo ia?aiao??a, IAO ia caaaeaee ?iaeoue
aeia?o ni?aao, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui iiae?aia iie?oeea a?aeiia?aea?
na?oiaiio aeina?aeia? ? ia’?eoeai?e oaiaeaioe?? aei eiioeaio?aoe?? oa
oeaio?ae?caoe?? aoaeue-yeiai eai?oaeo, iniaeeai ae aaie?anueeiai.

Iaeiae aeioe, aeiee ae?iaieoeoai ia iiaeiea? aeeaieee niaae,
iiaeeeaino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a aeey i?enei?aii? eai?oae?caoe?? nai?o
i?eaooe?a, oiaoi aeey eai?oaeioai?aiiy (? a oiio /ene? ia?iuoaaiiy
noaoooieo oiiae?a) aoaeooue iaiaaeaieie. Oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, ui c
iiaeaaaeaiiyi ae?iaieoeoaa ? ci?oeiaiiyi aaie?anueei? nenoaie
a?aeaoaaoeiooueny ? a?aeiia?aei? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a aaie?anuee?e
nenoai?, ye? i?eaaaeooue aei ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? aaie?a ? c?inoaiiy
na?aaei?o ?ici???a aaieo.

Aea iaeia ni?aaa — i?e?iaei? i?ioeane, ? cian?i ?ioa — iie?oeea
ooo/iiai, aieueiaiai ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? aaie?a. Aiia ia iiaeiia
aanoeny aeoaea aei?noei ua e oiio, ui naia a eiie?aoieo oiiaao Oe?a?ie
ae??ai? oa na?aaei? aaiee aeiaiaeyoue naith aeeao/?noue ?
eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue. Oiio a aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeoeo a iaoeo oiiaao iniaeeai? iiaeae? aaie?anueei?
nenoaie, ui nie?a?oueny ia a?eueo o?eaaea o ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiith
iiaeaeeth ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo ca ?ici??aie aaie?a, aeeth/ath/e
ae??ai? e na?aaei?, a oaeiae iaiao?aei?noue i’yeoiai aea?aeaaiiai aieeao
ia aaie?anueeo eiioeaio?aoe?th ? oeaio?ae?caoe?th.

E??i eai?oaeioai?aiiy, a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny oae? aniaeoe
ye?niiai iie?ioaiiy ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ye oaeineiiaeaiiy
no?oeoo?e e?aaeeoiiai oa ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooae?a aaie?anueei? nenoaie.
?io?ano?oeoo?iee aniaeo oe??? i?iaeaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaie?anueea
nenoaia — oea ia ?aeeiee eaiae caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?ee a?ioiaei eai?oaeii
aeey aeiaaino?ieiaiai ?iaanooaaiiy. Ae?oaei oaeei eaiaeii, ye a?aeiii, ?
noeoii?noue iaaaie?anueeeo o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo onoaiia, a o?ao?i —
nenoaia ?inoeooo?a oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. Oiio an? o?e eaiaee ni?aaeythoue
aca?iiee aieea iaeei ia iaeiee, iaaeinoaoiy aoaeoeai?noue iaeieo
aeoea?co? ?icaeoie ?ioeo, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny /anii na?eicieie
aeeni?iii?oe?yie ? aeieeiaiiyi iaaaaeaieo oaiaeaioe?e.

O ?aieao iiaeae? aeai??aiaai? aaie?anueei? nenoaie, ui ?icaeaa?oueny a
Oe?a?i?, a aeena?oaoe?? cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny cynoaaiith ?ie?
aea?aeaae a aaie?anuee?e nenoai?, aeeth/ath/e caeiiiaeaa/a caaacia/aiiy
ae?yeueiino? ye eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, oae ? IAO. Aeena?oaio ianoith? oo
oi/eo ci?o, ui eeoa iacaeaaei?noue oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo, cae??ieaia
caeiiiaeaa/i, caaacia/eoue aoaeoeaia aeeiiaiiy iei nai?o aieiaieo
ooieoe?e. ? iaaiaee, aoaeue-yea iie?oecaoe?y eiai ae?yeueiino? caeaoia
aeeeeeaoe na?eiciee ?iceaae on??? e?aaeeoii-aaie?anueei? nenoaie,
cie?aia iaaaoeaii aieeaaoe ia oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoii? aaie?anueei?
?io?ano?oeoo?e.

E??i aaie?anueei? nenoaie, aeaaeae? a?eueoiai cia/aiiy a ?io?ano?oeoo??
o?iainiaiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie iaaoaathoue iaaaie?anuee? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoi?
onoaiiae. O aeena?oaoe?? a ca’yceo c oeei i?iaiae?ciaaii i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy ?inoeooo?a no?aoiaiai a?ciano ? iaaea?aeaaieo iain?eieo
oiiae?a, c o?aooaaiiyi aeina?aeo ?icaeoeo aiiiaeueieo i?ioean?a
na?aaeeie 90-o ?ie?a, iia’ycaieo ?c c?inoaiiyi i??ai?aeaeueieo no?oeoo?.
?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i ?noioia a?aenoaaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaaaie?anueeeo
?inoeooo?a a?ae ?aaeueieo iio?aa aeiiii?ee ? oi?ioeththoueny aeaye?
i?iiiceoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia aeoea?caoe?th oeueiai i?ioeano.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “?icaeoie ?io?ano?oeoo?e oiiaeiaiai ?eieo”
caaa?oo?oueny aiae?c ?io?ano?oeoo?e o?iainiaiai naeoi?a. Oiiaeiaee ?eiie
iaeaaeeoue aei oeo naaiaio?a ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio, ye? a oiiaao
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie aoee a?aenooi? ye iaiio??ai?. Oai
ooieoe?th iia?e?caoe?? eai?oaeo ? cae?eniaiiy ?iaanooaaiiy aeeiioaaea
athaeaeaoia nenoaia, oi?iaeueiei “aeiaeaoeii” aei yei? aoea aaie?anueea
nenoaia. Oiio c ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ae??oo?oueny iaiiai. Oeei ? coiiaeththoueny iniaeea?
o?oaeiiu? noaiiaeaiiy aeaiiai aeaiaioa ?eieiai? nenoaie, ai iaiao?aeiiai
aeina?aeo eiai ?iaioe ia ?nio?. A oie aea /an naia a?aenooi?noue
iaoa?oaaiue ieioeiai, iia’ycaieo c aeaoi?iaoe?yie ?iaioe oeo /e ?ioeo
?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a a oiiaao AEN, noai?th? oi?eaeueio iioaioe?eio
iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ia no/anieo i?eioeeiao, c
o?aooaaiiyi aeinyaiaiue ? iiieeie na?oiaiai aeina?aeo.

?io?ano?oeoo?a oiiaeiaiai ?eieo oi?io?oueny ne?aeii ca oi?ioaaiiyi
ia’?eo?a, ?oo yeeo aiia iieeeeaia caaacia/oaaoe. Oiio ?? aiae?co
ia?aaeo? ?icaeyae i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ?ino?oiaio?a oiiaeiaiai ?eieo
(aeoe?e, iae?aaoe?e oiui).

?noioiith iniaeea?noth ?io?ano?oeoo?e oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ? ??
aaaaoioa?ia?noue. Oea iiynith?oueny, c iaeiiai aieo, oei, ui iaoai?ci
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oe??? /anoeie ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ia a?aei?io a?ae
?NO?, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei nooiaiai ?aaeaiaioaoe??. Iaeiei c
aeaiaio?a oeueiai iaoai?cio ? aeiiaa i?ioan?eii? niaoe?ae?caoe??
o/aniee?a oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. Oea icia/a?, ui a?eueoino? o/aniee?a
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo caai?iiaii caeiaoeny a?eueo i?ae iaeiei c aeae?a
ae?yeueiino? ia iueiio, i?e/iio aeey caiyooy naia oeei aeaeii
ae?yeueiino? aeiaaa?oueny a?aeiia?aeiee aeica?e Aea?aeaaii? eii?n?? c
oe?iieo iaia??a ? oiiaeiaiai ?eieo (AeEOeIO?).

C ?ioiai aieo, iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeoeo oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ye oe?e?nii?
nenoaie ii?iaeaeo? oaiaeaioe?th aei noai?aiiy i?ioan?eieo ia’?aeiaiue
eiai o/aniee?a, a oaeiae ?ioeo ?inoeooo?a, ui aaciina?aaeiuei ia
cae?eniththoue i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia iueiio.

C o?aooaaiiyi oeeo iiiaio?a aei neeaaeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e oiiaeiaiai ?eieo
iio??aii aeeth/aoe ia?aaeon?i a?aeiia?aei? ?inoeoooe: niaoe?ae?ciaai?
?inoeoooe (eiia?oe?ei? aaiee, ?iaanoeoe?ei? oiiaee ? eiiiai??, oi?aiaoe?
oe?iieie iaia?aie, ?a?no?aoi?e, caa??aa/? e aeaiiceoa???, a??ae? e
oi?aiai-?ioi?iaoe?ei? nenoaie); ai?oaio?a oe?iieo iaia??a oa?
ianiaoe?ae?ciaai? ?inoeoooe (i?aei?e?inoaa noa?e iaoa??aeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, aeia??/? oiaa?enoaa, no?aoia? eiiiai??, iain?ei? oiiaee);
aea?aeaai? i?aaie, ui ?aaoeththoue ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a oiiaeiaiai
?eieo; i?ioan?ei? ia’?aeiaiiy o/aniee?a ?eieo; th?eaee/i?,
aoaeeoi?nuee?, eiinaeoeiaia? o??ie; ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oa ?aeoeiaia?
aaaionoaa; niaoe?ae?ciaai? o/aia? caeeaaee; eiiiai??-?ic?iaieee ?
iinoa/aeueieee i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy. Aeaeiai c ieo (oiaoi aeayeeo
i?aaenoaaiee?a niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ? ianiaoe?ae?ciaaieo ?inoeooo?a) iiaeia
ia’?aeiaoe a iaeio caaaeueio a?oio o?iainiaeo iina?aaeiee?a. E??i oiai,
aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii ?io?ano?oeoo?e oiiaeiaiai ?eieo aenooia?
a?aeiia?aeia /anoeia ainiiaea?nueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo an?o iniiaieo
o/aniee?a oe?a?inueeiai oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ? noia?a/iino?, coiiaeai?
?iaa?n?eiei oa?aeoa?ii oeueiai ?icaeoeo. Iaei??th c ieo ? noia?a/i?noue
i?ae iiaeeeainoyie, ui noai?ththoueny no/anieie na?oiaeie aeinyaiaiiyie
a i?aai?caoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiiaeiaiai ?eieo, ? iaaeinoaoi?ie
aaeaioaoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee oa noni?eueii?
na?aeiiino?. ?icai?oaiiy oe??? noia?a/iino? ?icaeyaea?oueny a
aeena?oaoe?? ia i?eeeaae? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeaiiceoa?ii?
nenoaie.

Aieiai? /eiieee iaaoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oiiaeiaiai
?eieo, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, oae?.

Ii-ia?oa, ?icoyaioo?noue o /an? e iaiine?aeiai?noue cae?eniaiiy
i?eaaoecaoe??, ui oiia?eueieea oi?ioaaiiy ia?aeiiiai ?eieo oe?iieo
iaia??a.

Ii-ae?oaa, o?eaaea a?aenooi?noue /?oei? aeanii?, niaoeeo?/ii? aeey
Oe?a?ie eiioeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy oiiaeiaiai ?eieo.

Ii-o?ao?, aacnenoaii?noue o noai?aii? ii?iaoeaii? aace ?icaeoeo
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo, ui i?ecaaea a ia?o? ?iee eiai noaiiaeaiiy aei
iaaaoeaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a /a?ac iania? ceiaaeeaaiiy
eiai o/aniee?a.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, cia/iee ciai?oi?e aieea c aieo i?aaenoaaiee?a i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e ia i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oiiaeiaiai ?eieo, ui
ia a?aoiaoaaa ? ia a?aoiao? iaeaaeiei /eiii ?ioa?ane oa iniaeeaino?
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee ? nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy.

Aieea oeeo oaeoi??a aei iaaii? i??e ia’?eoeaiee, o oiio ?icoi?ii?, ui
naia niaoeeo?ea ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieo ia iiaea yeeenue /an aooe
i?aaeeueii ona?aeiieaia a iaaeao eieeoi?o oai?aoe/ieo oyaeaiue, ui
a?ae?a?aei naith ?ieue o aeieeiaii? ? iiaeeaeaii? ?yaeo iaaaoeaieo
oaiaeaioe?e. Aiaeii/an ia iiaeia ia aa/eoe, ui ca oeie aai ?ioeie
yaeuaie, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?icaeoie oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ? eiai
?io?ano?oeoo?o, aeaaeae? ae?aci?oa aeiaeueiao?oueny oe?eani?yiiaaia
ae?yeuei?noue iaaieo nioe?aeueieo nee ii caaacia/aiith nai?o aeiiii?/ieo
oa ?ioeo ?ioa?an?a. Aeaeaei ia caaaeaee oey ae?yeuei?noue a?aeiia?aea?
noni?eueiei iio?aaai ? ni?ey? ?icaeoeo aenieiaoaeoeaii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo.

Oae, iai?eeeaae, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, oi?niaaiee ?icaeoie nenoaie
aeaeo?iiiiai ia?ao oe?iieo iaia??a ia a iiai?e i??? a?aoiao? iniaeeaino?
Oe?a?ie — ye c oi/ee ci?o ?aaeueiiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ?
eiai ?ici???a, oae ? (iniaeeai)c iiceoe?e niaoeeo?ee noni?eueii?
na?aeiiino?. O oe?e neooaoe?? ?aaoethth/a ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a ia??aeei iaaoaa? oa?aeoa?o o?eaaei? ? aeniaaeeeai? ai?ioueae c
o/anieeaie oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ca aeio?eiaiiy oi?iaeueieo ii?i ? i?aaee,
eio?? ni?eeiathoueny oeeie o/anieeaie ye /oae? e ai?iae?, oi?ioth/e oei
naiei iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei naiiai oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. C oe??? oi/ee
ci?o aeena?oaio aaaaea? ca iaiao?aeia cia/ii iineeeoe i?ina?oieoeueeo
ae?yeuei?noue AeEOeIO? ? iaeii/anii iineaaeoe ?ai?aneaio ni?yiiaai?noue
caoiae?a aieeao ia ii?ooiee?a caeiiiaeaanoaa.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “?ieue ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?”
aeine?aeaeothoueny ?io?ano?oeoo?i? aniaeoe ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa,
ui iaaoea aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. I?e/iio ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aae ?ioi?iaoe?y noa? ia o?eueee i?iaeoeoii
?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, aea e naiino?eiei ae?iaie/ei ?ano?nii,
ia??ai? c i?aoeath, eai?oaeii, caieath ? i?aei?e?iieoeueeeie
cae?aiinoyie. Aiia yaey? niaith oi?eaeueiee oi?aa?naeueiee ?ano?n,
aaniethoii “e?ea?aeiee” c oi/ee ci?o eaaeino? ia?ai?uaiiy o i?inoi?? e o
/an?, caaaeueiiaeinooiiee, caeaoiee aei oiai ae ia?aoai?thaaoeny ia
a?io?, oei naiei iaa?oue ia?aaa?ooth/e inoaii? ye iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiee
can?a iai?io. Naia oi?aa?naeuei?noue ?ioi?iaoe??, ui nie?a?oueny ia
no/anio oaoi?/io aaco o aeaeyae? na?oiaeo aeaeo?iiieo ia?aae,
ia?aoai?eea ?? ia iiaooith i?iaeoeoeaio neeo ? aeicaieeea aiai?eoe i?i
anooi ethaenoaa o noaae?th ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai noni?euenoaa. O aeena?oaoe??
aenoiooi iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith i?aai?/iiai
aeeth/aiiy aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie a no/ania na?oiaa ainiiaea?noai ?
aaeaeaaoiee ?icaeoie ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aae oa ?inoeooo?a, ui ?o
i?aaenoaaeythoue, a e?eoa???i a?aeiia?aeiino? ??N aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie
no/aniei aeiiaai aenooia? naia ??aaiue ?icaeoeo ?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
ia?aae.

?icaeoie ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? ni?aaey? aacoiiaiee iiceoeaiee aieea ia
aeiiii?eo aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie. Iaeiae a?i noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny e
aeieeiaiiyi ?yaeo i?ioe??/. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?eaii ?
?ice?eoi o?e a?oie oaeeo i?ioe??/ — oaoi?/i?, th?eaee/i?, iie?oe/i?.
E??i oiai, aeena?oaio noi?ioethaaa ? iiyniea ia?aaeien oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e,
eio?ee iieyaa? a oiio, ui ethaee, io?eioth/e eieinaeueio aeaiaeo a?ae
caeo/aiiy aei ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aae, yea ? aaaaoii??iith ? aacoiiaiith,
caeeaeoth/e ?o ? caaaa/oth/e aca?iia ni?eeoaaiiy, aiaeii/an
aeyaeythoueny iacaeaoieie ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??ai? aoaeoeaii
i?ioenoiyoe aieeao iaaaoeaieo iia?/ieo aoaeo?a. A oea aeiaaa? noai?aiiy
iaoai?ci?a noni?eueiiai eiio?ieth ca oaeaeiioi?eaoe?yie ye ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiio, oae ? ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ??aiyo.

Aiae?c ?nioth/eo i?ioe??/ ?icaeoeo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e o ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? aeicaieea oaeiae aeae?eeoe aea? aca?iiiia’ycai? i?iaeaie, ui
aeiaaathoue iaeii/aniiai ae??oaiiy: ii-ia?oa, iaiao?aeii noai?eoe
iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e, ?
ii-ae?oaa, yeui ie i?aaiaii aei noai?aiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
— noni?eueiee eiio?ieue ca ae?yeuei?noth aea?aeaae o oe?e noa??.
Aeooaeuei?noue naia oeeo aeaio i?iaeai coiiaeaia oei, ui a oiiaao
a?aenooiino? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa aea?aeaaa ia? ?aaeueio
iiaeeea?noue noai?thaaoe ? ci?oeithaaoe iaoai?cie iaiaaeaiiy aeinooio
aei ?ioi?iaoe??. Oea noai?th? iiaeeeaino? io?eiaiiy nai???aeiiai
?aioiiai i?eaooeo oeie, ooi aieiae?? a?aeiia?aeiith /anoeiith
?io?ano?oeoo?e ? caaacia/o? aeinooi aei ia?. O aeena?oaoe?? iacaaii
aea? oi?ie oaeiai i?eaooeo — aeiiii?/ia ? iie?oe/ia ?aioa.

Aeiiii?/ia ?aioa ?aae?co?oueny caaaeyee iaoai?cio oe?iiooai?aiiy
caaaeyee ?nioaaiith oae caaii? “i?e?iaeii?” iiiiiie??, yea i?e aeeae/iio
?icaeyae? aeyaey?oueny ooo/iith. Iie?oe/ia ?aioa c’yaey?oueny ?
i?eaeanith?oueny ia iniia? aeiyoeiaiai aieiae?iiy ?ioi?iaoe??th i?i o?
/e ?io? iiae??, oaeoe aai in?a. Oi?iith ?? ?aae?caoe?? ? ?aaeueiee aieea
ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ci?io a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee oa iai?ioethaaiiy
noni?eueiith na?aeii?noth. Ia iiaa?oi? yaeu iiae?aiee aieea aeaea?oueny
/enoi iie?oe/iei oaiiiaiii, iaeiae iani?aaae? eiai iaoith, c?aooith, ?
i?eaeaniaiiy oe?eeii ?aaeueieo i?eaooe?a, a iiaeeeaino? iaea?aeaiiy
i?eaooe?a a?ae iiiiiieueiiai aeinooio aei oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eiee ia?aae
i?aeoe/ii iaiaiaaeai?.

Ia iniia? aenoiooeo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue a aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii
aeaye? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iiaeieaiiy “i?e?iaeii?” iiiiiie?? aea?aeaae a
noa?? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e, cie?aia oeyoii noai?aiiy eiieo?aioieo iaoai?ci?a
o aaeoc? i?iaiaeiaiai aeaeo?ica’yceo.

Aeeaoee aiae?c yaeua ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? i?ea?a aei iaiao?aeiino? c’ynoaaiiy
?ie? ? cia/aiiy neiaieueiiai aeaiaioa a iaoai?ci? iioe?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe??,
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith yeiai ? iiaia i?iaeaia. Nai ii nia? iiaiee oaeoi?
aaciina?aaeiuei ia iia’ycaiee c ?icaeoeii ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ai
iiaa ye noni?eueiee ?inoeooo c’yaeeany caaeiaai aei aeieeiaiiy ?eieo.
Iaeiae a oiiaao c?inoath/i? ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? ?io?ano?oeoo?ia ?ieue iiae
?noioii i?aeaeuo?oueny.

Ii-ia?oa, a oiiaao a?aee?eoino? aeiiii?ee iino?eii c?inoa? ieoiia aaaa
oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo iioie?a, ?oo yeeo iia’ycaiee c i?aeaea?aeaaiei
ia?ai?uaiiyi ? ia?aaeaa/a? iaia’yceiaa noi?iaiaeaeaiiy oeeo iioie?a
a?aeiia?aeiith aeieoiaioaoe??th. Ii-ae?oaa, ?nioaaiiy iiaiiai ?icia?ooy
oneeaaeith? i?ioiaeaeaiiy neiaieueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieie
ia?aaeaie, ine?eueee aeeeeea? iaiao?aei?noue ?? aaeaioaoe?? aei
ni?eeiyooy ei?enooaa/aie caeaaeii a?ae iiae, yeith oe? ei?enooaa/?
aieiae?thoue. Ii-o?ao?, ii?iioai?aiiy oaeiae noeea?oueny c iiaiei
aniaeoii ? ciooaia a?aoiaoaaoe eiai aeey oni?oii? ?aae?caoe?? nai?o
ooieoe?e a i?ioean? iioe?aiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ii?i, ?iaeoa a?aeiia?aei?
ii?ie i?inoi ia ae?yoeiooue. Ia?aoo?, ii-/aoaa?oa, iaioaeuei?noue iica
iaaiith iiaith, yeith aiia ?aae?ciao?oueny, oaeiae ia iiaea ?nioaaoe,
aiane?aeie /iai, c?aooith, aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy an??? ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e aecia/a?oueny i??ith a?aooaaiiy ?ie? iiaiiai /eiieea a
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oiiaao o??? aai ?ioi? e?a?ie. Iaaiaee, iaaeiioe?iea
aai ?aii?oaaiiy oe??? ?ie? caiaeyoue iai?aaoeue ii?iaeueia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??N.

Oiio ia iniia? aiae?co ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo aniaeo?a iiaii? i?iaeaie
aeena?oaio ae?eoia aeniiaeo i?i iaiao?aei?noue ci?i uiaei ni?yiiaaiino?
aea?aeaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? iie?oeee, yea iiaeiia caaacia/oaaoe,
ii-ia?oa, caoeno a?o/eciyiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o a?ae iaaaoeaieo
oaiaeaioe?e a ?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoecaoe??, iia’ycaieo c ia?aaeienii
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e, ? ii-ae?oaa, noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey ?icaeoeo
aeaiiiaiino?.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? “Aea?aeaaa a ?io?ano?oeoo?? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie” c’yniaothoueny iiaeeeaino? ia?ao?aeii? aea?aeaae o noai?aii?
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. Niaoeeo?ea neooaoe?? a e?a?iao NIAe (? Oe?a?ia
ia ? aeiyoeii) iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia?ao?ae aei ?eieo cae?enith?oueny
iaeii/anii ?c ae??oaiiyi caaaeaiue aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa.
A?aei?ii?noue oe??? neooaoe?? a?ae noaio ni?aa, iai?eeeaae, o No?aei?e
?a?ii?, iieyaa? a oiio, ui oi/ oai ia?ao?ae a?ae
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee aei ?eieo ? iaeii/ani? na?eici?
iie?oe/i? ?aoi?ie a?aeaoaathoueny ca iayaiino? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio, a
Oe?a?ia oi?iaeiaae inoaii?o 80 ?ie?a ia iaea nai?? aea?aeaaiino?.

C iaeiiai aieo, a e?a?iao NIAe ?nio? ?aaeueia iioaioe?eia iiaeeea?noue
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo aoae?aieoeoaa ?
aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaae, aea c ?ioiai, ine?eueee aea?aeaaia
aoae?aieoeoai cae?enith?oueny ia caeeoeao eieenue ?aeeii? aea?aeaaii?
iaoeie, ui oniaaeeiaaia a?ae N?N?, c ?? noa?eie ? iiaeie aaaeaie — ?nio?
ia iaio a??ia?aeia iioaioe?eia iaaaciaea eiina?aaoe?? ia iaaecia/aiee
/an noa?i? aea?aeaaii? iaoeie c on?ia iiaeeeaeie aeey aeie? ?eieiaeo
?aoi?i iane?aeeaie.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeena?oaio aaaaea? aieiaiei ieoaiiyi ia iineeaiiy
aai iineaaeaiiy ?aaoethth/i? ?ie? aea?aeaae o noni?euenoa? oa
aeiiii?oe?, a i?eioeeiia? ci?ie a nai?e aea?aeaa?. Niaoeeo?ea neooaoe??
a Oe?a?i?, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iieyaa? a oiio, ui ca?ac aeey iaoeo
oiia ia?anoaea aooe i?eaeaoiith aeainooiaiaaa iiaeaeue ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ia?ao?aeii? aea?aeaae, ui i?iiiio?oueny aenia?oaie Anana?oiueiai aaieo,
ca?aeii c yeith nii/aoeo iaiao?aeii i?eaanoe ooieoe?? aea?aeaae o
a?aeiia?aei?noue c ?? iioaioe?aeii, a iio?i ci?oeithaaoe iioaioe?ae
aea?aeaae. Aaaea?ii, ui iaeaeaa caaaeaiiy ne?ae ae??ooaaoe iaeii/anii.

Ia iniia? oeueiai i?aeoiaeo a aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaai? ianooii?
caaaeaiiy, ui aeiaaathoue ae??oaiiy a i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaae ?
iathoue iiceoeaii aieeiooe ia ?icaeoie ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e:

1) i?aeaeuaiiy aeia??e ianaeaiiy aei aea?aeaae;

2) ciaioaiiy ??aiy ei?oioe??;

3) ciaioaiiy ?ie? o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee;

4) i?aeaeuaiiy i?ici?ino? o ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a ia an?o
??aiyo ? o an?o a?eeao aea?aeaaii? aeaaee;

5) caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? caeiiiaeaanoaa;

6) noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo.

Eia?ea oi?ioethaaiiy aeacaieo oeyo?a iioiaeeoue ?c aeaaaeaii? a 1
?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? ?aeaaeueii? iiaeae? ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e,
i?eoaiaii?e ?icaeiai?e ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?. Oey iiaeaeue
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth oaeeo aeaiaio?a: iaiao?aeiee iaa??
aoaeoeaii ooieoe?iioth/eo ?inoeooo?a on?o oei?a; a?aeiia?aei? aei
no/anieo e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo e?eoa???a ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ia?aae?;
aaeaeaaoia ii?iaoeaia aaca ? iaioaaiiy ?eieiaiai ieneaiiy e iiaaae?iee
ethaeae.

?aae?yie ae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy a Oe?a?i? ca?ac ?: iaaeoi
iecueea aeia??a aei aea?aeaae oa ?? ?inoeooo?a, aeoaea aeniea ei?oioe?y
aea?aeaaieo /eiiaiee?a, caa?iceeai aeniea /anoea o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee,
a?aenooi?noue noni?eueiiai eiio?ieth ca i?eeiyooyi aea?aeaaieo ??oaiue,
iaaoaeoeai?noue ainiiaea?nueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? eiai ianoaa?euei?noue
? ye iane?aeie — ieyaee ?iaanoeoe?eiee ee?iao, iineaaeai?noue oiaa?ieo ?
a?ioiaeo iioie?a, ca yeeie ne?aeothoue iecuee? oaiie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, aeeth/ath/e ?icaeoie noa?aioei?a ?eieiai? iiaaae?iee a
noni?euenoa?.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? noi?ioeueiaaieo aeua caaaeaiue a?ae aea?aeaae
aeiaaa?oueny cae?eniaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai iaai?o i?aeoe/ieo caoiae?a, ye?
iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie — i?yi? oa iai?yi?. Aei i?yieo caoiae?a
a?aeiinyoueny ianooii?:

1) i?eaaoecaoe?y e ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?e oiaa?ieo ? a?ioiaeo
?eie?a;

2) noai?aiiy aaeaeaaoii? ii?iaoeaii? aace ? i?eaaaeaiiy iaoai?cio
ii?iioai?aiiy o a?aeiia?aei?noue c iio?aaaie ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee:

3) ni?eyiiy ?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e oiiaeiaiai ?eieo:

4) noai?aiiy oiia aeey anaa?/ii? ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa ? ?icaeoie
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e:

5) caaacia/aiiy i??i?eoaoo i?aa ethaeeie ia?aae i?aaaie aea?aeaae.

?aae?caoe?y oeeo caoiae?a i?yii aieeaa? ia a?aeiia?aeiee naeoi?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, i?e/iio aeiaeai c ieo ia iiaea aooe ia?aeeaaeaiee ia
yeeenue ?ioee ?inoeooo, ie??i aea?aeaae.

Aei iai?yieo ie a?aeiineii caoiaee, ui i?yii ia ca/?iathoue
?io?ano?oeoo?o, aea iiina?aaeeiaaii c?aooith ni?aaeythoue iiceoeaiee
aieea ye ia ?? caaaeueio aeeiai?eo, oae ? ia noai oa oaiaeaioe??
?icaeoeo ie?aieo aeaiaio?a. E??i oiai, aeaye? c ieo ia eeoa iiaeia, aea
e o?aaa ?aae?ciaoaaoe c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a. Aei
oaeeo caoiae?a ianaiia?aae iiaeia a?aeianoe:

1) i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?eaaoecaoe?? naeoi??a, ui ia iaeaaeaoue aei
?io?ano?oeoo?e;

2) noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo;

3) aea?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ca
aeiiiiiaith aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? oa ia?aaea/? /anoeie aea?aeaaieo ooieoe?e
a?iiaaenueeei i?aaiai ? i?aai?caoe?yi;

4) noaeiaa ? aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aoi?ie;

5) i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee:

6) ia?ao?ae a?ae oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae aei oaaea?aoeaii-caiaeueiiai
ono?ith;

7) oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai aei no/anieo aeiia i?ioa?eo aea?aeaaii?
ath?ie?ao??.

Iaa?? caaaeaiue, ui i?iiiio?oueny iaie, ? oeyo?a ?o ae??oaiiy, oi/ ?
aeeth/a? aeaye? caaaeuei? aeey an?o e?a?i iiiaioe, i?ioa a nai?e
noeoiiino? a?aeia?aaea? naia niaoeeo?eo neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? oa
i??i?eoaoe, ui iaoiiaeththoueny noaiii ni?aa ia aeaiee iiiaio ? a
iaeaeeae/?e ia?niaeoea?.

*a?ac neaae?noue ia?ao?aeii? aea?aeaae aeooaeueiith iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith
? c’ynoaaiiy iaoai?ci?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo noni?euenoai eiiiaino?
ianoa/o iioaioe?aeo aea?aeaae i?e cae?eniaii? ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue.
Oiio aeae? a aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny eaac?aea?aeaai? ?inoeoooe
(ath?ie?ao?y, o?iueiaa aeiiii?ea ? ?aa?iiae?ci). Aeanoea?noue
eaac?aea?aeaaiino? eiaeai c ieo iaaoaa? aiane?aeie ?nioaaiiy neeaaeieo
iaoai?ci?a i?yiiai ? cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo aea?aeaae ?c noni?euenoaii.
Niaoeeo?ea ?o ?icaeoeo iieyaa? oaeiae ? a oiio, ui aiie iiaeooue
aeia?eueiee /an ia?aaoaaoe a “ae?aiioiiio” noai? ? aeooae?coaaoeny i?ae
oeneii iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo oaeoi??a, ye? iathoue i?noea ia eeoa a
ia?ao?aeieo aai o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioeanao.

Eiaeia c ieo ii-nai?io aeeiio? a?aeiia?aei? aea?aeaai? ooieoe??.
Ath?ie?ao?y, aoaeo/e ia?nii?o?eaoe??th aea?aeaae, ia?a?iaeaeo?oueny a
eaac?aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo o ?ac?, yeui aiia i?ae aeaeyaeii ?aae?caoe??
aea?aeaaieo ooieoe?e ?aaeueii ii/eia? ianeoaiaoaaoe naio naaa,
i?eioooth/e ana noni?euenoai neoaeeoe nai?i aocueeiei?eneeaei ?ioa?anai.
O?iueiaa aeiiii?ea aa?a ia naaa ooieoe?th oii?yaeeoaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a, eiee aiia ia?aaeuo? iieiaeio an??? aeiiii?ee, ine?eueee
aea?aeaaa a oe?e neooaoe?? aeyaey?oueny aacii?aaeiith ? ia eii?aeeio?
?oo oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo iioie?a. A ?aa?iiae?ci aeoea?co?oueny (i?e/iio ye o
iiceoeaieo, oae ? a iaaaoeaieo oi?iao) ? ii/eia? aeo?niyoe aea?aeaai?
iaoai?cie ?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, eiee oeaio? cae?enith? oaeee
ia?a?iciiae?e iiaiiaaaeaiue ia naith ei?enoue, ui oea ii/eia?
caa?iaeoaaoe aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?aa?ii?a ? nioe?aeuei?e noaa?eueiino? a
ieo.

Iniaeeao caa?ico aeey noaa?eueiino? aea?aeaae noaiiaeoue iaeii/ania
aeooae?caoe?y an?o o?ueio eaac?aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a, ai ?o
eoioeyoeaiee aieea ia noni?eueia aeeooy cia/ii neeuei?oee, i?ae aieea
eiaeiiai ie?aii, iaaeoi ae yeui a?i ?icaaaeaiee o i?inoi?? e o /an?.
?iiae? ia iaeii/anio ai?ioueao c on?ia o?ueiia ?inoeoooaie o aea?aeaae
i?inoi ia aenoa/a? ?ano?n?a, ui c?aooith iiaea ia?aoai?eoe ?? ia
iaieiieo, iacaeaoio aa?iii?coaaoe aca?iiae?th an?o nioe?aeueieo aa?noa ?
a?oi.

Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia i?ioe??//y, aeanoea? ?icaeoeia? eaac?aea?aeaaieo
?inoeooo?a, ?o iioaioe?aeii iiaeia ? ne?ae nei?enoaoeny. O aeena?oaoe??,
cie?aia, i?iiiio?oueny aeoea?coaaoe aeei?enoaiiy iaoai?cio
ioi?oeeiaeueieo iicee aeey ?ica’ycaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee.

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? “?io?ano?oeoo?i? aiiiae?? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee”
aea/a?oueny i?iaeaia ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue c
iiceoe?e aeina?aeo ?icaeiaieo e?a?i. Ieoaiiy i?i aiiiae?? ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee iaeaaeeoue aei iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaieo a iao?e aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo??, ? oea ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeiaaeeia?noth. ??/ o o?i, ui aei
ii/aoeo e?oiiiianooaaieo ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue iaea?eueo ?icnoaeeea?
a/ai? e iie?oeee ona?aeiiethaaee, ui i?ioean ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaei???
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie aei ?ioi? aoaea iai?inoei ? cian?i ia ei?ioei/aniei.
Iaeiae i?e oeueiio aaaaoueii caeaaaeiny, ui a?i oaee a?aeiia?aeaoeia
caaaeueiina?oiaei caeiiii??iinoyi, aeyaeaiei o oeo e?a?iao, ui eieenue
aeieaee oeae oeyo.

Iaeiae aeeooy iieacaei, ui, ii-ia?oa, ia?ao?ae o oaeeo e?a?iao, ye
Oe?a?ia aai ?in?y, noaey/e c anueiai, aoaea iaaaaaoi o?eaae?oei, a
ii-ae?oaa, aiane?aeie iaaecia/aiino? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aeiiii?/ia
ae?eni?noue aeanoue oe?eo ieceo yaeu, ia a?aeiieo ?ioei e?a?iai. ?ioeie
neiaaie, ?iaa?n?eiee ia?ao?ae aei ?eieo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/ii
a?eueoith e?euee?noth aiiiaeueieo i?ioean?a, i?ae aoaeue-yeee ?ioee aeae
ia?aoiaeo, i?e oiio, ui ?ioaineai?noue aeieeiaiiy, o?eaae?noue ?nioaaiiy
? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee aieeao oeeo i?ioean?a ia ana noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ia
aeeooy iaaoee no?eeiai oa?aeoa?o.

Aiae?coth/e aeacaio i?iaeaio, aeena?oaio ae?eoia oaeiai aeniiaeo:
aieiaieie ?io?ano?oeoo?ieie /eiieeaie, ui ii?iaeaeothoue ainiiaea?nuee?
aiiiae?? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, ?, ii-ia?oa, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia
iie?oeea aea?aeaae (aeeth/ath/e ii?iioai?aiiy), ? ii-ae?oaa, iniaeeaino?
noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?, i?e/iio aiiiae?? iiaeooue ni?e/eiyoeny aieeaii
ye eiaeiiai c oeeo /eiiee?a ie?aii, oae ? ?o noeoii?noth. A inoaiiueiio
aeiaaeeo ianooaae aiiiaeueieo i?iya?a iniaeeai cia/i?.

Ia iioe?aiiy aiiiaeueieo i?iya?a a aeiiii?oe?, ie??i ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo
oaeoi??a, iiaeooue ?noioii aieeaaoe e oae? yaeua, ye no?oeoo?a
aeiiii?ee, ??aaiue ?? a?aee?eoino?, ciai?oi? aieeae. Oae, a oiiaao
Oe?a?ie a?aenooi?noue oii?yaeeiaaieo ei?aeii?a iieaaoo? i?iieeiaiiy
oe?ieiai iioieo eiio?aaaiaeieo oiaa??a ia oa?eoi??th e?a?ie, ui ni?ey?
c?inoaiith ianooaa?a o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee.

Iaeyne?aa?oei i?eeeaaeii ?icaeoeo aiiiae?e, iia’ycaieo c? niaoeeo?eith
noni?eueii? na?aeiiino? a ia?ao?aeiiio noni?euenoa?, ? oaiiiai
o?iainiai? i??ai?aee. O aeena?oaoe?? iaaiaeeoueny aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue o?iainiai? i??ai?aee, ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii ? caniiaaia ia aiae?c?
iiaaae?iee o /an? ao?aeieo ? aeo?aeieo o?iainiaeo iioie?a, c iaeiiai
aieo, ? caiano o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, c ?ioiai. sse ao?aei? iioiee
aenooiathoue iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae ee??io?a ? i?eaooie a?ae ?iaanooaaiiy
eioo?a, aeo?aei? — aeo?aoe ia aaaeaiiy ni?aae, aeieaoe ee??ioai iniiaieo
noi ? aeioiaeo a?ae ?ici?uaiiy io?eiaieo a?ioae. O iaei?ino?oiio
aeiaaeeo, eiee “ia aoiae?” ? o?eueee iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aiane?a a?ae
ee??io?a, a ia “aeoiae?” — aeieaoe a?aenioe?a ii aianeao ? aeo?aoe ia
aeania ?nioaaiiy i??ai?aee, iiaaae?iea caiano o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a o /an?
iieno?oueny oi?ioeith:

A(t)- Ht — Rvt — Rst,

aea A(t)- caeeoie o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a,

Ht -caaaeueia noia iaeiie/aieo aiane?a,

Rvt -noia aeiea/aieo a?aenioe?a,

Rst -noia aeo?ao ia ?nioaaiiy i??ai?aee.

Ia iae.1 i?eaaaeaia a?ao?/ia cia?aaeaiiy iiaoaeiaaii? iiaeae?. Oi/eaie
O1, O2 ? O3 a?aecia/ai? e?eoe/i? oi/ee ?icaeoeo i??ai?aee, ui
?icae?eythoue aoaie ?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo.

Ia iniia? aiae?co iiaeae? a aeaio ?? iiaeeo?eaoe?yo — aacia?a?aii? ?
aeene?aoii? a aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iiiyooy aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo
o?iainiai? i??ai?aee ? aeae?eai? eiai iniiai? aoaie ? noaae??, iaaaaeai?
a oaae. I-1.

Oaaeeoey I-1. AEeoo?aee oeeee o?iainiai? i??ai?aee (ca iciaeith noaio
caiano caeo/aieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a)

Noaae?yAoai Ae?aiacii aoaio o /an?Ci?no aoaio

Aeno?aeia1

0; tI*enoa iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a iino?eii ca?eueoo?oueny. Caian
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a c?inoa? i?enei?aieie oaiiaie, oaeaee?noue c?inoaiiy
aeioiaeeoue aei iaeneioio2

tI; t??*enoa iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a nei?i/o?oueny aei ioey. Caian
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a oiia?eueith? oaeaee?noue naiai c?inoaiiy aei
ioey.Ieno?aeia3

t??; t???Iaaaoeaia cia/aiiy /enoiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a c?inoa?. Caian
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a nei?i/o?oueny aei ioey ?c c?inoath/ith
oaeaee?noth.E?ea?aeaoe?eia4> t???Caiano o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a iaia?.

AENIIAEE

Aecia/aeueieie aeey i?iaeaie noaee iiaee i?aeo?ae aei ?icoi?iiy noo?
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ye iniaeeai? i?aenenoaie aeiiii?ee, ui
caaacia/o? ?oo oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo iioie?a, ? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia iaie
o?aeooaaiiy neeaaeiaeo /anoei ??N.

Caaaeyee oeei aeaii eeth/iaei aeaiaioai eiioeaioe??, a i?ioean?
oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co aaeaeiny iiaa/eoe oa, ui cae/aeii i?eoiao?oueny
a?ae aeine?aeieea ye ca ?ioeo i?aeoiae?a aei o?aeooaaiiy ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, oae ? a oiae? o?aaeeoe?eiiai aiae?co ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee, ui aano?aao?oueny a?ae ?io?ano?oeoo?ieo i?iaeai.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeaeiny aeyaeoe iniiai? iai?yie ?
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ia?ao?aeii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
cai?iiiiiaai?e eeaneo?eaoe?? ?? neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a ? a?aeia?aaeathoue
niaoeeo?eo aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeaeiny, ye iai caea?oueny, c?iaeoe aaaeeeaee
e?ie uiaei ?ic?iaee iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie iieaciee?a aea/aiiy
i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo ??N o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?. C iaeiiai
aieo, iaiao?aei?noue ?ica’ycaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ia aeeeeea? caia?a/aiue,
ine?eueee aeey aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy a?aeiia?aeieie i?ioeanaie o?aaa
uiiaeiaioa /?oei oyaeyoe ianooaae ?o iioe?aiiy. Iaeiae, c ?ioiai aieo,
a?aenooi?noue ia o?eueee i?aaeeueieo, aea e acaaae? aoaeue-yeeo
aea??aieo, inieneaieo ? /?oei noi?ioeueiaaieo iieiaeaiue, eio??
caaacia/oaaee a iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue ye?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia’?eoa, ia aeicaiey? iaeaaeii iiaoaeoaaoe nenoaio
e?euee?nieo eiai ioe?iie.

Ua iaeei aaaeeeaee caaaeueiee aeniiaie, yeee aeieeaa? c i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?e aiae?c? neooaoe?? a eiaeiiio c
naeoi??a ??N, ui ae??ciy?oueny ca ooieoe?iiaeueieie iciaeaie (oiaa?i?
?eiee, a?ioia? ?eiee, ?eiee eai?oaeo oiui), aeei?enoaiiy iaoiai
i?aeoiaeo aeicaiey? a?ae?eoe a?ae aaeocaaiai aiae?co ? cina?aaeeoeny
naia ia ?io?ano?oeoo?iiio aniaeo? ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeii? aaeoc?. *iio
oeae iiiaio ia? i?eioeeiiaee oa?aeoa?? Oiio ui cina?aaeaeaiiy oaaae ia
aaeocaaeo iniaeeainoyo iaieio/a ooiaoa? aeine?aeieea aei iiaeeaeaiiai
aea/aiiy “aioo??oi?o” i?iaeai aeaii? aaeoc?. I?e oeueiio c iiey ci?o
cieea? aieiaia ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy o??? /e ?ioi?
?io?ano?oeoo?ii? noa?e — caaacia/oaaoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy an??? aeiiii?ee.

Cae/aeii, ooo iio??aia ?icoiia i??a. ssnii, ui iiae?aia caaacia/aiiy ia
iiaeia ?icoi?oe ye ciaaaaeaiiy i?iaeai ?icaeoeo naii? ?io?ano?oeoo?ii?
aaeoc?. Iaeiae, yeui aioo??oi? iiiaioe ii/eiathoue aeii?ioaaoe iaae
ciai?oi?ie, oi a aeiiii?oe? aeieea? ? iiaeeaeth?oueny aeenaaeain o
aca?iiae?? i?aenenoaie (??N) c naiith nenoaiith, oiaoi c aeiiii?eith
caaaeii. I?e/iio, ye iieaco? aeina?ae ?icaeoeo, iai?eeeaae,
aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, oaeee aeenaaeain iiaeeaeth? aeiiii?/iee
niaae.

Aaaeeea?noue aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy ??N a ?iaa?n?ei?e
aeiiii?oe? aecia/a?oueny o??th ianoaaeiith, ui oea oi?ioaaiiy /anoi
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oae, ye o e?a?iao c i?e?iaeiei oiaeii noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aeyaeai? iaie no?ee? oaiaeaioe??, a naia: noai?aiiy
?eieiaeo ?inoeooo?a aieueiaei oeyoii, aac iayaiino? ia’?eoeaieo oiia
aeey ?o ?icaeoeo; aeeiiaiiy ?eieiaeie ?inoeoooaie iaaeanoeaeo ?i
ooieoe?e; iano?ee?noue ii?iioai?aiiy, ui caaaaea? ?inoeoooai aaeaeaaoii
aeeiioaaoe nai? ooieoe??; iaiaa?oioiaaia iie?oecaoe?y i?ioeano i?eeiyooy
aeiiii?/ieo ??oaiue oa ?io? — oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniaeeaino? ?iaa?n?eiiai
oeyoo oi?ioaaiiy ??N.

Aaeaeiny oaeiae aeyaeoe niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
?io?ano?oeoo?ieo ?inoeooo?a a ??cieo i?aenenoaiao ??N. Aiae?c iieacaa,
ui c iaeiiai aieo, i?aeoe/ii aoaeue-yea noa?a nii/aoeo ia?aaeeaa? ce?o o
noai?aii? a?aeiia?aeieo ?inoeooo?a, yeee ia??aeei a?ae?eaa?oueny a?ae
nai?? ia’?eoeaii? iniiae — ?icaeoeo ?aaeueiiai naeoi?a. ?acoeueoaoii
oaeiai ceueioo iiaea aooe aai eiina?aaoe?y caeaeo ?inoeooo?a a
i/?eoaaii?, eiee aei ?o iio??aii? e?eueeino? “aeini??” ?aaeueiee naeoi?,
aai oaea ae a??ia?aeia ianooiia cia/ia nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino?
?inoeooo?a.

C i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieeaa? ua iaeei i?eioeeiiaee aeniiaie:
o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? iaia? ?ioi? neee, caeaoii? caaacia/eoe
noai?aiiy iaiao?aeii? ??N, e??i aea?aeaae, yea, iaeiae, /anoi
aeyaey?oueny iani?iiiaeiueith aeeiiaoe oeth ooieoe?th. Aeoiaeeoue, ui a
?iaa?n?ei?e aeiiii?oe? niiioaiia ca?iaeaeaiiy ??N iiaeeeaa, aea
iaaaaeaia, a oe?eani?yiiaaia noai?aiiy — aaaeaia, aea iaeieiia??ia.
?icaycaiiy oe??? eie?c??, eio?o ie iaceaa?ii ia?aaeienii ?iaa?n?eii?
??N, o iaiao?aeiiio aeey noni?euenoaa iai?yi? noa? iiaeeeaei o?eueee ca
iayaiino?, ii-ia?oa, iie?oe/ii? aie? ea??aiee?a, ? ii-ae?oaa, i?e
iaiao?aeiiio ??ai? ?o eiiiaoaioiino?. Aaaeeeai oaeiae ona?aeiiethaaoe,
ui iio??aia iaeii/ania aeio?eiaiiy oeeo aeaio oiia, ?iaeoa i?ye?
oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aeiiiiiaeooue i?ioeania? noaiiaeaiiy ??N a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.

?iaa?n?eiee oa?aeoa? oi?ioaaiiy ??N coiiaeth? oaeo ?? iniaeea?noue, ye
iayai?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino? aiiiaeueieo yaeu ? oaiaeaioe?e. Oiio, c
iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, aeine?aeaeaiiy iiceoeaieo iiiaio?a, iia’ycaieo c
oi?ioaaiiyi ii?iaeueii?, aaeaeaaoii? ?aaeueiei noni?eueiei iio?aaai ??N,
iaiao?aeii aeiiiaieoe aiae?cii aiiiae?e. Ie cae?enieee nenoaiaoecaoe?th
?io?ano?oeoo?ieo aiiiae?e ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ye caeiiii??iee
?acoeueoao iaii?aeiaiino? ?icaeoeo iniiaieo aeaiaio?a ia?ao?aeii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, ?iciaaeoaaee io?oe?eio ? o?iueiao ?io?ano?oeoo?o.

Iaea?eueo ?noioi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, aae?aniaai? i?aaiai aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ye? aeieeaathoue c i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nie?athoueny ia eiai oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy e
aeniiaee, caiaeyoueny aei oiai, ui iaiao?aeii:

1. I?eieieoe aoae?aieoeoai iiaeo aeaeo?inoaioe?e, iniaeeai aoiiieo, ?
caaacia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeueia aia?ainiiaeeaaiiy ia iniia? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aia?aicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e.

2. Aaeeoe caoiae?a aeey iiaeieaiiy aea?aeaaiiai iiiiiie?cio a on?e
nenoai? aeaeiaooeo, ia?a?iaee e oi?a?ae? aacii ye ia oeaio?aeueiiio, oae
? ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo, c oei, uia caaacia/eoe eiieo?aioia
oe?iiooai?aiiy, ia’?eoeaiee iae?e oa aoaeoeaia aeeo/aiiy ?aioiiai
i?eaooeo, a oaeiae iaiao?aeia ?iaanooaaiiy a nenoaio aaciaiai
ainiiaea?noaa ye ?aeeiee eiiieaen.

3. Caaacia/eoe aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii iaooiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? aoaeoeaio ai?ioueao c ?aa?iiaeueieie iiiiiie?yie ia an?o
noaae?yo — a?ae aeaeiaooeo iaooe aei oi?a?ae? iaooii?iaeoeoaie, c
iinooiiaith e?aa?ae?caoe??th aeinooio ia oe?a?inuee?e ?eiie ?iicaiieo
ae?iaiee?a ? i?iaeaaoe?a, iaeii/anii c i?iaaaeaiiyi caoiae?a uiaei
iiaeieaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o iaooiaiai a?ciano.

4. I?iaeiaaeoaaoe aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii ??/eiaiai e
ii?nueeiai o?ainii?oo ? ii?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, aa?aoe?eiiai o?ainii?oo
? aa?iii?o?a, eaeo/e oeyoii aeae?eaiiy ie?aieo naiino?eieo i?aei?e?inoa
(oaeeo, ye eioeiainueea neoaeaa, aaioaaeii-?icaaioaaeoaaeuei? o??ie,
ianeoaiaoaaiiy eiioaeia?ieo aaioaae?a, neeaaenueea ainiiaea?noai,
o?ainii?ooaaiiy aaioaae?a ??cieie aeaeaie o?ainii?oo, noai?aiiy
naiino?eieo eiiiai?e ia aac? eiaeiiai ie?aiiai noaeia oa ?i.), ?o
i?eaaoecaoe?? (cie?aia oeyoii aeoe?iioaaiiy) ? aeiioneo ?iicaiiiai
eai?oaeo c iaoith noai?aiiy ?aaeueiiai eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua,
cieaeaiiy aeo?ao ia ia?aaacaiiy aaioaae?a ? i?enei?aiiy no?oeoo?ieo
ci?i.

5. E?ea?aeoaaoe a?eueoo /anoeio i?euea ia i?i?cae o a?iiaaenueeiio
o?ainii?o? e aeei?enoaoe aea?eueiai? o?iainia? ?ano?ne aeey aae?anii?
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae iacaiiaeiei.

6. A?aei?ieoe aei?iaei?e ca?? a eiai iei?oiueiio aeaeyae?, aeaanoe eiai
c neeaaeo aea?aeathaeaeaoo ? ia?aeoe ia noyaoaaiiy eeoa c oeo noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ye? iathoue o?ainii?oi? eiooe.

7. ?icoe?eoe i?aeoeeo a?iiaaenueeiai iaaiai?aiiy aea?aeaaieo ??oaiue, ui
aioothoueny, ? caaacia/eoe iaeaaeiee iae?e ?acoeueoao?a oeueiai
iaaiai?aiiy ia noaae?? ?o i?eeiyooy.

8. Iaaeaoe i?ioni?eeai eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae.

9. Nei?eaoaaoe i?aeoeeo iaaeaiiy aaie?anueeeo e?oeaic?e, a?aoiaoth/e
?ici??e aaieo ia aeey aecia/aiiy e?eueeino? aeicaieaieo eiio
aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e, a aeey anoaiiaeaiiy ?o e?euee?nieo iaae.

10. Aaanoe a /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai ?inoeooo ioae?/ii-i?aaiaeo in?a ye
iniaeeaeo no?oeoo?, ui c oi?iaeueii? oi/ee ci?o ia ? i?aaiaie
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, aea a iaaeao nai?? eiiiaoaioe?? iiaeooue aeaeaaaoe
ii?iaoeai? aeoe, iaia’yceia? aei aeeiiaiiy an?ia noa’?eoaie oeea?eueiiai
i?aaa, ? iaaeaoe oeae noaoon Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aaieo Oe?a?ie.

11. Iineaaeoe aeiiae aioeiiiiiieueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei 5%-iiai
iaiaaeaiiy aca?iii? o/ano? no?aoiaeo eiiiai?e o eai?oae? iaeia iaeii?, a
oaeiae i?ioaeoe?ii?nonuee? caoiaee, iath/e ia iao? iieaaoaiiy
i?iieeiaiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo ia oe?a?inueeee no?aoiaee ?eiie ia
i?eioeeiao eiiia?oaaiiy c iaoe?iiaeueiei eai?oaeii.

12. I?enei?eoe caeiiiaeaa/a ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino?
iaaea?aeaaieo iain?eieo oiiae?a.

13. Noai?eoe aoaeoeai? iaoai?cie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e ? noni?eueiiai eiio?ieth ca ae?yeuei?noth aea?aeaae o
oe?e noa??.

14. ?icoe?eoe aea?aeaaio i?aeo?eieo i?eaaoiiai a?ciano a noa?? ?ioa?iao,
cie?aia oeyoii noai?aiiy aaeaioia — nenoaie aioo??oi?o ca’yce?a i?ae
aoceaie ia?aaea/? aeaieo ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

15. ?icoe?eoe canoinoaaiiy i?eioeeio a?aeie?aieaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
e?i?e i?iaiaeiaiai ca’yceo a?ae iaaeaiiy iineoa ? cae?enieoe
i?eaaoecaoe?th aea?aeaaieo oaeaoiiieo eiiiai?e ia oe?e iniia?.

16. Ia?ai???iooaaoe aea?aeaaio ?ioi?iaoe?eio iie?oeeo c i?eioniai?
oe?a?i?caoe?? ia noai?aiiy oiia aeey yeiaeiiai?oiai ?icaeoeo
aeaiiiaiino? oa caoeno a?o/eciyiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o a?ae
iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e a ?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoecaoe??.

17. ?ic?iaeoe ? caaacia/eoe i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy iaoai?cio
aeino?ieiaiai aeoiaeo ia iain?th aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ia i?eueaiaeo
oiiaao c iaoith i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano ci?ie iieie?iue ath?ie?ao?? oa
?icai?oaiiy oe?ieiianooaaii? i?ia?aie i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aeui?
eaae?o?eaoe?? c ieoaiue aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

18. Cae?enieoe ci?ie a Caeii? i?i aeai?e, ia?aaeaa/eaoe aaaaeaiiy
iaeiiaiai ?/aai ina?oiueiai oeaico aeey eaiaeeaeao?a o ia?iaei?
aeaiooaoe, aeeth/ath/e iaiao?aei?noue aeui? th?eaee/ii? aai aeiiii?/ii?
ina?oe, neanoaaiiy aeai??a ca nieneaie iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ?
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aa?oi?o a?eiaeo iaiaaeaiue aeey ia?eiaiiy ea??aieo
iinaae o caeiiiaeaa/iio i?aai?.

19. I?iaanoe eiiieaenio aaei?i?no?aoeaio ?aoi?io, ui aeeth/a? nenoaio
caoiae?a c aea?aaoethaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue a?ae oeaio?a ?aa?iiai,
i?aeaioiaeo no/anieo oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a, oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a
a?iiaaenueeiai eiio?ieth ca ae?yeuei?noth i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy.

20. Aaanoe aei Ea?iiai eiaeaeno noaooth, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa ca iaa/anio aeieaoo
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe i?e iayaiino? eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo, a
aaie?a — ca iaoe?eueiaa aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ee??io?a ? cao?eiee o
cae?eniaii? ?ic?aooie?a.

21. ?icoe?eoe i?aeoeeo i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy i?noeaaeo iicee,
ia?aaeaa/eaoe iaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea a?aeiinii i?eaooe?a a?ae oeeo
iicee.

22. Aeae?eeoe a i?aai?caoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a,
I?i?noa?noa o?iain?a, aeiiii?ee ? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo i?ae?icae?ee, ui
eii?aeeioaaee a i?iaaaeaiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?ii? iie?oeee ia iae?i??ai?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O

IIIIA?AO??

1. Niaieaa A.I. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u a ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieea eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia: iauea /a?ou e iniaaiiinoe a Oe?aeia. —
Oa?ueeia: Aecian-eioi?i, 1999.- 304 n. (15,5 ae.a.; 17,05 iae.-aeae.
a?e.)

2. Niaieaa A.I., Oaaeyeia A.A. Iaiaaeaeiaio a iaeanoe eiaanoeoeee e
ia?niiaea: iniaaiiinoe a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea. — Oa?ueeia:
Aecian-eioi?i, 1996.- 10 ae.a. (/anoea aaoi?a — 4,5 ae.a., ?icae?ee
1-4).

NOAOO? A IAOEIAEO OAOIAEO AEAeAIIssO

3. Niaie?a A.I. Iniiai? iai?yie ia?aaoaeiae ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio ?
?o a?aeia?aaeaiiy a no/ani?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??// ?noi??y ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa aeiiii?/ii? aeoiee Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: ?anioae. i?aea?ae.
ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.- Aei. 24.- E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1990.- 0,9
ae.a.

4. Niaieaa A. Aaenaey e eo ?ieue a oicyenoaaiiii iai?ioa
//Aecian-eioi?i.- 1992.- ?6.- 0,25 ae.a.

5. Neaei?ia A., Niaieaa A. I niaea?aeaiee aaenaey// Aecian-eioi?i.-
1992.- ?10.- 0,2 ae.a. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue aeniiaie i?i nei?i/aiiy
noa?e ?iciianthaeaeaiiy aaenae?a i?e iaaeio?eiaii? ia?aaeaa/aieo
caeiiiaeaanoaii i?aaee ?o ioi?ieaiiy, ui caoaeo? iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo
?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a.

6. Niaieaa A.I. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa a i?ioeanna neiia
eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieee// Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, ?378/93.-
Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa, 1993.- 0,5 ae.a.

7. Ei?oeeyi Y., Niaieaa A. Ia?aay iiiuoea nicaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai
o/aaiiai iiniaey ii yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee Oe?aeiu// Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu.-
1995.- ?2.- 0,25 ae.a. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeaoue iieiaeaiiy: i?i
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaeono??aeueiiai oa iino?iaeono??aeueiiai
noni?euenoaa; i?i ?icaeoie a??aeiaiai iaoai?cio; i?i noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a Oe?a?i? a ia??iae iaio; i?i iiai? aniaeoe
aeui? ina?oe.

8. Niaieaa A. Nia?aiaiiue naia?aoeci: ?ieue yeiiiie/aneiai oaeoi?a//
Aecian-eioi?i.- 1995.- ? 19-20.- 0,5 ae.a.

9. Niaieaa A. Oeiainiaay aaca ianoiie aeanoe a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea//
Aecian-eioi?i.- 1995.- ? 27-28.- 0,5 ae.a.

10. Niaieaa A. Oeiainiaua ie?aieaeu: nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee oaiiiai
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee// Aecian-eioi?i.-1995.- ?37-38.- 0,6 ae.a.

11. Niaieaa A., Iineiaeei A. ?aeoeia oeaiiuo aoiaa//
Aecian-eioi?i.-1995.- ? 43-44.- 0,6 ae.a. Aeena?oaiii i?iaiae?ciaaii
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ?aeoeia?a oe?iieo iaia??a oa ?aeoeiaiaeo aaaioe?e
ye aeaiaioa ia?ao?aeii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

12. Niaieaa A. Oe?aeineay aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia e aa ?aaeueiue
iioaioeeae// Aecian-eioi?i.-1995.- ? 45-46.- 0,5 ae.a.

13. Niaieaa A., Nieiaueaa A. Oeiainiaay ie?aieaea:
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue e oicyenoaaiiay i?aeoeea//
Aecian-eioi?i.-1996.- ? 1.- 0,9 ae.a. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue ?ic?iaea
ye?nieo ia?aiao??a aacia?a?aii? iiaeae? oeiainiai? i??ai?aee, aeeoo?aiai
oeeeeo o?iainiai? i??ai?aee, eiai aoai?a oa ?o ii??aiyeueii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oa aeiiii?/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iaoaiaoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a
aeeiai?ee o?iainiai? i??ai?aee.

14. Niaieaa A., Nieiaueaa A. Aeene?aoiay iiaeaeue oeiainiaie ie?aieaeu//
Aecian-eioi?i.-1996.- ? 3.- 0,4 ae.a. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue ?ic?iaea
e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a aeene?aoii? iiaeae? o?iainiai? i??ai?aee,
aeniiaie i?i aiiiaeueiee oa?aeoa? oaiiiaia o?iainiai? i??ai?aee a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee oa aecia/aiiy oaeoi??a, ui iaoiiaeththoue ??
?iciia?nthaeaeaiiy.

15. Iineiaeei A., Niaieaa A., Nieiaueaa A. Iinoniaaoneia i?ino?ainoai a
ca?eaea ainieeneeo niauoee// Aecian-eioi?i.-1996.- ? 4.- 0,9 ae.a.
Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue iieiaeaiiy i?i ?noi?e/io iaiyoue ye oaeoi?
nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee ia?iaeo, ui iio?aao? o?aooaaiiy i?e ae??oaii?
i?iaeai oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith Oe?a?ie.

16. Niaieaa A., Nieiaueaa A. Onoie/eainoue oeiainiaie ie?aieaeu//
Aecian-eioi?i.- 1996.- ? 7.- 0,6 ae.a. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue aeyaeaiiy
ni?eueieo ?en a iiaaae?ioe? i??ai?aeaeueieo oa iai??ai?aeaeueieo
o?iainiaeo no?oeoo?, ?ic?iaea iiiyooy “noae?noue o?iainiai? i??ai?aee”
oa ?ice?eooy aieeao ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a ia noae?noue oeiainiai?
i??ai?aee.

17. Aa?aaii N., Niaieaa A. Iin?aaeieee a aaenaeueiii iai?ioa//
Aecian-eioi?i.-1996.- ?23.- 0,6 ae.a. Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue ?ice?eooy
iniaeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeoooo aaenaeueiiai iina?aaeieoeoaa a
oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee, cie?aia, a i?ioean? noai?aiiy
o?iainiai-i?iieneiaeo a?oi.

18. Niaieaa A.I. I niaea?aeaiee iiiyoey “?uii/iay eio?ano?oeoo?a”//
Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai oi-oa.- ? 398. — Oa?ueeia: OAO, 1997.- 0,5 ae.a.

19. Niaieaa A.I. Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey eio?ano?oeoo?u oiiaeiaiai
?uiea a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea// Aanoiee Oa?uee. oi-oa, ? 404. —
Oa?ueeia: OAO, 1998.- 0,25 ae.a.

20. A?eoeaiei A., Niaieaa A. ?uii/iay eio?ano?oeoo?a: nouiinoue,
ooieoeee, no?iaiea// Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu.- 1998.- ?4.- 0,8 ae.a.
Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue icia/aiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, oi?ioethaaiiy
?? ooieoe?e, aecia/aiiy ?? aoaeiae oa oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?.

21. Niaieaa A. Noaiiaeaiea oe?aeineie aeaiiceoa?iie nenoaiu//
Aecian-eioi?i.- 1998.- ?7.- 0,75 ae.a.

22. Niaieaa A. Eioi?iaoecaoeey e ia?aoiaeiay eio?ano?oeoo?a//
Aecian-eioi?i.- 1999.- ?3-4.- 0,6 ae.a.

23. Niaieaa A. Ia?aoiaeiay eio?ano?oeoo?a oiaa?iuo ?uieia//
Aecian-eioi?i.- 1999.- ?5-6.- 0,5 ae.a.

24. Niaieaa A. Ainoaea?noai a ia?aoiaeiie eio?ano?oeoo?a//
Aecian-eioi?i.- 1999.- ?7-8.- 0,5 ae.a.

NOAOO? A Ae?OEIAAIEO CANIAAO IANIAI? ?IOI?IAOe?? CAAAEUeIIAeA?AEAAII?
NOA?E ?ICIIANTHAeAEAIIss

25. Niaieaa A. Caeii neiaeiue, eiiiaioa?ee aeueoa?iaoeaiue// Aeaeiaay
iaaeaey: Iaeiae e i?aai. — 1998. — ?7 .- 0,2 ae.a.

26. Niaieaa A. Yieoaiou, aoaeueoa ?anoi?iiiu!// Aeaeiaay iaaeaey: Iaeiae
e i?aai. — 1998. — ?10 .- 0,2 ae.a.

27. Niaieaa A. I/a?aaeiua iiainoe aeey CAI// Aeaeiaay iaaeaey: Iaeiae e
i?aai. — 1998. — ?18 -19.- 0,22 ae.a.

28. Niaieaa A. ?aaioa aeey aoaeeoi?a// Aeaeiaay iaaeaey: Iaeiae e i?aai.
— 1998. — ?24.- 0,24 ae.a.

29. Niaieaa A. Yieoaiou, neaaeeoa ca ?aoaieyie AEOeAO?!// Aeaeiaay
iaaeaey: Iaeiae e i?aai. — 1998. — ?26-27.- 0,25 ae.a.

IAA*AEUeI? IIN?AIEEE

30. Iniiau yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee e i?aeoeee: O/aa. iiniaea. A 2-o
/anoyo.- Iiae ?aae. I.E.Aiiaea?aiei e A.A.A?eoeaiei. — Oa?ueeia: OAO,
1991.- 14 ae.a. (/anoea aaoi?a — 2,2 ae.a.: /.1, ?icae. 9,10; /.2,
?icae. 2, §4 oa ?icae. 8, §§3,4).

31. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. O/aa. iiniaea. A 5 /anoyo.- Iiae ?aae.
I.E.Aiiaea?aiei e A.A.A?eoeaiei. — Oa?ueeia: OAO, 1993. — 42 ae.a.
(/anoea aaoi?a — 7 ae.a.: /.2, ?icae. 6, §§2,3 oa ?icae. 7, §§1,3; /.4,
?icae. 1, 2, 7, 8 (ni?aaaoi? — Noi?iaeaiei I.A.), 9 (ni?aaaoi? —
Noi?iaeaiei I.A.), 10; /.5, ?icae. 8, §§3,4).

32. Iniiau ?uii/iie yeiiiieee: Iiniaea aeey o/au. IOO e oaoieeoiia.-
Iiae ?aae. A.A.Caaei?iaeiiai.- Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa, 1995.- 11 ae.a. (/anoea
aaoi?a — 1,6 ae.a.: ?icae. 10, §§1-4; ?icae. 12).

33. Niaieaa A.I. Aaethoiay nenoaia a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea: O/aa.
iiniaea.- Oa?ueeia: Oa?ueeianeee eieeaaeoi. 1996.- 3 ae.a.

34. Niaieaa A.I. Iae?iyeiiiieea: O/aaiia iiniaea aeey
aocia.-?aeiiaiaeiaaii Ieiia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu aeey nooaeaioia yeii. aocia
e oaeoeueoaoia.- Oa?ueeia: IAO “Nooaeoeaio?”, 1997.- 14 ae.a. Iniaenoi
aaoi?ii iaienai? ana ?icae?ee iin?aieea, ca aeiyoeii ?.?. 4.1-4.4 (aaoi?
— Niaie?aa I.I.) oa 5.1-5.2 (aaoi? — Aeieo?aiei I.A.), caaaeueiei
ianyaii 12 ae.a.

OACE AeIIIA?AeAE

35. Niaieaa A. ?aaeiiaeecaoeey oe?aeineie yeiiiieee: enoiee,
aiciiaeiinoe, ia?niaeoeau// ?aaeiiaeueiia ?acaeoea Oe?aeiu: i?iaeaiu e
ia?niaeoeau: Iaoa?eaeu iaaeae. iao/.-i?aeo. naieia?a.- Oa?ueeia, 1995.-
0,12 ae.a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Niaieaa A.I. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u a ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieea eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia.

Aeenna?oaoeey (?oeiienue) ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a
yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 — yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey.

Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao.- Oa?ueeia,1999.

I?aaeeiaeaia iiaay eiioeaioeey eio?ano?oeoo?u eae ioiineoaeueii
naiinoiyoaeueiie iiaenenoaiu, iaania/eaathuae ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e
?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, a ioee/ea io o?aaeeoeeiiiie aa o?aeoiaee
eae ianeoaeeaathuae iineaaeithth, auyaeaiu iniiaiua ooieoeee ?uii/iie
eio?ano?oeoo?u, ?ane?uoi eo niioiioaiea, aeaia eeanneoeeaoeey e
oa?aeoa?enoeea eo naienoa. Iainiiaai iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth ?uii/iie
eio?ano?oeoo?u eae einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaiiie o?ainaeoeee, eioi?ue
?aaeeciaai i?eiaieoaeueii e ?aaeueiiio e oeiainiaiio naeoi?ai
yeiiiieee. Aaaaeaiu a iao/iue iai?io iiiyoey “i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue
eio?ano?oeoo?u” e “niiniaiinoue ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee e inaiaieth
?uii/iuo einoeoooia”, ia iniiaa eioi?uo i?aaeeiaeai oieaa?naeueiue
e?eoa?ee ecia?aiey noaiaie niioaaonoaey nouanoaothuae eio?ano?oeoo?u
iio?aaiinoyi ?uii/iie yeiiiieee — i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue
eio?ano?oeoo?u. Noi?ioee?iaaii iiiyoea “oanoeoaieueiee oeaeae
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea”. Noi?ioee?iaaiu
iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee noaiiaeaiey ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u a Oe?aeia e
caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey aa einoeoooeeiiaeueiie ninoaaeythuae.

Auyaeaiu iauaeoeaiua i?ioeai?a/ey anoanoaaiiie iiiiiieee a ia?aoiaeiie
eio?ano?oeoo?a ?aaeueiiai naeoi?a, ?ane?uou i?ioeai?a/ey aa
aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee, iioaioeeae ?acee/iuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe a i?ioeanna
aa no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee, aiciiaeiinoe iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia aa
oeiaine?iaaiey e aa?eaiou eo acaeiicaiauaiey.

Noi?ioee?iaaiu e ?ane?uou iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
ae?aeaaiai iaoaiecia a ia?aoiaeiie eio?ano?oeoo?a.

Auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe eiaa?neiiiie iiaeaee eio?ano?oeoo?u ?uiea o?oaea,
noi?ioee?iaaiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aa ?acaeoey a Oe?aeia, ?ane?uo
oaiiiai caieiooiai e?oaa ?anoouaai aeaoeoeeoa oeiaine?iaaiey
ia?aciaaiey.

Iainiiaaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue ?acaeoey a oneiaeyo Oe?aeiu iniaie iiaeaee
aaieianeie nenoaiu, iie?athuaeny ia aieaa aeeeoaeueiia ii n?aaiaieth n
o?aaeeoeeiiiie iiaeaeueth ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ?acee/iuo ii ?acia?ai
aaieia, aeeth/ay iaeeea e n?aaeiea aaiee. Ii?aaeaeaiu i?iioneiay
niiniaiinoue e e?aaeeoiue iioaioeeae oe?aeineie aaieianeie nenoaiu.

Auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey iaaaieianeeo oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo
einoeoooia a eiaa?neiiiie yeiiiieea

?ane?uou iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie iiaeaee oe?aeineiai
oiiaeiaiai ?uiea, auyaeai ninoaa aai eio?ano?oeoo?u, ?ane?uoa
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo o?iaiai ii?iiia?aciaaiey e yooaeoeaiinoueth
auiieiaiey naieo ooieoeee einoeoooaie oiiaeiaiai ?uiea.

Auaeaeaiu e ?ane?uou o?e a?oiiu i?ioeai?a/ee ?acaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
naoae e oaeaeiiioieeaoeee- oaoie/aneea, th?eaee/aneea e iieeoe/aneea,
iainiiaaii nouanoaiaaiea ianeieueeeo aeaeia ?aioiiai aeioiaea a noa?a
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee — yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie ?aiou, noi?ioee?iaai
ia?aaeien oaeaeiiioieeaoeee e naeaeai auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey
yooaeoeaiuo iaoaieciia iauanoaaiiiai eiio?iey ca oaeaeiiioieeaoeeyie n
oeaeueth aeiee?iaaiey io?eoeaoaeueiuo iiai/iuo yooaeoia eo ?acaeoey.

Naeaeai auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaeiia?aiaiiie ?aaeecaoeee
no?aoaae/aneeo caaea/ ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo einoeoooia,
noi?ioee?iaaiu i?ei?eoaoiua caaea/e ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaa,
i?aaeeiaeaiu aeaa a?oiiu i?aeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee ainoaea?noaa a iaeanoe
niaeaenoaey ?acaeoeth eio?ano?oeoo?u — i?yiua e einaaiiua.

A iao/iue iai?io aaaaeaia eaoaai?ey “eaaceainoaea?noaaiiua einoeooou”,
ooi/iai ninoaa yoeo oi?i a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea (ath?ie?aoey, oaiaaay
yeiiiieea, ?aaeiiaeeci a ianeieueeeo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo) e ?ane?uoa eo
niaoeeoeea. ?aca?aie/aiu ioeoeeaeueiay e oaiaaay eio?ano?oeoo?a
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee, ?ane?uo iaoaieci eo acaeiiiai ia?aoiaea, auyaeai
“yooaeo oaiaaiai o?aiiaeea” e oaeoi?u aai ineaaeaiey.

Nenoaiaoece?iaaiu eio?ano?oeoo?iua aiiiaeee ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee,
?ane?uo oaiiiai oeiainiaie ie?aieaeu eae eiiaiaioii i?enouee ?uii/iie
eio?ano?oeoo?a, aia?aua iino?iaia yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue
oeiainiaie ie?aieaeu a aeaoo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo -iai?a?uaiie e aeene?aoiie,
auyaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe eo ?acaeoey, noi?ioee?iaaii iiiyoea onoie/eainoe
oeiainiaie ie?aieaeu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?uii/iay eio?ano?oeoo?a, ia?aoiaeiay yeiiiieea
eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia.

AIIOAOe?ss

Niaie?a A.I. Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?
?iaeono??aeueiiai oeio.

Aeena?oaoe?y (?oeiien) ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith aeieoi?a
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01 — aeiiii?/ia oai??y.

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oieaa?neoao.- Oa?e?a, 1999.

Cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaioe?th ?io?ano?oeoo?e ye naiino?eii? i?aenenoaie, ui
caaacia/o? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, aeyaeaii
iniiai? ooieoe?? ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ? ?ice?eoi ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy.
Noi?ioeueiaaia iiiyooy “oanoeeooiee oe?eae iae?iaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?”. Aeyaeai? iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a Oe?a?i?. Noi?ioeueiaai? ? ?ice?eo? iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a??aeiaiai iaoai?cio a ia?ao?aei?e
?io?ano?oeoo??. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ?iaa?n?eii? iiaeae? ?io?ano?oeoo?e
?eieo i?aoe?, noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iai?yie ?? ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?.
Iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue ?icaeoeo a oiiaao Oe?a?ie iniaeeai? iiaeae?
aaie?anueei? nenoaie. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iaaaie?anueeeo
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo ?inoeooo?a a ?iaa?n?ei?e aeiiii?oe?.

?ice?eo? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? iiaeae? oe?a?inueeiai
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. Aeae?eai? ? ?ice?eo? i?ioe??//y ?icaeoeo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aae ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e. O iaoeiaee ia?a aaaaeaii
eaoaai??th “eaac?aea?aeaai? ?inoeoooe”. Nenoaiaoeciaai? ?io?ano?oeoo?i?
aiiiae?? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, ?ice?eoee oaiiiai o?iainiai? i??ai?aee ?
iiaoaeiaaia ?? aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?eieiaa ?io?ano?oeoo?a, ia?ao?aeia aeiiii?ea
?iaeono??aeueiiai oeio.

SUMMARY

Vladimir M. Sobolev. Market Infrastructure Development in Transition
Economy of Industrial Type.

This dissertation (manuscript) is presented as a claim for the Doctoral
Degree in Economic, speciality 08.01.01 (Economic Theory).

Kharkov State University.- Kharkov, 1999.

Infrastructure concept is studied as an independent subsystem that
ensures functioning and development of the economic system; basic
functions of market infrastructure are exposed and their correlation is
established. The concept of “hexagon of macroeconomic policy in
transition economy” is formulated. Basic tendencies of the market
infrastructure in Ukraine are revealed. Peculiarities of development and
functioning of the exchange mechanism in transition infrastructure are
studied and summarised. Distinctive features of the inversion labor
market infrastructure model are found out; main tendencies of its
development in Ukraine are defined. Expediency of the development of a
special banking under the current conditions in Ukraine is proved.
Features of the development of non-bank finance-credit institutions in
the inversion economy are discussed.

Distinctive features of the national model of the stock market are
analised. Contradictions in the development of the information network
and telecommunication are revealed and ranked. The category of
“quasi-state institutions” is introduced into the scientific vocabulary.
The infrastructure anomalies of the transitional economy are
systematized; the financial pyramid phenomenon is analyzed and its
economic-mathematical model is built.

Key words: market infrastructure, transition economy of industrial type.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 20.05.99. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16.

Iai?? ionaoiee. Ae?oe ionaoiee. Ianya 2 ae.a.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ?___ Aaceiooiaii.

____________________________________________________

A?aeae?oeiaaii ia ??CI OAeO

310077, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Ie?iiineoeueea,1

Похожие записи