Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Ii?ic Aeieo?i Aiaoie?eiae/

OAeE: 330.342.14

Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai ono?ith

a aeiiii?/ii ia?icaeiaieo e?a?iao

(ia i?eeeaae? aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo Aiieiiao)

08.01.01 – aeiiii?/ia oai??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy

iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ?iei/a A??a
Aieiaeeie??aia,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Naa/oe Aieiaeeie? Nao?iiiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

Caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??.

Eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ai?io?i Aaea??e ?aaaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao,

Aeioeaio eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iaoe.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa,
eaoaae?a aeiiii?/ii? oai???, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?iii?eue

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_____” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.12 o Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, ca aae?anith: 252022, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aaneeuee?anueea, ?90a, aoae.704.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, ?58, e.10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_____” o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eaiiaiei I.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?aoai?thaaeuei? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i?
iinoaaeee ieoaiiy i?i iiooe iioeiaeueiiai oeyoo aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa. Ca no/anieo oiia ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee ? caaacia/aiiy ?? aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo iiaeeea? eeoa /a?ac
aeei?enoaiiy oaeiai oeio aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo, eiee aeiiii?/ia
iiaeaeue, ui aaco?oueny ia ?eieia?e o?einio??, iae?a?oueny na?aeiii, a
ia ? ?acoeueoaoii “i?e?iaeiiai” a?aeai?o, yeee aoa i?ia?aeiith ?oo?eiith
neeith i?ioyaii onueiai ia??iaeo iaioaaiiy eai?oae?cio a?eueii?
eiieo?aioe?? ? yeei i?eeoee aei naiai i?ioea?oaiiy iei? aeniei?icaeiai?
e?a?ie. No/ani? oi?ie aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? ?icaoaeiae ?eieiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith iathoue o nai?e iniia? aeii?ioaaiiy a
aaiethoe?eiiio i?ioean? niaoeeo?/ieo oaeoi??a, ye? aeiaeathoue oaeiio
i?ioeania? ?en ?aoe?iiaeueiino? ? aeicaieythoue nooo?ai i?enei?thaaoe
aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie .

Ia?oeie, ooi i?oia oeei oeyoii, aoee ia?icaeiai? e?a?ie, ui iei?
ia?aoai?eeeny ia iia? ?iaeono??aeuei?. Iniaeea?noue ?o aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui nenoaiith eieii?aeueiiai iaioaaiiy a
ieo na?aeiii caeeaaeaeeny o? aeaiaioe ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith,
eio?? a?aoo? neeaee iniiae aeniei? eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ?o
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e, iaeaeueo o na?o? oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy,
aenieiai ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy. Oei ?o aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aein?
aea/aiee ? ioe?iaiee aeiiii?/iith iaoeith oa i?aeoeeith, ia iao iiaeyae,
iaaeinoaoiuei. Caeaa?eueoiai noaaeaiiy aei iueiai caeeoa?oueny
i?oiaeienaeueiei: eieii?aeueia iaioaaiiy i?eianei e?a?iai aeiiii?/i? oa
ii?aeuei? caeoee, cae??ieei ia??aiii?aaiee noai o i?aeia?iaeiiio iiae?e?
i?aoe?, ia?aoai?eei eieii?? ia aeiiii?/ii caeaaei? oa?eoi???, ui ia iaee
i?aaa a?eueii aecia/aoe naith aeieth. ? aei oeueiai /ano o a?o/eciyi?e
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??, a e?oa?aoo?? e?a?i NIAe niaoe?aeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ciai?oiueiai aieeao ia noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o
cacia/aieo e?a?iao ? aeineoue ??aee?nieie, cie?aia, ?iaioe, a yeeo
i?iaeaia i?aei?iaeany a c oi/ee ci?o iaoia?aaeaeaii? ioe?iee. Oiae
aeieea? iio?aaa a iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio iiyniaii? oeo aeiiii?/ieo oa
nioe?aeueieo oni?o?a, yeeo aeinyaee iacaai? e?a?ie caaaeyee oeueiio
iai?aeeia?iiio ii?aeiaiith oaeoi??a aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo.

Iaaia noaa?euei?noue aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo iiaeo
?iaeono??aeueieo e?a?i ? i?aenoaaith aeey aea/aiiy aeina?aeo ?o ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? caaeey iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy eiai iaaieo neeaaeiaeo o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i. Iacaaaeath/e ia ??ci?
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/i? ianoaaeie o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith ia? caaaeuei? ?ene. Aeeo/eaoe caaaeueia ?
i?iaiae?coaaaoe iniaeeaa, iiaeia ae/eaieoe naia o? ?oo?ei? neee, ye?
caaacia/othoue aeeiai?ci aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, ui aeioe?eueii a?aooaaoe a
i?ioeanao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i. Oaeei
/eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaeae aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iiaeo
?iaeono??aeueieo e?a?i ia? ? nooi i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

I?aeiyoa a aeena?oaoe?? iaoeiaa i?iaeaia ia? naith ?noi??th
aeine?aeaeaiiy. C oi/ee ci?o caaaeueieo iniia ioi?ieaiiy ?eieiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith cia/iee aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei c?iaeaii
cao?aeieie a/aieie E.o.I?canii, O.o.Oae?eii, A.Ieeaiii, E.Eeaeiii,
I.?thnoiaei, A.?aiea, ?.Eiocii, ss.O?iaa?aaiii, Aeae.Aaea?aeoii oa
?ioeie a/aieie.

Ieoaiiy aaiethoe?eiino? noai?aiiy iiaeo ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo no?oeoo?, ui
oi?iothoue ?eieia? ono?i?, aoee aeeaiei i?iaiae?ciaai? O.Aaaeaiii,
A.Ith?aeaeai, A.Ii?oii, A?eueyinii oa ?i. Oe?a?inuee? a/ai? oa a/ai?
e?a?i NIAe eeoa oaia? o neeo ia’?eoeaii? iaiao?aeiino? i?aeoiaeyoue aei
iaoeiai aiae?co iinoaaeaieo i?iaeai. Na?aae oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo ie?aeii
i?aoeththoue o oeueiio iai?yieo A.*ooii, A.*a?iye, N.Ii/a?iee,
A.O?e?iaiei, ?.Ni?iea, N.Aei?iaoioeia, ?.Eoe?iia, A.Naa/oe oa ?io?.
Cia/iiai oni?oo aeinyaee a/ai? ?in?? (A.Ianoa?aiei, A.?eea??iiia). I?ioa
?o oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iinyoue ia?aaaaeii aano?aeoiee oa?aeoa?,
eio?ee ia a?aoiao? iaoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/ieo iniaeeainoae, a ?ice?eaa?
eeoa iaai? caaaeuei? ?ene aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.

Uiaei aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? Aiieiiao, oi
oe?a?inuee? a/ai? oeeie ieoaiiyie ia caeiaeeny. Na?aae ?in?enueeeo
a/aieo aa?oi iacaaoe I.?aaiiaa, A.Iaeneiiaa, A.A?naiue?ao, E.Ain?aa,
A.Eoeieaanueeiai. Iniaeea?noue ?o ?ia?o iieyaa? a oiio, ui an? aiie
aeeoee ca ?aaeyinueei? aeiae ? iathoue a?aeiia?aeiee ?aeaieia?/iee
a?aeo?iie. Ie??i oiai, ia oie /an aeine?aeaeaiue oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a N?N? ua ia aaeiny. C ?ia?o iacaaieo aaoi??a
ie?aii? oaaae caneoaiaothoue i?aoe? I.?aaiiaa. Caaaeoth/e ia oa, ui ?o
aaoi? ?noi?ee ca oaoii, ?iaioe aeathoue aeineoue oe?ieo ? aeinoia??io
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo Aiieiiao, yea aaco?oueny ia
i?ea?iaeueieo aeaea?aeao.

Iaea?eueoee aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
Aiieiiao c?iaeee aiae?enuee? oa aiieiianuee? a/ai?. Na?aae ieo,
ianaiia?aae, aa?oi iacaaoe N.Oeaiaa, Aeae.Neiooa, A.*aia, A.?aaooea,
I.Ioaia, E.Oiie?ina oa ?i. On? aiie cina?aaeaeoaaee naith oaaao ia
?ice?eoo? nooi?nieo ?en ?eieiaiai ii?yaeeo a Aiieiic?. I?ioa iica ?o
oaaaith caeeoeany aiae?c ciai?oiueiai aieeao a?eoainueeiai
eieii?aeueiiai iaioaaiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai ono?ith.

A?aenooi?noue oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie aeooaeueii? ? i?aeoe/ii aaaeeeai?
iaoeiai? i?iaeaie iineeth? cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeany ca?aeii ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e
aeiiii?/ii? oai??? aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e a?aenooi?noue
a?oioiaieo iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith
o niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao eieii?aeueieo e?a?i, ui a iiaeaeueoiio ooai?eee
a?oio iiaeo ?iaeono??aeueieo e?a?i, caaaeath/e ia iiceoeaiee aeina?ae
aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, aeaiaioe yeiai aeioe?eueii aeei?enoaoe a
?eieia?e ia?aaoaeia? Oe?a?ie, aaoi? iinoaaea ca iaoo cae?enieoe
nenoaiiee aiae?c i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a
ia?aa?ao aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo oa aeyaeoe niaoeeo?/i? ?ene eiai
?icaoaeiae a ?aaeueieo oiiaao eieeoiueiai eieii?aeueiiai iaioaaiiy, yea
aeey ie?aieo e?a?i caeeaei i?aenoaae aeey ia?aoai?aiiy a ?iaeono??aeueii
?icaeiai?. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoei aecia/aii oae? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy:

oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe nooi?noue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?iaeea?aeo, ui ?
yae?ii ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? oe?eueiaa ooieoe?y yeiai ?aae?co?oueny a
oiiaao ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith, ca ??cieo oiia aeiiii?/ii?
aaiethoe?? noni?euenoaa;

c?ynoaaoe nooi?noue aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo ye oi?ie aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa, eiai oeie oa oaeoi?e aieeao, ye?
aecia/athoue niaoeeo?eo eiie?aoieo iiaeaeae aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??;

aeine?aeeoe i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo ? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith o Aiieiic?, a aeiiii?/i?e o?ainoi?iaoe?? yeiai
aeii?ioaaee “ooo/iee“ oa?aeoa? oa ciai?oi? iie?oe/i? e aeiiii?/i?
oaeoi?e, ui ?o iin??i aoea iao?iiie?y;

iieacaoe iane?aeee ?aae?caoe?? iiaeae? aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith Aiieiiao
aeey nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie;

aecia/eoe iai?yiee iiaeeeaiai aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo aiieiianueei?
iiaeae? aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a Oe?a?i?.

aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo a oiiaao aeii?ioaaiiy ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a
aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?eieiaee aeiiii?/iee ono??e Aiieiiao,
eieeoiuei? eieii?? A?eoainueei? ?iia???, a iei? niaoe?aeueiiai
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aeiio Eeoath. Iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o ia??eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy naia Aiieiiao iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

ii-ia?oa, Aiieiia — inoaiiy eieii?y, aea eieii?aeueia iie?oeea ?eieiaiai
?icaeoeo iaaoea iaea?eueo caaa?oaieo oi?i;

ii-ae?oaa, oea aoea ?noi?e/ii iaaaeeea ? iaoe?iiaeueii iaeii??aeia
eieii?y, ui aeicaiey? i?inoaaeeoe a iaea?eueo /enoiio aeaeyae? i?eioeeie
oa iaoai?cie eieii?aeueii? iie?oeee, ia ia?aiaaaioaaeaii?
?aa?iiaeueieie, i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieie, aoi?/ieie ? o. ?. i?ioe??//yie;

yne?aaee iiceoeaiee i?eeeaae eieii?aeueiiai iaioaaiiy: Aiieiiia — 16-oee
o na?o? ca ??aiai AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiiy, 10-oee ca na?aaeiuei??/ieie
oaiiaie c?inoaiiy ?aaeueiiai AAI, 23-o?e o na?o? aenii?oa?, /a?ac ui
eiai aeina?ae ia? an? i?aenoaae aooe i?iaiae?ciaaiei ? i??ith nai??
cia/eiino? aeei?enoaiei i?e ?icaoaeia? aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? ia?oei a oe?a?inuee?e iaooe? nenoaiiei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a
oiiaao iaioaaiiy eieii?aeueieo a?aeiinei i?e i?ia?aei?e ?ie? ciai?oi?o
oaeoi??a o?ainoi?iaoe??;

noi?ioeueiaaia eiioeaioe?y iayaiino? aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo oei?a
aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie – aaiethoe?? ia canaaeao
“i?e?iaeiiai” a?aeai?o oa aaiethoe?? ia canaaeao “ooo/iiai” a?aeai?o,
?ice?eoi ?o iniiai? iciaee oa cai?iiiiiaaii oaco i?i ia?aaaao
aaiethoe?? c? “ooo/iei” a?aeai?ii iaae aaiethoe??th c “i?e?iaeiei”
a?aeai?ii ia no/aniiio aoai?;

aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a iiaeae? aaiethoe?eiiai
?icaeoeo, caniiaai?e ia canaaeao “ooo/iiai” a?aeai?o, a?aoiaioiaaii
aeniiaie i?i iiceoeaiee aieea ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ia oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua a e?a?i? ?
aeeiai?/i?noue ?? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo;

iaa?oioiaaii ?aeath i?i iaiao?aei?noue iiaeeaeaiiy a?aee?eoino?
aeiiii?ee, yea ? iane?aeeii ae?? aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo, ye? iia’ycai? c aenieei nooiaiai e?aa?ae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee;
aeiaaaeaii, ui e?aa?ae?caoe?y aeiiii?ee coiiaeth? aenieee nooi?iue
aeiiii?/ii? naiaiaee, iiceoeaii aieeaath/e ia eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee;

/a?ac aiae?c iie?oe/ieo e aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
Aiieiiao iieacaii niaoeeo?eo iiaeae? aeiiii?/ii? aaiethoe?? oe???
e?a?ie, aeyaeaii aeaiaioe aiieiianueei? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ye? aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoaoe a ?eieia?e ia?aaoaeia? Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aaoi?ii noi?ioeueiaai? iieiaeaiiy no?aoaa?/ii? aeueoa?iaoeae ?eieiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i?, ui a?oioothoueny ia aeina?ae? e?a?i, ?eieiaa
o?ainoi?iaoe?y yeeo a?aeaoaaeany ia canaaeao ooo/iiai a?aeai?o. Ia
i?eeeaae? Aiieiiao iieacaii eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee iaoai?ci aoaeoeaiiai
?ica?ycaiiy noni?eueii-aieueiaeo i?iaeai , ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue
o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane. Aeiaaaeaii iieiaeaiiy i?i iiceoeaio ?ieue
a?aee?eoino? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee aeey ae??oaiiy aeiiii?/ieo oa
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee ci?ie
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae caeiiiaeaa/ith oa aeeiiaa/ith aeaaeaie ia ??cieo
aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai ono?ith a eiie?aoi?e e?a?i? oa iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue aeeiai?ee oaeiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy.

Iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a “Aeiiii?/ia oai??y” oa
“Iae?iaeiiii?ea” ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? oai???, a oaeiae eo?no
“I?aeia?iaeia aeiiii?ea” ia eaoaae?? i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?ee
aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

— iinoaaeaii ieoaiiy i?i ?iciaaeoaaiiy aeaio oei?a aaiethoe?eiiai
?icaeoeo;

— aeyaeaii ?ene ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a aaiethoe??, yea
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia canaaeao ooo/iiai a?aeai?o;

— aenoiooi iieiaeaiiy i?i ia?aaaao oeio aaiethoe?? ia canaaeao ooo/iiai
a?aeai?o ia no/aniiio aoai?;

— noi?ioeueiaaii eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei iineeaiiy ?en e?aa?aeueiino?
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue, cie?aia, ia?aianaiiy oeaio?o
aaae a ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ii? aeaaee c? noa?e aeiiii?ee aei noa?e
iie?oeee;

— iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ci?i o ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e no?aoaa??
Oe?a?ie, nooue yeeo iieyaa? o iineeaii? aenii?oii? i???ioaoe??
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? ? noeioethaaii? ?icaeoeo ?iii?oicai?uaiiy eeoa ia
i?aenoaa? ?nioth/eo ? iioaioe?eieo ii??aiyeueieo ia?aaaa o a?aeiia?aeieo
aaeocyo aeiiii?ee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? aaoi?ii o noaooyo o oaoiaeo
aeaeaiiyo, a iaeiiin?ai?e iiiia?ao??, o aenooiao c aeiiia?aeyie ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao ia aeiiii?/iiio oaeoeueoao?
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, ia iaoeiaeo neiiic?oiao
a oi?aa?neoao? i. E?aen (Aaeeea A?eoai?y), ia iaoeiaeo aeeneon?yo a
oi?aa?neoaoao i. E?aen (i?ae /an iaoeiaiai noaaeoaaiiy) oa i. Ithioai
(O?I).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii o
iiiia?ao?? oa aeaio noaooyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 9,2 oi. ae?oe. a?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 3-o
?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 175 noi??iie, a oiio /ene?
5 oaaeeoeue, 3 noaie; nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae neeaaea? 189
iaeiaioaaiue.

Iniiaiee ci?no

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe “Aeiiii?/iee ono??e noni?euenoaa: nooi?noue oa
i?aeoe/ia ioi?ieaiiy» ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy noaiiaeaiiy oa
aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo ono?i?a o ??cieo oeiao noni?eueieo
nenoai. O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1 oaaaa cina?aaeaeaia ia c’ynoaaii?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith noni?euenoaa.

Aeo?aeieie iaoiaeieia?/ieie i?eioeeiaie aiae?co ? i?eioeei iaoiaee/iiai
?iaeea?aeoae?cio, i?eioeei ?ooo i?ciaiiy a?ae aano?aeoiiai aei
eiie?aoiiai ? iaaiaee oa i?eioeei a?ae caaaeueiiai /a?ac iniaeeaa aei
/anoeiaiai. Aeei?enoaiiy oeeo i?eioeei?a a aeine?aeaeaii? aeicaieeei
anoaiiaeoe iayai?noue nooi?noii-eia?/iiai ca’yceo i?ae aecia/aiiyi oeio
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie e aeiiii?/iiai ii?yaeeo, ia yeiio aiia aaco?oueny,
oa ?ieeth ?iaeea?aeooia a noni?euenoa?. A iaea?eueo caaaeueiiio aeae?
a?i iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaoith ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ? ?iaeea?ae,
eio?ee aecia/a?oueny ye ?aoe?iiaeueiee, ? iie?oeea aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith
nai?i caaaeaiiyi ia? cae??ieaiiy iiaeeeainoae ?aae?caoe?? eiai
oe?eueiai? ooieoe??, /a?ac ui i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ii?yaeeo a
noni?euenoa? ? ia’?eoeaii iaoiiaeaiei i?ioeanii. Oea iiynith?oueny oei,
ui aeiiii?/ia iiaaae?iea ?iaeea?ae?a oa ?o aca?iiae?y ioi?ieththoueny a
iaaeao iaaieo ?inoeooo?a (ii?i oa i?aaee), ye? aeieeathoue o
noni?euenoa? caaeey noai?aiiy oiia caa?aaeaiiy aeeoo?caeaoiino? oa
ae?yeueiino? ia?oeo ? ye? ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?iaeea?ae?a aenooiathoue
ye ciai?oiy (iaae?iaeea?aeia) neea, ioi?iethth/e aeiiii?/iee ii?yaeie ?
noaa?e?coth/e noni?eueio nenoaio.

Ii?ie oa i?aaeea, ye? iienothoue ? cae??ieththoue iniaeeaino?
aeiiii?/ii? iiaaae?iee ?iaeea?ae?a oa ?o aca?iiae??, ?icaeyaeathoueny a
?iaio? ye noeoii?noue iciae, ui oa?aeoa?eco? iaaiee oei aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie. Aeioeaio?iaa iieiaeaiiy ?iaeea?aea a noni?euenoa? ? oeiiaith
iciaeith ?eieiaiai ono?ith aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie. A ?iaio? aeoeaioo?oueny
ia canaaeao iiaoaeiae ?eieiaiai ono?ith ? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i
e?euee?nii-ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae ye iniiaiiai
e?eoa??th ?iciaaeoaaiiy oei?a ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith. Aeiiii?/i?
ono?i? noni?euenoa ia?ao?aeiiai oeio, eiee aeiiii?/i? nenoaie ua ia
noi?iiaaii, oaeiae ?ic??ciythoueny ca?aeii iacaaiiai e?eoa??th. I?e
iayaiino? aeueoa?iaoeaieo oeyo?a ?icaeoeo aea?? eiie?aoiiai oeio
o?ainoi?iaoe??, a oei naiei ? aea?? aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith iineoue
na?aeiiee oa?aeoa? ? caeaaeeoue a?ae aieaaeyaeaiiy ?iaeea?ae?a oa
iie?oe/ieo noa’?eo?a, ui i?aaenoaaeythoue ?o ?ioa?ane. Noaaeoueny
i?iaeaia aeai?o iai?yie?a oa neee aeoeaiino? iaae?iaeea?aeiiai ao?o/aiiy
aea?aeaae a iiaaae?ieo ?iaeea?ae?a oa ainiiaea?nueeeo noa’?eo?a ye aea??
oeio aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith e?a?ie.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui i?iaeaia ioi?ieaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith noiyea ?
noi?oue ia?aae on?ia aeiiii?/ii ia?icaeiaieie e?a?iaie (aei inoaii?o
iei? iaeaaeeoue ? Oe?a?ia), oi a aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii iaoiaee
ioi?ieaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a e?a?iao, ye? a ia?aa?ao noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith c aeiiii?/ii ia?icaeiaieo ia?aoai?eeeny
ia iia? ?iaeono??aeuei?. Aa?o/e aei oaaae niaoeeo?/i? oiiae, a yeeo
cae?enithaaany aea?? oeio aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao, a ?iaio? aeae?eythoueny e aiae?cothoueny o?
?ene nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iiaeo ?iaeono??aeueieo e?a?i, ye? ca
nai?th cia/ei?noth iiaeooue aooe eeaneo?eiaai? ye caaaeueii aeiiii?/i?.
C oe??th iaoith o i?ae?icae?e? 1.2 aecia/aii nooi?noue nenoaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? ?ice?eoi oeyoe ?? cae?eniaiiy.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioaii, ui nenoaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y aeiiii?ee yaey?
niaith aeiaaio?eaaeee i?ioean aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie, aiane?aeie yeiai oi?io?oueny iiaa ?inoeoooe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a,
ui icia/a? noaiiaeaiiy ye?nii ?ioiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith. Inoaii?e
iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny ca oiia aai “i?e?iaeiiai”, aai “ooo/iiai” a?aeai?o.
“I?e?iaeiee” a?aea?? a aeiiii?oe? a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac ?icaeoie
iaea?eueo eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeieo ainiiaea?nueeeo noa’?eo?a ca ?aooiie
aeo?niaiiy c aeiiii?/iiai i?inoi?o ?ioeo aeaiaio?a iiioeyoe??
ainiiaea?nueeeo noa’?eo?a. Eiai aieiaia iciaea iieyaa? a oiio, ui
caia?a/o?oueny iiaeeea?noue na?aeiii? iinoaiiaee oe?e? iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo: ainiiaea?nuee? noa’?eoe a oiiaao a?eueii? eiieo?aioe??, yea
aeeiio? ooieoe?? i?e?iaeiiai a?aeai?o a aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo?, aeoiaeyoue
ia noeoiii-aeiiii?/iee aoaeo, yeee ia ? iaoith ?o i?eaaoiiai ?icaeoeo;
aeiiii?/ii e nioe?aeueii iaaeioe?euei? ainiiaea?nuee? noa’?eoe oa
?inoeoooe a ia?aa?ao aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo iiaeaaeythoueny,
aeaeeaathoue iaea?eueo i?enoiniaai?, ye? iathoue nioe?aeueii e
aeiiii?/ii aeioe?euei? iciaee.

“Ooo/iee” a?aea??, aeiaiaeeoueny a aeena?oaoe??, ia? i?noea
i?e aeii?ioaaii? na?aeiiiai ia/aea o a?aeai?? iaea?eueo aeeoo?caeaoieo
aeiiii?/ieo ?inoeooo?a oa i?aei?e?inoa. I?e noaiiaeaii? ?eieiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith “ooo/i?noue” ia? i?noea caaaeaee, eiee na?aeiii
anoaiiaeth?oueny iaoa o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie oa iae?athoueny
?ino?oiaioe ?? aeinyaiaiiy. A oaeiio aeiaaeeo c?inoa? ?ieue aea?aeaae ye
ono?i?ooai?thaaeueiiai oa i?aai?coth/iai oaeoi?a. Oaea ?eieiaa
o?ainoi?iaoe?y iiaea cae?enithaaoeny aai i?ae oeneii aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a
— iaoe?iiaeueieo, aai ciai?oi?o — i?aeia?iaeieo. O oiio e ?ioiio
aeiaaeeao iiaeeea? iiieeee o?ainoi?iaoe??. Aaaa iiaeeeaeo iiieeie ca
oiia ia?aaaae ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a oeneo ? iaioith, ine?eueee cciai?
ianaaeaeothoueny ai?iaiaai? ?aieia? oiiae ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai
ono?ith, ui caiia?aa? aee?eaeaiiyi o ?aae?caoe?? iaoe ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe??.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai?
i?aaeea, yeeo ia? aeio?eioaaoeny aoaeue-yea e?a?ia, ui ia?aaoaa? ia
noaae?? ioi?ieaiiy ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith. Na?aae ieo:

aeciaiiy oiai, ui o?yaeiaa ooieoe?y iieyaa? a caaacia/aii? oiia, i?e
yeeo ?iaeea?aee iiaee a i?aaiooe aei ?aae?caoe?? nai?o aeanieo
?ioa?an?a;

cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo i?aaee, ye? caai?iiythoue aeei?enoaiiy a?oiaie
?iaeea?ae?a iiiiiieueii? aeaaee oa caaacia/othoue ??ai?noue on?o
i?eaaoieo i?aa, noai?thth/e aeey oeueiai eiieo?aioia na?aaeiaeua;

aeio?eiaiiy i?eioeeio “eiieo?aioia na?aaeiaeua ioi?ieth?oueny ye
eiieo?aioiee ii?yaeie aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith ia na?aeiieo ae?yo
aea?aeaae”, ye? aecia/athoueny ye iie?oeea aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith;

iie?oeea aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith ia? ioiiethaaoe an? ainiiaea?nuee? ??ai?:
ia i?e?i??ai? ia ia? iieeaaea?oueny ioi?ieaiiy i?aaee iiaaae?iee
ainiiaea?nueeeo iaeeieoeue oa ?iaeea?ae?a o ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?; ia
iaci??ai? – i?aaee iiaaae?iee na?aaei?o ainiiaea?nueeeo iaeeieoeue, ye?
i?aaenoaaeai? ia?o ca ana aaeocyie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ui
ia?aaoaathoue i?ae aea?aeaaiei eiio?ieai ? /a?ac iaai? i?e/eie
aenooiathoue ia’?eoaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy; ia iae?i??ai? – i?aaee
aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaith nai?o aeiiii?/ieo (a?ioiai-e?aaeeoieo oa
athaeaeaoii-iiaeaoeiaeo, ye? anoaiiaeththoue caaaeuei? o?iainia? ?aieia?
oiiae aeey ?ooo ainiiaea?nueeeo iaeeieoeue ? aeinyaiaiiy ?iaeea?aeaie
nai?o oe?eueiaeo ooieoe?e) oa aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a, ye?
noai?ththoue caaaeuei? oiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny oaca, ui ioi?ieaiiy iie?oeee
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a no/anieo oiiaao ia? a?aeaoaaoeny ca?aeii
eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, yea aecia/a? e?ioeaao
iaoo ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, oiaoi ia?aaaae a ?icaoaeia? ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei a?aeaeathoueny “ooo/iiio” a?aeai?o. Oaea eiioeaioe?y iiaea
?aae?coaaoeny i?e aeii?ioaaii? aai aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo, aai
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo oaeoi??a, ye? a oaeeo aeiaaeeao aenooiathoue
iaae?iaeea?aeiith neeith. sseui e?a?ia, ui o?ainoi?io?oueny, ia ia?
oaei? eiioeaioe??, oi ?? o?ainoi?iaoe?y cae?enith?oueny /a?ac
“i?e?iaeiee” a?aea??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai
ono?ith i?e i?ia?aei?e ?ie? ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie” ?icaeyaea?oueny aaiethoe?y ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei o Aiieiic?. I?ae?icae?e 2.1 i?enay/aiee aiae?co noaae?e
aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? Aiieiiao ? aeyaeaiith iciae aeii?ioaaiiy
ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a a ioi?ieaii? eiai ?eieiaiai ono?ith.

Oai?aoe/ii noai?aiiy ?aieiaeo oiia aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith ia?aaeaa/a?
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie ?inoeooo?a, ye? oaeoii aeaniiai ?nioaaiiy e
?icaeoeo ni?eythoue ? aecia/athoue noaiiaeaiiy oa ci?oeiaiiy iaaiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith. Aeieeathoue oae? ?inoeoooe, ui aeiaaaeaii a
aeena?oaoe??, aai a iaae?ao noa?i? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie i?e?iaeiei oeyoii
aai ianaaeaeothoueny cciai?. Aecia/aeueia ?ena o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai
?icaeoeo Aiieiiao iieyaaea a oiio, ui ioi?ieaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith
a?aeaoaaeiny, ii-ia?oa, ca oiia “ooo/iiai” a?aeai?o, ii-ae?oaa, i?e
aeii?ioaaii? a oaeiio a?aeai?? ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a, i?aaenoaaeaieo
aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith eieii?aeueiiai o?yaeo Aaeeei? A?eoai??.

I?ia?aeiei iaoiaeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii o aeine?aeaeaii? aaiethoe??
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a Aiieiic? ? i?eioeei ii?aeiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai e
eia?/iiai. Eiai aeei?enoaiiy aeicaieeei aecia/eoe aoaie noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaiai ono?ith a Aiieiic? ? iieacaoe, ye c ia?aoiaeii a?ae iaeiiai
aoaio aei ?ioiai niaaeaea ?ioaineai?noue ae?? ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a,
aiane?aeie a?aeaoeiny ia?aoai?aiiy ia oi?iaeueio eieii?th, a ye?e
iaioaaee i?eioeeie naii?icaeoeo, caeeaaeai? a?eoainueeeie noaiaea?oaie
aeiiii?/iiai ii?yaeeo. Oea icia/aei, ui ianaaeaeoaaiee Aaeeeith
A?eoai??th “ooo/iee” a?aea?? a ioi?ieaii? aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith aoa
aeciaiee aeiiii?/iei i?aai?ciii Aiieiiao ye iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiee ?
?aoe?iiaeueiee, ui a?aeiia?aea? oe?eueia?e ooieoe?? ?iaeea?aea.

Ia eiaeiiio c aoai?a aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith
ciai?oi? oaeoi?e iaee iaai? iniaeea? iciaee, iia’ycai?, ianaiia?aae, ?c
iiaeeo?eaoe??th aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a iao?iiie?? a
i?aeeaae?e oa?eoi???, yea a?aeaeaaea nooi?iue iie?oe/ii? e aeiiii?/ii?
c??eino? iao?iiie??.

Naia canioaaiiy Aiieiiao aoei iia’ycaia c iaiao?aei?noth ianeoaiaoaaoe
a?eoainuee? ?ioa?ane, ye? i?i?no? eieii?e Aaeeei? A?eoai?? O.Aeaaenoii
(1845-1846) iienaa ye aeeeth/ii eiia?oe?ei?, ? oiio aaea ia ia?o?e
noaae?? aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o Aiieiic? ye eieii?? A?eoainueei?
Ei?iie aoei caeeaaeaii iniiae aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith, ui ni?eya ?icaeoeia?
eai?oae?noe/ieo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Oe? a?aeiineie ianee ia nia? iciaee
a?eoainueei? i?aaiai? e aeiiii?/ii? nenoai. ?o aeei?enoaiiy
a?eoainueeeie ?aceaeaioaie a Aiieiic? noaei oaeoi?ii, yeee i?enei?ea
aaiethoe?eiee ?icaeoie oe??? oa?eoi???.

I?eaianaia c A?eoai?? aacenia ?inoeoooe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a noi?ioaaea
oiiae ? aeey aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. No?oeoo?a noeioe?a ni?eyea
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? ? eieaeuei?e iie?oe/i?e aaoiiii??, a oaeiae
cieaeaiith aeo?ao aeiiii?/ieo o?ainaeoe?e caaaeyee aacoiiaiiio i?aao
aeaniino? ia caieth ? aa?aio?? i?aa aeaniino?.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1841-1949 ??.) ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei? no?oeoo?e oa
?aaoethth/? i?aaeea aoee eiiaeiia?aoii c oeo, ye? noeioethaaee c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ? c oeo, ye? aoee caeeoeaie o?aaeeoe?eii? i?aai?caoe??
aeiiii?ee, i?e aeii?ioaaii? ia?oeo.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1949-1981 ??.) Aiieiia ioi?ieany ye aeania aeiiii?/ii
naiino?eia i?noi, ?acoeueoaoe aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? yeiai aoee
ii??aiyeueieie c aiaeia?/ieie iieacieeaie ?icaeiooeo e?a?i. Ca
i?aeia?iaeiith noaiaea?oiith i?iieneiaith eeaneo?eaoe??th (I.S.I.C.)
aeiiii?/ia aeoeai?noue Aiieiiao ia e?iaoeue 70-o ??. ioe?ithaaeany
i?aeoe/ii ia iaeiiio ??ai? c Aaeeeith A?eoai??th oa Niieo/aieie Ooaoaie
Aia?eee.

O?ao?e aoai aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? Aiieiiao (1981-1997 ??.)
a?aecia/eany ia?aoai?aiiyi oa?eoi??? ia oi?iaeueio eieii?th, i?e ye?e
aeiiii?/ia aca?iicaeaaei?noue ao?aoeea nai? cia/aiiy ? caa?aaeeny eeoa
oi?ie iaaii? iie?oe/ii? i?aeeaaeino?. Oi?iaeueia eieii?y noaea na?oiaei
o?iainiaei oa oi?aiaei oeaio?ii, a yeiio ?ici?? AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiiy
aoa 16-oei o na?o? (A. A?eoai?y ca oeei iieacieeii iin?aeaea 22 i?noea),
ui neeaaeaei 85,6 % ??aiy NOA.

Ia iniia? cae?eniaiiai a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?co oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith Aiieiiao aeyaeaii i?eioeeiia? ?ene inoaiiueiai ?
?ice?eoi ?o i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaee ca’ycie c ae??th ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a.
Oe? i?iaeaie aoee ia’?eoii aea/aiiy a i?ae?icae?eao 2.2 oa 2.3.

Iniiaia i?iaeaia i?ae?icae?eo 2.2 – iae?iaeiiii?/ia iie?oeea
aiieiianueeiai o?yaeo ii ioi?ieaiith ?eieiaiai ono?ith. A ocaaaeueiaiiio
aeaeyae? oaea iie?oeea i?aaenoaaey?oueny ye noeoii?noue caoiae?a
aeiiii?/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee, ye? iathoue iaoeiia? aeey
?icaeiaieo e?a?i ?ene. Aiie aecia/athoueny aeiiii?/iith o?einio??th, yeo
niia?aeoaaa a?eoainueeee eieii?aeueiee o?yae,- o?einio?th “iiceoeaiiai
ia?ioa?aaioe?ii?cio”, yea i?iyaeeany a oiio, ui “Aaeeea A?eoai?y
i?eeoaaeany i?i aoaeoeaia oi?aae?iiy, aeaeaeo a?ae ei?oioe?? a?eueio
i?aaiao nenoaio, a ana ?ioa ia?aaeia??eea a?euei?e a?? ?eieiaeo nee”.
A?aeiiaa a?ae iae?iaeiiii?/iiai ao?o/aiiy aeaaea Aiieiia aei e?a?i c
iaea?eueo aenieei nooiaiai aeiiii?/ii? naiaiaee. Ca aeaieie III, a
na?aaeei? 90-o ??. ?iaeaen aeiiii?/ii? naiaiaee ooo aoa iaeaeuei o na?o?
— 1,25, a oie /an, ye, iai?eeeaae, eieeoiy iao?iiie?y iin?aeaea ainueia
i?noea (1,95), I?ia//eia – n?iiaaeoeyoa (2,10).

Eiie?aoi? oi?ie i?iyao iae?iaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aiieiianueeiai o?yaeo
caaaeaii aei i?iaaaeaiiy aeoeaii? no?oeoo?ii? iie?oeee, ianeaii?
iie?oeee noaa?e?caoe?? oa o?iainiai? iie?oeee, aea o?yae, ianaiia?aae,
noeioeth? i?aeo?eiaiiy ?aieiaeo oiia ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ii?yaeeo.

?aieia? oiiae ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua iaoe?eai? ia i?aeo?eiaiiy
aenii?oii???ioiaaieo aaeocae aeiiii?ee, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny a Aiieiic?
ye aeaeaoie aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. Oiio no?oeoo?ia iie?oeea, ui
iine?aeiaii i?iaiaeeoueny aea?aeaaith, ni?yiiaaia ia iineeaiiy ae??
?eieiaeo nee, iaoe?eaieo ia aeeaa?neo?eaoe?th aeiiii?ee, cie?aia,
i?iieneiaino?, aeecueei 90 % yei? neeaaea? aenii?oia ae?iaieoeoai. A
oaeiio ae iai?yi? ?icaeaa?oueny i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy, ia?aianaia naiai
/ano eieii?aeueiei o?yaeii c iao?iiie??. Aiii ioi?iiy? i?aai i?eaaoii?
aeaniino? ? iaeiia? i?aaa, caaacia/oth/e iiaeeeaino? aeey ?a?iaanooaaiiy
c iaoith ?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aeey aeoiaeo ia iia? ?eiee caooo oa
ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ?aaenii?oo.

Aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy a Aiieiic? aeinyaa?oueny ia oeyoii oe?iei
?iciianthaeaeaii? a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao i?aeoeee o?yaeiai? iie?oeee
noaa?e?caoe??, a caaaeyee aenieiio nooiaith aaeaioaoe?? aioo??oiueiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aei eii’thieoo?e na?oiaeo ?eie?a. I?aeo?eiaiiy na?oiai?
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aeiiii?ee – iaeia c iniiaieo caaaeaiue
iae?iaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. Oiio a Aiieiic? aeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoueny:
a) nenoaia a?aeiinii iaaenieeo noaaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ui caaacia/o?
i?eaaaeea?noue aiieiianueei? aeiiii?ee ye oeaio?o ?iaanoeoe?e; a)
a?aeiiaa a?ae noaneae?e, ye? caa??aathoue iaaoaeoeai? a?ciania?
no?oeoo?e ia oeiaeo iaoe?iiaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoao, i?e oiia? oaeoe/ii?
a?aenooiino? iie?oeee i?ioaeoe?ii?cio, ni?yiiaaii? ia caoeno
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiaa?iae?iaieea. Na?aeiia iie?oeea a?aee?eoi? aeiiii?ee,
ui i?eiooo? aei iiooeo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?
aioo??oiuei? aeiiii?ee, i?aeo?eio? canaaee naii?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie, noai?ai? naiai /ano eieii?aeueiei o?yaeii.

Iniaeeaino? o?iainiai? iie?oeee oaeiae iiyniththoueny ae??th ciai?oi?o
oaeoi??a. Oae, iane?aeeii eieii?aeueiiai i?eioeeio naii?icaeoeo oa
naiiieoiiino? eieii?? ? oaeoe/ii noaeee aeoeaiee aaeain o?yaeiaiai
athaeaeaoo. Aeaeaoee o?iainothoueny eeoa ca ?aooiie iioi/ieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue. ?o cia/ia /anoeia oi?io?oueny ca ?aooiie aeioiae?a
aea?aeaae a?ae aeiaaino?ieiaeo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue. Iaeiie/aiiy
iaaeeeoe?a athaeaeaoo aenooia? ?ino?oiaioii aeoiaeo c aeiiii?/ieo e?ec,
ye? aiieiianueea aeiiii?ea ?iii?oo? /a?ac aenieo nooi?iue nai??
a?aee?eoino?.

Caaaeyee aenieiio ??aith a?aee?eoino? aeiiii?ee, caeeaaeaiiio
eieii?aeueiei o?yaeii, oa iia?eueiino? i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?
Aiieiia ia’?eoeaii ia iio?aao? aea?aeaae, yea a aeeiioaaea ooieoe??
o?iainiaiai iinoa/aeueieea ? ieaiiaiai oeaio?o. Ca oeeo oiia aeey
aeiiii?ee aoei a caa?icith ?icaeaaoeny i?ae oeneii aea?aeaaiiai
oe?iiooai?aiiy ? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. ?eieiaee iaoai?ci
eii?aeeiaoe?? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ooieoe?iio? ooo i?aeoe/ii a /enoiio
aeaeyae?. Caaaeyee oeueiio ciyoi cia/io /anoeio nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai.
Aea?aeaaa ao?o/a?oueny a nioe?aeueio noa?o oai, aea ?eieiaee iaoai?ci
aeyaey? naith iiaio iani?iiiaei?noue (nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy), oa oai,
aea eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaiei c oi/ee ci?o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? (noa?a ina?oe, ioi?iie caei?ia’y,
?ici?uaiiy ianaeaiiy). O an?o ?ioeo aeiaaeeao ooieoe?? aea?aeaae
caiaeyoueny aei i?aeo?eiaiiy ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ii?yaeeo /a?ac
i?aaiao nenoaio, i?eaianaio a?eoainueeeie i?aaiaie aeaaee ua ia
iiia?aaei?o aoaiao aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??. sse aaaaeathoue
aiae?enuee? a/ai?, “oaea iiaeaeue aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo iiynith?
oi?eaeueia iiaea?eia aeinyaiaiiy Aiieiiao – c?inoaiiy ? ??aiiaaao”.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? ioi?ieaiiy iaci- oa
i?e?iaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. Iniiaia iniaeea?noue i?e?iaeiiii?/ii? iiaeae?
iieyaa? a oiio, ui aioo??oiy aeiiii?ea ?icaeaa?oueny i?ae aieeaii
i?aeia?iaeieo oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue i??i?eoaoe oa ianooaae ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aenii?o caaacia/o? Aiieiiao eiooe aeey ?nioaaiiy ?,
eiee ?iicaiiee iiieo nei?i/o?oueny, ia? ciaiooaaoenue a?o/eciyia
ae?iaieoeoai. Iaee?auee can?a i?ioenoiyoe aeiiii?/iiio niaaeia? –
iineeaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?. Oiio i?e?iaeiiii?/ia iie?oeea
aea?aeaae, aeioe?eueia a ?ioeo ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao, ia? a?aeiinii
iaaaeeea cia/aiiy aeey aiieiianueeiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith.

I?e?iaeiiii?/ia na?aaeiaeua ioi?ieth?oueny ca?aeii aeiia ?eieo,
caeeaaeath/e oiiae ?icaeoeo oaeoe/ii ianeooiai a?eueiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Iie?oeea o?yaeo ia? aeanoea?noue aeeeooaaoe a?aee?eoee
i?aeo?ae aei i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o. O?einio?y ioi?ieaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
ono?ith ia i?e?i??ai? iiaea aooe ?acthiiaaia oaeei /eiii: a?iiaaenueeee
ii?yaeie; i?i?iaeueia ao?o/aiiy o i?eaaoi? ni?aae; noai?aiiy i?aaiaiai
na?aaeiaeua, ui ni?ey? ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ?i?oe?aoeae;
caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai ee?iaoo.

A?eueieie a?ae aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy caeeoathoueny ?eiee oaeoi??a
ae?iaieoeoaa. O?oaeia? a?aeiineie i?aeoe/ii ia ?aaoeththoueny: aea?aeaaa
a?aaoeueiao? o?oaeia? eiioe?eoe oa anoaiiaeth? o?eaae?noue ?iai/iai
/ano, a i?ioni?eee (ine?eueee ?eieia? oiiae, ioe?ithth/e iiieo ia
i?aoeth, ae??aiththoue oe?io i?iiiceoe??) aacnee?, uia caoenoeoe anooi
ia ?eiie i?aoe? ? acyoe o/anoue o i?ioean? oe?iiooai?aiiy ia iueiio.
Oiio aeey ?eieo i?aoe? aeanoeaa niaoeeo?/ia ?ena – iaeii??aeia
no?oeoo?a ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ?nio? a aeae?eueeio aaeocyo.

Aea?aeaai? ae?? ia ?eieo eai?oae?a oaeiae iinyoue ia?aaaaeii i?aaiaee
oa?aeoa?. Aei caoiae?a i?yiiai aeiiii?/iiai aieeao o?yae aaea?oueny eeoa
o aeiaaeeao, eiee oeueiai aeiaaathoue i??i?eoaoe ?icaeoeo iaiaaeaieo
?ano?n?a. Ca nai?ie ianooaaaie oaeee oene iacia/iee ? canoiniao?oueny ye
aeiyoie ?c caaaeueieo i?aaee iie?oeee iaao?o/aiiy. Iniiaiee iai?yiie
?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo eai?oae?a — noai?aiiy oiia aeey ?icai?oaiiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? aeoeaiino?. A iueiio ?aae?co?oueny iaoa i?aeo?eiaiiy
eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? onoiaiiy oaiaeaioe?e aei
iiiiiie?caoe?? aeiiii?ee.

Aieiaiei ?ino?oiaioii iie?oeee ni?eyiiy oi?ioaaiith iiaeo oa caa?aaeaiiy
noa?eo a?cianiaeo no?oeoo? ? ni?iuaia o?yaeiaa i?ioeaaeo?a iaaeaiiy
aeicaieo ia aaaeaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. TH?eaee/i?
oi?iaeueiino? uiaei canioaaiiy i?eaaoii? eiiiai?? oa aaaeaiiy a?ciano,
ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo ?icaeiaieo e?a?i, iaei/enaeuei? ? iaaei?ia?.
Iaeia?oith, a aeey iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa, yeeo a Aiieiiao a?eueo?noue, ?
?aeeiith aeiiaith aeio?eiaiiy i?aaee aaaeaiiy a?ciano ? aeiiaa
nai?/aniiai ia?aooaaiiy oa nieaoe iiaeaoe?a. Aea e aiia cia/ii ni?iuaia,
ine?eueee eieii?aeueiee o?yae c Aaeeei? A?eoai?? i?eai?n naiai /ano
i?i?iaeueio e?euee?noue aooaaeoa?nueeeo ca?o?a oa i?aaee ?o ioi?ieaiiy.

?eiie eai?oaeo ca a?aenooiino? o?yaeiai? ?aaoethth/i? aeoeaiino? eaaei
aaeaioo?oueny aei ci?i ia na?oiaeo ?eieao, caaacia/oth/e oei naiei
ia?aaaae aiieiianueeei aaeocyi i?iieneiaino?: ?ooeea?noue eai?oaeo
aeicaiey? eiio aoaeoeaii ia?aeeth/aoeny c ae?iaieoeoaa iaeiiai oiaa?o ia
?ioee, aai c iaei??? i?iieneiaino? ia ?ioo a?aeiia?aeii aei ciai?oiueiai
?eieiaiai iiieoo. Iaeei c iaea?eueo a?aeiieo a ?noi??? aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? Aiieiiao o?iainiaee nae?aoa? A. Eea?e, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e
ae?? aiieiianueeiai o?yaeo, ni?yiiaai? ia caa?aaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
ono?ith, iaaieiooaaa ia oiio, ui a?i (o?yae) iiaea iaaaaaoi: “ii-ia?oa,
?ici?noeoe iano?eueee iaei iaiaaeaiue, iane?eueee aeicaieeoue ?oo
eai?oaeo, ii-ae?oaa, uia i?eionoeoe ia?oa, iaiao?aeii no?eioaaoe noaaeo
iiaeaoeo”, ine?eueee aeey Aiieiiao ye o?iainiaiai oeaio?o aaaeeeaa
iaeneiaeueia naiaiaea ?ooo eai?oaeo ye aei, oae ? c e?a?ie, yea
i?eiineoue eiio nooo?aee /enoee aeio?ae.

Aeiyoie ?c caaaeueii? iie?oeee i?e?iaeiiii?/iiai ??aiy noaiiaeoue
iie?oeea ia ?eieo caie?. C iiiaioo i?eoiaeo Aaeeei? A?eoai?? aei
Aiieiiao caiey ia?aeoea o aeani?noue A?eoainueei? Ei?iie ? iie?oeea ??
?iciiae?eo oa aeei?enoaiiy noaea iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei ?ino?oiaioii
i?e?iaeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Caaaeyee oeueiio eieii?aeueiee o?yae iaa
ciiao iineeeoe nai? caoiaee a no?oeoo?i?e oa nioe?aeuei?e iie?oeoe?.

Ia iaci??ai? aeiiii?ee, ye aeiaaei i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy, o?yaeiaa
?aaoethaaiiy aeei?enoiao?oueny a iaiaaeaieo ianooaaao. Aeoiaey/e c
aeina?aeo noai?aiiy ?aieiaeo oiia ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith o
Aaeee?e A?eoai??, eieii?aeueia aaei?i?no?aoe?y cina?aaeeea naith oaaao
ia o?ueio aaeocyo aeiiii?ee, ye? e iiiei? ia?aaoaathoue i?ae i?yiei
o?yaeiaei ao?o/aiiyi: aeeoeiaa aoae?aieoeoai, ?eaaeuenoai oa n?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai. Oaea ao?o/aiiy iaa?oioiao?oueny ianooiiei: ?eaaeuenoai oa
n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai ? aaeocyie c iecueeith aeanoe/i?noth iiieoo
a?aeiinii aeioiaeo ? i?e oiia? ?nioaaiiy ??cieo, ca ia’?eoeaieie
ianoaaeiaie, oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy a?eueo?noue ainiiaea?noa, ui
aeei?enoiao? a??o? ae?eyiee, aoaea iaeiieo?aioiini?iiiaeieie. Oiio
iaiao?aeiei ? aea?aeaaiee eiio?ieue ca oe?iaie oa ianyaaie ae?iaieoeoaa
aeey caaeiaieaiiy iaiao?aeieo iio?aa ianaeaiiy.

Iie?oeea aiieiianueeiai o?yaeo o aeeoeiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? ?ica’yco?
i?iaeaie, ui i?aeo?eiothoue nioe?aeueio ceaaiaeo a noni?euenoa?.
Caaaeyee aea?aeaai?e i?aeo?eioe? aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa cia/ia /anoeia
ianaeaiiy ciiaea i?aiaeoaaoe i?enoieia aeeoei c i?aaii eiai aeeoio o
naith aeani?noue ca i?eueaiaeie oe?iaie.

Ioi?ieaiiy aea?aeaaith ?eieiaiai ono?ith ia iaci??ai? aeei?enoiao?
?ino?oiaioe aieeao ia aaeoc? noni?eueiiai ei?enooaaiiy, ui, ye ? a ?ioeo
?icaeiaieo e?a?iao, ? aaeocyie c i?e?iaeiith iiiiiie??th. Iniaeea?noue
Aiieiiao iieyaa? a oiio, ui ooo a?aenooi? i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee a
?icoi?ii? aaoiiiiieo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaeeieoeue, eio?? naiiooaeee
?ica’ycothoue ieoaiiy eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa. I?nueea ?aaea ia ia?
ioi?oeeiaeueieo ooieoe?e, ye? cae/aeii iia’ycothoueny c ?? ?i’yi. Aiie
aeeiiothoueny a?aeiia?aeieie o?yaeiaeie no?oeoo?aie. Niaoe?aeuei?
o?yaeia? eii?oaoe ianooue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iinoa/aiiy aiaee,
aoae?aieoeoai oeyo?a, ??eaaoe?ei? oa inoooaaeuei? ?iaioe ?
eiio?ieththoue ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Aiae?c aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ii caa?aaeaiith ?eieiaiai ono?ith ia
iaci??ai? i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui i?aeo?eiea aea?aeaaith iacaaieo
aaeocae aeiiii?ee ? iiaeeeaith oaeiae oiio, ui aiie aieiae?thoue
aeanoea?noth, a?aenooiueith o aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?: ianeoaiaoaaiiy
i?noeaaeo ?eie?a, ye? ia caeaaeaoue a?ae na?oiai? eii’thieoo?e. Oaeei
/eiii, o?yaeia? ae?? ii noai?aiith ?eieiaiai ono?ith iaa?oioiaothoueny
ia o?eueee ia’?eoeaieie canaaeaie ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, a e iniaeea?noth
Aiieiiao ye e?a?ie c a?aee?eoith aeiiii?eith, aac /iai aiia ia ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii ni?iiiaeiith. A?eueoa oiai, i?aee?aneth?oueny a
aeena?oaoe??, naia a?aee?eo?noue aeiiii?ee, i?aeo?eiaia eieii?aeueiei
o?yaeii, ? o??th iniiaiiieiaeiith i?aenoaaith, yea aeaaea Aiieiia ia
ia?oa i?noea a na?o? ca ??aiai aeiiii?/ii? naiaiaee. Aenii?oia
i???ioaoe?y aeiaaa? i?i?i?caoe?? aea?aeaaieo ?aaoethth/eo caoiae?a, a
i?e ?o a?aenooiino? ?eieiaee iaoai?ci i?aai?/ii ii?aeio?oueny c i?e?i-
oa iaciaeiiii?/ieie ae?yie aea?aeaae.

Aeina?ae Aiieiiao na?ae/eoue, ui iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith i?e aeii?ioaaii? ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a aeicaiey?
aeinyaoe aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano /a?ac oi?ioaaiiy aeaieo ciai? ?aieiaeo
oiia. AEi?noe?noue iiceoe?? Aaeeei? A?eoai?? aei ioi?ieaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie nai?? eieii?? iiaeia aaaaeaoe aieiaiei /eiieeii oaia??oiueiai
i?ioea?oaiiy Aiieiiao.

O?ao?e ?icae?e ?iaioe “Iniaeeaino? aiieiianueei? iiaeae? aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oa ?? cia/aiiy aeey ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, ui ia?aaoaa? a
noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith” ?ice?eaa? o? aeaiaioe
?eieiaiai ono?ith Aiieiiao, ye? iathoue caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy
? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ?ioeie e?a?iaie, ui iae?athoue oeyoe
aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 ?icaeyaeathoueny oaeoi?e, ye? aecia/eee iniaeeaino?
aiieiianueei? iiaeae? aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? ni?eyee aeinyaiaiith
aeiiii?/ieo oni?o?a. Ii?yae c i???ioaoe??th ia aeei?enoaiiy an?o
iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ?eieiaeo nee, Aiieiia ia? a iniia? oaeeo
oni?o?a noeoii?noue iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo oaeoi??a,
ae?y yeeo oi?ioaaeany i?ae aecia/aeueiei aieeaii a?eoainueei? nenoaie
aeaaee, ?? aeiiii?/ieo i??i?eoao?a oa aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe, ui aieiaiith ?enith ae??
iie?oe/ieo oaeoi??a aoei aeii?ioaaiiy i?eioeeio i??i?eoaoiino? aeiiii?ee
iaae i?eioeeiii aeaiie?aoecio. Aiii i?iyaeeiny a oiio, ui noaiiaeaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a?aeaoaaeiny ca oiia iie?oe/ii? ianaiaiaee, iin??i
yei? aenooiaa eieii?aeueiee o?yae, yeee noai?i aeio?eioaaany i?aaee a?e,
i?eeiyoeo iao?iiie??th. Aaoie?ao?y a iie?oeoe? caaacia/eea
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aiieiianueei? aeiiii?ee ye ?aeeiiai i?aai?cio, eiaeiee c
aeaiaio?a yeiai aeeiioaaa ooieoe?? eiio i?eienai? ? ia i?aaioa aei
ii?ooaiiy nai?o iaiaaeaieo caeiiii iiaiiaaaeaiue. Iie?oe/ia ianaiaiaea
aeiiiaithaaeany aeiiii?/iith naiaiaeith. A?a?eae aioeiiae?a i?ea?a aei
iaaecae/aeiiai ?acoeueoaoo. Aaoi?eoa?ia iie?oe/ia aeaaea i?eieiyea an?
aeaaaoe c i?eaiaeo i?aaeeueiino? aai iai?aaeeueiino? iie?oeee, ui
i?iaiaeeeany o?yaeii, caaacia/oth/e noaa?euei?noue iie?oe/iiai ee?iaoo ?
ii?i i?aaa.

Na?aae aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a, ye iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?ia?aeiei ?
i???ioaoe?y aeiiii?ee ia aenii?o. Aeoiaey/e c iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy
eieii?? ye “ioieoo ia?aaaeo” ? aa?o/e aei oaaae iaiaaeai?noue
aioo??oiueiai ?eieo, a?eoainueea aaei?i?no?aoe?y aaea i?ae /an ?aiiuei?
?iaeono??ae?caoe?? Aiieiiao c?iaeea noaaeo ia aenii?oio i???ioaoe?th
aeiiii?eo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo No?aeieo oa I?aaeaiii-no?aeieo e?a?i
?icoe?aiiy aenii?oo aoei aeey Aiieiiao ia iane?aeeii, a i?e/eiith
?ioaineaiiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Aeiaeaoeiaeie aeiiii?/ieie oaeoi?aie aoee niaoeeo?/i?noue ii??aiyeueieo
ia?aaaa, ye? ni?eeiaeeny o?yaeii ye aeeiai?/i?, oa aeaiaee
?iaeono??ae?caoe??, ui aoee iia’ycai? c ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??th
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Eoeueoo?i? oaeoi?e aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? Aiieiiao oaeiae iaee naith
iniaeea?noue. O ?iaio? aiie iienothoueny ye aaeaea ii?aeiaiiy iaaieo
?a?iiaenueeeo ?aeaieia?/ieo oe?iiinoae c ?aeaieia??th eiioooe?ainoaa,
yea aoea i?aeianaia aei ?aiao aea?aeaaii?. ?ice?eo? o ae?oa?e aeaa?
?iaioe i?eioeeie eiioooe?ainoaa ia i?aeoeoe? noai?thaaee nai???aeiee
aoe/iee ? anoaoe/iee i?e?iee?iao, aeiiiaiaiee cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeie
(a?eoainueeeie) ii?iaie i?aaa oa ii?ae?. ? oi/a nenoaio ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei o No?aei?e Ac??, cie?aia, a ssiii??, I?aaeaii?e Ei?a?,
Oaeaai?, Aiieiic? oa N?iaaio??, iaceaathoue eiioooe?ainueeei
eai?oae?ciii, ie aaaaea?ii, ui Aiieiia, ia a?aei?io a?ae iacaaieo e?a?i,
aeei?enoiaoaaa canaaee eiioooe?ainoaa o nooiai? ? ianooaaao, iaiao?aeieo
aeey aeinyaiaiiy eieii?aeueieo oe?eae. ?aeaieia?y eiioooe?ainoaa
i?aai?/ii aeiiiaieea nenoaio oe?iiinoae ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? noaea
caaaeaiiyi iaienaieo i?aaee oa o?aaeeoe?e, ye? ci?oeithaaee iniiae
aeiiii?/iiai ii?yaeeo, cai?iaaaeaeaiiai a?eoainueeei eieii?aeueiei
o?yaeii.

Oaeei /eiii, aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, ?i?oe?eiaaia aenii?oii, aaoi?eoa?ia
nenoaia iie?oe/ii? aeaaee oa nai???aeiee aoe/iee oa anoaoe/iee ee?iao
aaiaeyoue Aiieiia aei ?ic?yaeo e?a?i niaoe?aeueiiai oeio aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe??, a yeiio aeii?iothoue ciai?oi? oaeoi?e, ui aeeiioththoue
?ieue i?eiono aei iiooeo iioeiaeueiiai oeyoo ?icaeoeo.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 iieacaii iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iaaieo aeaiaio?a
aeina?aeo oi?ioaaiiy aiieiianueei? iiaeae? aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a
Oe?a?i?. Aeiaiaeeoueny aeioe?euei?noue oaeiai i?aeoiaeo ? ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a Oe?a?i?
oaeiae cae?enith?oueny i?e neeueiiio aieea? ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a,
i?aaenoaaeaieo IAO, Na?oiaei aaieii oa o?ainiaoe?iiaeueieie
ei?ii?aoe?yie. Noa’?eoe ciai?oiueiai aieeao aenooiathoue iin?yie
?eieiaeo aeaiaio?a, ye? oei??iththoueny a aeiiii?/io no?oeoo?o Oe?a?ie
neeith oeneo, aea, ia a?aei?io a?ae Aiieiiao, oaeee aieea ia ? nenoaiiei
? i?aeei?aiei iaei?e iao?. Oiio iniaeeaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
iieeaaea?oueny ia iie?oe/io aeaaeo e?a?ie, yea, ii-ia?oa, iiaeiia aooe
iiai?noth oeaio?ae?ciaaia, ii-ae?oaa, iniae, yeei aeia??aia iie?oe/ia
aeaaea, iiaeii? oaa?aei ciaoe, ye aeei?enoaoe ?? c iaeneiaeueiei
aoaeoii, ai yeui aiie ia ni?aaeythoueny c ?ieeth iie?oe/iiai e?aea?a, oi
a?aeiaaea? iaiao?aei?noue oeaio?ae?caoe?? iie?oe/ii? aeaaee.

Aeoiaey/e c aeina?aeo Aiieiiao, a ?iaio? aecia/aii iniiaiiieiaei?
i?iaeaie, ae??oaiiy yeeo noa’?eoaie iie?oe/ii? aeaaee aecia/a? nooi?iue
aoaeoeaiino? ?o ae?e o ?aoi?ioaaii? aeiiii?ee. Aei ieo a?aeianaii:
ii-ia?oa, caeaoi?noue iie?oe/ii? ae?oe i?eeiyoe eiioeaioe?th aeiiii?/ii?
iiaeae? Oe?a?ie ye e?a?ie c ?eieiaei aeiiii?/iei ono?i?i; ii-ae?oaa,
aeiiaa o i?iaaaeaii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee iinooiaoeny aeanieie
aeiiii?/ieie oa iie?oe/ieie ?ioa?anaie e aia?oe?yie ia ei?enoue
aeinyaiaiiy caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo oe?eae; ii-o?ao? – aaaeaiiy
ai?ioueae i?ioe ei?oioe?? o nai?io na?aaeiaeu?.

Cia/aiiy aiieiianueeiai aeina?aeo aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a
?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii o aeaio ieiueiao.

Ii-ia?oa, c oi/ee ci?o iniaeeainoae aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith ye oaeiai, eiee
a?eueiee ?eiie aaiaoe/ii caeeaaea? o i?aei?e?ioe?a noaaeaiiy aei
aea?aeaae, ye aei ?inoeoooo, ui aa?a ia naaa i?i?ioi iaia’yce?a ii
i?aeo?eiaiith oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy eai?oaeo. Noaaea ia nioe?aeueio
?eieiao aeiiii?eo, c?iaeaia Oe?a?iith, iiaea aooe aoaeoeaii ?aae?ciaaia
i?e iino?eii ae?th/?e oaiaeaioe?? aei nei?i/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia
ainiiaea?thth/? noa’?eoe i?e iaeii/aniiio c?inoaii? eiio?iethth/eo
ooieoe?e aea?aeaae, caaaeyee yeei neeaaea?oueny aoiinoa?a i?eiono aei
aeeiiaiiy ieie i?aaee ?eieiai? a?e.

Oiio aa?oee oaaae aeina?ae Aiieiiao o ?icaoaeia? i?e?iiaeeieoeue a
aeiiii?oe?. Ni?iuaiiy nenoaie canioaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo? ?
oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy cao?aeieo noaiaea?o?a a i?aai?caoe?? a?ciano:
aioo??oiueio??iiaa ieaioaaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy, nenoaia iae?eo oa
ca?oiino?, i?aai?caoe?y i?aoe? oiui – ? ?aaeueieie ?ino?oiaioaie
iineeaiiy ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? oa caaacia/aiiy eiai
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?. Caiice/aiiy iiaeaeae, ai?iaiaaieo na?oiaith
i?aeoeeith, ? e?auei oeyoii aei oeea?e?ciaaii? ?icaoaeiae a?cianiaeo
no?oeoo?. Iaoe?iiaeuei? aeaiaioe ooo iiaeooue aooe iia’ycai? eeoa c
iniaeeainoyie ?iai/i? neee, ??aiai ?? ciaiue, eaae?o?eaoe?? oa
i?aeaioiaeaiino? aei o/ano? o no/aniiio ae?iaie/iio i?ioean?.

Aaaeeeaei ? aiieiianueeee aeina?ae caiaeueieo a?aeiinei. A oiiaao
Oe?a?ie aea?aeaaia aeani?noue ia caieth iiaea noaoe ae??aei ?ino?oiaioii
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae ia i?e?i??ai? aeiiii?ee. Iia?oth/e
caieath ia ?eieo, iiaeia aac aeiiii?/ieo naieoe?e ? i?yii? o?iainiai?
aeiiiiiae noeioethaaoe ?icaeoie ie?aieo i?aei?e?inoa ? aaeocae aeiiii?ee
oa aaeueioaaoe oei??iaiiy iaaaaeaieo ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo?.

Ae?oaa ieiueia i?iyao cia/aiiy aiieiianueeiai aeina?aeo aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeey Oe?a?ie – oea aecia/aiiy a yeino? no?aoaa??
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aenii?oio i???ioaoe?th aeiiii?ee. Aaaeeea?noue
inoaiiuei? aeey Oe?a?ie iiynith?oueny oei, ui, ii-ia?oa, a no/anieo
oiiaao a?aee?eoino? aeiiii?e ? aeiaae?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioean?a
ia?niaeoeae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ie?aii? e?a?ie caeaaeaoue a?ae
aaeaioaoe?? ?? aeiiii?ee aei na?oiaiai ?eieo ? nooiaiy ?? ?ioaa?aoe?? o
na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai, ii-ae?oaa, aenii?oia i???ioaoe?y aeiiii?ee ?
oaeoi?ii aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. A aeena?oaoe??
aiae?cothoueny iiaeeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? oe??th caaea/? ? ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa oe?a?inueei?
aeiiii?ee.

I?iaaaeaia iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith a ia?aa?ao aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
noni?eueieo nenoai aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ?yae aeniiae?a.

Ii-ia?oa, aeiiii?/ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y — oea i?ioean aaiethoe?eiiai
?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, ui iiaea cae?enithaaoeny aeaiia oeyoaie:
“i?e?iaeiiai” oa “ooo/iiai” a?aeai?o, ??cieoey i?ae yeeie iieyaa? a
iayaiino? a inoaiiueiio na?aeiiiai ia/aea o aeai?? aeeoo?caeaoieo
aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?, ui ia?aaeaa/a? c?inoaiiy ?ie? aea?aeaae ye
ono?i?ooai?thaaeueiiai oa i?aai?coth/iai oaeoi?a.

Ii-ae?oaa, ?eieiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny ye i?ioean ?aae?caoe??
iie?oeee aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith ia an?o ??aiyo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.
Ia iae?i??ai? aiia ?aae?co?oueny a aeiiii?/i?e aeoeaiino? aea?aeaae ii
noai?aiith caaaeueieo oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua; ia
iaci??ai? – a ?ic?iaoe? ? cae?eniaii? i?aaee iiaaae?iee iaciaeiiii?/ieo
iaeeieoeue — aaeocae noni?eueiiai ei?enooaaiiy oa oeo, ye? ca nai?th
aeiiii?/iith i?e?iaeith ia iiaeooue ooieoe?iioaaoe ca i?aaeeaie ?eieiai?
a?e; ia i?e?i??ai? – o i?aaeeao iiaaae?iee ainiiaea?nueeeo noa’?eo?a oa
?iaeea?ae?a.

Ii-o?ao?, aeiiii?/ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y ia?icaeiaieo e?a?i a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
oiia aeii?ioaaiiy ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a, ye? ia?a?nii iaee oi?io
eieii?aeueiiai i?eiono aei aeio?eiaiiy ii?i oa i?aaee, ui i?eaiineeeny
iao?iiie?yie ciai?. Aiieiia yaey? niaith i?eeeaae oaei? oi?ie
aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Eiai aeiiii?/i? aeinyaiaiiy ? iane?aeeii
ona?aeiieaiiai (oi/a ? caeaa?eueo ianeeueii iaa’ycaiiai) aeei?enoaiiy
noaiaea?o?a aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith Aaeeei? A?eoai??.

E?aa?aeueia ?eieiaa ainiiaea?noai, ui neeaeiny o Aiieiic? ca?aeii c
a?eoainueeeie noaiaea?oaie i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, ioi?ieyeiny
ye a?aee?eoa aeiiii?ea, ui a?aeiia?aeaei, ianaiia?aae, ?ioa?anai Aaeeei?
A?eoai??. A?aenooi?noue aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee ia i?e?i??ai? i?e
iaioaaii? ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a ia aioo??oi?o ?eieao ni?eyea ?icaeoeia?
aenieeo aaeaioeaieo iiaeeeainoae iaoe?iiaeueieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a aei
na?oiaeo ?eie?a. Aiie oi?ioaaeeny ia iniia? ii??aiyeueieo ia?aaaa, ye?
aecia/aee eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. Aenii?oia
i???ioaoe?y aeiiii?ee noaea i?ia?aeiith ?oo?eiith neeith aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy ? i?ia?aeiei oaeoi?ii aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, aoaeoeai?noue aiieiianueei? iiaeae? aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aaco?oueny ia niaoeeo?/iiio ii?aeiaii? iniaeeainoae
iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a: iie?oe/ia ianaiaiaea o oi?i?
aaoi?eoa?ii? nenoaie iie?oe/ii? aeaaee ? i?aeoe/ii iaiaiaaeaia
aeiiii?/ia naiaiaea — a?eoainueea iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy eieii??th
aoaeoaaeany ia i??i?eoaoao aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Iie?oe/ia aaoa?e?y
iaea i?noea aei /ano, aeiee ia aoei noi?iiaaii eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeii?
aeiiii?ee ? aeinyaiooi aeinoaoiuei aenieeo oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy.

Niaoeeo?/i? ?ene iiaeae? aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? Aiieiiao: neeueia
iie?oe/ia aeaaea, aea?aeaaia iae?iaeiiii?/ia iaao?o/aiiy, aenii?oia
i???ioaoe?y aeiiii?ee – aecia/eee eiai aeiiii?/io nenoaio ye oaeo, ui
naii?icaeaa?oueny. Iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith, a
ye?e aeii?iothoue ciai?oi? oaeoi?e o?ainoi?iaoe??, aeicaiey? aeinyaoe
aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano /a?ac aeei?enoaiiy caiice/aieo cciai?
aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo noaiaea?o?a.

Ii-i’yoa, iiceoeaiee aeina?ae Aiieiiao a ioi?ieaii? ?eieiaiai
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith caneoaiao? oaaae c aieo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a oa
a/aieo c oi/ee ci?o iiaeeeainoae eiai aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoeoe?
?icaoaeiae ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i?, a naia:

?ic?iaea ? iine?aeiaia ?aae?caoe?y eiioeaioe?? e?aa?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ia?aianaiiy oeaio?o ae?e aea?aeaae c aeiiii?/ii? noa?e o
noa?o iie?oe/io, iia’ycaio ?c noaiiaeaiiyi ? i?aeo?eiaiiyi ?aieiaeo oiia
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith;

iayai?noue neeueii? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, i??i?eoaoiith iaoith
ooieoe?iioaaiiy yei? ? aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeii? aoaeoeaiino?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy iie?oe/ieo oe?eae e?ioeaaei
iio?aaai aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue;

iaiao?aei?noue ye?nieo ci?i o na?aaeiaeu? iie?oe/ii? ae?oe: aeinyaiaiiy
iaeiinoaeiino? a i?iaaaeaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, a?aeiiaa
a?ae iniaenoeo ?ioa?an?a ia ei?enoue caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo, ai?ioueaa
c ei?oioe??th na?aae aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a;

aecia/aiiy aenii?oii? i???ioaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ia i?aenoaa?
?nioth/eo ? iioaioe?eieo ii??aiyeueieo ia?aaaa ye i??i?eoaoo
aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy;

caaacia/aiiy iinooiiaiai ia?a?inoaiiy a?aee?eoi? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a
aenii?oii???ioiaaio aeiiii?eo;

iaiao?aei?noue oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy cao?aeiiai aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe??
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy ye no?oeoo?iiai caniao
iioei?caoe?? oaii?a ?eieiai? ia?aaoaeiae.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

?iei/a A., Ii?ic Ae. Aei ieoaiiy i?i aea?? iioeiaeueiiai oeyoo ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. – 1998. — ? 9. –N. 53-59 (aao. —
0,75 ae?. a?e.)

?iei/a A., Ii?ic Ae. I?i aca?iica’ycie ciai?oiuei? aeiiii?ee ?
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee // Aaie?anueea ni?aaa.
– 1999. — ? 2. – N. 61-63. (aao. – 0,35 ae?. a?e.)

Ii?ic Ae. ?eieiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie: Aiieiia. – E.:
E?a?a. 1998.- 144 n. – (8,1 ae?. a?e.)

A I I O A Oe ? ss

Ii?ic Ae.A. Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai ono?ith a aeiiii?/ii ia?icaeiaieo
e?a?iao (ia i?eeeaae? aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo Aiieiiao). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01 – aeiiii?/ia oai??y. – Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
?eieiaiai ono?ith a ia?aa?ao aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?eueii?
nenoaie. Ia i?eeeaae? Aiieiiao ?ice?eaathoueny iniaeeaino? aaiethoe??
aeiiii?/iiai ono?ith, a ye?e aeii?ioaaea oe?eani?yiiaaia ae?y ciai?oi?o
oaeoi??a, i?aaenoaaeaieo iie?oeeith eieii?aeueiiai o?yaeo Aaeeei?
A?eoai??. Aea?oueny aiae?c nooiino? aiieiianueei? iiaeae? aeiiii?/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie uiaei iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy ??
iaaieo aeaiaio?a o i?aeoeoe? ?icaoaeiae ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeiiii?/ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y, ?eieiaee ono??e, eieii?aeueia
iie?oeea, aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea.

A I I I O A Oe E ss

Ii?ic Ae.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iiai ii?yaeea a yeiiiie/anee
ia?acaeouo no?aiao (ia i?eia?a yaiethoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey Aiieiiaa) —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 – yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. – Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaathony i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey
?uii/iiai ii?yaeea a oiaea yeiiiie/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee iauanoaaiiie
nenoaiu. Ia i?eia?a Aiieiiaa ?ane?uaathony iniaaiiinoe nenoaiiie
o?ainoi?iaoeee, a eioi?ie aeiieie?iaaei oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aeeyiea
aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo iieeoeeie eieiieaeueiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Aeaaony aiaeec nouiinoe aiieiianeie
iiaeaee yeiiiie/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee e aeaeaaony auaiae i aiciiaeiinoyo
eniieueciaaiey aa ii?aaeaeaiiuo yeaiaioia a i?aeoeea oi?ie?iaaiey
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a Oe?aeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeiiiie/aneay o?ainoi?iaoeey, ?uii/iue ii?yaeie,
eieiieaeueiay iieeoeea, yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea.

ANNOTATION

Moroz D.A. Market order formation in economically undeveloped countries
(using the example of Hong Kong’s evolutionary development). Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate’s Degree in Economic Sciences in specialty
08.01.01 – Economic Theory – Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv,
1999.

The problems of formation and development of market order in the course
of economic transformation of social system are studied in the thesis.

The evolutionary – institutional theory of social systems’ development
is chosen as a basis for research of market transformation problems. The
use of its fundamental tenets determined the structure of the work:
general and special issues in evolutionary development, models and types
of specific transformation, Hong Kong as a successful implementations of
the model of “artificial” selection with dominance of external factors,
significance of experience of Hong Kong’s economic transformation for
Ukraine.

The concept of existence of two opposite types of evolutionary
development of economic systems is formulated in the theoretical part of
the thesis. They are: evolution under the conditions of natural
selection and evolution under the conditions of artificial selection.
The main features of them are revealed, and the conclusion to the
advantage of the economic transformation under the conditions of
artificial selection is drawn.

The peculiarities of external and internal factors of evolution under
the conditions of artificial selection are revealed. The peculiarities
of market transformation in the model of evolutionary development under
the conditions of artificial selection are defined. The author came to a
conclusion about positive influence of external factors of economic
transformation on formation of market environment in the country and on
dynamics of its economic development.

The idea concerning the necessity of moving to open economy is defined,
that is shown a result of effect of internal factors of economic
development and is connected with a high degree of liberalization of
economy. It is defined that high degree of economic freedom depends on
degree of liberalization of economy, that has positive impact on
competitiveness of national economy.

The analytical part of the thesis using the example of Hong Kong
reveals peculiarities of system transformation with prevalence of
purposeful influence of external factors presented by the colonial
policy of British government. The analysis of essence of Hong Kong’s
model of economic transformation is done. The specific features of the
model of Hong Kong’s economic transformation are the following: strong
political power, passive state macroeconomic policy, export – orientated
economy. These features determined its economic system as
self-developing.

The conclusion is drawn, that market transformation occurs as the
process of implementation of policy of economic order at all levels of
national economy. On macro-level it is implemented in economic activity
of the state in creation of general conditions of functioning of market
environment. On mezo-level it is realized through elaboration and
implementation of rules of behaviour of mezo-economic units, that is
spheres of social use and those, that cannot function according to the
market rules due to their economic nature. On micro-level it is
implemented in the rules of behaviour of companies and individuals.

The specific nature of Hong Kong’s economic evolution is shown on the
basis of analysis of its economic and political factors of market
transformation. The main features of Hong Kong’s transformation are
revealed and are recommended for use in market transformation of
Ukraine.

The author formulated principles of strategic alternative of market
transformations in Ukraine, which are based on experience of countries,
market transformation of which took place under conditions of artificial
selection. Formation and functioning of specific historic mechanism of
effective settlement of socially painful problems which accompany
transformation processes is displayed on Hong Kong’s example. Grounds
were given to the statement concerning the positive effect of open
national economy in solving economical and social problems of transition
period. The examples show the change of correlation between
legislative and executive power during different stages of market
formation in one country and the necessity of dynamics of such
correlation is proven.

In the practical part of the work the positive experience of Hong Kong
in creation of market economic order is worth attention of Ukrainian
scientists and politicians in the following areas:

elaboration and gradual implementation of the concept of liberal market
economy; transition of the state’s policy from economic to political
spheres, which is connected with setting up and supporting framework
conditions of economic order;

presence of strong state power, top-priority goal of which is
achievement of required efficiency of national economy, the
subordination of political purposes to interests of economic reforms;

necessity for qualitative changes in political elite; achievement of
solidarity in the implementation of market policy, refusal from private
interest for the sake of national, eradication of corruption in state
bodies;

reforming of foreign economic strategy of Ukraine in the direction of
strengthening of export orientation of foreign trade and encouragement
of development of import — substitution policy on the grounds of
existing and potential advantages in certain branches of economy;

gradual transition of Ukrainian economy to export – orientated;

necessity for wide adoption of western experience in business
organization and methods of business activity as a structural tool in
optimization of speed of market reconstruction.

Key words: economic transformation, market order, colonial policy,
economic policy.

Moroz D. A. Formation of market arrangement in economically undeveloped
countries (case study based on the example of evolutionary development
of Hong-Kong). Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate`s of Economic Sciences Degree in specialty
08.01.01– economic theory – Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv,
1999.

The issues of formation and development of market arrangements in the
course of economic transformation of the public system are studied in
the thesis.

The key stone of the study of the problems of market transformation is
the evolutionary and institutional theory of development of public
systems. The usage of its postulates determined the structure of the
work: general and special issues in the evolutionary development, models
and types of specific transformation, Hong-Kong as successful example of
realization of the artificial selection model with the dominance of
external factors, the importance of the Hong-Kong’s experience of
economic transformation for Ukraine.

In the theoretical part of the work, the concept of existing of two
opposite types of evolution of economic systems is formulated: evolution
of natural selection and evolution of artificial selection. Their main
features were disclosed. A conclusion is drawn to the advantage of the
economic transformation under artificial selection.

The peculiarity of the impact of the features of internal and external
factors of evolution in terms of artificial selection is defined. The
characteristics of market transformation of the model of evolution
development in terms of artificial selection are determined. The author
comes to the conclusion about the positive influence of external factors
of economic transformation on the formation of market environment in a
country and the dynamism of its economic development.

The idea of necessity of spreading to the open economy that occurs as a
result of action of internal factors of economic development is
reasoned. It is connected with a high degree of liberalization of
economy. It is defined that a high degree of economic freedom depends on
the level of liberalization of economy. It has positive effect on the
competitive advantages of national economy.

In the analytical part of the work, the features of system
transformation dominated by the influence of external factors provided
by the colonial policy of government of Great Britain are disclosed by
the model of Hong-Kong. The analysis of essence of Hong-Kong’s model of
economic transformation is carried out. Such specific features of
Hong-Kong’s model of economic transformation as strong political power,
passive state macroeconomic policy, export-oriented economy defined its
economic system as self-developing.

A conclusion is made that market transformation occurs in form of the
process of implementing a policy of economic arrangement at all levels
of the economy. On the macro-level it is implemented in the economic
efforts of the state for creation of general conditions of functioning
of market environment; on the mezo-level — in elaboration and
implementation of rules of conduct of the mezo-economic agents — public
branches and those that due to their economic nature can’t function
under the rules of market; on the micro-level — in the rules of conduct
of different agents of economic activity.

Based on the analysis of economic and political factors of market
transformation of Hong-Kong the peculiarity and the model of economic
evolution of this country is disclosed. The elements of Hong-Kong
transformation that can be rational for use in the market transformation
of Ukraine have been specified.

The author has stated the conditions of strategic alternatives of market
transformation in Ukraine. These conditions are based on the experience
of countries which went through market transformation under artificial
selection. The formation and work of specified historic mechanism of
effective settlements of public and private issues that accompanied
transformation process have been disclosed by the model of Hong-Kong.
Grounds were given for the statement concerning the positive effect of
open national economy for solving economical and social problems of
transition period.

The examples show the invertion of legislative to executive power on the
different stages of formation of market in the country. The author gives
reasons for the necessity of such dynamic of relation.

In the practical part of the work, the positive experience of
Hong-Kong in the creation of market is worth attention on behalf of
Ukrainian scientists and politicians in the following areas:

elaboration and gradual implementation of the concept of liberal market
economy; transition of the country’s policy from economical to political
sphere that connected to becoming and supporting framework terms of
economic arrangement;

presence of strong state power. Its top-priority goal is an achievement
of required efficiency of national economy, the subordination of
political purposes to interests of economic reforms;

necessity of qualitative changes among political elite: achievement of
solidarity in the implementation of the market policy to reverse private
interest to public, political housecleaning;

reforming of foreign economic strategy of Ukraine to export-oriented
foreign trade and stimulating implementation of import substitution
policy on the ground of existing and potential advantages in certain
branches of economy;

the gradual transition of economy of Ukraine to export-oriented economy;

necessity of wide implementation of western experience of organization
of entrepreneurship and methods of business activity as structural
instrument of optimization of the speed of market transition.

Key words: economic transformation, market order, native policy,
economic policy.

The Economist Pocket World in Figures. 1997 Edition. London. 1997. 24,
28, 30 P.

Tsang S. Government and Politics in Hong Kong: A Colonial Paradox. –
Hong Kong’s Transitions, 1842-1997. Oxford 1997. P.64.

United Nations, 1979/80 Statistical Yearbook. 1980. Table 159.

I?ae?aoiaaii: The Economist Pocket World in Figures. P. 24, 25.

Spigel. 1997. H.22. S. 151.

The Economist Pocket World in Figures. P. 27.

Hopkins K. Hong Kong: The Industrial Colony. A Political, Social and
Economic Survey. London. 1971. P.166.

Oeeo. ii: Rabushka A. Hong Kong. A Study In Economic Freedom. Chicago.
1979. P.44.

Oai aea.

Ee Ei Niia. ?inney e iiaeaeue ?acaeoey Ainoi/iie Acee // Ie?iaay
yeiiiieea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey. -1997.- ? 3.- N. 123.

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