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Формування регіонального ринку ячменю: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / В.В. Томчук, Ін-т аграр. економіки УААН. — К., 1999. — 20 с. — укp.

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?INOEOOO AA?A?II? AEIIII?EE

OE?A?INUeEI? AEAAeAI?? AA?A?IEO IAOE

?iaeaen OAeE 631.155.2:658.8:633.16

OII*OE Aaeaioeia Aanee?aia

OI?IOAAIIss ?AA?IIAEUeIIAI

?EIEO ss*IAITH

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02. – aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai

ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee Uo? Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio

OAAI, aaia?aeueiee aee?aeoi? IAAO
“Aa?i?ieii” Eiaan Ieeiea A?eai?iae/;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?inueei-o?inueeiai ?inoeoooo iaiaaeaeiaioo ? a?ciano Ieoaeeia
Aiaoie?e Iao?iae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iiae?euenueea aa?a?ii-oaoi?/ia aeaaeai?y,

i. Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “25” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14-e aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.350.01 a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii?
aeiiii?ee OAAI ca aae?anith: 252127, i.Ee?a-127, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie,
10, eiioa?aioe-cae, 3-e iiaa?o.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii?
aeiiii?ee OAAI

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “22” n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe Iae?e I.E.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ca?iiaa ainiiaea?noai — aaeocue, yea cia/iith
i??ith aecia/a? noai aeiiii?ee aa?a?iiai naeoi?a e?a?ie. Ia?ao?ae ?? ia
?eieia? canaaee a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaecae/aeii neeaaeii, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
iaae?iiyi ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??, o?oaeiiuaie a
caaithaaii? eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e ia aioo??oiueiio oa ciai?oiueiio
?eieao i?iaeiaieuenoaa.

Iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ? y/i?iue. Oi?aa?naeuei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy aecia/a? eiai iniaeeao ?ieue o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ?
i?iieneiaiio ae?iaieoeoa?. ss/i?iue ? iniiaiith ca?iioo?aaeiith
eoeueoo?ith, caaaeyee ye?e ia?aaaaeii caaeiaieueiythoueny iio?aae
oaa?eiieoeoaa a eiioeaio?iaaieo ei?iao, cie?aia eiia?iiaaieo. Ca?ii
y/iaith neoaeeoue aieiaiith ne?iaeiith aeey ieaiaa?ii? oa e?oi’yii?
i?iieneiaino?.

Caaaeyee ni?eyoeeaei a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/iei oiiaai A?iie//eia ia? cia/i?
iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? ia?iuoaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith ? iiaea
caaeiaieueieoe ia o?eueee nai? iio?aae a ne?iaei?, a e ca?eueoeoe ianyae
?? aenii?oo.

Eiaeiee aeae i?iaeoeoe?? (oiaa?o) coiiaeth? iaaiee oei ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?eieo, yeee yaey? niaith noeoii?noue iai?iieo iia?aoe?e, ui ?aaoeththoue
ainiiaea?nuee? ca’ycee ia iniia? eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ? i?iaeoeo?a ?? ia?a?iaee.
Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui ia?ao?ae aei ?eieo a oiiaao ?aa?iio
iia’ycaiee c iaaieie o?oaeiiuaie: iaia? oe?e?niino? aeiiii?/iiai
i?inoi?o, iaaeinoaoiuei aeeaiei iaa?oioiaaia oai?aoe/ia aaca oi?ioaaiiy
a?o/eciyiiai aa?ii?iaeiaieue/iai ?eieo, ia aenoa/a? i?aeoe/iiai
aeina?aeo i?aei?e?ieeaino?, neaai?icaeiooa ?eieiaa ?io?ano?oeoo?a.

Noai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie. Aea/aiith ??cieo aniaeo?a ?icaeoeo ?eieo
aa?ii?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??, noaiiaeaiith ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a nenoai?
AIE, oi?ioaaiith iiaeo ?eieiaeo ?inoeoooe?e, a oiio /ene? a??aeiai?
oi?a?ae?, i?enay/ai? /eneaii? ?ic?iaee a?o/eciyieo a/aieo oa iaoeiaoe?a
e?a?i NIAe. Aei iaea?eueo a?aeiieo iaeaaeaoue i?aoe? Aa?aiiai? A.,
Aiae??e/oea A., A?eionueei ss., A?euenueeiai A., Aieea A., Aoaooeueeiai
I., Aaeaeooeueeiai I., Aaeooei A., Aa?/eeiai? ?., A?ooea A., Aeai’yiaiea
I., ?aauaiea A., Eiaaeaiea TH., Eiaeainueei? I., E?eai?o/ea A.,
Ei?eoeeyia ?., Iae?ea I., Naaeoea I., *ooii A., Oie/aea I., Oieea/a I.,
TH?/eoeia A. Aea/aiith ? ocaaaeueiaiith ?icaeoeo ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua a
ca?iiaiio ainiiaea?noa? iaeaaeaoue ie?ai? ?iaioe Aieea A., Eiaana I.,
Neoieea A., Ooaeie?e E., Uo?a I., ssoianueeiai ?. oa ?i. I?ioa,
i?aeoe/ii iaia? ?ia?o, a yeeo a eiiieaen? oa aca?iiae?? aoei aena?oeaii
ieoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, caa??aaiiy, ia?a?iaee ? caooo y/iaith, iniaeeai a
oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo. Aeooaeuei?noue ?ica’ycaiiy
ieoaiue oai?aoe/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy coiiaeea aea?? oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoo, caaaeaiiy oa no?oeoo?o. Iiaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaoa??aee ? iiooeii a?aeiia?aeae ia ieoaiiy, ui
aeieeathoue o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo y/iaith.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa iia’ycaia
c iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?ia?aiith ia 1996-2000 ?iee “Iaoeia? iniiae
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee o?ainoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei aa?ii?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a ?eieia? oiiae”, caoaa?aeaeaii? I?aceae??th OAAI
28.12.1996 ?., i?ioieie ?19; c aeine?aeaeaiiyie a?aeae?eo i?iaeiaieue/eo
?ano?n?a ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee ca caaaeaiiyi: “?ic?iaeoe iaoeia?
iniiae ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa oa oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?iaeiaieuenoaa”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaea ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a
oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo y/iaith ia iniia?
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy no/aniiai noaio aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa
y/iaith, ?icaeoeo ?eieo niiaeeaa/?a oo?aaeiiai oa ieaiaa?iiai ca?ia a
?aa?ii? ? iaoith aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe
noaaeeeny oae? caaaeaiiy:

· aea/eoe ? ocaaaeueieoe oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? y/iaith ye oiaa?o, ocaaaeueieoe iniiai?
aeiiae ?eieo aei eiai yeino?;

· aea/eoe no/aniee noai ? aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o aaeocyo AIE;

· ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe noai ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo niiaeeaa/?a oo?aaeiiai ?
ieaiaa?iiai y/iaith;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe ae?th/o nenoaio ?aae?caoe?? y/iaith ii ia?eaoeiaiaeo
eaiaeao, o oiio /ene? /a?ac a??aeo;

· aeine?aeeoe ? ocaaaeueieoe i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e
a ?aa?ii? oa iai?yie ?? oi?ioaaiiy;

· ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueiiai
?eieo y/iaith.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo y/iaith, ia’?eoii – i?aei?e?inoaa AIE A?iieoeueei?
iaeano?. ?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith iineoaeeee noaoenoe/i? aeai? c ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ieaiaac-aeeiaieueii? oa eiia?ei?iiai?
i?iieneiaino?; ??/i? ca?oe eieaeoeaieo oa aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa AIE
iaeano?; ??/i? ca?oe oa iia?aoeai? iaoa??aee aaeocaaeo
eiio?ieueii-?iniaeoe?eieo neoaea, iaeaniiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa AeAE “Oe?a
Oe?a?ie”, iaeanii? aea?aeaaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea iaoa??aee a??aeiaeo
oi?a?a A?iieoeueei? oiaa?ii-oi?aa?naeueii? a??ae?.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeine?ae-aeaiiy ? ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae i?ciaiiy oa nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae
aei aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai, ye? aeieeathoue o i?ioean?
ae?iaieoeoaa, caa??aaiiy, ia?a?iaee oa ?aae?caoe?? y/iaith, iaoeia?
i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, caeiiiaeaa/? oa ?io? ii?iaoeai?
aeieoiaioe c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo ?eieo ca?ia.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aacoaaeany ia caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo iieiaeaiiyo
aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ii?aoethaaii? niaoeeo?/ieo iaoiaee/ieo
i?aeoiae?a aei aea/aiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie. Aiia aeeth/a? nenoaio
noaoenoeei-aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a o ii?aeiaii? c oai?aoe/ieie aniaeoaie
?icaeoeo ?eieo y/iaith. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae?
iaoiaee: aano?aeoii-eia?/iee, ?ic?aooieiai-eiino?oeoeaiee, nenoaiiiai oa
oaeoi?iiai aiae?co, iiiia?ao?/iee, aiae?oe/ieo a?oioaaiue,
ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiee, ?iaeaeniee, ii?iaoeaiee, aaeainiaee,
a?ao?/iee. Iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? noai?thaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith iaeaoa
i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai Statgraphics ia aac? IE oeio ?AI ?N. Ea?oia?ao?/i?
?ic?aooiee cae?enithaaeeny ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeneethceaiiai i?ia?aiiiai
caaacia/aiiy AO “Oiiac-?ioi?i”.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aei ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? iathoue oa?aeoa? iaoeiai? iiaecie,
iaeaaeaoue:

· aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ?icaeoeo ?eieo y/iaith o ?aa?ii?;

· eiiieaenia aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai, ui aeieeathoue ia noaae?yo

ae?iaieoeoaa, caaio?aaeue, caa??aaiiy, ia?a?iaee oa oi?a?ae? ca?iii
y/iaith;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiieoo oa i?iiiceoe?? ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio
?eieo y/iaith;

· aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? oa noaiiaeaiiy a??aeiai? oi?a?ae?

y/iaiai o ?aa?ii?.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy:

· i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiaeeaaiiy
y/iaith a ?aa?ii?;

· ia?niaeoeai? ia?aiao?e ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiaeeaaiiy y/iaith o ?aa?ii?;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo eaiae?a oa oiaa?ii?
i?iiiceoe?? ca?ia y/iaith;

· iai?yie ?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo y/iaith.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaieo caoiae?a aoaea ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith o ?aa?ii?, eiai caaio?ae? oa ia?a?iaee.
I?iiiceoe??, ui i?noyoueny o aeena?oaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia oaeineiiaeaiiy
nenoaie caooo ca?ia y/iaith, ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo eaiae?a, ci?ie
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo. ?ic?iaeai? oa
ai?iaiaai? ia i?aeoeoe? ?yae iieaciee?a ? iiaeaeae aeni?an-aiae?co
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ioe?iee neooaoe?? ia ?eieo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeine?aeaeaii noai ? i?ioeane ?icaeoeo
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo y/iaith oa i?iaeoeo?a eiai ia?a?iaee a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee i?e aca?iiae?? noa? ae?iaieoeoaa, caa??aaiiy,
ia?a?iaee ? caooo y/iaith; iaa?oioiaai? iai?yie oi?ioaaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo, ia?niaeoeai? ia?aiao?e ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiaeeaaiiy
y/iaith a ?aa?ii?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeeny ? noaaeai? ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e
75-??//th c aeiy canioaaiiy Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo (Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 1995
?.); ia ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “Iaoea —
?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?” (A?iieoey, 1993 ?.), “Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
a Oe?a?i?: oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie iiaeieaiiy e?ece” (A?iieoey,
1994 ?.), “Aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ii? oaoi?ee a iae?eo oa aiae?c?
ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeoainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa” (Ee?a, 1995 ?.).
Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia ui??/ieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
?inoeoooo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeeaaeai? a 7 ?iaioao caaaeueiei ianyaii 2,9 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a, o
o./. 5 — o niaoe?aeueieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 164
noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, ?ethno?iaaia 45 oaaeeoeyie, 27
?enoieaie oa 40 aeiaeaoeaie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 148
iaeiaioaaiue.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Anooi.

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai
?eieo y/iaith.

1.1. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?eieo. 1.2. Oi?ioaaiiy
?io?ano?oeoo?e ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo. 1.3. Nooi?noue ia?eaoeiao ?
iaoiaeeea ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo.

?icae?e 2. No/aniee noai ?icaeoeo ?eieo y/iaith.

2.1. Oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy yeino? ca?ia y/iaith ? aeiiae ?eieo aei iueiai.
2.2. No/aniee noai ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith. 2.3. Oiaa?ia i?iiiceoe?y ca?ia.
2.4. ?aa?iiaeueiee ?eiie niiaeeaa/?a oo?aaeiiai oa ieaiaa?iiai y/iaith.

?icae?e 3. Iai?yie oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo y/iaith.

3.1. Ia?niaeoeae ae?iaieoeoaa ? niiaeeaaiiy y/iaith. 3.2. Noaiiaeaiiy ?
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo a??aeiai? oi?a?ae? y/iaiai. 3.3. Nenoaia ia?eaoeiao
ia ?eieo y/iaith.

Aeniiaee.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Aeiaeaoee

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo y/iaith” — ?icaeyaea?oueny nooi?noue ?eieo, eiai
o?aeooaaiiy a?o/eciyieie oa ca?oa?aeieie aeiiii?noaie, ?ice?eaa?oueny
ci?no noa’?eo?a ? ia’?eo?a ?eieo, eiai neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a: oiaa?,
iiieo, i?iiiceoe?y, oe?ia, eiieo?aioe?y. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo ca?ia a
?icaeiaieo e?a?iao. Aena?oeththoueny ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e oa ia?eaoeiao, aeeeaaeaia iaoiaeeea ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

?aa?iiaeueiee ?eiie — ?eiie iaaiiai oiaa?o /e oiaa?ii? a?oie, noa?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy yeiai iaiaaeo?oueny ia?aaaaeii ?aieaie iaeiiai ?aeiio
(iaeano?, e?ath, ?anioae?ee). O aeai?e ?iaio? ?aa?iiii aenooia?
A?iieoeueea iaeanoue.

Nooi?iue i???ioaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa-ae?iaiee?a oiaa?iiai ca?ia y/iaith ia
caaeiaieaiiy iiieoo niiaeeaa/?a, ?ici?uaieo o ?aa?ii?, aecia/a?oueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeaico i?iaeoeoe?? c ?aa?iio,
niiaeeaaiiy ? aaico i?iaeoeoe?? a ?aa?ii. Caaaeyee nai?e a?ieia?/i?e
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? — y/i?iue iaeaaeeoue aei a?oie oiaa??a ae?iaie/iai
i?ecia/aiiy, ye? eoiothoueny aeey aeei?enoaiiy o ae?iaieoeoa? ?ioeo
oiaa??a, ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? /e ia?ai?iaeaaeo ?ioei
niiaeeaa/ai. O eeaneo?eaoe?? oiaa??a ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy iaeaaeeoue
aei a?oie “ne?iaeia oa iaoa??aee”.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “No/aniee noai ?icaeoeo ?eieo y/iaith” —
aeine?aeaeaii oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy yeino? y/iaith ??ciiai ae?iaie/iai
i?ecia/aiiy, a oaeiae aeiiae ?eieo aei oo?aaeiiai oa ieaiaa?iiai ca?ia.

Aea/aiiy no/aniiai noaio ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith a ?aa?ii? iieaco?
oaiaeaioe?th aei eiai niaaeo. Oae, o 1997 ?. o ii??aiyii? c
na?aaeiuei??/ieie aeaieie ca 1981- 1985 ??. aaeiaee ca?? cieceany ia
23,5%, a /anoea y/iaith a no?oeoo?? ca?iioo?aaeieo eoeueoo? ciaioeeanue
ia 5,9% ? neeaea 46,1%. Oea — ?acoeueoao nei?i/aiiy iin?aieo ieiu ?
cia/iiai cieaeaiiy o?iaeaeiino? ye y?iai (ia 17,4%), oae ? iceiiai (ia
9,5%) y/iaith. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaii?a ?inoo iin?aieo ieiu, o?iaeaeiino?
oa aaeiaiai cai?o y/iaith iieacaii ia ?en. 1.

?en. 1. Aeeiai?ea oaii?a ?inoo aaeiaiai cai?o, o?iaeaeiino? ? iin?aii?
ieiu? y?iai y/iaith, a%.

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14023b003a000400000004010d000400000002010100050000001302fd003a0004000000
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2d010100040000002d010600040000002d010400050000000102ffffff00050000000902
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2200020000003230070007000a000000320ac5002200020000003430070007000a000000
320aac002200020000003630070007000a000000320a9400220002000000383007000700
0c000000320a7c001b0003000000313030000700070007000c000000320a64001b000300
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0c000000320a33001b000300000031363000070007000700040000002d01050004000000
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040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d010600040000002d01
0400050000000102ffffff000500000009020000000007000000160461017f02ffffffff
0400000004010d0004000000020101000d000000320a08012c0004000000313937390700
0700070007000d000000320a08016700040000003139383107000700070007000d000000
320a0801a300040000003139383307000700070007000d000000320a0801de0004000000
3139383507000700070007000d000000320a08011a010400000031393837070007000700
07000d000000320a08015501040000003139383907000700070007000d000000320a0801
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07000700070007000d000000320a08010802040000003139393507000700070007000d00
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38015b011b012f010400000004010d0004000000020101000d000000320a210135010400
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2d010400050000000102ffffff000500000009020000000007000000160460017e020000
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2d010300040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010200040000002d0106000400
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1302480100010500000014024801f200040000002e0118000f000000320a4c0103010500
0000cfebeef9e0000900070007000c000700040000002e010000040000002d0105000400
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040000002d010700040000002d010600050000000102ffffff0005000000090200000000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?aeaeaiiyi aeeiai?/iiai
?yaeo o?iaeaeiino? y?iai y/iaith ca 1979-1997 ??. anoaiiaeaii
caeaaei?noue eiai no?eeino? a?ae neeaaeiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeoi??a
i?e?iaeiiai eiiieaeno oa ??aiy ?ioaineo?eaoe?? caiea?ianoaa, ye?
aecia/athoue oa?aeoa? aeiaaeeiai? aa??aoe?? oa iniiaio oaiaeaioe?th.
Ae??aithaaiiy ?yaeo aeeiai?ee o?iaeaeiino? y?iai ? iceiiai y/iaith,
aeeiiaia ia AII c aeei?enoaiiyi ainueie ooieoe?e, iieacaei, ui
i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy caeeoeiai? aeenia?n?? (2 = 25,35) aeinyaa?oueny i?e
ae??aithaaii? ii i?yi?e. Ioaea, ui??/i? aeiaaeeia? eieeaaiiy
o?iaeaeiino? y?iai y/iaith, ye? iia’ycai? c ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie,
noaiiaeyoue a na?aaeiueiio 5 oe/aa aai 18,4%. Aeaui ieae/a aa??aoe?y ?
a?eueo aeniea no?ee?noue o /an? ??ai?a o?iaeaeiino? iceiiai y/iaith:
ui??/i? aeiaaeeia? eieeaaiiy neeaaeathoue 4,2 oe/aa, a eiao?oe??io
caeeoeiai? aa??aoe?? — 13,8%. ?ic?aoiaaiee ?iaeaen ei?aeyoe?? oa
eiao?oe??io aeaoa?i?iaoe?? na?ae/aoue, ui o ui??/iiio eieeaaii?
o?iaeaeiino? y?iai y/iaith ?ieue aeiaaeeiaeo oaeoi??a neeaaea? 39%,
aieea oaeoi??a, caeaaeieo a?ae ethaeeie, — 61% (?iaeaen ei?aeyoe??
0,628), ii iceiiio — 44 oa 56% (?iaeaen ei?aeyoe?? 0,662). Ia? i?noea
aeniea aa??aoe?y iin?aieo ieiu y?iai (26%) ? iceiiai (74%) y/iaith.
Ui??/ia ?o nei?i/aiiy o na?aaeiueiio a?aeiia?aeii neeaaea? 5,3 ? 0,4
oen. aa.

Iniiaieie ae?iaieeaie y/iaith ? eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa, ia aeieth yeeo o 1997 ?. i?eiaaeaei 89,4% aaeiaiai cai?o,
ia aea?aeainie oa ?io? aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa — 6,1%, i?aeniai? oa
oa?ia?nuee? ainiiaea?noaa — aeecueei 5%. O 1995-1997 ??.
niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith
a ?aa?ii? (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith a eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao A?iieoeueei? iaeano?

Iieacieee1995 ?.1996 ?.1997 ?.O?iaeaei?noue, oe/aa28,821,323,8Ieoiia
aaaa y/iaith a caaaeueiiio ianyc? i?iaeaaeo ca?iiaeo
aea?aeaa?,%9,615,112,1Ae?iaie/a nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe y?eo ca?iiaeo,
a?i.6,4011,5613,97Ae?iaie/? aeo?aoe ia 1 aa y?eo ca?iiaeo,
a?i.155,2205,9272,6Cao?aoe i?aoe? ia 1 oe y?eo ca?iiaeo,
ethae.-aiae.1,271,461,52?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith,
%41,642,737,0??aaiue oiaa?iino? y/iaith, %20,538,437,6Iiaia
nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe y/iaith, a?i.6,8713,0916,07I?eaooie ia 1 oe
i?iaeoeoe??, a?i.ca?iiaeo2,86,34,3y/iaith2,95,66,3Iana i?eaooeo ia 1 aa
y/iaith, a?i.3,812,828,44a o./. c o?aooaaiiyi ??aiy
oiaa?iino?18,633,3922,45

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui cia/ia /anoeia ca?ia caeeoa?oueny ia
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? iio?aae, aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith aeioe?eueii nei?enoaoeny ?ic?aooieii iane i?eaooeo
ia 1 aa iin?ao eoeueoo?e c o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie ??aiy oiaa?iino?.
Aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith ca oeei iieacieeii cia/ii aeua. Oea
iiynith?oueny oei, ui iaeei ? oie aea ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? iiaea aooe
aeinyaiooee i?e ??ci?e ian? i?eaooeo ia 1 aa iin?ao.

Aiae?c ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith ca i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieie i?aeciiaie ?aa?iio
iieacaa, ui iniiaia ae?iaieoeoai y?iai neiioeaio?iaaii a i?ai?/i?e
(44,2%) oa oeaio?aeuei?e (33,6%) i?aeciiao. Aeecueei 64% caaaeueiiai
ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa iceiiai y/iaith i?eiaaea? ia i?aaeaiio i?aeciio.
Niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy /anoee iin?aieo ieiu y?iai y/iaith a
iaea?eueo i?eaeaoieo aeey eiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?aeciiao. ?ic?aoiaaiee
eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? (r=0,34) na?ae/eoue, ui 12% ci?i o?iaeaeiino? a
ainiiaea?noaao noni?eueiiai naeoi?o iaoiiaeaii aieeaii aeaiiai oaeoi?o.
Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui a iaeano? 89,9% caaaeueii? ieiu? y?iai
y/iaith caeiyoi ?aeiiiaaieie ni?oaie, iceiiai — 82,4%. I?ioa, ye
iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, a cia/i?e /anoei? ?aeii?a /anoea iin?a?a
?aeiiiaaieie ni?oaie neeaaea? aeecueei 50%.

O ?iaio? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iaa?oue o ia??iae, eiee aea?aeaaia
caiiaeaiiy aoei iniiaith aeey oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai??a eiio?aeoaoe?? ii
ca?io ? ianyae eiai caaio?aaeue a oe?eiio c?inoaee (iacaaaeath/e ia
eieeaaiiy ii ?ieao), ii y/iaith niinoa??aaeany cai?ioia oaiaeaioe?y.
Aiie ciaioeeeny c 257,2 oen. o (a na?aae-iueiio ca 1976-1980 ??.) aei
196,3 oen. o (1986-1990 ??.), a eiai ieoiia aaaa o caaio?aeyo ca?iiaeo —
c 26,1 aei 17,2%. O ?iee caaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece (1991-1997 ??.)
niinoa??aaany ??ceee niaae ianya?a caaio?aaeue an?o ca?iiaeo, o oiio
/ene? y/iaith, iniaeeai o 1997 ?. (11,8 oen. o). Cieceany ??aaiue
aeeiiaiiy aeiaiai??a eiio?aeoaoe??, ui a?aeia?aaea? caaaeueio
ianoaa?euei?noue aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??, ia?o ca ana o aca?iia?aeiineiao
i?ae oiaa?iae?iaieeaie ? caaio?aaeueieie i?aai?caoe?yie. Iio?aae ?aa?iio
o 1995-1997 ??. oi?ioaaeeny /a?ac ?aa?iiaeueiee eiio?aeo, yeee o 1997 ?.
aoa aeeiiaiee eeoa ia o?aoeio.

Naaiaioaoe?y ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo ca oiaa?i?noth y/iaith iieacaea, ui
iniiaia e?euee?noue ?aeii?a iaea ??aaiue oeueiai iieacieea a?ae 18,0 aei
26,9%. O 1997 ?. a na?aaeiueiio a iaeano? a?i c??n aei 40,6%. Oey
oaiaeaioe?y niinoa??aa?oueny ia an?o aeae?eaieo naaiaioao ?eieo a
ii??aiyii? c 1995 ?. Aei ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai naaiaio?a ?eieo, aea ??aaiue
oiaa?iino? ia ia?aaeuoaaa 40%, iaeaaeaee ainiiaea?noaa 15 ?aeii?a, aei
/aoaa?oiai ? i’yoiai naaiaio?a c iaeaeuei ??aiai oiaa?iino? (49-67%), —
/ioe?ueio ?aeii?a. Ei?aeyoe?ei?e aiae?c aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe oaeoi?e,
ye? ia 63,5% aieeioee ia eiai ci?io (r=0,798).

Ci?ie a ainiiaea?nueeiio iaoai?ci?, ianoa/a iai?ioieo eioo?a iaoiiaeee
nooo?a? ci?ie a no?oeoo?? oiaa?ii? i?iiiceoe?? y/iaith. Oae, o 1997 ?.
i?iaeaae o ?aooiie aea?aeaaieo caeoi?aaeue ia ia?aaeuoaaa 11%;
iaeii/anii c?inea ieoiia aaaa ?aae?caoe?? i?aoe?aieeai o ?aooiie iieaoe
oa /a?ac nenoaio a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy c 6,4 (1993 ?.) aei 30,8%
(1997 ?.), ca aa?oa?ieie oaiaeaie c 0,1 aei 34,9%, ia ?eieo c 9,0 aei
23,7%. Ca?eueoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? i?aoe?aieeai ainiiaea?noa
noaei nai???aeiith eiiiainaoe??th ca iecueeee ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe?.
Iecueeee ieaoini?iiiaeiee noai i?aei?e?inoa, iaaeinoaoi?e aeina?ae
i?aei?e?ieeaino? oiaa?iae?iaiee?a o iiaeo oiiaao, a oaeiae iaaeinoaoiy
?ioi?iaoe?y i?i eii’thieoo?o aioo??oiueiai ? ciai?oiueiai ?eie?a ca?ia
i?ecaaei aei c?inoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? ca aa?oa?ieie oaiaeaie, oi/a a
aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao oea iaaea?aeii aeey ainiiaea?noa.

O 1995-1997??. iacia/io e?euee?noue y/iaith (1,2 – 0,2 oen. o) aoei
i?iaeaii ca?oa?aeiei e?a?iai ca i?yieie ca’yceaie, a oaeiae /a?ac
A?iieoeueeo oiaa?ii-oi?aa?naeueio a??aeo (2,7 – 0,4 oen.o).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o ?aa?ii? a iniiaiiio aeinyaiooa a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae
ianyaaie ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoe??, yea iaaeoiaeeoue ia caa??aaiiy, ?
caaaeueieie ?ieinoyie ca?iinoiaeu. Aeecueei o?aoeie ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoe??
caa??aa?oueny a aeaaaoi?ao, iiooaei?noth aei 500 oen. o. I?ioa, ?c
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iayaieo ca?iinoiaeu, ye? ia?aaoaathoue a
aenieoaoaoe??, aeecueei 40% ia a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai eiiieaenii?
iaoai?caoe?? ?ia?o c ca?iii, iio?aaothoue eai?oaeueiiai ?aiiioo. A
inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aa?oueny iecueeee ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo
iiooaeiinoae a aeaaaoi?i?e oa ca?iiia?a?iai?e i?iieneiaino?. I?e/eiaie
oeueiai ? cieaeaiiy ia 67% iaaeoiaeaeaiue ca?ia a?ae
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oa aeniea ieaoa ca eiai
a?aeiia?aeaeueia caa??aaiiy.

Ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae i?aeainiiaea?nueei? eiia?ei?iiai? i?iieneiaino?
aeei?enoiao?oueny ia 19%. O 1997 ?. ii??aiyii c 1993 ?. ??aaiue
oiiaeia?aeaea/? cieceany ia 59%. Ia ae?? eieeoiy nenoaia caaacia/aiiy
caaiae?a ne?iaeiith. O 1997 ?. caaacia/ai?noue ca?iioo?aaeai neeaea 52%
??aiy 1993 ?. *a?ac eiai iaaeinoaoith e?euee?noue caaaeueiee i?ino?e
iiooaeiinoae i?aeainiiaea?nueeeo eiia?ei?iiaeo caaiae?a o 1996 ?.
noaiiaea 23 oen. aiaeei. Anueiai 4% caaaeueiiai ianyao eiia?ei?i?a
neeaaeathoue a?aioeueiaai?. Ia aea?aeaaieo eiia?ei?iiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao
iayaia iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca oaeiae ia a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei
aeiiaai. Ae?iaie/? iiooaeiino? c ae?iaieoeoaa a?aioeueiaaieo eiia?ei?i?a
aeei?enoiaothoueny ia 40,4%, ?icneiieo — ia 27,2%. Aaaaeaiiy ca?ia a
ne?iaeio cieceeiny aei 55%, o ?? no?oeoo?? /anoea y/iaith noaiiaeoue
54%. A ainiiaea?noaao caeeoa?oueny aeecueei 60% aaeiaiai cai?o y/iaith.
Aeaioiaeaia c iueiai aea?oue aea? iecueeo a?aeaea/o ia a?aeaiae?ae?
oaa?ei.

C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? a?iiaaenueeiai oaa?eiieoeoaa ia
iniia? iie?ioaiiy caaacia/aiiy eiai eiioeaio?iaaieie ei?iaie,
aaaaea?oueny ca aeioe?eueia ye noeioethth/ee oaeoi? ai?iaaaeeoe
cono??/iee i?iaeaae eiia?ei?i?a ae?iaieeai oo?aaeiiai ca?ia o ?ici???
25-40% a?ae eiai e?eueeino?, i?iaeaii? i?aei?e?inoaai eiia?ei?iiai?
i?iieneiaino?. I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui ?ie?noue ?eieo
oo?aaeiiai y/iaith aeey noai?aiiy iaeaaeii? ei?iiai? aace no/aniiai
oaa?eiieoeoaa ia? aooe aeecueei 500 oen. o, ui cia/ii ia?aaeuo? oaeoe/i?
ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa.

I?iaeaia aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy y/iaith oa aeeaeie eiai ia?a?iaee ?
aeooaeueiith ? aeey i?aei?e?inoa ieaiaa?ii? i?iieneiaino?. ?eiie ieaa a
?aa?ii? iaiane/aiee. Niiaeeaaiiy a?o/eciyii? i?iaeoeoe?? ia aeooo
ianaeaiiy cieceeiny aei 10-12 e o ??e, a o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? — ua
a?eueoa. Iioaioe?eia ?ie?noue ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo ioe?ith?oueny iaie a
ianyc? aei 4 iei. aeae. Aeey ae?iaieoeoaa oaei? e?eueeino? ieaa
iaiao?aeii ye i?i?ioi 11 oen. o aenieiye?niiai y/iaith. I?aei?e?inoaa
ieaiaa?ii? i?iieneiaino?, caeeoeaoenue aac aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee,
cieceee ae?iaieoeoai ieaa, ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae
(oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Ae?iaieoeoai ieaa ia i?aei?e?inoaao ieaiaacaeeiaieueii? i?iieneiaino?
A?iie//eie oa aea?aeaai? caeoi?ae? ieaiaa?iiai y/iaith

?ieeAeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae i?aei?e?inoa, %Ae?iaieoeoai
ieaa, oen. aeae.Ii?iaoeaia iio?aaa y/iaith, oen. oAea?aeaai? caeoiee
ieaiaa?iiai y/iaith, oen.
o198574,634119,55146,5198651,123386,55140,1198762,228467,9569,8198869,53
1798,9058,8198976,835149,85149,3199074,634129,55178,8199163,429028,1531,
6199238,317504,95199,1199325,111483,20215,6199423,110553,03131,1199511,3
5181,4525,819963,51600,4831,119976,63030,917,6

Ciioai?noue iniiaieo oiiae?a noaiiaeoue iiiaae 50%, nooiaiue ?o
iiiaeaiiy — aeecueei 7%. Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, ca 1995-1997 ??.
i?aei?e?inoaa ieaiaacaeeiaieueii? aaeoc? iaeaea ia 60% iiiaeee
ani?oeiaio ieaa ? ae?iaeythoue aeecueei 20 ni?o?a. Iio??aii
i?aee?aneeoe, ui caeoi?ae? ieaiaa?iiai y/iaith ca aiae?ciaaiee ia??iae
cia/ii a?eueo? ae?iaie/eo iio?aa ieaiaa??a. Iiynith?oueny oea oei, ui
40-60% ?o ianya?a aeaiceeiny a ?io? ?aa?iie. Ia? i?noea iaaeineiiae?noue
oaoiieia?e ia?a?iaee oa iecueea ye?noue ne?iaeie (ca aeaieie ieaiaa?ieo
caaiae?a aeno?aeoeai?noue neeaaeaea 74-75%), ui i?eaiaeeei aei
ia?aaeo?ao y/iaith ia ae?iaieoeoai nieiaeo. Iaei??th c i?e/ei iecueei?
yeino? aoei ii?ooaiiy ii?i neeaaeoaaiiy ieaiaa?iiai y/iaith, yeee /anoi
ci?ooaaany c oo?aaeiei. Iiiia?ao?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui
a?eueo?noue ieaiaa?ieo i?aei?e?inoa ia iathoue aeinoaoi?o eioo?a aeey
caaio?ae? iaiao?aeii? e?eueeino? ieaiaa?iiai y/iaith ? a e?oi?e ia??iae
i?inoiththoue. C ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieo iinoa? ieoaiiy i?i oeeaaeaiiy
aca?iiaea?aeieo eiio?aeo?a oa aeiaiai??a ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa c
oiaa?iae?iaieeaie ne?iaeie ia ??aieo ia?oia?nueeeo oiiaao, ui
?aaeaiaioothoue ni?eueiee ?ioa?an ? iaeiaeiao a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
e?ioeaa? ?acoeueoaoe.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Iai?yie oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueiiai
?eieo y/iaith” — ia iniia? aeyaeaieo oaiaeaioe?e ci?i o?iaeaeiino? y?iai
? iceiiai y/iaith, eiioeaio?aoe?? iin?a?a eoeueoo?e, a?aooaaiiy
ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo oaa?eiieoeoaa oa ieaiaa?ii? aaeoc?, anoaiiaeaii
ianyae iioaioe?eii? i?iiiceoe?? ca?ia y/iaith oa ia?niaeoeae eiai
aeei?enoaiiy. I?iaiic ae?iaieoeoaa aeeiiaii o aeaio aa??aioao.
?ic?aoiaaii iiaeeeaino? ca?eueoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? ca?ia ca iaae? ?aa?iio,
o oiio /ene? ia aenii?o. Ca iaoeie ?ic?aooieaie, aei 2005 ?. iin?ai?
ieiu? y?iai y/iaith aeioe?eueii aeiaanoe aei 254,9 oen. aa, iceiiai —
aei 27 oen. aa. Iniiaia ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaiico?oueny ca
?aooiie oaeoi??a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? e i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino?, yea ia?
aeinyaoe 34,5 oe/aa ii y?iio ? 42,7 oe/aa ii iceiiio y/iaith.

Aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa y/iaith a ia?niaeoea?, yea
aeeiiaia ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?/ii? ea?oe c a?aooaaiiyi
caieaiiaaii? a?iaeaeiino?, iieaco?, ui i?e na?aaeiueia??aeia?e oe?i?
22,5 a?i. ca 1 oe ieaiaa?iiai y/iaith i?eaooie a?ae eiai ?aae?caoe??
iiaea neeanoe 9,54 a?i. Oea caaacia/eoue aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? eiai ae?iaieoeoaa (73,6%). I?iaaaeaia a?iaia?aaoe/ia
ioe?iea aa?ioaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a i?iiiiiaaii? oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy
oa?aeoa?eco? ?? ye aoaeoeaio, aia?ai- oa ?ano?nicaa??aath/o oae ye
eiao?oe??io a?iaia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? a?eueoa iaeeieoe? (E = 1,27).

Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii aa?ioaoi?ee ? aeei?enoaiiy aenieiye?niiai ian?iiy.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iio?aaa o ye?niiio ian?ii?
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ni?o?a y?iai y/iaith a ainiiaea?noaao iaeano?
caeeoa?oueny iacaaeiaieaiith. O oie aea /an, A?iieoeueea AeNAAeN
i?iiiio? iia? aenieia?iaeaei? ni?oe c aeia?eie ieaiaa?ieie
aeanoeainoyie, caianai? aei aea?aeaaiiai ?a?no?o, a naia: Iiaeieyi ?
Eaooai (iaeneiaeueia o?iaeaei?noue 73,0-73,7 oe/aa), Oa?ai (88 oe/aa); a
oaeiae o?, ui ia?aaeai? a aea?aeaaia ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy — Aeoiaaee (83,5
oe/aa), Iaae?eiee (76,8 oe/aa) ? Ceaaiaea (92,4 oe/aa). Aeey
ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo ian?iiy ?icii/aoa ?iaioa ii
noai?aiith iiai? no?oeoo?e ian?iieoeoaa c ae?iuoaaiiy y?iai y/iaith ia
aac? A?iieoeueei? AeNAAeN.

Ianyae ?aae?caoe?? ian?iiy y?iai y/iaith ii A?iieoeuee?e AeNAAeN o 1997
?. c?inee o 5 ?ac?a ii??aiyii c 1995 ?. ? o 2 ?ace — ii??aiyii c 1996 ?.
Ca ia??iae 1995-1997 ??. aoei ?aae?ciaaii 323,2 o ae?oiiai ian?iiy, a
oiio /ene? o 1997 ?. 201,2 o. ?ic?aoiaaiee iaie eiao?oe??io oe?iiai?
aeanoe/iino? iiieoo ia oaea ian?iiy y/iaith a?eueoa iaeeieoe? (A?=1,51).
Oiaoi iiieo ia aenieii?iaeoeoeaia ian?iiy c aieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a ?
a?aeiinii aeanoe/iei ? c?inoa? a a?eueo?e i???, i?ae oe?ia ia ae?oia
ian?iiy, iacaaaeath/e iaa?oue ia iecueeo ieaoini?iiiaei?noue
ainiiaea?noa. Uiaei i?iiiceoe?? ae?oiiai ian?iiy ca ia??iae 1995-1997
??. oeae eiao?oe??io aei??aith? iaeaea iaeeieoe? ( As=0,99). O aeaiiio
aeiaaeeo c?inoaiiy oe?ie ia ian?iiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?iii?oe?eii
??aiioe?iii? ci?ie ianyao i?iiiceoe??.

Iniiaieie oiiaaie aoaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo ?eieo ian?iieoeoaa ia aeaiiio
aoai? aaaaea?ii:

· ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oa ianya?a ?aae?caoe?? oiaa?iiai ian?iiy;

· a?aooaaiiy ??cieoe? i?ae iaoa??aeueieie oa a?ioiaeie aea?aaeaioaie;

· oi?ioaaiiy aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o oe?i ia ian?iiy a?aeiia?aeii aei
a??aeiaeo.

Iaaeinoaoi?i caeeoa?oueny ??aaiue oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano
ae?iaieoeoaa ? cae?aiiy ca?iiaeo. Ia?e ca?iicae?aeueieo eiiaaei?a noa???
? ciaioo?oueny. O 1997 ?. a iaeano? iae?/oaaeiny aeecueei 5,6 oeny/
ca?iicae?aeueieo eiiaaei?a i?e oaoiieia?/i?e iio?aa? 6,1 oeny/. A
aeanyoee ?ac?a nei?ioeeiny i?eaeaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oaoi?ee.
Iaa?oue aaeee? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ni?iiiaei?
nueiaiaei? eoieoe oaoi?eo ca?oa?aeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth. Oiio a ?aa?ii? ?icii/aoa
?iaioa c i?aai?caoe?? ia aeoe?iia?i?e iniia? ioieo?a i?ieaoo,
cae?aeueii-o?ainii?oieo caaii?a oa iaoeiii-oaoiieia?/ieo noaioe?e.
Aiae?c ?iaioe ca?iicae?aeueieo eiiaaei?a o??ie “Aeaeii-Ae??” o 1997 ?.
ia cae?aii? y?eo ca?iiaeo o 36 ainiiaea?noaao iaeano? iieacaa, ui
ae?ia?oie ia iaeei eiiaaei aoa 391 aa, aeaiiee — 17,6 aa. A?aeiia?aei?
na?aaeiueiiaeani? iieacieee noaiiaeee 130,0 ? 4,8 aa.

Ca ni?eyoeeaeo ee?iaoe/ieo oiia oa iie?ioaiiy ?ano?niiai caaacia/aiiy o
2000 ?. i?iiiceoe?y ca?ia y/iaith iiaea neeanoe 966 oen. o (oaae. 3).

Oea caaacia/eoue aenieee aioo??oi?e iiieo ia ca?ii y/iaith, cia/ii
ca?eueoeoueny eiai ?aae?caoe?y ca iaae? iaeano? oa ia aenii?o, /iio
ni?eyoeia ?icoe?aiiy noa?e ae?yeueiino? A?iieoeueei?
oiaa?ii-oi?aa?naeueii? a??ae?. Oiio iaiao?aeii caaa?oeoe ?iaioo ii
noai?aiith ? ae?aaeeoaoe?? ia A?iieoeuee?e oiaa?i?e oi?aa?naeuei?e
a??ae? ?aeiiieo aa?ioi?aiaeo aeii?a, i?ney /iai aiie noathoue ??
/eaiaie. A?aee?eaoe a?iea?nuee? eiioi?e, cae?enithaaoeiooue a??aeiao
oi?a?aeth a?ae ?iai? ee??ioa aai a?ae naiai ?iai? e ca na?e ?aooiie.
N?oea oeeo i?aei?e?inoa ?icoe?th?oueny. O 1998 ?. a iaeano? aaea
iae?/oaaeiny 20 oi?aiaeo aeii?a, aea eeoa o?e c ieo aoee ae?aaeeoiaai?
ia A?iieoeuee?e oiaa?i?e oi?aa?naeuei?e a??ae?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
a?eueo?noue c ieo ia a?aeiia?aeathoue Oeiiaiio iieiaeaiith i?i
i?ae?aa?iiaeueiee oa ?aeiiiee aa?ioi?aiaee ae?i, ia aeeiiothoue nai?o
iniiaieo ooieoe?e, ae?thoue ye no?oeoo?i? i?ae?icae?ee
“?aeaa?ioaona?a?no” oa “?aeaa?iiaoo”. Any ?o ae?yeuei?noue noino?oueny
aa?oa?iiai iai?io iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo cania?a ia aa?ii?iaeiaieue/o
i?iaeoeoe?th.

Oaaeeoey 3

I?iaiic ianya?a i?iiiceoe?? oa aeei?enoaiiy ca?ia y/iaith (oen.o)

Noaoo? aaeaino1997 ?.2000 ?.2005 ?.I?iiiceoe?yAaeiaee
ca??525,6864,8994,7Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy c ?ioeo
iaeanoae1,01,21,0?iii?o0,4–Caeeoie ia ii/aoie
?ieo26,7100,0105,0Anueiai553,7966,01100,7Aeei?enoaiiyIa
ian?iiy67,470,980,9 i?iaeiaieuenoai0,50,81,4
oo?aae279,0486,6563,0 ieaiaa??iiy1,312,015,0?aae?caoe?y ca iaae?
iaeano?81,5182,0211,9Aenii?o29,275,793,0Ao?aoe36,830,030,0Anueiai495,785
8,0995,2Caeeoie ia e?iaoeue ?ieo58,0108,0105,5Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?ioeaaiai
caeeoeo, %:aei caaaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiy11,712,510,6 caaaeueii?
i?iiiceoe??10,411,19,6

Aeey oiaa?iae?iaieea iiaeeeaee ?ioee oeyo — o/anoue o a??aeia?e oi?a?ae?
ia aeiaia??i?e iniia? c a?iea?nueeeie eiioi?aie ? iacaeaaeieie
a?iea?aie, ye? ca?a?no?iaai? ia a??ae?.

Aiae?c ae?yeueiino? A?iieoeueei? oiaa?ii-oi?aa?naeueii? a??ae? iieacaa,
ui ia i?e oeeaaeaeeny oaiaee ia ?aaeueiee oiaa?, o oiio /ene? c ei?ioeei
no?ieii iinoaaee “niio”, a oaeiae ?c a?aeno?i/aiith iinoaaeith
“oi?aa?ae”, e??i oiai, aa?oa?i?. Ca ianyaaie aeeiiaiiy oaiae ii y/iaith
aeii?iothoue niioia?. Aeeiiaiiy eiio?aeo?a ca oeeaaeaieie oaiaeaie a
1995-1997 ??. eieeaaeiny a?ae 56% ii y/iaith ieaiaa?iiio 1 eeano aei
iiaiiai aeeiiaiiy oaiae ii oo?aaeiiio.

I?e oeeaaeaii? oaiae ia ?aaeueiee oiaa? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? aea??
aaceno iinoaaee oiaa??a, ine?eueee oea iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo oiia
oi?ioaaiiy eiai aa?oino?. I?iaeaae y/iaith ia A?iieoeuee?e
oiaa?ii-oi?aa?naeuei?e a??ae? a iniiaiiio cae?enith?oueny ca aacenii
iinoaaee “o?aiei-aeaaaoi?” (AOW). O 1996 ?. ia a??ae? canoiniaoaaany
a?eueo oe?ieee niaeo? oaiae ca aacenii iinoaaee — niio AOW
(o?aiei-aeaaaoi?), niio AeAF (iinoaaea aei ei?aeiio), oi?aa?ae AOW
(o?aiei-aeaaaoi?).

Oiaa?iia?a ia a??ae? aeinyaioa iaea?eueoeo ?ici???a o 1996 ?., eiee
caaaeueiee ianya i?iaeaiiai y/iaith ca an?ia aeaeaie oaiae neeaa 10,4
oen.o. O oie aea /an niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea cieaeaiiy ae?eiai?
aeoeaiino? a??ae?, ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? oeeaaeaieo oaiae, cieaeaiiy
??aiy ?o e?ea?aeiino?. Ca ??cieie ioe?ieaie iiiaae 40% oeeaaeaieo oaiae
ia a??aeao Oe?a?ie ia aeeiiothoueny, oiae? ye o na?o? e?ea?aei?noue
neeaaea? iaeaea 99%. Ia A?iieoeuee?e oiaa?ii-oi?aa?naeuei?e a??ae?
anoaiiaeaia oaea aeeiai?ea ci?ie ??aiy oeueiai iieacieea ii y/iaith
ieaiaa?iiio II eeano: 68,3% o 1995 ?., 2,9 — o 1997 ?. Caaaeueiee
??aaiue e?ea?aeiino? oaiae ii y/iaith ieaiaa?iiio ? eeano o 1995 ?.
neeaa 74,6 %. Ii oo?aaeiiio e?ea?aei?noue oaiae c a?aeno?i/aiith
iinoaaeith (oi?aa?ae — AOW) cieceeany c 75,7 o 1995 ?. aei 6,4 % o 1997
?.

O 1997 ?. /a?ac a??aeiaee ?eiie ?aae?ciaaii 625 o y/iaith, aa?o?noth 137
oen. a?i. Oea noaiiaeoue 4% caaaeueiiai ianyao oi?a?ae? ia A?iieoeuee?e
oiaa?ii-oi?aa?naeuei?e a??ae?, yea a ?aeoeiao a??ae — /eai?a
Iaoe?iiaeueii? anioe?aoe?? a??ae Oe?a?ie, ui oi?aothoue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith i?iaeoeoe??th, ciaoiaeeeany ia ia?oiio
i?noe?.

A oiiaao iaaeinoaoiuei noi?iiaaiiai ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua iaeia c
aieiaieo caaaeaiue a??aeiaiai ?eieo — anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeueieo oe?i, ye?
a?oioothoueny ia ni?anoaaeaii? iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? ia y/i?iue o
?aa?ii?. Ca aiae?ciaaiee ia??iae niinoa??aaeiny ??cea eieeaaiiy oe?i,
iaa?oue i?ioyaii iaei??? oi?aiai? nan??, ia ni?aiaaeaiiy ianya?a
i?iiiceoe?? ? iiieoo ia y/i?iue, oiio a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iiieo
caeeoaany iacaaeiaieaiei, oi?ae ia a?aeaoaaeeny.

?ic?aoiaaiee iaie eiao?oe??io aeanoe/iino? iiieoo ca oe?iith (A?=0,49)
ii ieaiaa?iiio y/iaith aeaco? ia iaaeanoe/iee iiieo, eiee cia/i? ci?ie
oe?i ia i?ecaaee aei cia/ii? ci?ie ianyao. Ii oo?aaeiiio y/iaith,
iaaiaee, iiieo aoa aeanoe/iee (A?=2,28). O oie aea /an ?acoeueoaoe
a??aeiaeo oi?a?a ca ia??iae 1995-1997 ??. na?ae/aoue i?i
ieaoini?iiiaeii-iaaeanoe/iee iiieo ia aeaiee oiaa?. A?aenioeiaa ci?ia
i?iiiceoe?? aoea iaioa a?aenioeiai? ci?ie oe?ie ye ia oo?aaeiee, oae ?
ia ieaiaa?iee y/i?iue, ui aiai?eoue i?i ?? iaaeanoe/i?noue (As

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