IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? I.I. Ae?AAIIAIIAA

?EIA? Ethaeieea Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 378.126

OI?IOAAIIss I?IOAN?EII? NAIINA?AeIIINO? IAEAOOI?O O*EOAE?A

O I?IOeAN? AEA*AIIss IAAeAAIA?*IEO AeENOeEIE?I

13. 00. 01- oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeana?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?iieoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee

ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie

II?IC Ieaen?e A?eai?iae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, i?ioani?

Io?oe?ei?

iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oeiae?i Ieoaeei Ieoaeeiae/,

A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iiaeieye Ethaeieea A?eai??aia,

?inoeooo ineoieia?? ?iai? A.N.Einothea,

i?ia?aeiee niaoe?ae?no

I?ia?aeia

onoaiiaa: Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?

Ean? Oe?a?iee, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Eooeuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “3“ /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 16.30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.26.053.02 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252 601, i.
Ee?a-30, aoe.Ie?iaiaa, 9 ).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa,

(252601, i.Ee?a, aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “31” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
AeIEEINUeEA E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oiiaao ?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?, eoeueoo?iiai oa aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo iinoa? ieoaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ina?oe caieoai coni?euenoaa
ca?aeii ?c na?oiaeie aeinyaiaiiyie iaoee. ?ieue o/eoaey o ?ica’ycaii?
oe??? i?iaeaie neooii aaaaea?oueny i?ia?aeiith. Oei-oi, iniaeeai?
aeooaeueiino? a iao /an iaaoaa? ieoaiiy i?aeaioiaee ianoaiaea?oii?,
oai?/i? iniaenoino? a/eoaey, ine?eueee ?aae?caoe?y oeieith nioe?aeueiiai
caiiaeaiiy noni?euenoaa a aaeoc? oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?, iiaeaeueoiai
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? oa aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
ae??oaeueiith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa, ??aiy eiai
i?ioan?eii? iaenoa?iino?.

??ci? aniaeoe i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ia?aaoaaee a oeaio??
oaaae aaaaoueio o/aieo (I.I.Aaaeoe?ia, O.I.Aiiiaie?i, A.I.A??oei,
I.A.Ee?e/oe, I.A.Eocuei?ia, I.A.Ii?ic, Ae.O.I?eieaiei, ?.I.Neieoey,
A.I. Neanoueii?i, ?.?.Oiaethe, I.?.Ua?aaeia oa ?i.). I?iaiaeeeeny
aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ineoieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e iniaenoino? ?
ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey, oaeineiiaeaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa, oi?ioaaiiy eiai iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? (A.A.
Eai-Eaeee, A.A. E?ooaoeueeee, TH.I. Eoethoe?i,  A.E. Ia?eiaa,
A.I.Neanoueii?i, A.N. Nooianueea oa ?i.). ?, ye ia?aeiiothoue iane?aeee
niinoa?aaeaiue ? aeina?ae ?iaioe aeui? oeiee, ooiaeaiaioaeueiith
iniiaith noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey neoao? eiai
i?ioan?eia naiina?aeii?noue.

No/ani? aaoi?e ?icaeyaeathoue naiina?aeii?noue ye neeaaeia ooai?aiiy,
yae?i iniaenoino?, yeiio aeanoeaee ?ioaa?aoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Iiiyooy
naiina?aeiiino? o?aeoo?oueny ia o?eueee ye noia ciaiue iniaenoino? i?i
naaa, a oaeiae ? ye iaaia noaaeaiiy aei naaa, nai?o o?ce/ieo oa
aeooiaieo yeinoae. I.A.Ni??e?i caoaaaeo?, ui naiina?aeii?noue – oea
?icoi?iiy oa ioe?iea ethaeeiith nai?o ae?e ? ?o iane?aee?a, aeoiie,
ii/ooo?a, ii?aeueiiai iaee//y oa ?ioa?an?a, ?aeaae?a ? iioea?a
iiaaae?iee, oe?e?nia oyaeaiiy i?i naiiai naaa oa nai? i?noea a aeeoo?.

Eeaneee iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee i?aee?aneththoue ae??oaeueio ?ieue
naiina?aeiiino? o ni?aa? aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a. Oae, A.N.Iaea?aiei
noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui o aeoiaaoaey, yeee aaeoieeai aiae?co? naith
ae?yeuei?noue, ia iiaea ia c’yaeoeny ?ioa?an aei oai?/iai inieneaiiy
iaaooiai aeina?aeo, i?aaiaiiy aeyaeoe i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee i?ae
ciaiiyie, iiaaae?ieith aeoiaaioe?a, a oaeiae aeaniith iaaeaaia?/iith
ae?yeuei?noth. A.I. Nooiieeinueeee ?ac ii ?ac iaaieiooaaa, ui oni?o
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ?iaioe a/eoaey aaaaoi a /iio caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai,
iane?eueee aeineiiaei aieiae?? iaaeaaia iaoiaeii naiino?eiiai aiae?co
nai?o oni?o?a oa iaaaea/.

I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a aoee caoeuai? aeena?oaoe??, o yeeo
?icaeyaeaeeny ??ci? neeaaeieee i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai
a/eoaey. I?iaiaeeeeny aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia, noiniaii naiiioe?iee
nooaeaio?a iaaeo/eeeua ye oaeoi?a i?ioan?eiiai naiiaecia/aiiy
(E.I.?onoao’?aa), oi?ioaaiiy “ss-eiioeaioe??” iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey a
oiiaao iaaeaaia?/iiai o/eeeua (A.?.TH?/aiei), ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae
i?ioan?eiiai naiiaecia/aiiy o/i?a i?io?eueieo iaaeeean?a (I.E.Oo??i?ia).

Ia?ae?/ai? aeua aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaothoue aaaiiei aianeii o oai??th ?
i?aeoeeo i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei i?ioan?eiiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy,
caaaa/othoue eiai aaaeeeaei oaeoe/iei iaoa??aeii. ?acii c oei, o
caaaeueiiio iaeyae? iaoeiaeo aeaea?ae i?i i?ioan?eia iaa/aiiy
iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa ia aeyaeaii niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo
oi?ioaaiith i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a, ?ie? iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i o oeueiio i?ioean?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe coiiaeaia, c iaeiiai
aieo, ia’?eoeaiith noni?eueiith iaiao?aei?noth aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a aei i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? a no/ani?e
oeie?, a c ?ioiai — iaaeinoaoi?i aena?oeaiiyi o e?oa?aoo?? ie?aieo
aniaeo?a aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, a?aenooi?noth niaoe?aeueieo
iieaciee?a iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a i?ae /an aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, a ioaea,
— ae?ae aaaeeeaith aeey no/anii? iaaeaaia?ee iaiao?aei?noth iiaeeaeaiiai
aea/aiiy icia/aieo ieoaiue o an?o ?o ??ciianiaeoieo aeyaao. Naia
iaaeaaia?/i? aeenoeeie?ie, caoaaaeeii, neoaothoue iniiaith oaoiai?
i?aeaioiaee oa i?ioan?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa. Oiio
oaiith iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy e aoei ia?aii “Oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i”. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neii?aeeiiaaia a AII
Oe?a?ie, i?ioieie ? 3 a?ae 14 ea?oiy 1998 ?ieo.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea iaeaooiueiai
a/eoaey.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oa aecia/aiiy oiia
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey o i?ioean?
canai?iiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

A iniiao iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei iieeaaeaii i?eiouaiiy i?i oa, ui
aoaeoeaiei caniaii i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a iiaeooue neoaoaaoe iaaeaaia?/i? aeenoeeie?ie, ye? aeicaieythoue
noi?ioaaoe an? no?oeoo?i? eiiiiiaioe ca oiia noeioethaaiiy i?ciaaaeueii?
aeoeaiino? nooaeaio?a, ni?yiiaaii? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy naaa ye noa’?eoa
ae?yeueiino? ia iniia? ?icaeoeo ?aoeaeneaii? noeeueiino?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ? a?iioace aecia/aii caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. ?ice?eoe iniiai? eiiiiiaioe a no?oeoo?? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey.

2. ?ic?iaeoe e?eoa??? oa aecia/eoe ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a.

3. Aeyaeoe oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? a i?ioean? aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

4. ?ic?iaeoe e aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue aeoeaieo
iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, ye? ioiieththoue i?eeiie aaciina?aaeiueiai oa
iiina?aaeeiaaiiai i?ciaiiy aeanii? ae?yeueiino?, ei?aeoe?th i?ioan?eii?
iiaaae?iee iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa, o i?ioean? aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith ? oai?aoe/iith iniiaith ?iaioe noaee: ineoieia?/iee
i?eioeei ?aeiino? na?aeiiino?, naiina?aeiiino? ? ae?yeueiino?
(I.I. Eaiioue?a, A.N.Ni??e?i, I.?.*aiaoa); eiioeaioe?y ?aeiino?
naiina?aeiiino? oa nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? (E.N.Aeaionueeee,
N.E.?oa?iooaei, I.I.Eaiioue?a); o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? aaiaceno
naiina?aeiiino?, ?? nioe?aeueii? coiiaeaiino? (?.N. Eii, A.A.Noie?i,
I.A.Ni??e?i, I.?.*aiaoa, ?.?.*aniieiaa); eiioeaioe??
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a, aena?oeai? a
i?aoeyo A.N. Iaea?aiea, A.I. Nooiieeinueeiai, E.Ae. Ooeinueeiai,
aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.A. Eocuei?ii?, I.A. Ii?ica, Ae.O.I?eieaiea,
O.N. Iieyeiai?, ?.I.Neieoe?, A.I. Neanoueii?ia oa ?i.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aeei?enoaii oae? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy: niinoa?aaeaiiy, iaoiaee iieooaaiiy, iaaeaaia?/iee
aenia?eiaio, iiaeaethaaiiy, iaoiae a?eueiiai naiiiieno, ?ica’ycaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue, eiioaio-aiae?c, iaoiae naiiioe?iee.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iniiaiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai, Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, E??iaia?aaenueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? A.Aeiie/aiea, A?iieoeueeee
iaeaniee ?inoeooo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a.
Onueiai aeine?aeaeaiiyie aoei ioiieaii iiiaae oeny/o nooaeaio?a, 129
o/eoae?a oe?e, 48 aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny iii?ith ia
iia?oi? aeinyaiaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeei?enoaiiyi
eiiieaeno iaae?eieo iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo iao? oa iinoaaeaiei
caaaeaiiyi, aeinoaoiueith iiaea/ath aenia?eiaioaeueieo aea??ie,
ia?aa??eith iniiaieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?? a i?ioean?
aeine?aeieoeueei?  ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ooi/iaii? no?oeoo?e i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey, iniiaieie eiiiiiaioaie yei?
aenooiathoue: i?ioan?eia onoaiiaea ia iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue,
iayai?noue iio?aae a naiii?ciaii? oa naiiioe?iea i?ioan?eii cia/oueo
yeinoae, naii?aaoeyoe?y a ?ica’ycaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue oa
a?aeiia?aei? iioeae i?ioan?eiiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy; ?ic?iaoe? e?eoa???a
oa aecia/aii? ??ai?a (aenieee, na?aaei?e, iecueeee) noi?iiaaiino?
i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a; aeyaeaii? i?ia?aeii?
?ie? aeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy o oi?ioaaii? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
nooaeaio?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ooi/iaii? ci?noo iiiyooy
“i?ioan?eia naiina?aeii?noue iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a”, nooo?aith iciaeith
yeiai ? i?ioan?eia ni?yiiaai?noue iniaenoino? nooaeaioa ia iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue oa iayai?noue ?aoeaeneaieo i?ioean?a; aecia/aii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a i?ae /an aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i,
aieiaieie c yeeo ?: i?aeneeaiiy i?aeoe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo
iaoa??aeo ia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae iaeaooiueiai
a/eoaey, caeo/aiiy nooaeaio?a aei aeoeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? c
iiaeaeueoei naiiaiae?cii oa ioe?ieith nai?o ae?e, ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaiieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e c iaoith ?icaeoeo naii?aaoeyoe?? ia
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo oa a i?ioean? aeoeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeoeee, i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? nooaeaio?a o noa??
ni?eeoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy: nenoaiaoeciaaii i?iaeaii? neooaoe??
aeey ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue oi?ioaaiiy ?aoeaeneaieo i?ioean?a o
nooaeaio?a; ai?iaiaaii i?ia?aio niaoe?aeueieo o?ai?iaiaeo caiyoue aeey
?icaeoeo iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?; i?ae?a?aii
nenoaio ai?aa, ye? ni?eythoue ae?aaiinoeoe? i?ioan?eii? iiaaae?iee
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a ? aioothoue aei ae??oaiiy ianoaiaea?oieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e, /ei aeiiiaiaii ?icae?e eo?no “Iniiae
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino?” oa i?ia?aio i?ioiaeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeoeee ia ?? – ?V eo?nao.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa ai?iaaoe?? iaoiae?a
?iaioe, ui iioei?cothoue i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a; aecia/aii? ??ai?a (aenieiai, na?aaeiueiai,
iecueeiai) noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?, aeyaeaii? oiia
aoaeoeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy an?o eiiiiiaio?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i
iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? cae?enithaaeeny
aaoi?ii o oiae? aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe i?ae /an /eoaiiy
eo?n?a “Iaaeaaia?ea” ? “Iniiae iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino?” ia aac?
?noi?e/iiai, o?eieia?/iiai oaeoeueoao?a oa oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy AAeIO ?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai, o ?iaio? c o/eoaeyie ia
aac? A?iieoeueeiai iaeaniiai ?inoeoooo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a. Io?eiai? a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
?acoeueoaoe iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee,
i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a AAeIO ?iai?
Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny oa io?eiaee
noaaeaiiy ia ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a”
(A?iieoey, 1996), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoe?iiaeueia oeiea Oe?a?ie: caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo”
(Oa?iii?eue, 1996), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? nooaeaio?a oa
aeeeaaea/?a “Aa??ea” (A?iieoey, 1997), *aoaa?oeo Anaoe?a?inueeeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo /eoaiiyo “Aaneeue Nooiieeinueeee ? no/ani?noue” (A?iieoey,
1997), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?
? iaoiaee/i? canaaee eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo i?ioan?eii? ina?oe”
(A?iieoey, 1998).

Ia caoeno aeiicyoueny:

1. iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aoc?anueea i?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a
iaaeaaia?/iiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo iiaeiia ia?aaeaa/aoe i?ioan?eia
noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey, iniiaith yeiai ?
i?ioan?eia naiina?aeii?noue, ui aoaeoeaii oi?io?oueny i?ae /an aea/aiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, aeeeaaeaiiy yeeo iiaeiia ia?aaeaa/aoe
noai?aiiy oiia oa caaacia/aiiy iaoiae?a ia o?eueee aeey oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae, a e aeey naiii?ciaiiy, naiiioe?iee,
naii?aaoeyoe?? — iniiae i?ioan?eiiai c?inoaiiy nooaeaio?a;

2. e?eoa??? noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai
a/eoaey:noi?iiaai?noue i?ioan?eieo onoaiiaie ia iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue, ??aaiue naiii?ciaiiy oa naiiioe?iee i?ioan?eii cia/oueo
yeinoae o/eoaey, ??aaiue naii?aaoeyoe?? o ?ica’caii? iaaeaaia?/ieo
caaea/, i?ioan?eiee oa?aeoa? iioea?a naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, — ye?
?ic?iaeai? ia iniia? aecia/aieo no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? a/eoaey;

3. oiiae aoaeoeaiino? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo, ye?
ia?aaeaa/athoue: oe?eani?yiiaaia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae
iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa ia eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo, i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?ioan?eiiai naiii?ciaiiy nooaeaio?a oeyoii noeioethaaiiy
i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino?, ni?yiiaaii? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy naaa ye noa’?eoa
ae?yeueiino?; caeo/aiiy aei naiiaiae?co oa ioe?iee iane?aee?a aeanii?
ae?yeueiino? i?ae /an aeoeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy noeeueiino? aei ?aoeaen??; ae??oaiiy i?iaeaiieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e, ye? aeicaieythoue ?icaeaaoe iniiae
naii?aaoeyoe?? iiaaae?iee; aeei?enoaiiy aeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, ui
ioiieththoue: aeeneon?ei? iaoiaee (a?oiiaa aeeneon?y, ?ica?? ? aiae?c
neooaoe?e ? o. ae.), ?a?ia? iaoiaee (aeeaeaeoe/i?, oai?/?, ?ieueia?
?a?e, a oaeiae ?a?iaa ineoioa?ai?y, ineoiae?aiaoe/ia ei?aeoe?y,
o?ainaeoiee iaoiae ona?aeiieaiiy eiioi?eaoeaii? iiaaae?iee oa ?i.),
naiceoeaiee o?ai?ia (o?aioaaiiy naii?icoi?iiy, oaoi?ee iaaa?aaeueii?
aca?iiae??), i?e?iaeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoo ca oaoii.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? iane?aeee aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaii o 8
ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaea?oueny
c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a aei eiaeiiai ?icae?eo, caaaeueieo
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a. Ci?no aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeaiee ia 176 noi??ieao. ?iaioa i?noeoue 14 oaaeeoeue caaaeueiei
ianyaii 9 noi??iie. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e ioiieth? 229 aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ”Anooi?” iiaea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, aea iaa?oioiaaii
aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii a?iioaco aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
?icaeyiooi ?? iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, c’yniaaii eiai iaoeiao iiaecio, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ?o oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iacaaii aaco
? caniae caaacia/aiiy aeinoia??iino? aeine?aeaeaiiy, niiniae ai?iaaoe??
iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aeeeaaeaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno, a oaeiae iiaeaii no?oeoo?o ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae i?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a o ACI”
?ice?eaathoueny oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e,
?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? i?aeoiaee aei ?icoi?iiy iiiyooy
naiina?aeiiino?, no?oeoo?e, iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy, caeiiii??iinoae
?icaeoeo oeueiai oaiiiaia, a oiio /ene? e i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
a/eoaey.

Ie?aneththoueny oeyoe ? caniae oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a o ACI c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeaieo o
oeueiio ae ?icae?e? iane?aee?a aiae?co iaoa??ae?a eiinoaooth/iai
aenia?eiaioo c aeyaeaiiyi ??ai?a noi?iiaaiiino? i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino?.

I?iaeai? naiina?aeiiino? i?enay/aii /eiaei aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo ?
ca?oa?aeieo ineoieia?a. A?o/eciyi? aaoi?e ?icaeyaeathoue oeth i?iaeaio a
oaeeo iai?yieao:

— aiae?c caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo oa iaoiaeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a oi?ioaaiiy
naiina?aeiiino? ye /anoeie caaaeueii? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?
(A.A.Aiaiue?a, E.?.Aiaeiae/, E.N.Aeaionueeee, ?.N.Eii, I.I.Eaiioue?a,
A.N.Ioo?ia, N.E.?oa?iooaei, I.A.Ni??e?i, I.?.*aiaoa, ?.?.*aniieiaa,
?.A.Oi?ioiaa oa ?i);

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo i?ioean?a i?ciaiiy ?ioeo ethaeae oa
naiii?ciaiiy (I.I. Aiaeaeueia, ?.A. Iaeneiiaa, A.ss. ?icai oa ?i.);

— ?icaeyae iniaeeainoae naiiioe?iee, ?? aca?iiiia’ycaiino? c ioe?ieaie
ioi/oth/eo (I.?. Aeeoae?iiaa, A.?. E?ie?ia, A.N.Iaaoi, ?.?. Naaiiueei,
A.O. Nao?i oa ?i.);

-aea/aiiy naii?aaoeyoe?? oa naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?
(E.A. Aa?oeoai, TH.I. I?eia, I.A. I?inaoeueeee, ?.?. *aniieiaa oa ?i.);

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiaceno naiina?aeiiino? a ??ci? a?eia? ia??iaee
(E.?.Aiaeiae/, I.E.Ai?eoaanueeee, Ae.A.Aeueeii?i, ?.N.Eii,
A.?.E?nianueeee, E.A.Iiaeieye oa ?i.).

?icaeyaeathoueny e a?eueo eiie?aoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iia’ycai? ?c
naiina?aeii?noth iniaenoino? nooaeaioa, ye io: a) aieea nooaeaionueeiai
eieaeoeao oa ni?eeoaaiiy ia ia?ac ss ? naiiioe?ieo iniaenoino?
(I.I.Aiaeaeueia, A.I.Eoi?oeeia, I.A.Eocuei?ia, A.?.?eue?ia, A.O.Nao?i oa
?i.); a) ca’ycie ia?aco ss c iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth, aa?o?nieie
i???ioaoe?yie (I.A. Aieeia, A.N. Iaaoi, A.O.?eaaeei, E.N.No?oiaa oa
?i.); a) ni?eeiyooy nooaeaioaie naieo naaa (A.A. Aon?aa, ?.A. Iaeneiiaa
oa ?i.). Aeine?aeaeoaaeeny caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? (A.I.Eic??a, TH.I.Eoethoe?i, A.?.Iaoaeuenueeee oa ?i.)
? a oiio /ene? naiina?aeiiino? a/eoaey (I.I.Aiae?iaa, ?.ss.Ea?ia?,
E.I.I?o?ia, Ae.O.I?eieaiei, I.I.Oaa?? oa ?i.).

Ineoieiae ?icaeyaeathoue naiina?aeii?noue ye neeaaeio ?ioaa?aoeaio
aeanoea?noue ineo?/ii? ae?yeueiino? iniaenoino?, yea caeaoia aieeaaoe ia
iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? ? ? iaei??th c aioo??oi?o oiia
?icaeoeo iniaenoino? (A.A. Aiaiue?a,  E.N. Aeaionueeee, I.I. Eaiioue?a,
N.E. ?oa?iooaei, I.?.*aiaoa oa ?i.). Naiina?aeii?noue, c iaeiiai aieo,
i?ae o?eno? i?aenoiie ineoieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? ia iaaiiio
aoai? ia?o ca ana aeey ia? naii?, a c ?ioiai — aenooia? aioo??oi?i
?aaoeyoi?ii iiaaae?iee, aieeaa? ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iniaenoino?,
aoaeo/e iaei??th c iaiao?aeieo aioo??oi?o oiia aacia?a?aiiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino?, anoaiiaeth? ??aiiaaao i?ae ciai?oi?ie aieeaaie, aioo??oi?i
noaiii iniaenoino? oa oi?iaie ?? iiaaae?iee (?.?.*aniieiaa).

O no?oeoo?iiio a?aeiioaii? naiina?aeii?noue i?iyaey?oueny a o?ueio
aniaeoao: i?ciaaaeueiiio, aiioe?eii-oe?ii?niiio ? ae??ai-aieueiaiio,
?aaoeyoeaiiai. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a
naiina?aeiiino? ? iaeaea caaaeueiii?eeiyoei. A?ey eiai aeoie?a noi?oue
oe?a?inueeee ineoieia I.?.*aiaoa, yeee iaa?oiooaaa iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
naiina?aeii?noue, ye ? na?aeii?noue ethaeeie a oe?eiio, ia?
i?ciaaaeueio, aiioe?eio, aieueiao oi?io naiai aeyao. Aei i?ciaaaeueii?
oi?ie iiaeia a?aeianoe naiia?ae/oooy, naiiniinoa?aaeaiiy, oyaeaiiy i?i
naaa, naiiaiae?c, naiie?eoeeo ? o.ae. Aei aiioe?eii? oi?ie iaeaaeaoue
naiiii/oooy, naiiethanoai, ne?iii?noue, ai?ae?noue. O oe?e oi?i?
aeyaey?oueny noaaeaiiy ethaeeie aei naii? naaa, ioe?ithaaiiy naaa
ii??aiyii c ?ioeie ethaeueie. ?, ia?aoo?, aieueiaa oi?ia ioiieth?
no?eiai?noue, naiiaeaaeaiiy, naiieiio?ieue oa ?i. An? oe? oi?ie aeyao
naiina?aeiiino? o noeoiiino? ? aca?iica’ceo neeaaeathoue oeaio?aeueia
yae?i iniaenoino?, oa, ui caeaa?eueoiai aaaaeathoue ca ?? “ss”.

C ineoieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o naiina?aeii?noue ?, ia?o ca ana, ?aoeaeneaiei
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi noa’?eoii naiiai naaa. ?aoeaen?y aenooia? ooo ye
ineoieia?/iee iaoai?ci naiina?aeiiino?. Iayai? aeaa i?aeoiaee aei
oeoia/aiiy oaeiai iiiyooy. Aiie a?ae??ciythoueny oei, ui a ia?oiio
aeiaaeeo ?iaeea?ae iiaeiai noaoe a “iiceoe?th aeine?aeieea” aeey oiai,
uia c?icoi?oe ?ioiai (TH.I.Eoethoe?i oa ?i.), oiae? ye a ?ioiio —
?iaeea?ae noa? a “iiceoe?th aeine?aeieea”, uia c?icoi?oe naiiai naaa,
nai? ae??, aeoiee (I.I. Aa?eooee?ia, A.A. Caoa?iaa, A.N. Nooianueea).

Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? ? naiiioe?iea
iniaenoino?. Aecia/ath/e naiiioe?ieo, ie aeio?eioaaeeny iieiaeaiiy, ui
aiia iieyaa? a ioe?ithaaii? naiiai naaa, yea ioiieth? ciaiiy oa
noaaeaiiy (A.I.Eoi?oeeia). Ciaiiy oa noaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?
naiina?aeii?noue a oe?eiio, iaeiae o naiina?aeiiino? i?ia?aeiei
aaaaea?oueny ?? i?ioeanoaeueiee oa?aeoa? (?.?.*aniieiaa). Naiiioe?iea ae
aea? c??c ciaiue ethaeeie i?i naaa ia iaai?e noiaeeioe? naiai ?icaeoeo.
“I?ioan?eia ss” a/eoaey ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ia?ciai?noue o nai?o
i?ioan?eieo yeinoyo oa aiioe?eia noaaeaiiy aei naaa ye aei niaoe?ae?noa,
oaiaeaioe?? ae?e noiniaii naaa o noa?? i?ioan?eiiai naiiaeyaeaiiy.

O no/ani?e iaaeaaia?/i?e ineoieia?? aeeiiaii ieceo aeine?aeaeaiue c
i?iaeai i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a
iaaeaaia?/iiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo (A.I. Eic??a 1979, A.I. Naa?ania
1986, N.A. Aanueeianueea 1987, ?.I. Aia?iaa 1989). A.I.Eic??a,
aiae?coth/e i?ioan?eio naiina?aeii?noue o/eoaey, ?icaeyaea? ?? ye
neeaaeiee iniaeno?niee iaoai?ci, ui aeeiio? aeoeaio ?aaoethth/o
ooieoe?th a ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey, ni?ey? naii?icaeoeo oa na?aeiiiio
oi?ioaaiith a iueiai ae i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae iniaenoino?. Aaoi?
aeiaiaeeoue iayai?noue ca’yceo i?ae iniaeeainoyie naiina?aeiiino?
a/eoaey oa ??aiai eiai iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino?, ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i
iaiao?aei?noue oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
a/eoaey.

A.I.Naa?ania, aea/ath/e iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey, ?icaeyaea? naiina?aeii?noue ye iane?aeie
ona?aeiieaiiy nooaeaioii nai?o i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae ? i?eoiaeeoue
aei aeniiaeo, ui aeaiee oaiiiai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o?ueiia iniiaieie
i?iyaaie: 1)ae?aaeaiith ni?yiiaai?noth nooaeaioa, yeee ia?aaoaa? “ia
aoiae?” aei iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie, ia iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue, 2)
iiaioaaiiyi nooaeaioii iiiyo?eiei oa eiioeaiooaeueiei aia?aoii
aeenoeeie?i ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo, nenoaiith i?ioan?eieo
oe?iiinoae o oa?i?iao, caaaeyee yeei iiaeooue aooe ona?aeiieai?
aeanoeaino? oa iniaeeaino? aeaniiai “ss” ye i?ioan?eii cia/ou?; 3)
i?aeoe/iith iaaeaaia?/iith ae?yeuei?noth, iaaeaaia?/iith i?aeoeeith
nooaeaioa, a oiae? yei? aeyaeythoueny i?ioan?eii aaaeeea? iniaeeaino?
“ss” iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey, ye? iiaeooue aooe ona?aeiieai?.
N.A.Aanueeianueea oa I.I.Aia?iaa aeine?aeaeoaaee ineoieia?/i? oiiae oa
a?aeiia?aeii ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? i?ioan?eiiai naiii?ciaiiy
iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey.

I?ioa caeeoa?oueny ia?ice?eoei ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a, cie?aia, ?ieue iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i o oeueiio i?ioean?, aeei?enoaiiy iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo
iaoiae?a oi?ioaaiiy oeueiai oaiiiaia.

Aeo?aeiei oai?aoe/iei iieiaeaiiyi iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neoao? ?icoi?iiy
i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey ye ?aeiino? o?ueio
aniaeo?a: i?ciaaaeueiiai (naiii?ciaiiy), aiioe?eii-oe?ii?niiai
(naiiioe?ieo), ae??ai-aieueiaiai, ?aaoeyoeaiiai (naii?aaoeyoe??), ia
iniia? /iai aecia/aiii iniiai? eiiiiiaioe i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey. Ieie aenooiathoue: 1)
i?ioan?eia onoaiiaea ia iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue; 2) iayai?noue
iio?aae a naiii?ciaii? (ye? yeino? iniaenoino? iaeaooi?e o/eoaeue
ona?aeiieth? ye iaiao?aei? ? eiinoaoo? ?o iayai?noue o naaa); 3)
naiiioe?iea i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae; 4) naii?aaoeyoe?y o ?ica’ycaii?
iaaeaaia?/ieo caaea/; 5) a?aeiia?aei? iioeae i?ioan?eiiai
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy. O ?iaio? iiaeaii aeaoaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy eiaeiiai c
aeie?aieaieo eiiiiiaio?a oa iieacaia ?o aca?iicaeaaei?noue.

I?ae /an aiae?co i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? o aeeiai?oe? iaie aoei
aeyaeaii o?e ??ai? ?? ?icaeoeo: aenieee, na?aaei?e, iecueeee. A iniiao
?o aeae?eaiiy aoei iieeaaeaii oae? ia?aiao?e: noi?iiaai?noue i?ioan?eieo
onoaiiaie ia i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue; ??aaiue naiii?ciaiiy, naiiioe?iee
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae, naii?aaoeyoe?? o ?ica’ycaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo
caaea/; ona?aeiieaiiy iioea?a i?ioan?eiiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy.

Aenieee ??aaiue a?aeiia?aea? nooaeaioai, o yeeo /?oei noi?iiaaia
onoaiiaea ia i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue, aiie ona?aeiieththoue, ye? yeino?
iniaenoino? ? i?ioan?eii cia/oueie ? e?eoe/ii ioe?iththoue ?o iayai?noue
o naaa, iathoue aenieee ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? iacaaieo yeinoae, o
?ica’ycaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo caaea/ aeyaeythoue noeeuei?noue aei ?aoeaen??
oa aiiao??, i?ia?aeiei iioeaii ?o naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy
cia/aiiy yeinoae iniaenoino? aeey iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Na?aaei?e ??aaiue i?eoaiaiiee nooaeaioai, o yeeo noi?iiaaia onoaiiaea ia
i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue, aea aiie ia aeinoaoiuei ona?aeiieththoue o?
yeino? iniaenoino? a/eoaey, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei i?ioan?eii cia/oueo, ia
/?oei o?enothoue ?o iayai?noue o naaa, iathoue na?aaei?e ??aaiue
noi?iiaaiino? iacaaieo yeinoae; o ?ica’ycaii? eiie?aoieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
caaea/ ai?ciaee/ii aeyaeythoue noeeuei?noue aei ?aoeaen?? oa aiiao??;
iioeae naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy ia caaaeaee iinyoue i?ioan?eiee oa?aeoa?.

Iecueeee ??aaiue i?inoaaeo?oueny a nooaeaio?a, o yeeo ia noi?iiaaia
onoaiiaea ia i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue; aiie caeaoi? aeyaeyoe yeino?
iniaenoino?, ye? ? i?ioan?eii cia/oueie, aea ia iia’ycothoue ?o c
iniaenoeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, iathoue iecueeee ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino?
iacaaieo yeinoae, ?ica’ycoth/e iaaeaaia?/i? caaea/?, ia aeyaeythoue
noeeueiino? aei ?aoeaen?? oa aiiao??; iioeae naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy ia
iia’ycothoue c i?ioan?eiith ae?yeuei?noth.

Eiaeai o/eoaeue – oea oe?e?nia iniaeno?noue c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie
iniaeeainoyie oa?aeoa?o ? oaiia?aiaioo, iaaiei noeeai iiaaae?iee oa
iniaeeaei neeaaeii ?icoio. Aea nai ci?no i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?
iaaeaaiaa noaaeoue ia?aae iei ieceo niaoeeo?/ieo aeiia, ye? ciooothoue
?icaeaaoe a nia? iaai? iniaeno?ni? yeino? ye i?ioan?eii cia/ou?.
sseino?, ui ?aae?cothoueny a ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey ? caaacia/othoue ??
oni?oi?noue, iaaoaathoue niaoeeo?/iiai i?ioan?eiiai caaa?aeaiiy. Aiie
ia?anoathoue aooe iniaeno?nieie, ia?aoai?ththoueny a i?ioan?eii cia/ou?.

C iaoith ia’?eoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a ia aoai?
eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo ie aaaaea?ii ca iaiao?aeia aeyaeoe noai
noi?iiaaiino? an?o eiiiiiaio?a aecia/aii? no?oeoo?e.

1. ?acoeueoaoe aieaooaaiiy nooaeaio?a ia?oiai eo?no cana?ae/eee, ui
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a (72,8%) anooiathoue aei
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo c /?oeith onoaiiaeith ia iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue. Aea ? e oae?, ui iio?aieythoue o aeuee iaa/aeueiee
caeeaae ? aaaathoueny o i?aaeeueiino? aeai?o i?ioan?? (21,2%), ? oae?,
ui c ia?oiai eo?no ia aaaeathoue aooe a/eoaeyie (6%).

2. Aiae?c naiiiien?a nooaeaio?a ia?oiai eo?no ia i?aaeiao ciaiiy ieie
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae iniaenoino? a/eoaey (on? iacaai? nooaeaioaie
yeino? aoee ca?oiiaai? ia: iniaeno?nii-oa?aeoa?ieia?/i?,
aiioe?eii-aieueia?, aeeaeaeoe/ii-iaaeaaoe/i? – ca E.I.?anoao’?aith)
iieacaa, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue nooaeaio?a ??cieo oaeoeueoao?a cia/io
ia?aaaao a?aeaeathoue iniaeno?niei ?enai (oa?i?iiy, /oei?noue,
i?aoeueiaeo?noue, eiioi?eaaaeuei?noue ? o.ae.) – 47,6% — oaeoeueoao
o?caeoiaaiiy, 52% — ?noi?e/iee oaeoeueoao, 50% — o?eieia?/iee
oaeoeueoao, a oaeiae aiioe?eii-aieueiaei (ethaia aei ae?oae,
iaiieaaeea?noue, no?eiai?noue, aiiao?y ? o.ae.). ?o aoei iacaaii
a?aeiia?aeii – 38,0%, 31,0% oa 34,6% nooaeaioaie. Ia?oieo?nieee iaei
ciathoue i?i aeeaeaeoeei-iaaeaaoe/i? yeino? (iaaeaaia?/iee oaeo
o/eoaey, niinoa?aaeeea?noue, oai?/ee oa?aeoa? i?aoe?, aenieee ??aaiue
ciaiue i?aaeiaoo, oi?iiy oe?eaai e aeinooiii ?iciia?aeaoe iaoa??ae ?
o.ae.), ine?eueee ia aea/aee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i. ?o
cao?eniaaii – 14,4 % (oaeoeueoao o?caeoiaaiiy), 17,0% (?noi?e/iee
oaeoeueoao) oa 15,4% (o?eieia?/iee oaeoeueoao).

3. O e?ioe? ia?oiai ?ieo iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a aoei cae?eniaii ia?oee
aeaoaeueiee aiae?c ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? iayaieo o nooaeaio?a i?ioan?eii
cia/oueo yeinoae iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui a
ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? nooaeaio?a eiio?ieueieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
a?oi aoei aeyaeaii na?aaei?e oa iecueeee ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino?
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa. *anoeia
nooaeaio?a (10,5% ? 17,7% — AA, 18,8% ? 14,0% — EA) ia aaaaeathoue ca
iaiao?aeia caeiaoeny naiiaaeineiiaeaiiyi oa oi?ioaaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo
yeinoae iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey.

4. Ca iniiao aeae?eaiiy ??ai?a naii?aaoeyoe?? (o ?ica’ycaii? eiie?aoieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo caaea/) aoei acyoi a?aooaaiiy nooaeaioaie an?o aoai?a o
?ica’ycaii? iaaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? caaea/? (ca ?.A.Cycthiii) oa
caeaoi?noue iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a aei ?aoeaen?? oa aiiao?? i?e aiae?c?
iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e. O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeyaeaii, ui a?eueo?noue nooaeaio?a ia?oiai eo?no iathoue na?aaei?e
??aaiue naii?aaoeyoe?? (56,3% ? 52,9% — AA, 58,3% ? 52,0% — EA). Cia/ia
e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a (37,4% oa 43,2% — AA, 33,4% oa 42,0% — EA)
iathoue iecueeee ??aaiue naii?aaoeyoe?? o ?ica’ycaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo
caaea/.

5. Aea/aiiy iioea?a i?ioan?eiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy nooaeaio?a iieacaei, ui
a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? i?ia?aeieie iioeaaie aiie iaceaathoue “?ioa?an
aei iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?” oa “i?ioan?eiee ?aeaae”. Oaeee
iioea ye “?icoi?iiy cia/aiiy iaaieo yeinoae iniaenoino? aeey oni?oiiai
aeeiiaiiy i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?” aoei aecia/aii ye i?ia?aeiee eeoa
o?aoueith /anoeiith iieoaieo nooaeaio?a (29,7% — oaeoeueoao
o?caeoiaaiiy, 30,4% — o?eieia?/iee oaeoeueoao, 25,5% — ?noi?e/iee
oaeoeueoao). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ia aoai? aeai?o i?ioan??
naiiioe?iea i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae ia ciaeoea iaeaaeiiai ??aiy.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? an?o eiiiiiaio?a i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a, ie iiaeaii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue nooaeaio?a ia?oiai eo?no eiio?ieueieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi iathoue na?aaei?e ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino?
i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? (72,8% ? 76,5% — AA, 77,0% ? 76,0% — EA).
12,6% oa 15,7% nooaeaio?a AA ? 10,4% oa 18,0% nooaeaio?a EA aeyaeee
iecueeee ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?. ? o?eueee
14,6% ? 7,8% nooaeaio?a AA ? 12,6% ? 6,0% nooaeaio?a EA ?ai?acaiooaaee
aenieee ??aaiue. O nooaeaio?a ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo cia/ii aeuee
iieaciee noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? ii??aiyii c
nooaeaioaie oaeoeueoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai
aenia?eiaioo i?aeoaa?aeeee iaoa i?eiouaiiy i?i aeioe?euei?noue
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a, iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy iaaieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy ?aoeaeneaieo
i?ioean?a i?ae /an aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i iaaeaaia?/iiai
oeeeeo” aena?oeaii nenoaio oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy a iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? a oiiaao iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano ACI, cie?aia, i?ae /an aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i iaaeaaia?/iiai
oeeeeo. Iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo, cae?eniaii
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c noaio noi?iiaaiino? an?o eiiiiiaio?a i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? a eiio?ieueieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao.

A iniiao iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo c oi?ioaaiiy a iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a
i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iieeaaeaii i?eioeei ?aeiino? na?aeiiino? oa
ae?yeueiino?, iniiaiee ci?no yeiai iieyaa? a noaa?aeaeaii? ae?yeuei?nii?
coiiaeaiino? oi?ioaaiiy ineo?ee ethaeeie (A.A.Aiaiue?a, I.I.Eaiioue?a,
A.N.Einothe, E.N.?oa?iooaei, A.I.Oaieia oa ?i.). Naia ci?ia ??cieo oi?i
aeoeaiino? ethaeeie, oaeineiiaeaiiy oeyo?a aca?iica’yceo ?? c
iaaeieeoi?i na?oii aenooiathoue iniiaieie oaeoi?aie ?icaeoeo “ss”
ethaeeie oa ?? naiina?aeiiino?.

Aeoea?coaaoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?, ia iaoo
aeoieo, iiaeia ia cai?iith o?aaeeoe?eii? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
aei iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? e ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? aiaeei c oeeeeo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i oa iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee, a iaaieie
ci?iaie o ci?no? aeeeaaeaiiy a ?aieao oe??? ae nenoaie, aeei?enoaiiyi
iiaeo oi?i oa iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy. I?e ?ic?iaoe? aenia?eiaioaeueii?
/anoeie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aeinue aea/aiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, cie?aia eo?no “Iniiae iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaenoa?iino?”, c iaiaaaiiyi i?aeneeeoe i?aeoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue ci?noo
iaoa??aeo ia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a. Ia
iniia? aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, a oaeiae o?eaaeeo niinoa?aaeaiue
ca oi?ioaaiiyi iniaenoino? nooaeaioa ye iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa a
i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, iaie aecia/aii
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a:

— /?oea aecia/aiiy iaoe eiaeiiai caiyooy, yea ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey;

— i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioan?eiiai naiii?ciaiiy nooaeaio?a oeyoii
noeioethaaiiy i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino?, ni?yiiaaii? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy
naaa ye noa’?eoa i?aoe?;

— caeo/aiiy nooaeaio?a aei aeoeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? c
iiaeaeueoei naiiaiae?cii oa ioe?ieith;

— ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaiieo iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e c iaoith ?icaeoeo
naii?aaoeyoe??;

— caeo/aiiy iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a aei oe?eani?yiiaaiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
aeaniith ae?yeuei?noth i?ae /an iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy noeeueiino? aei ?aoeaen??;

— i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? nooaeaio?a o noa?? ni?eeoaaiiy;

— aeei?enoaiiy ia eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo
aeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, ye? ioiieththoue aeeneon?ei? oa ?a?ia?
iaoiaee, naiceoeaiee o?ai?ia, i?e?iaeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoo ca oaoii,
iiaeaethaaiiy e aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e oa ?i.

Oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany i?ioyaii o?ueio ?ie?a (2, 3 oa 4
eo?ne, oaeoeueoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa ?noi?e/iee oaeoeueoao). Eiai
iaoa iieyaaea o oi?ioaaii? i?ioan?eii? onoaiiaee ia iaaeaaia?/io
ae?yeuei?noue; caaaa/aii? ci?noo naiii?ciaiiy c aieo i?ioan?eii cia/oueo
yeinoae, ?o naiiioe?ioe? oa i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy noi?iiaaiino?; ?icaeoeo
?aoeaen?? oa aiiao??, a oaeiae a?aeiia?aeieo iioea?a
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio oai?aoe/ii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe nooaeaio?a (aan?aee i?i iniaeeaino?
iaeaooiuei? i?ioan??, aeiiae aei o/eoaey, oeyoe i?ioan?eiiai c?inoaiiy,
ia?aaeyae a?aeaicaien?a caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueeiai eiieo?no
iaaeiaenoa?iino? oa eiieo?no “O/eoaeue ?ieo”, cono??/? c iaeno?aie
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe? oa ?i.), yea ni?eyea ?icoe?aiith oa caaaa/aiith
ciaiue nooaeaio?a i?i i?ioan?eii cia/ou? yeino? iniaenoino?,
aeei?enoaiith iaea?aeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a naiii?ciaii? oa neeaaeaii?
aeanii? i?ia?aie naiiaeoiaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo yeinoae.

Ioe?iea oa naiiioe?iea yeinoae iniaenoino? i?ae /an
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo aeei?enoiaoaaeany c
iaoith iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae nooaeaioai a ona?aeiieaii? oa aecia/aii? ??aiy
?icaeoeo nai?o i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a aoei aeei?enoaii
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/i? caiyooy c eo?no “Iniiae iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaenoa?iino?” (??? – ?V eo?ne), i?ae /an yeeo oi?ioaaeeny i?ioan?eii
cia/ou? yeino?, ia?aa??yeany ae??a?noue a?aeiia?aeieo yeinoae o
eiie?aoieo a/eieao, a naia: ?ica’ycaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo caaea/,
i?ia?aaaiiy nthaeaoii-?ieueiaeo ?ai?, i?e?iaeeeaaeaiiy, aecia/aeeny
oeyoe naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, a?aeaoaaeiny ei?eaoaaiiy nai?? iiaaae?iee a
ciiaeaeueiaaieo oa ?aaeueieo iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?yo.

O eiioaeno? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa i?aeaeueoe
noeeuei?noue nooaeaio?a aei ?aoeaen?? i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee. I?ia?aiith i?aeoeee aoei ia?aaeaa/aii caeo/aiiy
nooaeaio?a aei oe?eani?yiiaaiiai naiiaiae?co ae?yeueiino? ?c
nenoaiaoe/iith o?enaoe??th io?eiaieo aeaieo o niaoe?aeueieo uiaeaiieeao
niinoa?aaeaiue. ?i i?iiiioaaeiny i?iaiae?coaaoe aeani? oni?oe oa
iaaaea/?, oaeoe aca?iiae?? c ae?oueie, eieaaaie, aaei?i?no?aoe??th
oeiee, aeiaaeee ii?ooaiue aca?iia?aeiinei c ieie; anoaiiaeoe iiaeeea?
i?e/eie oeeo ii?ooaiue; aecia/eoe, ye? yeino? iniaenoino? i?iyaeeeny a
ni?eeoaaii? ? ye aei ieo noaaeyoueny ia?oia?e ii aca?iiae??. Iane?aeee
naiiniinoa?aaeaiue, cao?eniaai? a uiaeaiieeao, aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a
iiaeaeueo?e ?iaio? ia eaai?aoi?ieo caiyooyo c III.

?ic?iaeaia e ai?iaiaaia iaie i?ia?aia eo?no “Iniiae iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaenoa?iino?” ia?aaeaa/aea oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy aeoeaieo iaoiae?a
iaa/aiiy (c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy an?o eiiiiiaio?a o aecia/ai?e no?oeoo??
i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a), ye? ioiiethaaee:
a)aeeneon?ei? iaoiaee (a?oiiao aeeneon?th, aeenioo, iiaeaethaaiiy oa
aiae?c neooaoe?e oiui); a)?a?ia? iaoiaee (aeeaeaeoe/i?, oai?/?, ?ieueia?
?a?e, ?a?iao ineoioa?ai?th ? o.ae.); a)naiceoeaiee o?ai?ia (o?aioaaiiy
naii?icoi?iiy, oaoi?ee iaaa?aaeueii? aca?iiae?? oa ?i.;
a)i?e?iaeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa ca oaoii.

Eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo iaoiaee/ieo i?eeii?a ye a?oiiaa aeeneon?y,
oi?iaeuei? ? niiioaii? ai?aae, ?a?e oiui o i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy
eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i aea? ciiao
nooaeaioai ia o?eueee e?aua i?ciaoe aeanio iniaeno?noue, a e oi?ioaaoe
i?ioan?eii cia/ou? yeino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey. Niaoeeo?ea iiae?aieo
caiyoue iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiae?co i?aeeyaathoue ia o?eueee neooaoe??, a
ye? iio?aieya ooinue ? eieenue, a e ?aaeuei? neooaoe??, ia’?eoaie yeeo ?
nai? o/anieee nooaeaionueeeo a?oi. Oaeei /eiii, iia?aeiieaiiy i?i
i?iaeaie a ni?eeoaaii? aoee ia i?inoi iia?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th, a oei
iniaenoei aeina?aeii oneeaaeiaiue nooaeaioa, yeee o naith /a?ao
i?aeaeaaaany a?oiiaiio aiae?co.

?iaioa c? nooaeaioaie aenieiai, na?aaeiueiai oa iecueeiai ??ai?a
noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? i?iaiaeeeany ii-??ciiio.
Aaaeeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? aeaiiai oaiiiaia a?ae?a?aaaa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei nooaeaioa, yeee caaacia/oaaa iioeiaeueiee
?icaeoie eiai iniaenoino? ? cae?enithaaany ye ia eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo
caiyooyo, oae ? a oiae? ?iaioe ineoieia?/iiai ao?oea oa caeo/aiiy aei
iueiai nooaeaio?a.

O i?ioean? aiae?co iane?aee?a oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aoea ie?aneaia
ia’?eoeaia ea?oeia aeeiai?ee ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a a oiiaao cae?eniaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? e
ai?iaiaaii? i?ia?aie. C?iaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c io?eiaieo aeniiae?a
c iieacieeaie eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo oa eiio?ieueieo a?oi, ui
noeeeei aei aeoiee i?i aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo oaoiieia?e.
Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaie i?ia?aie aeaoa?i?ioaaei aeoea?caoe?th
i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a, ui
i?iyaeeiny a ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? nooaeaio?a c aenieei ??aiai
noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?.

sse cana?ae/othoue oeeo?ia? ?ai?acaioaioe oaaeeoe? 1, e?euee?noue
nooaeaio?a AA c aenieei ??aiai noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
ca?eueoeeany ia 18,7%, ?acii c oei cia/ii ciaioeeany e?euee?noue
nooaeaio?a c iecueeei ??aiai (ia 10,5%). O eiio?ieueieo a?oiao
i?inoaaeothoueny iacia/i? ci?ie.

??cieoey a ??aiyo noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? aecia/aeany
ia iniia? aiae?co iane?aee?a niinoa?aaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii aei iecee
aecia/aieo neeaaeiee?a i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey.
Cie?aia, ca?eueoeeany e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a (ia 10,6%-o-o o?caeo., ia
12,0%-?noi?.o-o.), ye? a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao oi?ioaaiith o nia?
aeeaeaeoeei-iaaeaaoe/ieo yeinoae; aeuei, ii??aiyii c aeaieie
eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo, noaa iieaciee ci?noo naiiioe?iee i?ioan?eii
cia/oueo yeinoae (a?aeiia?aeii ia 10,4% oa 12,2%); aeyaeaii cia/ii
a?eueoa nooaeaio?a c aenieei ??aiai noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo
yeinoae, a oaeiae nooaeaio?a c aenieei ??aiai naii?aaoeyoe?? i?e
?ica’ycaii? iaaeaaia?/ieo caaea/ (ia 6,0% ? 10,4%).

Oaaeeoey 1

??ai? noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo aei ii/aoeo ? a e?ioe? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo

??ai? noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?Aei aenia?eiaiooI?ney
aenia?eiaiooEA

(48 nooae.)AA

(48 nooae.)EA

(48 nooae.)AA

(48 nooae.)e-oue%E-oue%e-oue%e-oue% Aenieee ??aaiue

(10-15 aae?a)6 12,5 7 14,6 9 18,7 1633,3Na?aaei?e ??aaiue

(5-10 aae?a)3777,03572,83675,03164,6Iecueeee ??aaiue

(0-5 aae?a)510,5612,636,312,1Ca?eueoeeany e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a,
iniiaiei iioeaii naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy yeeo noaei ?icoi?iiy cia/aiiy iaaieo
yeinoae iniaenoino? aeey oni?oiiai aeeiiaiiy iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? (ia 11,6 % — oaeoeueoao o?caeoiaaiiy, ia 26,6% —
?noi?e/iee oaeoeueoao).

Caaaeii iane?aeee oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo iieacaee aoaeoeai?noue
?ic?iaeaii? i?ia?aie aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a, i?aeoaa?aeeee aenoiooo a?iioaco oa
aeicaieeee c?iaeoe caaaeuei? aeniiaee.

1. I?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe aei iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? iiaeiia ia?aaeaa/aoe i?ioan?eia noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?,
iniiaith yeiai ? i?ioan?eia naiina?aeii?noue, ui ioiieth? oae? iniiai?
neeaaeieee: ineoieia?/ia aioiai?noue aei iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
iio?aaa a naiii?ciaii?, naiiioe?iea i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae,
caeaoi?noue aei naii?aaoeyoe?? iiaaae?iee a eiie?aoieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
neooaoe?yo, iayai?noue iioea?a i?ioan?eiiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy.

2. A?aeiia?aeii aei aeyaeaii? no?oeoo?e i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a iniiaieie e?eoa??yie i?e aecia/aii? ??ai?a
noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? (aenieiai, na?aaeiueiai oa
iecueeiai) aenooieee: ni?yiiaai?noue iniaenoino? ia i?ioan?eio
ae?yeuei?noue, e?eoe/ia naiii?ciaiiy, ia’?eoeaia aaeaeaaoia naiiioe?iea
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae, aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue naii?aaoeyoe?? o
?ica’ycaii? i?iaeaiieo iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e, i?ioan?eiee oa?aeoa?
iioea?a naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy.

3. Iiaeaethaaiiy, aiae?c oa ?ica’ycaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo caaea/ neoao?
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii oi?ioaaiiy a nooaeaio?a ?aoeaeneaieo
i?ioean?a, ye? ni?eythoue ae?aaiinoeoe? i?ioan?eii? iiaaae?iee iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a ? aenooiathoue iniiaieie iaoai?ciaie oi?ioaaiiy ?o i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino?.

4. O oi?ioaaii? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey
aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue iaaeaaia?/i? aeenoeeie?ie, aoaeoeai?noue
aeeeaaeaiiy yeeo aeaoa?i?io?oueny noai?aiiyi ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
oiia, aieiaieie neeaaeieeaie yeeo aenooiathoue: i?aeneeaiiy i?aeoe/ii?
ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo iaoa??aeo ia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii cia/oueo yeinoae
iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa, caeo/aiiy nooaeaio?a aei aeoeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeoeee c iiaeaeueoei ?? naiiaiae?cii oa ioe?ieith; ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeaiieo iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue c iaoith ?icaeoeo naii?aaoeyoe??;
i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? nooaeaio?a o noa?? ni?eeoaaiiy.

5. Ae??oaeueio ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a
aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo ina?oe a?ae?a?athoue aeoeai? iaoiaee
iaa/aiiy (aeeneon?ei?, ?a?ia? iaoiaee, iiaeaethaaiiy oa aiae?c
iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e, i?e?iaeeeaaeaiiy, o?ai?iaia? caiyooy oiui), ye?
ni?eythoue aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano naiii?ciaiiy, e?auiio ona?aeiieaiith
nooaeaioaie aeanieo iniaeno?nieo yeinoae oa ?o a?aeiia?aeiino? ia?ai?e
i?ioan??, ?icaeoeo ?aoeaeneaieo oi?iue iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa.

6. Cia/i? ci?ie a ??aiyo ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi na?ae/aoue i?i aoaeoeai?noue ia?aieo iaoiae?a oa
i?eeii?a, ui aecia/athoue oni?oia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino?
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a.

?acii c oei, iaoa ?iaioa ia ae/a?io? an?o aniaeo?a oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a. Iiaeaeueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aao? i?iaeaia naii?aaoeyoe?? iiaaae?iee nooaeaio?a
i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee; oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? c aieo aeeeaaea/a aeuiai
iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. ?eia? E.A. Oi?ioaaiiy o nooaeaio?a i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? a
i?ioean? i?ioiaeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee // I?eaei?i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee. Na??y iaaeaaia?ea ? o?eieia?y. — ? 77.144. – 1998. – N.
36-41

2. ?eia? E.A. I?ioan?eia naiina?aeii?noue o/eoaey: i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy o
nooaeaio?a ACI // Ineoieia?y. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.- Aeione ???. —
E.: IIO, 1998. – N. 72-76.

3. ?eia? E.A. Aeei?enoaiiy aeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy a i?aeoeoe?
?iaioe ACI// Oai?/a iniaeno?noue a/eoaey: i?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee/
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.- Aeione ??. — E.; IIO, 1999.- N. 258-261.

4. ?eia? E.A. “I?ioan?eia naiina?aeii?noue” ye iaaeaaia?/ia eaoaai??y
a oai?aoe/i?e niaaeuei? A.I.Nooiieeinueeiai //Aaneeue Nooiieeinueeee ?
no/ani?noue: Iaoa??aee *aoaa?oeo Anaoe?. iaae. /eoaiue. – Aeione 4.
–A?iieoey, 1997. – N.141-144.

5. ?eia? E.A., Ni?i/einueea A.?. Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee o?ai?ia ye
iaeei c oaeoi??a oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey //
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a/ ?aa?iiaeueia iaoeiai-i?aee/ia eiioa?aioe?y. — A?iieoey, 1996. —
N.88-92.

6. ?eia? E.A. I?iaeaia i?eeiyooy a eiioaeno? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey // Iaoe?iiaeueia oeiea Oe?a?ie:
caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo/ Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y. —
Oa?iii?eue, 1996. — N.75-77.

7. ?eia? E.A. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey // Aa??ea: Ca??iee nooaeaionueeeo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — A?iieoey, 1997.- N.8-13.

8. ?eia? E.A. Oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i c
iaoith oi?ioaaiiy o nooaeaio?a i?ioan?eii? na?aeiiino? //
Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? canaaee eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. I?aeia?. iaoe-i?aeo. eiio. *.1, A?iieoey, 1998.-
N.117-121.

?eia? E.A. Oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01- oai??y oa ?noi??y
iaaeaaia?ee. — A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai, i. A?iieoey, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny aeena?oaoe?y, yea i?noeoue oai?aoe/iee oa
aenia?eiaioaeueiee aiae?c iane?aee?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a. ?ice?eoi iniiai? eiiiiiaioe,
?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??? oa aecia/aii ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eii?
naiina?aeiiino? iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa. Aeyaeaii iniiai?
oiiae(noeioethaaiiy i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino? nooaeaio?a, ni?yiiaaii? ia
aaeineiiaeaiiy naaa ye noa’?eoa ae?yeueiino?, caeo/aiiy aei aeoeaii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee c iiaeaeueoei naiiaiae?cii ia iniia? ?icaeoeo
?aoeaeneaii? noeeueiino?, i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioiino? a noa??
ni?eeoaaiiy oiui) oa oeyoe ?? oi?ioaaiiy. ?ic?iaeaii e ai?iaiaaii ia
i?aeoeoe? iaoiaee oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? naiina?aeiiino? a i?ioean?
aea/aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, aaaeeeaa i?noea na?aae yeeo
caeiathoue aeoeai? iaoiaee iaa/aiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: naiina?aeii?noue, i?ioan?eia naiina?aeii?noue,
naiii?ciaiiy, naiiioe?iea, naii?aaoeyoe?y, ?aoeaen?y, i?ioan?eii cia/ou?
yeino?, , iaaeaaia?/i? aeenoeeie?ie.

?uia? E.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey aoaeoueo
o/eoaeae a i?ioeanna eco/aiey iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeenoeeieei.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. —
Aeiieoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Ieoaeea
Eioethaeineiai, Aeiieoea, 1999 aiae.

I?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey aoaeoueo o/eoaeae
a i?ioeanna eco/aiey iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeenoeeieei aeooaeueia a nayce n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ainieoaiey ianoaiaea?oiie oai?/aneie ee/iinoe o/eoaey,
eioi?ay aeaaeaao iaaeaaiaeeie eae eneonnoaii iao/aiey e ainieoaiey.
Iaaeiioeaiea i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey iaaeaaiaa eae ee/iinoe,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, aeaaeathuae i?ioanneiiaeueiuie ciaieyie e oiaieyie,
iaueyniyao oa iaaeinoaoee, eioi?ua eiatho ianoi a iiaeaioiaea nooaeaioia
e ?aaioa a oeiea. Iaeiei ec iooae i?aiaeieaiey yoeo iaaeinoaoeia anoue
oeaeaono?aieaiiia oi?ie?iaaiea a aoaeoueo o/eoaeae i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
naiiniciaiey. Enoiaey ec aiaeeca ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?u ii
aeaiiie i?iaeaia, iu iiaeai ii?aaeaeeoue naiiniciaiea eae iniciaiea
naiiai naay eae nouanoaa, iniciathuaai ie? e eciaiythuaai aai, eae
noauaeoa i?aeoe/aneie e oai?aoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oii /enea
iniciaiey iniaaiiinoae nianoaaiiie ee/iinoe. I?ioanneiiaeueiia
naiiniciaiea ii?aaeaeyaony eae iniaue oaiiiai /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee,
iaoneaaeeaathuee naii?aaoee?iaaiea ee/iinoueth naieo aeaenoaee a
i?ioanneiiaeueiie noa?a ia iniiaa iiciaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee,
naieo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae e yiioeeiiaeueii-oeaiiinoiiai
ioiioaiey e naaa eae e noauaeoo aeayoaeueiinoe. A i?ioeanna aiaeeca
eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia e ia iniiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiey naiiniciaiey eae
aaeeinoaa o?ao noi?ii — iiciaaaoaeueiie (naiiiiciaiea),
yiioeeiiaeueii-oeaiiinoiie (naiiioeaiea), ?aaoeyoeaiie (naii?aaoeyoeey)
— auyaeaiu iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey aoaeoueo
o/eoaeae: i?ioanneiiaeueiay onoaiiaea ia iaaeaaiae/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue; iaee/ea iio?aaiinoe a naiiiiciaiee (eaeea ea/anoaa
ee/iinoe aoaeouee o/eoaeue iniciaao eae iaiaoiaeeiua e eiinoaoe?oao eo
iaee/ea o naay); naiiioeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueii cia/eiuo ea/anoa;
naii?aaoeyoeey i?e ?aoaiee iaaeaaiae/aneeo caaea/; iioeau
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey. Ia iniiaaiee aeaoaeueiiai
aiaeeca eiiiiiaioia i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey auaeaeaiu o?iaie aai
noi?ie?iaaiiinoe o nooaeaioia aunoaai iaaeaaiae/aneiai caaaaeaiey
(aunieee, n?aaeiee, ieceee)

Oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe a oi?ie?iaaiee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey
nooaeaioia eiatho aeenoeeieeiu iaaeaaiae/aneiai oeeeea. Iiyoiio oeaeue
iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey – eco/aiea iniaaiiinoae e oneiaee oi?ie?iaaiey
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey aoaeoueo o/eoaeae a i?ioeanna onaiaiey
iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeenoeeieei. Aiciiaeiinoue aeoeaece?iaaoue i?ioeann
oi?ie?iaaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey i?aaenoaaeyaony ia caiaiie
o?aaeeoeeiiiie nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia e iaaeaaiae/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a ii?aaeaeaiiuie eciaiaieyie a ?aieao yoie aea nenoaiu,
oneeaieai i?aeoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe niaea?aeaiey eco/aaiiai iaoa?eaea
ia oi?ie?iaaiea i?ioanneiiaeueii cia/eiuo ea/anoa aoaeouaai
niaoeeaeenoa, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeaieai ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo oneiaee
oi?ie?iaaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey nooaeaioia, aeaaiuie ec
eioi?uo aunooiatho: /aoeia ii?aaeaeaiea oeaee eaaeaeiai caiyoey, eioi?ia
i?aaeaeaeeo oi?ie?iaaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ea/anoa aoaeouaai o/eoaey;
iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiiiciaiey nooaeaioia iooai
noeioee?iaaiey iiciaaaoaeueiie aeoeaiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie ia
niaa?oainoaiaaiea naay eae noaueaeoa aeayoaeueiinoe; i?eiauaiea
nooaeaioia e aeoeaiie iaaeaaiae/aneie i?aeoeea n iineaaeothuei
naiiaiaeecii e ioeaieie naieo aeaenoaee; ?aoaiea i?iaeaiiuo
iaaeaaiae/aneeo neooaoeee n oeaeueth ?acaeoey naii?aaoeyoeee; ?acaeoea
?aoeaeneaiuo oiaiee a i?ioeanna iaaethaeaiey nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ai a?aiy aeoeaiie iaaeaaiae/aneie i?aeoeee; iiauoaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiie
eiiiaoaioiinoe a noa?a iaaeaaiae/aneiai iauaiey.

Ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneee aiaeec eeoa?aoo?u ii i?iaeaia e aiaeec
?acoeueoaoia yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey aeaee iai aiciiaeiinoue
ii?aaeaeeoue e nenoaiaoece?iaaoue iniiaiua iaoiaeu oi?ie?iaaiey
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey aoaeoueo o/eoaeae. ?aoathuoth ?ieue a
aai oi?ie?iaaiee nua?aee aeoeaiua iaoiaeu iao/aiey (aeeneonneiiiua,
ea?iaua iaoiaeu, iiaeaee?iaaiea e aiaeec iaaeaaiae/aneeo neooaoeee,
iee?ii?aiiaeaaaiea, o?aieiaiaua caiyoey e ae?.), eioi?ua niinianoaiaaee
aeoeaecaoeee i?ioeanna naiiiiciaiey, aeoaieiio iniciaieth nooaeaioaie
naieo ee/iinoiuo ea/anoa e eo niioaaonoaea eca?aiiie i?ioannee,
?acaeoeth ?aoeaeneaiuo oiaiee. ?ac?aaioaia e ai?iae?iaaia
yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?ia?aiia eo?na “Iniiau iaaeaaiae/aneiai ianoa?noaa”,
eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaea eniieueciaaiea aeoeaiuo iaoiaeia iao/aiey n
oeaeueth oi?ie?iaaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey aoaeoueo o/eoaeae
e aeaea iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naiiniciaiea, naiiiiciaiea, ?aoeaeney, i?ioanneiiaeueii
cia/eiua ea/anoaa, naiiioeaiea, iaaeaaiae/aneea aeenoeeieeiu.

Rimar L.V. The Formation of Professional Self-Consciousness of
Future Teachers in the Process of Study of Pedagogical Sciences

Dissertation for the Degree of Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences on
the Speciality 13.00.02 – Theory and History of Pedagogics. Vinnitsya
State Pedagogical University, named after M.Kotsyubinsky, Vinnitsya,
1999.

The dissertation, which contains theoretical and experimental analysis
of the results of study of professional self-consciousness of future
teachers is to he defended.

Main components, criteria and levels of professional self-consciousness
of future teachers have been determined.

The ways of stimulating cognitive activity, aiming at students’
self-improvement, drawing the students into active pedagogical practice,
followed by (their) introspection on the basis of development of
reflection; improvement of the students’ professional competence in the
sphere of communication have been determined.

Methods of development of professional self-consciousness in the process
of study of Pedagogical Sciences, the most important of which are
active methods of teaching (discussions, games, designing and
discussion of pedagogical situations, micro-lessons, (psychological)
training classes ets.) have been worked out and officially approved.

Key words: self-consciousness, professional self-consciousness,
introspection, self-esteem, self-regulation, reflection, professional
qualities, Pedagogical Sciences.

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