4

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Aecyae Ieaia Aanee?aia

OAeE 339.13.024:365

OI?IOAAIIss ?EIEIAEO A?AeIINEI O

AEEOEIAIIO NAEOI?? AEIIII?EE OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.01.01. — Aeiiii?/ia oai??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei oa
a?ciano Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?eaaiei
Einoyioei Oa?aniae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?uaiei Iao?i
Noaiaiiae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???

– eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio, E??a?a Noai?neaa ?aaiiae/,
?inoeooo aeiiii?/ieo i?iaiicoaaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e
nioe?aeueii? noa?e, aeioiae?a oa ??aiy aeeooy

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 22 ” /a?aiy 1999?. i 15-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.006.03 o Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252057, i. Ee?a,
i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae 54/1, aoaeeoi??y 317.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 ” o?aaiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

ae.a.i., i?ioani? _____________________
Ooen A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oniioia ?ica”ycaiiy i?iaeaie
no?oeoo?ii? ia?ai???ioaoe?? aeiiiiiee Oe?a?ie a nioe?aeueiiio iai?yi?
iio?aao? ?aaeeeaeueii? ia?aaoaeiae aeeoeiaiai naeoi?o aeiiiiiee. Aii ?
aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith ae?iaie/iai iioaioeiaeo aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie,
/eiieeii ?? aeiiiii/iiai c?inoaiiy, c iaeiiai aieo, i aacith iiaeaeuaiiy
??aiy aeeooy ethaeae, ?o aeia?iaooo – c ae?oaiai. Oiio aaeueie
aeooaeueiith a ia?aoiaeiee ia?iiae ? aeeoeiaa i?iaeaia, iieioeea,
nea?iaaia ia ?? ?ica”ycaiiy. I?e/iio oaea iieioeea iiaeiia iin?aeaoe
i?ia?aeia iinoea a caaaeueiie aeiiiii/iie iieioeoe? e?a?ie. Aaeaea, ye
ia?aeiio? na?oiaee aeinaiae, c?inoaiiy aeeoeiaiai aoaeiaieoeoaa ? ia?oei
iieacieeii aeoiaeo c e?ece, a eiai cai?oaiiy – ia?oei iieacieeii
aeai?ani?, ine?eueee a aeeoeia?e noa?i ?aaeico?oueny aeecueei 30%
a?aeoai?thaaiiai iaoeiiiaeueiiai aaaaonoaa.

No/aniee ?iaaiue aeineiaeaeaiue i?iaeai ia?aoiaeo eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee a
?eieiao, o oiio /ene? o oae?e aaaeeea?e noa?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ye
aeeoeiaa, ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai i?aeoeee, cie?aia a Oe?a?ii.
A?aenooiinoue oeieinii? oai??? ia?aoiaeiiai ia??iaeo, iaaeineiiae?noue
iaoiaeieiai? ?? ?ic?iaee, niaoeeoi/iinoue o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a
iao?e e?a?ii cia/iith i??ith ? i?e/eiith aeiiiii/ii? e?ece, o oiio /enei
o aeeoeiaiio naeoi?i. Iaaeiioeiiea inoaiiueiai ni?ey? iineeaiith
no?oeoo?ieo niioai?aiue a aeiiiiioei e?a?ie, iiai?oo? noai caaacia/aiiy
aeeoeii, i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaino?aiiy anio nioeiaeueieo noia?a/iinoae i
a eiioeaaiio i?aenoieo ?iaeoue iaaoaeoeaiith aea?aeaaio aeiiiii/io
iieioeeo, ni?yiiaaio ia iiaoaeiao iiaiai noniieueiiai ono?ith.

A ca”yceo c oeei ?ica”ycaiiy neeaaeieo aeiiiii/ieo, nioeiaeueieo i
iieioe/ieo caaaeaiue a Oe?a?ii nueiaiaeii cia/iith ii?ith caeaaeeoue
aiae ?iaiy ?icaeoeo oai?i? ? iaoiaeieiai? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
aiaeiinei, o oiio /enei o aeeoeiaie noa?i.

I?ioa oai?aoe/ii i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai iaoaiicio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy o aeeoeiaie noa?i noiniaii ?icaeoeo no/anii? aeiiiiiee
Oe?a?ie ciaoiaeyoueny ia?aaaaeii ia ?iaii eiioeaioei?, a a aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao iiaeoiaee aei ?o ?ica”ycaiiy ua ia ocaiaeaeaii iiae niaith.
Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy eiioeaio?othoueny ia?aaaaeii ia
i?eeeaaeieo aniaeoao ?aoi?i, aeoiaey/e c aeiiii?/ieo oai?ie,
cina?aaeaeaieo ia oi?iao ooieoeiiioaaiiy ?icaeiaiiai ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa i ioeiieith ?acoeueoaoia aeiyeueiinoi iaoiaeaie caoiaeii?,
caeaa?eueoiai iaieeane/ii? oeiee. I?e oeueiio iaii?o?oueny aeaniee
aeina?ae, niaoeeoiea neooaoei? a aeiiiiioei – noa?a nenoaia ?icaaeaia,
iiaeaaeeie iiai? ia aaea?oueny caeeanoe.

Aeooaeueiinoue ?ic?iaethaaii? i?iaeaie cia/ii c?inoa? o ca”yceo c
i?eeiyooyi iiai? Eiinoeoooei? Oe?a?ie, yea caeiiiaeaa/i cae??ieea eo?n
ia ?aaeeeaeueii aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy o aeeoeia?e noa?i, aecia/eea
iinoea aea?aeaae o noai?aii? oiia, ca yeeo eiaeai a?iiaaeyiei iaoeia
ciiao iiaoaeoaaoe aeeoei, i?eaeaaoe o aeani?noue aai acyoe a i?aiaeo, a
oaeiae caaacia/eoe aeeoeii aaciieaoii aai ca aeinooiio ieaoo oeo
a?iiaaeyi, yei iio?aaothoue nioeiaeueiiai caoenoo a?aeiiaiaeii caeiio.

Iaiao?aei?noue ?eieiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei o aeeoeia?e
noa?? aeiaaa? ea?aeeiaeueiiai ia?aaeyaeo an??? nenoaie iiaeyae?a ia
oai??th ? i?aeoeeo oi?ioaaiiy ? caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa o aeeoe?.

Cia/iee aianie o ?icaeoie oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo
aeeoea iaeaaeeoue oe?a?inueeei oa ca?oa?aeiei a/aiei. Aiae?c no/anieo
i?aeoiae?a aei ?eieo aeeoea caeienithaaany ia iniiai aea/aiiy: ii-ia?oa,
ieoaiue iaoiaeieiai? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo aiaeiinei o o?ainoi?iaoeieiee
ia?iiae iaoeiiiaeueii? aeiiiiiee. Aaaiiee aianie o ?o ?icaeyae c?iaeaiee
o i?aoeyo Aiaeii Ae., Aooiie-Niaa?nueeiai I., Aaeue/einueeiai A., Aa?oey
A., Eaanithea A., Eoeiiiaa ?., Ii/a?iiai N., Iia?eiaa A., Iaaeianueeiai
I., Iaeeiia TH., *a?iyea A., *ooia A. oa ii.

Ii-ae?oaa, ieoaiue aeineiaeaeaiiy iniiaieo oaiaeaioeie ? caeiiiii?iinoae
?icaeoeo ?eieo aeeoea o e?a?iao c ?icaeiaiith ?eieiaith aeiiiiieith,
?icaeyiooeo o ?iaioao Aeaeaa?? A., Aiia ?., Aa?aeia?a Ae., Eaeaeaia
Aeae., Neieea?a I., Ooeea?a I., Oaoaaiaeiaia I., Oae I.

Ii-o?ao?, oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue i?iaeai ?eieo aeeoea, ui oa?aeoa?ii
aeey aeiiiiiee ia?aoiaeiiai ia?iiaeo. Na?aae oe?a?inueeeo aaoi?ia
aeaeieeii i?aoei Aa?eooa A., Aonaeiaa A., Ae?iiy A., ?uaiea I., Eoene
A., Ioey?a E., Ia/a?aa A., I?enyaeithea A., ?oey I., *a/aethea I. Na?aae
aeiiiiinoia iinonioeiaeinoe/ieo e?a?i ?o ?icaeyaeathoue A?eeiia O.,
Ea/aiiaa I., Iaeue/ei A., Iieyeianueeee A., I/aeeioeaa I.

I?e an?e cia/ouino? aei?iaeo iacaaieo aaoi??a ? iaaiiio ??ai?
ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie iiee ui a?aenooi? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ?ic?iaee, ye?
a ?ice?eee iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo aeeoea a o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo
aeiiii?eao. Aeeneon?eiei ? ieoaiiy uiaei o?iainiai-e?aaeeoiiai
caaacia/aiiy aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei
ainiiaea?noaii. Iiaeeaeaiiy oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aaothoue
aea/aiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy i?noey aea?aeaae o iia?e aeeoeia?e iie?oeoe?. A
e?oa?aoo?? iaeaea ia ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie iniaeeainoae
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo aeeoeiaiai naeoi?o oa caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi
aeeoeii, ?ieue a?iiaaeyi a oi?aae?ii? i?noeaaei aeeoeiaei oiiaeii.
?ic?iaea aeacaii? i?iaeaie ni?eyoeia oaeineiiaeaiith aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee o aeeoeia?e noa??, ui e coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe.

Ca”ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue aaoi?ii ia
eaoaae?? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei oa a?ciano
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo ii aea?aeathaeaeaoi?e
iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e oai? ? 117-95 ae/a

“Iaoiaeieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy no?eeiai ?icaeoeo I?eaei?i?ia”y a oiiaao
nioe?aeueii-aeieia?/ii? e?ece”, ? aea?aeaaii? ?aa?no?aoe?? 0195V023143.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a aiae?c?
iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o aeeoeiaiio naeoi??
aeiiii?ee, aecia/aii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? noo? ?eieo aeeoea,
aeyaeaii? iniiaieo iai?yi?a oa oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy eiai no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, niaoeeo?ee aea?aeaaii?
ae?yeueiino? o oeeo i?ioeanao.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoei aecia/aii oae? iniiai? caaea/?:

— iaa?oiooaaoe ia”?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo aeeoea a
Oe?a?i?, aecia/eoe eiai i?noea a caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ?eieo;

— cae?enieoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo aeeoea c a?aooaaiiyi na?oiaiai
aeina?aeo oa ?aae?e ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo;

— aeyaeoe i?noea ? a?aene?aeeoaaoe aieea i?eaaoecaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai
aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo o noai?aii? ?eieo aeeoea a iao?e e?a?i?;

— aecia/eoe iiaeeeaino? ia iei?oiueiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noeioethaaiiy
aoaeiaieoeoaa iiaiai aeeoea, yea noa? aeiaeaoeiaei oiaa?ii, i iiieoo ia
iueiai;

— iaa?oiooaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoei? ii aaeineiiaeaiith iieaoe ca aeeoei oa
eiioiaeueii iineoae;

— ?ice?eoe iniaeeainoi aeie aea?aeaae ii noai?aiith ?eieo aeeoea a
Oe?a?ii, yea ia?aaoaa? o noaii o?ainoi?iaoei? aiae eiiaiaeii? aei
?eieiai? aeiiiiiee.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo ?eieiai? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy, aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie, ye?
aeieeathoue o aeeoeia?e noa??.

Ia”?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?eiie aeeoea, oiiae ? iniiai? iai?yie eiai
oi?ioaaiiy, iniaeeaino? ?aaoethaaiiy oeeie i?ioeanaie a ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a
iieyaa? o oaeiio:

1. Aeiaaaeaii, ui noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie ?eieo aeeoea ? aaaeeeaei
/eiieeii c?inoaiiy aeiiiiiee e?a?ie, iiceoeaieo no?oeoo?ieo c?ooaiue o
iie oa aeinyaiaiiy ?iaiiaaae. ?icaeyioo? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene aeeoea ye
oiaa?o, ye? iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio:

— caeia? caiaeueiee i?ino??, ui aeaco? ia eiai ciaoiaeaeaiiy, ee?iaoe/i?
oiiae, iayai?noue eiioi?eaoe?e;

— i?e eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo caeeoa?oueny ia?ooiiei;

— ?ici?? ? oe?ia aeeoea – aaee/eia ci?iia;

— ia”?eo aeey ?iaanoeoe?e;

— oiaa? aeiaaino?ieiaiai no?ieo neoaeae ? ia?aaea?oueny a niaaeueio.

2. ?ice?eo? iniiai? iai?yie oi?ioaaiiy iiai? aeeoeiai? iie?oeee o
o?ainoi?iaoe?eiee ia??iae, yea nea?iaaia ia ?icaeoie aoaeoeaiiai iiieoo
ia aeeoei.Aeaia ioeiiea i?eaaoecaoei? aeeoea /a?ac aeeoeiai /aee, yea
aeicaieeea caii/aoeoaaoe ?eiie aeeoea, aeiaaaeaii, ui ?? iaoaiici
aeyaeany iaaeineiiaeei ? iaaoaeoeaiei. I?inoaaiiy aia?aae o oeueiio
iai?yii aoaea iiaeeeaei i?e ?ic?iaoei eiioeaioei? ae?oaiai aoaio
i?eaaoecaoei? ca aeanii eiooe.

3. Aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue ? iai?yie oaeineiiaeaiiy
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai oa i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
?aae?caoe?? i?aa aeaniino? ia caieth o i?noao (i?eaaoii?, eieaeoeaii?,
ioi?oeeiaeueii? oiui).

4. Iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui ?eiie aeeoea a Oe?a?ii iiaea aiaeoai?thaaoeny ia
?icoe?ai?e iniia? eeoa ca oiia oaeaeeiai c?inoaiiy aoaeiaieoeoaa iiaiai
aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo, ui iio?aao? i?eioeeiiai iiaiai iiaanoeoeieiiai
iaoai?cio, ?ice?eaa?oueny eiai nooue.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii cai?noue athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy oo?eiaiiy
aeeoei-aiai oiiaeo, aeioaoeie iiaei?e?inoaai aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, aae?anieo aeeoeiaeo noaneaeie ianaeaiith cai?iaaaeeoe
nenoaio naiiieoiii? iieaoe ca aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueii iineoae, yea ?acii c
iiaeaeuaiiyi aeioiaeia a?iiaaeyi aei ?iaiy ?eieiaeo aeiia ni?eyoeia
aiaeoai?aiith iaoa?iaeueii-oaoii/ii? aace i?aei?e?inoa oe??? aaeoc?,
iie?auaiith yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

6. ?ice?eoi ?ieue aea?aeaaieo i?aaiia aeaaee ?icieo ?iaiia o noai?aiii
?ei-eo aeeoea a Oe?a?ii. Aeaaaeaii aeayei caaaeueiiiaoiaeieiai/ii
i?eioeeie ?ic?iaee aeeoeiai? iieioeee e?a?ie, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai
iaoaiicio ?? ?aaeicaoei?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui c?iaeai?
ai?iaeiaae aeineiaeaeaiiy caaaeueiiiaoiaeieiai/ii aeniiaee oa oai?aoe/ii
ocaaaeueiaiiy yaeythoue niaith iaaiee aianie o iiaeaeueoo ?ic?iaeo
oai??? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaieie o i?ioean?
?ica”ycaiiy iaaieo aeiiiii/ieo noia?a/iinoae ia?aoiaeiiai ia?iiaeo.
?aeiiaiaeaoei? uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy iieaoe ca aeeoei oa eiioiaeueii
iineoae aeicaieeee noi?ioethaaoe eiie?aoii i?iiiceoei?, ni?yiiaaii ia
iiaeieaiiy e?ece o aeeoeiaiio ainiiaea?noa? oa caaacia/aiiy eiai
?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoai?ci eiio?ieth ca
aaee/aiith oa?eo?a oa ii?iaie niiaeeaaiiy oaieiai? aia?a?? c aieo
aeaniee?a, ni?aaeaniee?a aaaaoieaa?oe?ieo aoaeeie?a oa
i?aei?e?inoa-ae?iaiee?a ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny a i?aeoeeo Aei?i?iiao?ianueeei
aea?aeaaiei eiioiaeueiei i?aei?e?inoaii “Iaeoaieiia?aaea”/ Aeia?aeea ?
183-1 a?ae 01.04.1999?./.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiaeieiai/iee iiaeoiae aei ?ic?iaee iai?yiia oi?ioaaiiy
?eieo aeeoea oa aeei?enoaiiy aeaea?ae oiiainoaaiiy, iaoiaeia
aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy ia?ooiiinoi iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoaieie i?e ?ic?iaoei oe?einii? aeiaaino?ieiai? i?ia?aie
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiiiiee Oe?a?ie.

Aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a “Aeiiii?/ia
oai??y”, “Aeiiii?/ia noaoenoeea”, “Oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie”,
“I?aeia?iaei? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie” a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? /Aeia?aeee ?45 a?ae 04.05.1999?., oa a?ae 9.02.1999 ?./.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia caniaeaiiyo eaoaae?e
oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiio nai?ia?? “I?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee ?
oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iiaeae? Oe?a?ie” (a?oaeaiue 1996?.).
Ca ?acoeueoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee c?iaeai? aeiiia?ae? ia i?aeia?iaeieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “O?iaine Oe?a?ie” (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997, 1998??.), ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioeiyo “?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie” (i. Eooeuee, 1998 ?.), “Oeyoe ?icaoaeiae ?eieiaiai
na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i?”(i. Iaeana, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iiaenoieaie aeeiiaieo aeineiaeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii n?i
?ia?o, a o./. i?ai?eio, o?e noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iaoa??aee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai nai?ia?o, oace
aeiiia?aeae – caaaeueiei ianyaii 4,5 ae?oe. a?e., a oiio /ene? aaoi?a
4,2 ae?oe.a?e. O oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo ca nieneii AAE Oe?a?ie iioae?eiaaii 3
i?aoe?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ianyaii 165 noi??iie oaenoo. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny
?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa i?iiiceoe?e, nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, 14 oaaeeoeue, 6 ?enoie?a.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, i?aaeiao ? iaoiae
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iaoeiao iiaecio aeena?oaoe?? oa i?iaaaeaii ai?iaaoe?th
?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Ia”?eoeai? iniiae aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?eieo aeeoea
a Oe?a?i?” c?iaeaii anaa?/iee aiae?c aeiiii?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e ca oaiith
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii iniiai? i?aeoiaee aaoi?nueeiai aiae?co uiaei
aaeaioaoe?? caeiaooe?a cao?aeii? iaoeiai? aeoiee aei oiia ia?ao?aeieo
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai. Oea aeaei ciiao o oai?aoe/iiio ieai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
anoaiiaeoe oaea. Oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai ?icaeiaiiai ?eieo o iao?e e?a?i?
ia?aaeaa/a? noai?aiiy iiaiioe?iiiai ?eieo aeeoea, aaeaeaaoiiai
iaoai?cio, ui caaacia/o? ?oo oaeiai niaoeeo?/iiai oiaa?o, yeei ? aeeoei.

A oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei aeeoei, ye ? anyeee ?ioee oiaa?, ia? ye
caaaeuei? ?ene, aeanoea? an?i ?ioei oiaa?ai (oiaoi ? i?iaeoeoii i?aoe?
aai iaaiei aeaaii, ui caeaoia caaeiaieueiyoe iaai? iio?aae ethaeeie ?
i?ecia/aii aeey iai?io, oiaoi eoi?ae? oa i?iaeaaeo), oae ? niaoeeo?/i?
?ene, ye? aeaiee oiaa? ?iaeyoue a?aei?iiei a?ae on?o ?ioeo oiaa??a.
Niaoeeo?/i? ?ene aeeoea ye oiaa?o iieyaathoue o oaeiio. Ii-ia?oa, oea
iaoa??aeueia aeaai, yea caeia? iaaiee caiaeueiee i?ino??, ui aeaco? eiai
ciaoiaeaeaiiy, ee?iaoe/i? oiiae, iayai?noue eiioi?eaoe?e, ?icaeoie
nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, aeieia?/ia na?aaeiaeua. Ii-ae?oaa, aeeoei
ye oiaa?, ia i?ioeaaao ?ioei oiaa?ai, ye? i?e eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo o?ce/ii
ia?ai?uothoueny a?ae iaeiiai aeanieea aei ?ioiai, caeeoa?oueny
ia?ooiiei. sseui i?iaea?oueny ia?ooii?noue, aeeoei ye ? caiey, i?e?iaei?
eiiaeeie, oi aeaniee ?ooa?oueny aei oiaa?o ? niiaeeaa? eiai. Ii-o?ao?,
a?i ? oiaa?ii aeiaaio?eaaeiai no?ieo neoaeae. A neeo oeeo ianoaaei
aeeoei ? ia eeoa ia”?eoii iino?eieo ?iaanoeoe?e, a e ia”?eoii aeaniino?,
ui ia?aaea?oueny o niaaeueio. Ii-/aoaa?oa, ?ici?? ? oe?ia aeeoea ye
ia”?eoa ia?ooiiino? ? iino?eieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue o neeo iaiao?aeiino?
?aiiioo, ci?i iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ?aeiino?oeoe??, ia?aaoaeiae,
?icoe?aiiy ? o. ?i. ? aaee/eiith ci?iiith.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia, no?eaeiai yei?
aoei aea?aeaaia ea??aieoeoai on?ia noa?aie aeeooy c ?aeeiiai oeaio?o,
aeyaeeany iani?iiiaeiith caaeiaieueieoe ia ??ai? no/anieo aeiia
iaiao?aei? iio?aae nai?o a?iiaaeyi, o oiio /ene? e aeeoeia?. *a?aa
a?iiaaeyi ia aeeoei ia ciaioo?oueny ? aeinyaea 2 iei. n?iae, c ieo
aeecueei 600 oen. i?eueaiaeee. Iiiaae 5 iei. n?iae, aai iaeaea 17 iei.
/ieia?e, ui neeaaea? iaeio o?aoeio ianaeaiiy, i?iaeeaa? a
iacaaeia?eueieo oiiaao o ao?oiaeeoeao, eiioiaeueieo eaa?oe?ao, aaooeo
aoaeeieao c aeeoeiaith caaacia/ai?noth iaioa 9 ea.i aeeoeiai? ieiu? ia
iaeio ethaeeio. Na?aaeiy caaacia/ai?noue aeeoeii i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy a
Oe?a?i? noaiiaeoue 19,2 ea.i caaaeueii? ieiu? ia aeooo ianaeaiiy, ui a
2,5-3 ?ace iaioa, i?ae o ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao. Aaaaeaiiy a ae?th aeeoeiaeo
aoaeeie?a ii an?o oi?iao aeaniino? iaooeeueii nei?i/o?oueny. A 1998 ?. a
aenieoaoaoe?th aaaaeaii anueiai 5,6 iei. ea.i, ui a 5 ?ac?a iaioa i?ae
o na?aaeiueiio aaiaeeeiny ca ??e o 1986-1990??.

AEeoeiaa ieiua, ca oiia aee?aeoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy, iaiaaeoaaeanue
aei?noeeie ii?iaoeaaie, ye? iaaaaaoi a?aenoaaaee a?ae ii?iaoea?a o
?icaeiaieo e?a?iao, aeeoeia? aoaeeiee aoee a iniiaiiio iaeiiiai?oieie,
iecueeiye?nieie. Aeaia nenoaia iiaeeaeea noia?a/iino? i?ae noa”?eoaie,
i?aiaeoth/eie aeeoei ? aeei?enoiaoth/eie eiioiaeueii-iiaooia? iineoae, ?
noa”?eoaie ??cieo ??ai?a aea?aeaae, ui aoaeothoue aeeoei oa caeiathoueny
eiai aenieoaoaoe??th. Aiia i?ecaaea aei na?eicieo ? no?eeeo aeaoi?iaoe?e
o no?oeoo?? niiaeea/iai iiieoo ianaeaiiy, ine?eueee aaceiooiaia aeeoei ?
eiai aenieoaoaoe?y a oie aea /an aeiaaa? o aaeeeeo ?ici??ao iaeeaaeaoe
iiaeaoee ia ?ioo a?oio niiaeeaa/?a oiaa??a.

?ica”ycaoe iacaai? noia?a/iino? ? ia ae?e? ?aae?coaaoe iaeia c
iaeaaaeee-a?oeo i?aa ethaeeie – i?aai ia aeeoei, ye iieaco? na?oiaee
aeina?ae, iiaeia oey-oii oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o aeeoeiaiio
naeoi?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

A neeo oiai, ui inoaii?e ia caaeiaieueiy? noni?euei? iio?aae, oi aeeoei
ye oiaa? o iao?e e?a?i? ? aeao?oeeoii. Oaea noaiiaeua caaacia/o?
ae?iaieeo ? i?iaeaaoeth iiiiiieueia noaiiaeua, iaaeath/e iiaeeea?noue
anoaiiaethaaoe caaeuai? oe?ie, i?ioeae?yoe oi?ioaaiith ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. Eaa?oe?e, ui iathoue aea?aeia ?icoaooaaiiy aai ciaoiaeyoueny
iiaeeco o?ainii?oieo ia?aae, iathoue aeuo oe?io. Ia iiaeieaaoe oe???
noia?a/iino?, caoaeoaaoe ?eiie ia aaeanoueny. Ia i?aeoeoe? oea coiiaeth?
?nioaaiiy caeiiieo ? iacaeiiieo oi?i ia?eieiaiai ?iciiae?eo, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue ye aei c??aiye?aee, oae ? aei caaaa/aiiy an?o, ooi ia?
aeinooi aei aeeoea. Aioeaeao?oeeoiee iaoai?ci iiaeeeaee eeoa i?e
iane/aii? oaeei oiaa?ii ye aeeoei, ui i?ecaaaea ye aei cieaeaiiy ia
iueiai oe?i, oae ? iie?ioaiiy aeeoeiaeo oiia a?iiaaeyi iaoi? e?a?ie.

Nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai aeeoeicaaacia/aiiy ia? aooe o?ainoi?iiaaiith o
?eieiao, yea a?aeoai?thaaoeia i?eaaoio aeani?noue o aeeoeia?i naeoi??,
c?iaeoue aeeoei oiaa?ii, yeee /a?ac oe?iiaee iaoai?ci ? eiieo?aioe?th
iaiiaieoue ?eiie ? i?ecaaaea aei cieaeaiiy oe?i ia aeaiee oiaa?,
c?iaeoue eiai a?eueo ye?niei. ?eieiaee i?aeo?ae uiaei ?icaeoeo aaeoc?
caaacia/eoue iiaeeea?noue eiaeiiio a?iiaaeyieio iaoi? e?a?ie i?aai
aeai?o: eoioaaoe /e i?aiaeoaaoe aeeoei a?aeiia?aeii eiai iio?aaai ?
eoi?aaeuei?e ni?iiiaeiino?.

Aeina?ae aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i i?ney ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie aeia?a, ui ?icaeoie aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa ye
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano ? nooo?aei /eiieeii, i?enei?thth/ei aeiiii?/ia
c?inoaiiy. Aeey oiai uia oea a?aeaoeiny a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae ni?eyei
iiceoeaiei no?oeoo?iei c?ooaiiyi a aeiiii?oe? oa aeinyaiaiith
iaiao?aeiiai ?inoo niiaeeaaiiy aeeoea, aeeoeiaee naeoi? aeiiii?ee
iaiao?aeii, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, c?iaeoe i??i?eoaoiei iai?yiii aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee aea?aeaae. Ioiiethth/e iaeaea o?aoeio eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue
anueiai ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, a?i ni?eyoeia ?iaanoeoe?eiiio
iiaeaaaeaiith o an?o aaeocyo aeiiii?ee, ye? oaoiieia?/ii c iei
iia”ycai?, a oaeiae iiaeeia cia/io e?euee?noue ?iai/i? neee, ui
aeooiaoo?oueny ?c ?ioeo noa? ae?yeueiino? o ca”yceo ?c no?oeoo?ieie
ci?iaie, c?inoaiiyi aaaaoueio aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, eiiaa?n??th ? o. ?i.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? iai?yie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo aeeoea” aaoi?ii
i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae, a yeeo
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?eaaoecaoe?y aea?aeaaiiai aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo,
aeine?aeaeaii i?aeoeeo a?aeoai?aiiy ia?aeiiiai oa aoi?eiiiai ?eieo
aeeoea ca oiia aaaaoi??/ii? aeiiii?/ii? ?aoean??, eiee aea?aeaai?
eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy cia/ii nei?i/othoueny, ciaioothoueny
?iaanoeoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? a?eueoino? noa”?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
iaooeeueii iaaea? ieaoini?iiiaei?noue ianaeaiiy. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy
eiioeaioe?e o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? iieaoe
ca eiai iineoae c?iaeaii ni?iao noi?ioethaaoe iniiai? iai?yie
?aoi?ioaaiiy iieaoe ca aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae a no/anieo oiiaao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoeee i?eaaoecaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo ye
ia?aaeoiiae noai?aiiy ?eieo aeeoea a Oe?a?i? aeicaieeei aaoi?o c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui oeae i?ioean o e?a?i? cae?enith?oueny
ia?aoe?iiaeueii, iaiine?aeiaii, iaaeoi oiia?eueiaii. Oea coiiaeaii
aaaaoueia i?e/eiaie, ye? ioiieththoue iie?oe/i?, aeiiii?/i?, th?eaee/i?,
nioe?aeuei?, ineoieia?/i? noi?iie iaoiai aeeooy aiioe ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo. Iaea?eueo aaaeeea? c ieo oae?:

Ia?oa. ?aaeuei? oiiae: aeeaeia aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, aaee/acia nioe?aeueia
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y, iie?oe/ia ianoaa?euei?noue, ia?inoaiiy cei/eiiino? oa
ei?oioe??. Ianooaae oe??? ?iaioe aeyaeeeny iaaaaaoi neeaaei?oeie ?
noia?a/eea?oeie, i?ae caeaaaeiny aaaaoueii aeiiii?noai, th?enoai,
iie?oieiaai ? iie?oeeai.

Ae?oaa. Eiioeaioe?y ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe??, iiaoaeiaaia ia
i?ei-oeeiao nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?, c??aiye?aee, aeyaeeany
iaeiino?oeoeaiith.

O?aoy. I?ioeae?th/ei oaeoi?ii ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue, o oiio /ene?
noai?aiiy ?eieo aeeoea, ? iaioae?oao iaoiai ia?iaeo, yeee caee aeeoe o
“??aieo” oiiaao ca ?aooiie aea?aeaae ? ia i?iyaeyoe ?i?oe?aoeae.

*aoaa?oa, ? aieiaia i?e/eia iieyaa? a oiio, ui aea?aeaaa, cae?enithth/e
aeai? i?ioeane, ia aecia/eea /?oeeo “i?aaee a?e”, ia caaacia/eea
iaa?oioiaaii? oa i?ia?aneaii? caeiiiaeaa/i? aace. A ?acoeueoao? /iai a
e?a?i?, ii-ia?oa, ?inoeooo i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ana ua caeeoa?oueny
iaiaaeaiei ? iaiaeaaeii caoeuaiei, ii-ae?oaa, a?aenooi?e iaoai?ci ieaoe
ye ca aea?aeaaia, oae ? ca i?eaaoia aeeoei i?e eiai iaei?, i?aiae? aai
i?e aianaii? iiaeaoeo ia ia?ooii?noue, yeui eaa?oe?a i?eaaoeciaaia.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui i?eaaoecaoe?y aea?aeaaiiai aeeoea ca aeeoeia? /aee
iio?aao? iaaaeiiai caaa?oaiiy. Aiia, caii/aoeoaaaoe ?eiie aeeoea, naaa
ae/a?iaea. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?eieo aeeoea iiaeiai cae?enithaaoenue ca
aeani? eiooe a?iiaaeyi.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia??oioiao?oueny, ui iaei??th c aieiaieo i?e/ei
no?eioaaiiy ?eieo aeeoea a Oe?a?i? ? iaaecia/ai?noue, iaiine?aeiai?noue
caiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei i?eaaoecaoe?? caiaeue o ianaeaieo
ioieoao e?a?ie. Oaeee noai coiiaeaii: ii-ia?oa, anaa?/iei
ononi?eueiaiiyi i?nueeiai caieaei?enooaaiiy oa noaaeaiiy aei caie? ye
aei caaaeueiiai iaaeaaiiy, ui aei??ieeiny o na?aeiiino? ethaeae.
Ii-ae?oaa, iaaecia/ai?noue caiaeueieo a?aeiinei a?aeiia?aea? ?ioa?anai
ie?aieo aeaaeieo, iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo no?oeoo?, ye?
caaaeyee oeueiio iathoue iiaeeea?noue caaaaoeoeny aai i?eaeaaoe
iie?oe/i? aeea?aeaiaee. Ii-o?ao?, niioai?aiei ?icoi?iiyi naiiai
?inoeoooo i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth, a oiio /ene? o i?noao. O
oeueiio ia?aeiiothoue aea? i?ioeeaaei? iiceoe??, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey
noni?euenoaa c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith. Iaeia iieyaa? a oiio, ui
io?eiaao? caiaeueio ae?eyieo o i?eaaoio aeani?noue, ?? ainiiaea? i?aeoi
iiaea ?iaeoe ia i?e ana, ui eiio caiaiaoueny. ?ioa iiceoe?y caiaeeoueny
aei oiai, ui ia/aaoi i?eaaoecaoe?y caie? iacaaaeaee iicaaaey?
noni?euenoai ? aea?aeaao iiaeeeainoae ?aoe?iiaeueiiai, eiiieaeniiai ??
aeei?enoaiiy c a?aooaaiiyi ?ioa?an?a noni?euenoaa, ethaeae, ye?
i?iaeeaathoue ia aeai?e oa?eoi???.

?aaeueia i?e/eia noia?a/iinoae ?ioa?an?a c i?eaiaeo aeei?enoaiiy
i?nueei? caie? coiiaeaia ia i?eaaoiith aeaniinoth ia ia?, a o
a?aenooiino? aai iaaeineiiaeino? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?? ?aae?caoe??. Oaeee iaoai?ci
iiaea aooe aoaeoeaiei, yeui a?i: a) aaco?oueny ia oi?iao aeaniino? ia
caieth ? ?? oe?i?, ye? aeinooii? aeey e?eoe/ii? iane ei?enooaa/?a,
aeinoaoiuei? aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eie?a ia?ooiiino?; a) cae?enith?oueny
ca oiia no/anii? nenoaie caiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, aeio?eiaii? ii?i ?
i?aaee caaoaeiae i?noiaoae?aaeueieo eiiieaen?a, i?e/iio caaacia/othoue
aeanieeo caie? naiaiaeo, aeinoaoith aeey ?aae?caoe?? eiai ?ioa?an?a, a
i?noo – oiia aeey cae?eniaiiy nai?o ooieoe?e o noa?? oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
oa eiiieaeniiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi???.

Nenoaia caiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?aaeea caaoaeiae i?no, ui ?
aaaeeeaeie neeaaeiaeie ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? aeaniino? ia caieth,
noathoue aoaeoeaieie, yeui a?aoiaothoue iniaeea?noue i?noea?ici?uaiiy
caiaeueieo ae?eyiie. Aea?aeia ?icoaooaaiiy inoaii?o ? aeaea?aeii
iaaeeeoeiaeo i?eaooe?a. A neeo oeeo ianoaaei ia”?eoii caiaeueiiai ?eieo
aenooia? ia eeoa caiaeueia ae?eyiea, a e noeoii?noue i?aa, iia”ycaieo c
iath ? ia?aaeon?i i?aai ia iaea?aeaiiy ?aioiiai aeioiaeo. ?aioi?
a?aeiineie ni?eythoue ?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith caiaeueieo ae?eyiie
i?ae aeeoeiaoaeoaaiiy. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, a aeena?oaoe??
iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui caeiiiaeaa/ee ? aeeiiaa/ee i?aaie oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae iathoue noai?thaaoe ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee oa i?aai?caoe?eiee
iaoai?ci i?enei?aiii? i?eaaoecaoe?? caiaeueieo ae?eyiie a aaeeeeo,
na?aaei?o ? iaeeo i?noao.

Ia??oioiao?oueny aeniiaie, ui oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo aeeoea ia aac? iayaiiai
aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo ? ia?oei e?oiiei e?ieii aei oi?ioaaiiy no/anieo
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o oe?e aaaeeea?e noa?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Nooue
ianooiiiai aoaio ?icaeoeo ?eieo aeeoea iieyaa? o oi?ioaaii? ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei o aeeoeiaiio aoae?aieoeoa?.. Aoae?aaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? ye
oiaa?iae?iaieee iathoue aoaeoaaoe aeeoei – eioaaeae?, aaaaoieaa?oe?i?
aoaeeiee oiui aeey caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ?eieo aeeoea.

Aeiiii?/ia oai??y ? ainiiaea?nueea i?aeoeea na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
aoaeue-yeee ?eiie a?aeoai?th?oueny o ianyaao, ye? aecia/athoueny
ieaoini?iiiaeieie iio?aaaie ia iaaiee oiaa?. O aeeoeiaiio naeoi??
iniiaiith niiaeea/ith iaeeieoeath ? aeiiiainiiaea?noai. Ia iei?oiueiio
aoai? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ia?oi/a?aiaa i?noea o oi?ioaaii? ?eieo
aeeoea a Oe?a?i? iiaeiia caeiaoe i?iaeaia noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo
ia?aeiiiai ?eieo, yea noaia aeiaeaoeiaei oiaa?ii, ui caoaeiaaiee
niaoe?aeueii aeey i?iaeaaeo, caaeiaieaiiy iiieoo ia iueiai. Iiieo ia
aeeoei caeaaeeoue ye a?ae oe?ie ia iueiai, oae ? a?ae ??aiy aeioiae?a
aeiiiainiiaea?noa. Oiio ? ?icaeyaeaoe aeai? i?iaeaie iaiao?aeii ye
i??i?eoaoi? ? o aca?iica”yceo oa o iaaeao caaaeueii? aeeoeiai? iie?oeee,
cae?enithaaii? a e?a?i?.

A Oe?a?i? aoae?aieoeoai aeeoea ??cei nei?ioeeiny. Ca oaeeo oiia
ia?aaaaeia /anoeia ianaeaiiy iaoi? e?a?ie caaeiaieueieoe nai? iio?aae a
aeeoe? ca?ac ia ciiaea. ?acii c oei, ciaioaiiy aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
o e?a?i? aaaea aei o?ce/iiai ? ii?aeueiiai noa??iiy aoae?aaeueiiai
eiiieaeno, iia??oo? aeeoo?aee ??aaiue ianaeaiiy, i?ioeae?? ?icaeoeo
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. A?aeoai?aiiy aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno iino?eii
caoaeo?oueny.

O ?iaio? ia??oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy, ui a Oe?a?i? aeey caaacia/aiiy
ii?iaeueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy oiiaeo ? ?eieo aeeoea ia ?icoe?ai?e iniia?
iio??aii ?ic?iaeoe aeiaaino?ieiao aea?aeaaio i?ia?aio aeeoeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa. I?e oeueiio ne?ae aeoiaeeoe c ?a?iiaenueeeo ii?i
caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi aeeoeii, aea na?aaeiy aaee/eia noaiiaeoue 35-40
ea.i ia ethaeeio. Aea?aeaaia i?ia?aia aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, ye
iieacothoue iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia? i???iooaaoe ia i?e??no ii?ie
aeeoeiai? caaacia/aiino? a na?aaeiueiio ia ??ai? 0,8-1 ea.i ia ??e
O?eueee ca oaeeo oiia iiaeia ca?eueoeoe aeeoeiaee oiiae, ?icoe?thaaoe
aeeoeiaee ?eiie, iie?iooaaoe caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa oe?ieeo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy o aeeoe?.

Ianyae aoae?aieoeoaa iiaiai aeeoea ciaoiaeyoueny o i?yi?e caeaaeiino?
a?ae eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue o aeaio noa?o, ca?eueoaiiy yeeo o iiaeo oiiaao
iiaeeeai eeoa ca ?aooiie c?inoath/i? aeie? i?eaaoieo ?iaanoi??a oa
caaoae?aiee?a. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie: ine?eueee a ?eieiaeo oiiaao
aeaea?aeii i?eaaoieo ?iaanoeoe?e o aeeoeiaa aoae?aieoeoai ? aeioiaee
aeiiiainiiaea?noa, ye? ca?ac aeoaea iacia/i?, oi ?eiie aeeoea a Oe?a?i?
iiaea ?icaeaaoeny caaaeyee aeaii oaeoi?ai: 1) c?inoaiith aeioiae?a
ianaeaiiy ia iniia? i?aeianaiiy noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa; 2) cieaeaiith
aa?oino? aeeoea ? ?icaeoeo a?ciano a aoae?aaeueiiio eiiieaen? e?a?ie. Ca
iaeaaeiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a (e?aaeeoe, i?eueae
oiui) ianooaae c?inoaiiy iiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa aeeoea iiaeooue aooe
cia/ieie.

Ia??oioiao?oueny, ui ?ica”ycaoe i?iaeaio ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo iiaeia
oeyoii i?eioeeiiai iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei nioe?aeueii? no?aoaa??
aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa. O oeaio?? oaei? no?aoaa?? iathoue aooe ia
aaaao? aa?noae ianaeaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey iei?oiuei? aeeoeiai?
iie?oeee, a oae caaiee na?aaei?e eean, yeee o ian eeoa ii/eia?
oi?ioaaoeny, iio?aao? iie?ioaiiy aeeoeiaeo oiia ? iioaioe?eii ? aieiaiei
niiaeeaa/ai iiaiai aeeoea. Inoaii? coiiaeaii, ii-ia?oa, oei, ui
a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy e?a?ie ana ua aeeaa o o?nieo, ia eiioi?oaaaeueieo
eaa?oe?ao. Iio?aae o aeeoe? o oe??? (ia?aaaaeii? ca e?euee?noth) a?oie
n?iae ia o?eueee aino??, a e caaaeyee ia”?eoeaiiai caeiio c?inoath/eo
iio?aa, aoaeooue aacia?a?aii c?inoaoe. Ii-ae?oaa, na?aaei?e eean o
e?a?iao c ?icaeiaiith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith ? aecia/aeueiei noa”?eoii,
ui a?aeoai?th? iiae?ai? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie, ine?eueee ? aieiaiei
niiaeeaa/ai (a?eueo?noue noai?aiiai a e?a?i? aeioiaeo cina?aaeaeo?oueny
o iueiai ? aeo?a/a?oueny iei). Aecia/aiee iaie iiaee i?aeo?ae o
aeeoeia?e iie?oeoe? aoaea ni?eyoe ?aaeueiiio ?icoe?aiiio a?aeoai?aiith
?eieo aeeoea.

Aeoeaio o aeeoeia?e iie?oeoe? ia na?aaei?e eean, eiai iioaioe?ei?
iio?aae, ieaoini?iiiaei?noue iio?aao? ei?aeoe?? o o?iainoaaii?
aoae?aieoeoaa iiaiai aeeoea. Iniaeea?noue caaacia/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?yie
aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, ia a?aei?io
a?ae e?a?i c ?icaeiaiith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith, iieyaa? a oiio, ui a?i
ia? cae?enithaaoenue ye ca ?aooiie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai o?iainoaaiiy, oae
? ca ?aooiie aea?aeaaieo cania?a. Ana ienoaoeoai aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ia
aeaiiio aoai? ye ?ac ? iieyaa? a oiio, uia ciaeoe iioeiaeueia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ci?oaiiai o?iainoaaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa aeeoea.

Aaoi? ia iiaiaeaeo?oueny c oi/eith ci?o, ui iaaoea oe?ieiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy, oeo aeiiii?no?a, iie?oee?a, ye? a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao
aoae?aieoeoao iiaiai aeeoea ca aeaniee ?aooiie n?iae. Oea – caiia?aaiiy
aia?aae. Iiae?aia iiaeeeai eeoa ca oiiae, eiee iaeiaiee i?aoe?aiee
io?eioaaoeia oaeo aaee/eio ca?ieaoe, yea a aeicaieyea eiio a?aeiia?aeio
noio a?ioae aeo?a/aoe ia eoi?aeth eaa?oe?e /e aoaeeieo. Iaa?yae /e nei?i
a iao?e e?a?i? ianoaia oaeee /an. Iaa?oue o ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao na?aaei?e
a?iiaaeyiei aa?a aeeoeiaee e?aaeeo o aaieo ia 20-30 ?ie?a. Aeuaiacaaia
oi/ea ci?o ia a?aoiao? aeina?ae ?icaeiaieo e?a?i, yeee na?ae/eoue, ui
aoaeoeaiith aeeoeiaa iie?oeea eeoa ca oiiae, eiee aiia caaacia/o?
??aiiaaao i?ae aenieith aoaeoeai?noth ? nioe?aeueiith ni?aaaaeeea?noth.
“Aeniea aoaeoeai?noue” icia/a?, ui aeeoeiaa aoae?aieoeoai iiaeiii
caaacia/oaaoe iaiao?aeio e?euee?noue aeeoea a?aeiia?aeii? yeino? i?e
i?i?iaeueieo aea?aeaaieo aeo?aoao.

“Nioe?aeueia ni?aaaaeeea?noue” ia?aaeaa/a? ?aae?caoe?th nioe?aeueieo
oe?eae, o oiio /ene? caoeno iacaiiaeieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, ui i?eoaiaiia
aeeoeia?e iie?oeoe? a nioe?aeuei?e aea?aeaa?.. Ia i?aeoeoe? oea icia/a?,
ui nioe?aeuei? oe?e? ia iiaeooue aooe aeinyaiaieie, yeui aeeoeiaa
iie?oeea ia eiio?ieth?oueny aea?aeaaith, caoe?eaaeaieie i?eaaoieie
i?aai?caoe?yie, a oaeiae a?iiaaeyiaie.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui aeey Oe?a?ie, ye ? aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie c
ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, iioeiaeueiei ? aa??aio ci?oaiiai o?iainoaaiiy
c athaeaeaoieo oa ?eieiaeo aeaea?ae. I?e/iio iiae?aia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?ae caniaaie aea?aeaae oa ?iaanoeoe?yie i?eaaoieo noa”?eo?a, ye ?
i?noea aea?aeaae o oeueiio i?ioean? ia? ci?ithaaoenue o a?e iinooiiaiai
ciaioaiiy /anoee aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao. Aiaeii/an iiaeiia c?inoaoe ?ieue
aeiaaio?eaaeiai e?aaeeoo. Iaiao?aeii oe?oa cai?iaaaeaeoaaoe aaee/aciee
aeina?ae ?a?iiaenueeeo oa ?ioeo ?icaeiaieo e?a?i na?oo uiaei
o?iainoaaiiy aeeoea ca ?aooiie aeiaaio?eaaeiai iice/eiaiai eai?oaeo,
eiee o ?ie? iice/aeueieea aenooiathoue ??ci? noa”?eoe. ? oae? o?e
iiaeeeaino?. 1) Iice/aeueieeii aenooiathoue nai? i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee,
ye? aeiaaathoue, uia aeo?aoe iie?eaaeeny aaciina?aaeiuei ?c athaeaeaoieo
aeaea?ae aai ca ?aooiie niiaeeaa/?a. 2) Iice/aeueieeii iiaea aenooiaoe
caaoaeiaiee, yeee noyao? aa?o?noue aeeoea ?c iieoioey. O oeueiio
aeiaaeeo nai? iieoioe? noathoue iice/aeueieeaie, ine?eueee, ye
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, a?eueoa /anoeia aa?oino? aoaea o?iainoaaoeny ca
?aooiie iice/ie. 3) Iice/aeueieeii iiaea aenooiaoe eiiia?aoeaia aai ?ioa
aiaeia?/ia anioe?aoe?y niiaeeaa/?a, ye? iie?eaathoue aeo?aoe ca ?aooiie
nai?o /eai?a. Iiae?ai? anioe?aoe?? ooai?ththoueny ia aeia?ia?euei?e aai
i?eionia?e iniia? a iaaeao i?iaeoo caaoaeiae.

Iaea?eueo iacaoeuai? aa?noae ianaeaiiy: aaoa?aie a?eie, ?iaae?aee 1 ? 2
a?oie, o?, ooi no?aaeaea? oyaeeeie caoai?thaaiiyie, aaaaoiae?oi? n?i”?,
a oaeiae a?iiaaeyie, ui iino?aaeaeaee a?ae aaa??? ia *AAN, iiaeii?
io?eiaoe aeeoei a?ae aea?aeaae aacieaoii. Nii?oaeaeaiiy aeeoea aeey
oaei? eaoaai??? a?iiaaeyi iaiao?aeii o?iainoaaoe ?c aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo, a ianyaao, ui caaacia/othoue noaa?eueiee i?e??no aeeoeiaiai
oiiaeo e?a?ie

Aeey a?iiaaeyi, ui i?iaeeaathoue o iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao, noiyoue ia
/a?c?, aea?aeaaa ia? noai?eoe a?aeiia?aeio o?iainiao nenoaio, a ye?e
aiia a aenooiaea ye aa?aio i?eueaiaeo aai aaci?ioeaioieo e?aaeeo?a,
iicee oa aeoe?e, c iaoith iaeneiaeueiiai caoe?eaaethaaiiy aeaii?
eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy o ?ica”ycaii? nai?? aeeoeiai? i?iaeaie. Aea
aea?aeaaa iiaeiia noaoe i?yiei ?iaanoi?ii o??? /anoeie aeiaeaoeiaeo
iao??a aeeoeiai? ieiu?, yei? o aeaii? eaoaai??? a?iiaaeyi ia aenoa/a?
aei nioe?aeueii? ii?ie. Oiaoi, n?i”?, ui io?eiothoue iiao eaa?oe?o,
iathoue aeiiea/oaaoe eeoa ca iie?ioaiiy aeeoeiaeo oiia, a ia ca anth
aeeoeiao ieiuo.

AEeoeia? noaneae?? oa ?io? aeaee aeeoeiaiai o?iainoaaiiy c aieo
aea?aeaae iacaaiei aa?noaai ianaeaiiy ni?eyoeiooue ?ica”ycaiith ?yaeo
aaaeeeaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo caaaeaiue:

— ciaioaoue ?ecee niaaeo ae?iaieoeoaa aeeoea, ine?eueee eiai
aoae?aieoeoai a iaaeao nioe?aeueii? ii?ie ia?anoa? aooe ia”?eoii
canoaaiiai e?aaeeoo (?ecee aa?a ia naaa aea?aeaaa);

— c?iaeyoue aeinooiiei i?enoieia aeeoei aeey oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy;

— ciaioaoue iaaei?aaaeaio aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th o aeo?aoao ia aeeoei.

?aooa eaoaai??e a?iiaaeyi iiaeiia iaoe ni?eyoeea? aeiiii?/i?,
th?eaee/i?, ineoieia?/i? oa ?io? oiiae, uia eoieoe nia? aeeoei aai
i?aiaeoaaoe.

Aeiei??iieo ci?i iio?aao? iieaoa ca aeeoei oa eiioiaeuei? iineoae.
I?aeoeea ia?aeiiaea, ui ia?ao?ae a?ae nenoaie aeioaoe?e aei nenoaie
noaneae?e ia aeicaiey? ?ica”ycaoe nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie: a?i iineeth?
oene ia athaeaeao e?a?ie ? aiaeii/an i?ecaiaeeoue i?aei?e?inoaa, ui
caaacia/othoue aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue aeeoeiai? noa?e, aei e?eoe/iiai
noaio. A?eueo?noue i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e aeaii? aaeoc?, aea
cina?aaeaeaii iaeaea /aoaa?oo /anoeio iniiaieo oiiae?a ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie, ia?aoai?eeenue ia caeoeia?, a ioaea, ia
aeeiiothoue nai?o ooieoe?e. O ca”yceo c oeei iaaea? ??aaiue aeeooy
ianaeaiiy, a aeeoeiaee oiiae oaeaeei noa???. Ieoiia aaaa aeeoea, ui
iio?aao? eai?oaeueiiai ?aiiioo, iaooeeueii c?inoa?. Aeo?ae c oaeiai
e?eoe/iiai noaio iiaea aooe iaeei ia?aaanoe aeeoeiaa ainiiaea?noai ia
?eieia? canaaee. Nenoaia iiaii? iieaoe ca aeeoei ? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei?
iineoae niiaeeaa/aie ci?ia aeuaiaaaaeaio ieceo noia?a/iinoae.

Aaoi? ia??oioiao?, ui aac ?ic?iaee oe?ei? iecee ii?iaoeaieo iieiaeaiue ?
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ?o neio?ii?caoe?? ? ?aaoethaaiiy c aieo
a?aeiia?aeieo aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a i?iaeaio aeeoea ia ae??oeoe. Ui ae
noino?oueny aeeiai?ee oe?i ia aeeoei – oi ne?ae i???iooaaoeny ia ?o
cieaeaiiy, a /anoea ieaoaae?a ianaeaiiy ca aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae
a iniaenoeo aeioiaeao caeiiii??ii ia? c?inoaoe aei 20-25%. Naia oaea
ieoiia aaaa ieaoaae?a ca aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae caaacia/oaaoeia
a?aeoai?aiiy aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo iaoi? e?a?ie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy o
aeeoeiaiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee” aea/athoueny i?iaeaie ? iiaeeeaino? aieeao
ia aeeoeiaee naeoi? oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy.
Ia iniia? aea/aiiai ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo ? iniaeeainoae ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo a Oe?a?i? aaoi? iaa?oioiao? iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui no/ania
aeeoeiaa iie?oeea ia? ia?aaeaa/aoe na?aeiia ? a?aeiia?aeaeueia ao?o/aiiy
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a o i?aai?caoe?th aoae?aieoeoaa, ?iciiae?e, oo?eiaiiy
aeeoea, oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei ainiiaea?noaii ii oaeeo
iai?yieao:

— a?aeoai?aiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua ? caaacia/aiiy oiia
aoaeoeaiiai ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio, ui icia/aoeia aoae?aieoeoai iaiao?aeii?
e?eueeino? aeeoea i?e i?i?iaeueieo aea?aeaaieo aeo?aoao;

— caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
?aae?caoe?th nioe?aeueieo oe?eae, caeeaaeaieo o aeeoeia?e iie?oeoe?.

O aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aia iaiao?aei?noue ia?a?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e i?ae
??cieie ??aiyie aeaaee: oeaio?aeueiei o?yaeii oa i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie,
i?aei?e?inoaaie, onoaiiaaie oa i?aai?caoe?yie o noa?? aoae?aieoeoaa,
?aeiino?oeoe??, oo?eiaiiy aeeoea c iaoith ?o aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??.
Aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui ae??a?noue aeeoeiai? iie?oeee i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a aeaaee i?aeaeueoueny, yeui inoaii? aeei-?enooaaoeiooue /?oeee
iaoai?ci ciioaaiiy oa?eoi??e i?e ?ici?uaii? aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa,
eiio?ieth ca oeei i?ioeanii. Ni?eyoeia oeueiio ? caoaa?aeaeaiiy eaio
ae?eyiie aeey iaaieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy i?ae aoae?aieoeoai aeeoea,
iaaeaiiy ?i aeiiiiiae o aoae?aieoeoa? oa i?eaeaaii? iaoa??ae?a.

Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiaei oiiaeii aea? ciiao aeyaeoe
/eiieee, eio?? ?? iaiaaeothoue. Aei ieo ne?ae a?aeianoe aaee/acio
caai?aiaai?noue i?aei?e?inoaai aaeoc? i?noeaaeie athaeaeaoaie oa
ianaeaiiyi ca aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae (ia 10 n?/iy 1999?.
caai?aiaai?noue ianaeaiiy noaiiaeea 3480,1 iei. a?i. oiaoi 63,4%
ia?aoiaaieo noi, a caai?aiaai?noue i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ii noaneae?yo
ca cacia/ai? iineoae 1163,9 iei. a?i., ui noaiiaeoue 25,1% caaaeueii?
noie caai?aiaaiino?), a?aenooi?noue oe?eueiaiai o?iainoaaiiy
iaaecae/aeii ciioaieo iniiaieo oiiae?a oa nenoai ?iaeaia?iiai
caaacia/aiiy aeaiiai ainiiaea?noaa, iaaeinoaoiy e?euee?noue noa”?eo?a
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? c ianeoaiaoaaiiy oa ?aiiioo aeeoea,
caniiaaieo ia ??cieo oi?iao aeaniino?, ui iineaaeth? eiieo?aioe?th i?ae
ieie.

Aeo?ae ?c aeaii? neooaoe?? aaoi? aaa/a? o ?aoi?ioaaii? nenoaie
o?iainoaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ia?aoiae? aei
?eieiaeo canaae i?e ?ic?aooieao ca aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae.
Iaeii/anii aeiaiaeeoueny iaiao?aei?noue cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ae?eiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-eiio?ieueieo ooieoe?e aea?aeaae o noai?aii? ?eieo
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueieo iineoa, /?oeiai eiio?ieth ca oa?eoaie iinoa/aiiy
aiaee, oaiea, aeaeo?iaia?a?? oa ni?anoaaeaiiy ?o c ?aaeueieie aeo?aoaie
ae?iaiee?a.

Noai?aiiy ?eieo iineoa c ianeoaiaoaaiiy oa ?aiiioo ?nioth/iai aeeoeiaiai
oiiaeo iio?aao? iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee eiiieaeno caoiae?a ? ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a, ye? a aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue ia”?aeiaiiyi ni?aaeaniee?a
aaaaoieaa?oe?ieo aoaeeie?a cae?enithaaoe ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue ii
oo?eiaiith aoaeeieo oa i?eaoaeeieiai? oa?eoi??? caaaeyee caeeth/aiith
aeiaiai?o c i?aei?e?inoaaie c ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeeoea ia eiieo?nieo
canaaeao.

O caeeth/i?e /anoei? aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? iniiai? aeniiaee, ui
aeieeaathoue c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
noiniaii a?aeoai?aiiy iiaiioe?iieo ?eie?a aeeoea ? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueieo
iineoa.

AENIIAEE

Iaiao?aei?noue ?eieiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei o aeeoeia?e
noa?? iio?aao? ea?aeeiaeueii? ia?aaoaeiae an??? nenoaie iiaeyae?a ia
oai??th oa i?aeoeeo iaoai?cio caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa o aeeoe?..

Aeoiaey/e c eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
niaoeeo?ee aeeoea ye oiaa?o, a aeenna?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaai?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae oa iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei o aeeoeiaiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

I?eaaoecaoe?y aeeoea /a?ac aeeoeia? /aee aeicaieeea caii/aoeoaaoe ?eiie
aeeoea. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?eieo aeeoea iiaeiai cae?enithaaoenue ca
aeani? eiooe ianaeaiiy.

Aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue ? iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai
oa i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? aeaniino? ia caieth
o i?noao (i?eaaoii?, eieaeoeaii?, ioi?oeeiaeueii? oiui).

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aeey a?aeoai?aiiy ?eieo aeeoea ia ?icoe?ai?e
iniia? iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe aeiaaino?ieiao aea?aeaaio i?ia?aio
aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Iaa?oioiaaii, ui iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iiaeeeaee i?e
oi?ioaaii? ia?aeiiiai ?eieo aeeoea ? iio?aao? i?eioeeiiai iiaiai
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iaoai?cio. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeiiai iiaee i?aeo?ae aei
no?aoaa?? aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa. O oeaio?? oaei? no?aoaa?? ia? aooe
na?aaei?e eena ? eiai iio?aae. Iniaeea?noue caaacia/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?yie
aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiii ia?
cae?enithaaoeny ye ca ?aooiie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai o?iainoaaiiy, oae ? ca
?aooiie aea?aeaaieo cania?a. Ana ienoaoeoai aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ia
aeaiiio aoai? iieyaa? a oiio, uia ciaeoe iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
ci?oaiiai o?iainoaaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa aeeoea.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae i?eaaoieie ? aea?aeaaieie aeaea?aeaie o?iainoaaiiy
? i?noea aea?aeaae o oeueiio i?ioean? ia? ci?ithaaoenue o a?e iino?eiiai
ciaioaiiy /anoee aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao. Aiaeii/an iiaeiia c?inoaoe ?ieue
aeiaaino?ieiaiai e?aaeeoo. Iice/aeueieeaie iiaeooue aenooiaoe:
niiaeeaaae?, caaoaeiaieee, i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee, anioe?aoe??
niiaeeaa/?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia a?aeoai?aiiy ae?th/iai aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo aeicaieeei
c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoiaeo ia naiiieoiio nenoaio
iieaoe aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueieo iineoa ianaeaiiyi.

Aeaaaeaia aea?aeaaia iie?oeea a i?aai?caoe?? aoae?aieoeoaa, ?iciiae?e?,
oo?eiaii? aeeoea ? oi?aae?ii? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei ainiiaea?noaii
iiaeiia i???iooaaoeny ia a?aeoai?aiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua ?
caaacia/aiiy oiia aoaeoeaiiai ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio, a oaeiae nioe?aeueii?
ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue ? iai?yiee ia?a?iciiae?eo
ooieoe?e i?ae i?aaiaie aeaaee an?o ??ai?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? o
ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo.

1. E?eaaiei E.O., Oeiioaiei E.I., Aecyae I.A. Oi?ioaaiiy ia?aeiiiai
?eieo aeeoea Oe?a?ie: iiooe iiaeo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy // ?aoi?ia
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie: Ca. iaoe.
i?. –Eooeuee: ?aae. – aeae. a?aeae. Aieei. aea?ae. oi-oo ?i. Ean?
Oe?a?iee, 1998. – N.301-305.( a o./. aaoi?a – 0,1 ae.a., ?ic?iaeaia
nenoaia i?eaaoii-aea?aeaaii-eieaeoeaieo o?iain?a).

2. Aecyae A.A. Eiiaeiieieoiu eae yeaiaio eio?ano?oeoo?u ?uiea aeeeuey:
aiciiaeiinoe ?acaeoey ia Oe?aeia // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.-
Aeiiii?ea. – ? 41(108)o?aaaiue 1998?. – N.15-19.( 0,3 ae.a.)

3. Aecyae A.A. Aeeiaieea e oaeoi?u ?acaeoey aoi?e/iiai ?uiea aeeeuey
Oe?aeiu // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aeiiii?ee : Ca. Iaoe. i?. / Iaoe. ?aae.
Uao?i?ia A.?. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Aeae-ai “Iaa/aeueia eieaa”.– 1998.–
O.4. – N.43-51 (0,5 ae.a.).

4. Aecyae I.A. ?eieia? o?ainoi?iaoe?? o aeeoeiaiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie: I?ai?eio. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Aeae-ai “Iaa/aeueia eieaa”,
1996. – 48n. Oe?. iiaith. (3,2 ae.a.).

5. Aecyae I.A. Aeaye? aniaeoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy iieaoe ca aeeoei oa
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae ia Oe?a?i? // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Oeyoe ?icaoaeiae ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i?”. –
Iaeana: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, – 1998. –
N.39-41.(0,1 ae.a.).

6. Aecyae A.A. I?iaeaiu o?ainoi?iaoeee aeeeeuiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee
Oe?aeiu // Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiai naieia?a “I?iaeaiu
o?ainoi?iaoeee yeiiiieee e oi?ie?iaaiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie
iiaeaee Oe?aeiu” 10 aeaeaa?y 1996a., Aeiai?iiao?iane,AeAO. – 1997. –
N.59-63.(0,2 ae.a.).

7. Aecyae A.A. ?uiie aeeeuey Aeiai?iiao?iaueiu : i?iaeaiu e aiciiaeiinoe
?acaeoey // Iaoa??aee ia?oi? i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoea ? ina?oa
“98”, 23-30 ea?oiy 1998?. – Oii 17. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee. – 1998. –
N.750.(0,1 ae.a.).

Aiioaoe??

Aecyae I.A. Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o aeeoeiaiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth – 08.01.01 – Aeiiii?/ia oai??y. — Ee?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?eieo aeeoea a
Oe?a?i?. O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeai? oai?aoe/i? iniiae a?aeoai?aiiy
ia?aeiiiai ? aoi?eiiiai ?eie?a aeeoea, aeyaeai? i?e/eie aaeueioaaiiy
oeueiai i?ioeano a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Iaa?oioiaaia
iaiao?aei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
iaoai?cio aoae?aieoeoaa aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo, aaaaeaiiy naiiieoiii? nenoaie
iieaoe ca aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae. ?ice?eaathoueny iniaeeaino?
aea?aeaaii? ae?yeueiino? o noai?aii? ?eieo aeeoea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?eiie aeeoea, i?eaaoecaoe?y aea?aeaaiiai aeeoeiaiai
oiiaeo, ia?aeiiee ?eiie aeeoea, aoi?eiiee ?eiie aeeoea,
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae, aeeoeia? noaneae??, ia”?aeiaiiy
ni?aaeaniee?a aaaaoieaa?oe?ieo aoaeeie?a.

***

Aecyae A.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a aeeeeuiii naeoi?a
yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe – 08.01.01 – yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. — Eeaaneee
iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999a.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?uii/iiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a
aeeeeuiie noa?a o?aaoao ea?aeeiaeueiie ia?ano?ieee anae nenoaiu
acaeyaeia ia oai?eth e i?aeoeeo oi?ie?iaaiey e oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae a aeeeuea.

Enoiaey ec eiioeaioeee nioeeaeueiiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa e niaoeeoeee
aeeeuey eae oiaa?a, a aeenna?oaoeee noi?ioee?iaaiu
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?aaeiinueee e iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a aeeeeuiii naeoi?a yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu.

I?eaaoecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea ca aeeeeuiua /aee
iicaieeea noi?ie?iaaoue aoi?e/iue ?uiie aeeeuey e o?aaoao caaa?oaiey.
Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea a yoii iai?aaeaiee aeieaeii i?ioiaeeoue
i?aeiouanoaaiii ca nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa ianaeaiey.

Auyaeaii, /oi ia?yaeo n yeiiiie/aneeie i?e/eiaie ?acaeoea ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee naea?aeeaaaony ionoonoaeai iainiiaaiiie, i?ia?anneaiie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu a noa?a caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee.

Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue e iai?aaeaiey niaa?oainoaiaaiey
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia
?aaeecaoeee i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth.

Iniiaiuie aai yeaiaioaie yaeythony:

 ?aaainoai ?aciuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe ia?aae caeiiii;

 o/ao iniaaiiinoae ai?iaeneeo caiaeue, caiyouo iiae aeeeuea eee
ioaaaeaiiuo aeey cano?ieee;

 aeinooiiinoue oeai ia caiaeueiua o/anoee aeey e?eoe/aneie iannu
iio?aaeoaeae;

 niaethaeaiea i?aaee cano?ieee ai?iaeneeo oa??eoi?ee;

 niaa?oainoai caiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e io?aaoee?iaaiiinoue
caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee.

A ?aaioa iainiiauaaaony iieiaeaiea, /oi aeey iaania/aiey ii?iaeueiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa ?uiea aeeeuey ia ?anoe?aiiie iniiaa iaiaoiaeeii
?ac?aaioaoue aeieain?i/ioth ainoaea?noaaiioth i?ia?aiio aeeeeuiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa. Eae iieacaee enneaaeiaaiey, i?ia?aiia aeieaeia
enoiaeeoue ec n?aaeieo ii?i iaania/aiiinoe aeeeueai a aa?iiaeneeo
no?aiao e i?eaioe?iaaoue ia noaaeeueiue i?e?ino ii?i a n?aaeiai ia 0,8–1
ea. i.

Aaoi? aeaeaao auaiae, /oi ?ac?aoeoue i?iaeaio aeoeaecaoeee ia?ae/iiai
?uiea aeeeuey iiaeii iooai i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai iiaeoiaea e
nioeeaeueiie no?aoaaee aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. A oeaio?a oaeie
no?aoaaee aeieaeai auoue n?aaeiee eeann, aai iioaioeeaeueiua
iio?aaiinoe.

Iniaaiiinoue iaania/aiey eiaanoeoeeyie aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a
Oe?aeia ninoieo a oii, /oi ii iauaeoeaii aeieaeai inouanoaeyaony eae ca
n/ao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai oeiaine?iaaiey, oae e ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiuo
n?aaenoa.

Ana ianoa?noai yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ninoieo a oii, /oiau iaeoe
iioeiaeueiia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo athaeaeaoiuie e ?uii/iuie enoi/ieeaie
oeiaine?iaaiey. Ianoi ainoaea?noaa a yoii i?ioeanna aeieaeii eciaiyoueny
a noi?iio iinoiyiiiai oiaiueoaiey aeiee athaeaeaoiuo cao?ao.
Iaeiia?aiaiii aeieaeia aic?anoaoue ?ieue aeieain?i/iiai e?aaeeoa. A ?iee
e?aaeeoi?a iiaoo aunooiaoue: ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe, iio?aaeoaee,
cano?ieueee, annioeeaoeey iio?aaeoaeae.

Enneaaeiaaiea oneiaee aini?iecaiaenoaa aeaenoaothuaai aeeeeuiiai oiiaea
iicaieeei aaoi?o naeaeaoue auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aoiaea ia
naiiieoiaaioth nenoaio iieaou aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa.

Aiaae?aiea i?aaiecaoeeiiii-eiio?ieueiuo ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa a
nicaeaiee ?uiea aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa, /aoeiai eiio?iey ca
oa?eoaie ia aiaeo, oaiei, yeaeo?iyia?aeth e eo niioiioaieai n ?aaeueiuie
cao?aoaie i?iecaiaeeoaeae iicaieeo nieceoue naaanoieiinoue iineaaeieo.
Aic?anoaiea aeiee ieaoaaeae ca eiiioiaeueii-aeeeeuiua oneoae a aeioiaeao
ianaeaiey iicaieeo iaania/eoue aini?iecaiaenoai aeaenoaothuaai
aeeeeuiiai oiiaea, caiaaeeeoue oaiiu aai noa?aiey e ?ac?ooaiey.

Acaaoaiiay ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea a i?aaiecaoeee no?ieoaeuenoaa,
?ani?aaeaeaiee, niaea?aeaiee aeeeuey e oi?aaeaiee aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiui
oicyenoaii aeieaeia auoue i?eaioe?iaaia ia aini?iecaiaenoai eiieo?aioiie
n?aaeu e iaania/aiea oneiaee yooaeoeaiiai ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia, a oaeaea
nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

A aeenna?oaoeee iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey
ooieoeee iaaeaeo i?aaiaie aeanoe anao o?iaiae e ii?aaeaeaiu eo
niaea?aeaiea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?uiie aeeeuey, i?eaaoecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeeeeuiiai oiiaea, ia?ae/iue ?uiie aeeeuey, aoi?e/iue ?uiie aeeeuey,
aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiua oneoae, aeeeeuiua noaneaeee, iauaaeeiaiey
niaeaaeaeueoeaa iiiaieaa?oe?iuo aeiiia.

***

Lena V. Dziad. Organizing of market relations at the housing sector of
Ukrainian economy. – Manuscript.

Candidate”s thesis on obtaining the doctor”s degree on speciality –
08.01.01 – Aconomic theory. Kiev National Economic University, Kiev,
1999.

The questions of creation and development of housing market in Ukraine
are being considered in this thesis. The theoretical bases of primary
and secondary housing market reproduction have been investigated, the
reasons for its development during transition period are also given in
the work. The necessity of new investment mechanism of housing
construction and bringing in paying its way system for housing-communal
services is grounded. The peculiarities of state activity of housing
market formation are opened.

The key words: housing market, privatization of state housing fond,
primary housing market, secondary housing market, housing-communal
services, housing subsidies, associations of the joint owners of
multi-storey houses.

Похожие записи