2

I?i?noa?noai aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie

IEEIEA?ANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AA?A?IA AEAAeAI?ss

AA?EOOA Ieaen?e Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 631.1:333.727

OI?IOAAIIss I?AAI?CAOe?EII-AEIIII?*IEO INIIA

AENIEIAOAEOEAIIAI ?ICAEOEO AEIIA?AAeA?NOAA

A OIIAAO ?EIEIAEO A?AeIINEI

(ii iaoa??aeao Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02 – Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai

ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ieeiea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Ieeiea?anueeee aea?aeaai?e aa?a?i?e aeaaeai??
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
*a?aai ?aai ?aaiiae/,

Ieeiea?anueea aea?aeaaia aa?a?ia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa aa?ia?ciano

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aoaeceinueeee Ieaen?e Aeieo?iae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

iaiaaeaeiaioo ? ia?eaoeiao;

— eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iiiiae/ Aaneeue Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Iaeanueeee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? e?aa?iaoeee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: — ?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI (i.Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 24 /a?aiy 1999?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae38.806.01 Ieeiea?anueei? aea?aeaaii?
aa?a?ii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 327021, i.Ieeiea?a, aoe.Ia?ecueei?
eiioie, 9, eiioa?aioe-caea.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ieeiea?anueei?
aea?aeaai?e aa?a?ii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: i.Ieeiea?a, aoe.Ea?iaiea,
73.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 21 o?aaiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio Ioaie/aiei A.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai no/aniiai noaio ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? caaacia/aiiy aeniei? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ie?aieo
aeae?a eiai i?iaeoeoe??, a oiio /ene? e aeiia?aaeo. Oea a iiai?e i???
a?aeiineoueny ? aei Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?, yea aea?aia ia’?eoii iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeaie ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? iineoaeeee aeai?
caaaeaii? noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino? ii Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio, Ieeiea?anuee?e
iaeano?, ?? aaei?i?no?aoeaiei ?aeiiai, ??/ieo ca?o?a ainiiaea?noa
Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?iio ca 1992-1997??. (a ii ie?aiei ieoaiiyi – ? 1998?.),
aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo (ii aeayeei ainiiaea?noaai), a oaeiae
caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe, iaoa??aee e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?
aeai? ia?aaeiai? i?aeoeee ii ia?ai?e oai?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaei??th c aaaeo/eo aaeocae n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa i?aaeaiieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie (a oiio /ene? ? Ieeiea?anueei?
iaeano?) ? aeiia?aaea?noai, yea aeiaa? ?iee caaacia/oaaei io?eiaiiy
aeniei? i?eaooeiaino? ?, ii noo?, aoei nai???aeiith no?aoiaith
eoeueoo?ith a iani?eyoeea? (? iniaeeai a canooeea?) ?iee.

Aeineoue aaaeeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue aeiia?aaeo ? a no?oeoo?? ?eieo
i?iaeiaieuenoaa. A?i aeei?enoiao?oueny ye aeey niiaeeaaiiy a na?aeiio
aeaeyae?, oae ? aeey io?eiaiiy nie?a, aeiia?aaeii? i?iaeoeoe??
(aeiiiaoa??ae?a, aei, oaiiainueeiai, eii’ye?a, nie?oo), nooaieo ya?ae,
aa?aiiy, aeaeai?a ? o.?i.

Aea ia aeineoue i?iaeoiai?, i?ioe??/au? ?aoi?ie, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue a
Oe?a?i? a inoaii? ?iee, iaeaae?o?eiaaiee ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, i?i?aooiee a ?iaanoeoe?ei?e, iiaeaoeia?e ? oe?iia?e iie?oeoe?
a ii?aeiaii? c noai?eie, ca ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie, ceiaie inoaii?o ?ie?a
i?eaaee aei aeeaiei? e?ece a oe?e aeniei?ioaineai?e aaeoc?
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, ??ceiio nei?i/aiith ieiu aeiia?aaeiee?a,
ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa aeiia?aaeo ? i?iaeoeoe?? aeii?ianoaa. O?eueee ca
1995-1997??. caaaeueia ieiua aeiia?aaeiee?a a oe?eiio a a?iiaaenueeiio
naeoi?? ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ciaioeeanue ia 16,3 oen.aa, a oiio /ene?
a nenoai? Oe?naaeaeii?iio – ia 4,9 oen.aa. I?e oeueiio na?aaeiuei??/ia
ieiua caeeaaeee iiaeo ianaaeaeaiue neeaea anueiai 21% a?ae iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo ii?i. Cai?noue 10-12 oen.aa aeiia?aaeiee?a, ye?
caeeaaeaeenue ui??/ii a ieioe? ?iee, inoaii?i /anii oae? caeeaaeee ia
ia?aaeuothoue 1 oeny/? aaeoa??a. Iaeaea 8,5 oen.aa ianaaeaeaiue ia
iathoue i?aeii?. Iei? 60% an?o aeiia?aaeiee?a – o a?oe? a?eueoa 20
?ie?a, ia aeieth ae iieiaeeo ianaaeaeaiue i?eoiaeeoueny eeoa 15%
(cai?noue 20% ca ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie iaoee). A ?acoeueoao? an?o oeeo
ianoaaei caaacia/ai?noue aeiiia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie ne?iaeiith
aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa neeaea eeoa 30%.

Ia e?aua, ii noo? ni?aae, iieiaeaiiy c aeiia?aaea?noaii ? a
Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano?. ?c 18 oen.aa aeiia?aaeiee?a, ye? aoee a iaeano?
a 1986?. caeeoeeinue a 1997?. anueiai 10 oen.aa, oiaoi a 1,8 ?aca iaioa.
??cei nei?ioeeenue ? aaeia? cai?e aeiia?aaeo. sseui a na?aaeiueiio ca
1981-1985 ??. aiie neeaaeaee 71,2 oen.o, oi a 1996?. ? 1997a. –
a?aeiia?aeii 44,0 ? 11,7 oen.o. Aeacai? ci?ie ni?e/eiai? ia o?eueee
?icei?/iaoaaiiyi noa?eo ieaioaoe?e ? ciaioaiiyi ieiu caeeaaeee
ianaaeaeaiue, a e cieaeaiiyi o?iaeaeiino?.

An? oe? iaaaoeai? yaeua i?eaaee aei oiai, ui c ?ai?oa aenieii?eaooeiai?
aeiia?aaea?noai ia?aoai?eeinue a iecueei?aioaaaeueio (a a oe?eiio ?yae?
ainiiaea?noa – caeoeiao) aaeocue. Oaea iieiaeaiiy ? iaaeiionoeiei, oiio
ui o an?o aeniei?icaeiaieo e?a?iao i?aei?e?inoaa ? ?aa?iie
eiioeaio?othoue nai? coneeey ia ae?iaieoeoa? naia oeo aeae?a
i?iaeoeoe??, ye? caaacia/othoue ?i io?eiaiiy iaeaeui? i?eaooeiaino?. A
oiiaao i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie naia aeiia?aae aoa oaeei aeaeii i?iaeoeoe??, ?
oiio oeth aaeocue iaiao?aeii iaiaei?iii a?aeiiaeoe, aeooeoth/e aeey
oeueiai an? iiaeeeaino?. Iaiao?aei?noue iane/aiiy aioo??oiueiai ?eieo
na?aeei aeiia?aaeii ? i?iaeoeoaie eiai ia?a?iaee oa ?icoe?aiiy ?o
aenii?oo iaoiiaeththoue iio?aao oaea iaeaeeae/ei /anii ia o?eueee
noaa?e?coaaoe, a e iii?oii ca?eueoeoe ae?iaieoeoai aeaii? i?iaeoeoe??.

Iaeiae iio??aii aeciaoe, ui oi/ ieoaiiyie aoaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo
aeiia?aaea?noaa caeiathoueny ?yae aeiiii?no?a (A.I.Aa?aecaa,
N.TH.Aeaeai??a, A.A.?aai/aiei, I.Ae.Eyiiee, I.Iaeeiiyi, Ae.I.I?aeai?ia,
?.?.*a?aai, A.A.*a?aai, I.O.*a?iyanueeee, A.?.Ooiaeei oa ?i.), aea
aaaaoi i?iaeai (? a ia?oo /a?ao – oeo, ye? aeieeathoue a ca’yceo c
ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieo) caeeoathoueny iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieie ?
iio?aaothoue anaa?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iaenei??oiai ae??oaiiy.

Ana aeuaaeeeaaeaia a noeoiiino? aecia/eei aea?? oaie aeaii?
aeena?oaoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie. Aea?aiee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue ?
/anoeiith iaoeiai? oaie eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa
aa?ia?ciano Ieeiea?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii? aeaaeai?? “I?aai?caoe?y
?ioaineaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a i?iaeoeoiaeo i?aeeiiieaenao AIE”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe – ?ic?iaea ? iaa?oiooaaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo iniia caaacia/aiiy
aenieiaoaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo aeiia?aaea?noaa a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Aeacaia iaoa iaoiiaeea ne?aeoth/? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

· aecia/aiiy noo? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?
iniiaieo oaeoi??a ?? i?aeaeuaiiy;

· ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ie?aiiai aeaeo i?iaeoeoe??,
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?? iniaeeainoae a aeiia?aaea?noa?;

· aiae?c iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aeiia?aaea?noaa ? eiai
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? a Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano?;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ici?uaiiy
aeiia?aaea?noaa, eiai niaoe?ae?caoe??;

· ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e ii ci?uaiith iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace aaeoc? ?
iie?auaiith oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa;

· ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii i?aai?caoe?? aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe??
aeiia?aaeo, oaeineiiaeaiith aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei oa ?aoi?ioaaiiy
i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

· eiiieaenia aea/aiiy i?iaeai ?icaeoeo aeiia?aaea?noaa a ?aa?ii? a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee;

· nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei ioe?iee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa
aeiia?aaeo a oe?eiio ? ie?aiiai eiai aiiaeia?ao?/iiai ni?oo (c
aeeth/aiiyi iao?aaeeoe?eieo iieaciee?a);

· i?iiiceoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith oe?i ia oaoi?/i? ni?oe aeiia?aaeo oa
i?iaeoeoe?th aeii?ianoaa;

· iaoiaeeea ia?a?iciiae?eo caa?oii?iaoeaiiai i?eaooeo, yeee io?eiothoue
caaiaee aoi?eiiiai aeii?ianoaa, i?ae ae?iaieeaie oa ia?a?iaieeaie
aeiia?aaeo;

· ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aecia/aiith ?ici??o i?aiaeii? ieaoe ca caieth,
aeiia?aaei? ianaaeaeaiiy oa iaeii;

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue
i?aaenoaaeythoue ne?aeoth/? ?ic?iaee, ye? ? a aeena?oaoe??:

· iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy ae?iaie/i? Anioe?aoe??
aeiia?aaea??a ? aeii?ia?a (ia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio ? iaeaniiio ??aiyo),
?? neeaaeo ? ooieoe?e;

· i?iaeo ?ici?uaiiy aeiia?aaeieo ianaaeaeaiue ii ?aeiiao ? ie?aieo
ainiiaea?noaao Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?;

· ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ioe?ie? aoaeoeaiino? ? i?aeai?o ni?o?a aeiia?aaeo;

· i?iaeo iioeiaeueiiai ni?oiaiai neeaaeo aeiia?aaeiee?a oaoi?/iiai
iai?yio aeey ENI “Eeiainueea” I/ae?anueeiai ?aeiio;

· i?iiiceoe?? ii a?aeiiaeaiith ieoiiieeiaiaenoaa a iaeano?,
oaeineiiaeaiith oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy aeiia?aaeo oa i?aai?caoe?? eiai
cae?aiiy;

· ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ia?aaeyaeo oe?i ia aeiia?aae ? aeii oa oe?eueiaiio
o?iainoaaiith aaeoc? aeiia?aaea?noaa;

· i?iiiceoe?? ii ?aoi?ioaaiith aeiia?aaea?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa c ??ciei
noaiii ?o aeiiii?/iiai ??aiy;

· iaoiaeeea ?iciiae?eo caa?oii?iaoeaiiai i?eaooeo, yeee io?eiothoue
caaiaee aoi?eiiiai aeii?ianoaa, i?ae ae?iaieeaie oa ia?a?iaieeaie
aeiia?aaeo;

· iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy i?aiaeii? ieaoe, o?ainoa?oieo oe?i
oa ?iciiae?eo iieaoe i?aoe? i?ae i?aoe?aieeaie aioo??ainiiaea?nueeeo
i?ae?icae?e?a.

An? aeuaia?a?aoiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a i?eeiyoi aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a
i?aeoeeo aeiia?aaea?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie (Oe?naaeaeii?iio,
aeeth/ath/e e Ieeiea?anueeo iaeanoue). Aeena?oaio i?eeiaa aeoeaio
o/anoue a ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aeiia?aae ? aeii”.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo Ieeiea?anueei? ? ?yaeo ?ioeo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie
aeeeaaeaieo a ?iaio? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aoaea ni?eyoe oi?ioaaiith
aenieiaoaeoeaiiai aeiia?aaea?noaa. O?eueee ca ?aooiie i?iiiceoe?e aeey
ENI “Eeiainueea” I/ae?anueeiai ?aeiio Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? ii
iioei?caoe?? ni?oiaiai neeaaeo aeiia?aaeiee?a oaoi?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy
aoaea aeiaeaoeiai io?eiaii 608,2 oen.a?i. /enoiai aeioiaeo a ??e (i?e
iei?oiueiio oaeoe/iiio ??ai? o?iaeaeiino?, nia?aa?oino? ? oe?ie
?aae?caoe?? 1 oe).

Iniaenoee aeeaae aeena?oaioa. ?c 6-oe iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii ?ia?o 4 –
naiino?ei? oa 2 – a ni?aaaoi?noa? (a i?aeai?? iaoa??ae?a oa aeaiaeao
inoaii?o aeeaae ni?aooea/a neeaaea? 35-60%).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. C ?acoeueoaoaie nai?o
aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi? aenooiaa ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
1997-1999??. (i?aai?ciaaieo Ieeiea?anueeith aea?aeaaiith aa?a?iith
aeaaeai??th), ia ?anioae?eainueeiio nai?ia?? i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa (1996?.), ?yae? iaeanieo oa ?aeiiieo ia?aae ? nai?ia??a
(1995-1999??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 1 a?ioo?? ? 5 noaooyo
(1 – a oeaio?aeueiiio aeo?iae? ? 4 – a ca??ieeao “A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee
I?e/i?iiii?`y”).

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c aaaaeaiiy,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeaiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (yeee
ia?aoiao? 139 iaeeieoeue), 7 aeiaeaoe?a. Iniiaia /anoeia aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeaia ia 180 noi??ieao, nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e – ia 10
noi??ieao, aeiaeaoee – ia 7 noi??ieao. A ?iaio? ia?aoiao?oueny 49
oaaeeoeue ? 9 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? iniiae aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa” ?ice?eoi nooi?noue, aeaee ?
cia/ei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae iaoiaeeea
ioe?iee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ie?aiiai aeaeo i?iaeoeoe?? ? ??
iniaeeaino? a aeiia?aaea?noa?.

I?e ?icaeyae? nooiino? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa iio??aii
a?ae??ciyoe eaoaai??? “aeiiii?/iee aoaeo”, “aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue” ?
“?acoeueoaoeai?noue”. Ia aeaeue a ?o o?aeooaaii? a aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? iaia? ?aeiino?. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui aeiiii?/iee aoaeo – oea
?acoeueoao ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
nenoaiith iieaciee?a (aaeiaa, oiaa?ia, e?ioeaaa ? /enoa i?iaeoeoe?y,
i?eaooie, aini?ic?aooieiaee aeioiae eieaeoeao). Aeiiii?/ia ae
aoaeoeai?noue ia?aaeaa/a? ii??aiyiiy aoaeoo c aeeaaeaieie ?ano?naie ?
aeo?aoaie, ye? eiai aecaaee. Aiia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ? ??aiai yeino?
i?iaeoeoe??. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ia?aaeaa/a? aeinyaiaiiy iiceoeaii?
(aaaeaii?) a?aeaea/? aeeaaeaieo cania?a, a ?acoeueoaoeai?noue iiaea aooe
ia o?eueee iiceoeaiith, aea e iaaaoeaiith (iaaaaeaiith).

Ioe?ieo aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ie?aiiai aeaeo ?ineeiieoeueei?
i?iaeoeoe?? aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe c aeiiiiiaith nenoaie iieaciee?a,
iniiaieie c yeeo ? o?iaeaei?noue, ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaeoeoe??,
o?oaeii?noe?noue, nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe, aaeiaee aeioiae ia 1 ethae.-aiae,
??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?, ?aioaaaeuei?noue i?iaeaae ? ?aioaaaeuei?noue
?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo. I?e oeueiio o?iaeaei?noue aeioe?eueii
ia?aoiaoaaoe ia iaeeieoeth ni?anoaaeii? (c o?aooaaiiyi aaeueii? ioe?iee
caie?) ieiu?, a eiao?oe??io ieoiiino? cao?ao – ye a?aeiioaiiy oe?ie
?aae?caoe?? aei iiaii? nia?aa?oino? 1 oe i?iaeoeoe??. ?aioaaaeuei?noue
i?iaeaae aecia/a?oueny ae?eaiiyi i?eaooeo ia ia’?i /enoeo i?iaeaae, ye?
aei??ththoueny oaeoe/iith noiith a?ioiai? ae?o/ee. Aeey ii??aiyeueii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ??cieo aeae?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? i?eeiyoi?: eiao?oe??io ieoiiino?
cao?ao, i?eaooie c 1 aa, ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui a ?nioth/?e noaoenoe/i?e ca?oiino? i?eaooie a?ae
aeiia?aaea?noaa iieaco?oueny eeoa ii i?iaeoeoe?? c ieiaeiiinieo
ianaaeaeaiue, i?e aecia/ai? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa
aeiia?aaeo an? aeo?aei? iieacieee (a?ae ieiu? ianaaeaeaiue aei ianyao
i?iaeaae, eiai nia?aa?oino? ? a?ioiai? ae?o/ee) oaeiae iio??aii a?aoe
eeoa ii aenieoaoaoe?eiei ianaaeaeaiiyi. A aeiaaeeo a?aenooiino? a iae?eo
iaiao?aeii? aeey oeueiai ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e ia?aooaaii? iieaciee?a
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aaeoc? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe i?eaaaeaio a
aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeeeo.

I?e a?ioia?e ioe?ie? aeiia?aaeieo ianaaeaeaiue (ye neeaaeia?e ?ano?niiai
iioaioe?aeo aaeoc?) iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia o?eueee ?o caeeoeiao
aa?o?noue (aeoiaey/e c o?eaaeino? /ano aeei?enoaiiy), a ?c o?ce/iiai
noaio (nooi?ith c??aeaeaiino?, caao?`yiaiino?, iioeiaeaeaiiy eou?a
oe?aeieeaie oa oai?iaaie). E??i oiai, ?? aeioe?eueii ei?eaoaaoe ? c
a?aooaaiiyi ?o i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy: a i?e?iciiao aenieiye?niiai
aeii?ianoaa aiia iiaeiia aooe a?eueo aenieith.

O aeiaaeeo caaio?ae? c ieiaeiiinieo ianaaeaeaiue /a?aie?a i?eaieieo eic
aa?o?noue aeiia?aaeiee?a ? ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo ?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo, yea
i?eoiaeeoueny aaciina?aaeiuei ia aeiia?aae, iiaeia ia?aooaaoe
i?iii?oe?eii ieoii?e aac? iaoa??aeueii-a?ioiaeo aeo?ao ia aeaiee aeae
i?iaeoeoe?? a caaaeuei?e noi? aeo?ao ii aaeoc?.

C iaoith a?eueo ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy
ie?aiiai aiiaeia?ao?/iiai ni?oo aeiia?aaeo ii?yae c o?aaeeoe?eieie
iieacieeaie aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe e oae?, ye ocaaaeueithth/ee
iieacieo yeino? ni?oo (OIssn) ? o?iaeaei?noue a ia?a?aooieo ia aacenio
ye?noue (Oay), ye? ia?aoiaothoueny ii oi?ioeao:

OIssn = Oeo : Oeae (1); Oay = Oo • OIssn (2),

aea Oeo ? Oeae – a?aeiia?aeii oaeoe/ia oa i?e aaciaeo eiiaeeoe?yo
(caeoi?aaeueia) oe?ie;

Oo – oaeoe/ia o?iaeaei?noue ni?oo.

Cai?noue oe?i i?e ia?aooaaii? Oay iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? oaeoe/ia ?
aacenia (caoaa?aeaeaia noaiaea?oaie aeey eiaeiiai ni?oo) oeoe?eno?noue
(No ? Na):

Oay = Oo • (No : Na) (3)

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ? aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue aeiia?aaea?noaa a Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano?” anoaiiaeai?
iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo aeiia?aaea?noaa, i?iaiae?ciaai? no/aniee
noai ? aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa aeiia?aaeo a ?aa?ii?. I?e
oeueiio iieacieee iaeano? ii??aiththoueny c aeaieie ii Oe?a?i? a
oe?eiio, ?ioeie i?aaeaiieie iaeanoyie. Aiae?c ?icaeoeo ? aoaeoeaiino?
aaeoc? Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? i?iaiaeeoueny ie?aii ii i?aei?e?inoaao
ei?ii?aoe?? “Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?ii” ? ?ioeo eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa, ye?
niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia aeiia?aaea?noa?

sse iieacaa aiae?c, aeiia?aaea?noai, yea aoei ?ai?oa aenieii?eaooeiaith
aaeoccth, ciaoiaeeoueny iei? ia iaae? aeaeeaaiiy. A inoaii? ?iee a
Oe?a?i? (? a oiio /ene? Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano?) i?ine?aeeiao?oueny
no?eea oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy ieiu i?ae aeiia?aaeieie ianaaeaeaiiyie ?
aaeiaeo cai??a i?iaeoeoe?? c ieo (oaaeeoey 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Ieiu? aeiia?aaeiee?a, o?iaeaei?noue ? aaeia? cai?e

i?iaeoeoe?? ii iei a a?iiaaenueeiio naeoi??

?aa?iie ? iieacieeeA na?aaeiueiio ca ??e1997?.?iaeaen 1997?. aei
1981-1985 ??. a na?aaeiueiio1981-1985 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996 ?.Oe?a?ia
– anueiaiIeiua aeiia?aaeiee?a, oen.aa213,9163,5146,6131,1121,40,57 a
o./. ieiaeiiinieo144,7119,0124,4119,1107,40,74O?iaeaei?noue,
oe/aa48,148,333,831,019,00,40Aaeiaee ca?? aeiia?aaeo,
oen.o737,5607,1423,3370,2204,50,28Ieeiea?anueea iaeanoueIeiua
aeiia?aaeiee?a, oen.aa16,214,012,711,410,00,62 a o./.
ieiaeiiinieo12,38,110,09,67,30,59O?iaeaei?noue,
oe/aa48,752,837,143,615,80,32Aaeiaee ca?? aeiia?aaeo,
oen.o62,144,537,141,811,50,19Ieoiia aaaa (%) iaeano? a
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeo iieacieeao: a) a ieiu?
aeiia?aaeiee?a7,68,68,78,58,21,08 a) a o./. ieiaeiiinieo
8,56,88,08,16,80,80 a) o aaeiaiio cai??
aeiia?aaeo8,47,38,811,35,60,67Aeiey Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? a ieiuao ?
aaeiaeo cai?ao aeiia?aaeo aei 1996 ?ieo iaea no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th aei
c?inoaiiy, aea a 1997 ?ioe? /a?ac caiaaeoi ii?icio ceio oa /anoeo e?oi?o
ceea ?? ieoiia aaaa ??cei cieceeanue.

Iniiaia /anoeia aeiia?aaea?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa iaeano? (15 ?c 22)
aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo ei?ii?aoe?? “Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?ii”, ieoiia aaaa
yei? a ieiuao ? aaeiaeo cai?ao aeiia?aaeo, a oaeiae a a?ioiaeo
iaaeoiaeaeaiiyo a?ae oe??? aaeoc? a oe?eiio ii iaeano? c eiaeiei ?ieii
c?inoa?. Oea c iaeiiai aieo, ca’ycaii ?c anooiii aei ?? neeaaeo iiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa, a c ?ioiai – a?eueo aenieeie oaiiaie nei?i/aiiy ieiu
aeiia?aaeiee?a a ?ioeo eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa.

Aeiia?aaei? ianaaeaeaiiy ?ici?uai? iei? a 12 aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeiiao
iaeano?, aaaeo/o ?ieue a yeeo a?athoue I/ae?anueeee, Aa?acainueeee,
Ieeiea?anueeee oa AEiaoiaaee. I?aeoe/ii o an?o ?aeiiao a aeeiai?oe?
i?ine?aeeiao?oueny no?eea nei?i/aiiy ieiu aeiia?aaeiee?a, ui ia iiaeia
aeciaoe aei?aaaeaiei (iniaeeai a /ioe?ueio aeuaiacaaieo ?aeiiao).

sse aeaeii ?c oaaeeoe? 1, o an? aiae?co?i? ia??iaee ? ?iee o?iaeaei?noue
aeiia?aaeo a Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano? aoea aeua, i?ae a a?iiaaenueeiio
naeoi?? Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio. Aeeeth/aiiy neeaaea? eeoa 1997 ??e, ui
ca’ycaii c aaeeeeie iioeiaeaeaiiyie ianaaeaeaiue ii?icaie oa /anoeie
aeiuaie a e?oi?e ia??iae (ye? aeeeeeaee oaeaeea caoai?thaaiiy aeiia?aaeo
i?eaeueth oa n??ith aieeeth). Ii??aiyiiy o?iaeaeiino? ii ei?ii?aoe??
“Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?ii” ? ?ioeo eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa iaeano? iieacaei,
ui a 1992-1993??. oa 1994-1995??. aiia aoea aeua a ei?ii?aoe??, aea a
1996-1997??. oey ia?aaaaa aoea ao?a/aia, ui aeeeeeaii aeeth/aiiyi aei ??
neeaaeo a 1996?. ?yaeo iiaeo ainiiaea?noa c iecueeei ??aiai ?icaeoeo
oe??? aaeoc?. Aei i?e/ei cieaeaiiy o?iaeaeiino? ianaaeaeaiue a inoaii?
?iee aa?oi a?aeianoe ? ia?aaaao a ieo noa?eo iinaaeie, ? aenieo
c??aeaeai?noue aeiia?aaeiee?a (ye noa?eo, oae ? iieiaeeo), ? nooo?a?
ii?ooaiiy a oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy, ? iaai?iiy ea??aiee?a ?
niaoe?ae?no?a ainiiaea?noa i?aoethaaoe a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei oa
?i.

Na?aae aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a iaeano? iaea?eueo aenieo o?iaeaei?noue
aeiia?aaeo o an? aiae?co?i? ia??iaee io?eiaee Ieeiea?anueeee ?
I/ae?anueeee, a a na?aaeiueiio ca 1996-1997??. – ? Aa?acainueeee.
?c ainiiaea?noa Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?iio naiee aenieee o?iaeae c 1 aa a
inoaii? ?iee io?eiaee AO “?aaenaae” Ieeiea?anueeiai ?aeiio, ENI
“Ieuea?y” ? ENI “Eeiainueea” I/ae?anueeiai, AO “Eiaeaai” ? ENI “I?eaie”
– Aa?acainueeiai.

Nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe aeiia?aaeo a oe?eiio ii Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?iio (a
ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie ainiiaea?noaaie) a 1996 ? 1997??. aoea a?eueo
aenieith, i?e/eiaie /iai ? ia o?eueee iecueueea o?iaeaei?noue, a e
a?eueo aenie? cao?aoe ia 1 aa. Inoaii? iiynith?oueny oei, ui
niaoe?ae?ciaai? ia aeiia?aaea?noa? oi?ioaaiiy aeeaaeathoue a oeth
aaeocue a?eueo? noie eioo?a, iaiaaath/enue caaacia/eoe i?iaaaeaiiy an?o
iniiaieo oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e, aea /a?ac iani?eyoeea? ee?iaoe/i?
oiiae 1997?. oe? aeeaaeaiiy ia aeaee i/?eoaaii? a?aeaea/?. Iaeaeaoaaoee
aeiia?aae aoa ae?iuaiee a I/ae?anueeiio, Aa?acainueeiio, Ieeiea?anueeiio
oa AEiaoiaaiio ?aeiiao.

Ca inoaii? 6 ?ie?a (ye a a?iiaaenueeiio naeoi?? iaeano? a oe?eiio, oae
? Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?iio) neeaeanue /?oei a?aeia?aaeaia oaiaeaioe?y
ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ieoiiino? cao?ao ? ??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino? aaeoc?.
A 1997?., c i?eaooeiaiai ?ai?oa, aeiia?aaea?noai noaei caeoeiaei: caeoie
c 1 aa a oe?eiio ii a?iiaaenueeiio naeoi?o iaeano? aeinya 213,8 a?i., a
??aaiue caeoeiaino? – 26,5%. I?e oeueiio a ainiiaea?noaao ei?ii?aoe??
caeoeia?noue aaeoc? aoea a?eueo aenieith (oaaeeoey 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

I?eaooeia?noue ae?iaieoeoaa aeiia?aaeo a eieaeoeaieo

ainiiaea?noaao Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?

?aeiie ? oi?ioaaiiy I?eaooie (caeoie) ia 1 aa, a?i.??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? (caeoeiaino?), %1996?.1997?.a na?aaeiueiio ca
2 ?iee1996?.1997?.a na?aaeiueiio ca
2 ?ieeAaooainueeee-534,3-o87,1-oAa?acainueeee298,1-221,359,628,7-34,18,5
Aanaeei?anueeee-269,0-2474,9-741,8-30,0-77,3-53,4Aicianainueeee19,5-670,
9-339,51,8-92,5-37,0AEiaoiaaee-94,9-181,6-123,7-13,0-76,2-23,5Ieeiea?anu
eeee895,3-1193,9538,462,8-30,228,9I/ae?anueeee714,1-121,9309,4103,1-14,7
40,9Ia?aiiaenueeee19,6-o25,0-oA?iiaaenueeee naeoi? iaeano? a oe?eiio
478,3-213,8176,060,0-26,521,9 a o./. ei?ii?aoe?y
“Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?ii”318,1-288,669,232,7-28,86,9

A na?aaeiueiio ca 1996-1997??. i?eaooeiaei aeiia?aaea?noai aoei eeoa a
o?ueio aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeiiao iaeano? – Aa?acainueeiio,
Ieeiea?anueeiio ? I/ae?anueeiio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ye? no?eiothoue
?icaeoie aeiia?aaea?noaa ? i?eaiaeyoue eiai aei e?eciaiai noaio ?
ne?aeoth/?: aeoaea aaeeeee aeenia?eoao oe?i ia aeiia?aae — c iaeiiai
aieo, ? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/i? ?ano?ne aeey naea – c ae?oaiai; i?i?aooiee
a iiiaeaoeoaaii? ? e?aaeeooaaii?; iiieeee a ?ici?uaii? ianaaeaeaiue,
i?ia?anoth/a ca?aaeaiiy aeiia?aaeiee?a oai?iaaie ? oe?aeieeaie; ?icaae
aace ieoiiieeiaiaenoaa; iaaeinoaoi? aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano; iecueea iaoa??aeueia ca?ioa?aniaai?noue
i?aoe?aiee?a; neeaaeiiu? c ?aae?caoe??th i?iaeoeoe?? oa ?i.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iai?yiee
oi?ioaaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaiiai aeiia?aaea?noaa” iaea?eueoa oaaae
i?eae?eaii oaeei c ieo, ye: oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ici?uaiiy aeiia?aaea?noaa,
iiaeeaeaiiy niaoe?ae?caoe?? ainiiaea?noa, ?icaeoie aa?ii?iieneiai?
?ioaa?aoe?? ? eiiia?aoe??; iioei?caoe?y ni?oiaiai neeaaeo ianaaeaeaiue;
ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace ? iie?auaiiy oaoiieia??
ae?iaieoeoaa; aoaeoeaia ?aae?caoe?y aeiia?aaeo ? i?iaeoeo?a eiai
ia?a?iaee; oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
i?aei?e?inoa. sse iieacaa aiae?c ii i??? i?inoaaiiy c i?aii/? iaeano? ia
i?aaeaiue aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue aeiia?aaea?noaa a?ae/ooii c?inoa?
(oaaeeoey 3). A?aoiaoth/e oea, iniiai? ieiu? iinaaeee aeiia?aaeiee?a
aeioe?eueii ?ici?uoaaoe a I?aaeaii?e ? Oeaio?aeuei?e ee?iaoe/ieo ciiao
iaeano? (a ia?oo /a?ao – a ainiiaea?noaao, ye? iathoue a?aeiia?aei?
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae, Aa?acainueeiai, AEiaoiaaiai, Ieeiea?anueeiai
oa I/ae?anueeiai ?aeii?a). Iaeii/anii iaiao?aeii ?icaeaaoe aaeocue ? a
i?e?iciiao ?ioeo ?aeii?a, ye? neeaeenue ?noi?e/ii. I?iaeo ?ici?uaiiy
aeiia?aaea?noaa ii oa?eoi??? iaeano? i?eaaaeaiee ia ?enoieo 1. Eiai
?aae?caoe?y aeicaieeoue ia o?eueee i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
aeiia?aaea?noaa, a e noai?eoe a?aeiia?aeio ne?iaeiio aaco aeey caaiae?a
ia?aeiiiai aeii?ianoaa, ye? ? a iaeano? ? iiooaeiino? yeeo iei?
iacaaaioaaeai?.

Ine?eueee /a?ac ianoa/o caaiae?a aoi?eiiiai aeii?ianoaa iniiaia iana
ae?iaeaieo aeiiiaoa??ae?a aeaiceoueny ca iaae? iaeano?, ui iaiineoue
?? aeiiii?oe? cia/ieo caeoe?a, iaiao?aeii iiai?noth caaaioaaeeoe
iiooaeiino? caaiaeo AO “Caeaiee aae” Aicianainueeiai ?aeiio ca ?aooiie
iaaeaiiy eiio e?aaeeoo aeey ?ic?aooie?a c iinoa/aeueieeaie
aeiiiaoa??ae?a, a oaeiae aaanoe a ae?th e?i?? ?iceeao aei a AO
“?aaenaae” Ieeiea?anueeiai ?aeiio oa AO “Eiaeaai” Aa?acainueeiai ?aeiio.

Oaaeeoey 3

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue aeiia?aaea?noaa ii

aa?iee?iaoe/iei ciiai Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?

IieacieeeI?ai?/iaOeaio?aeueiaI?aaeaiia1996?.1997?.1996?.1997?.1996?.1997
?.O?iaeaei?noue, oe/aa31,71,716,818,447,316,3Iiaia nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe,
a?i.25,01352,4239,22177,5617,3651,01Eiao?oe??io ieoiiino?
cao?ao1,030,070,610,231,630,75I?eaooie (caeoie), a?i.ia: a) 1
oe0,64-325,99-15,40-137,2511,01-13,03 a) 1
aa20,2-554,2-258,7-2525,4520,8-212,4??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?,
%2,6-92,5-39,3-77,363,4-25,5sse iieacaee a?oioaaiiy ainiiaea?noa
Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?iio ? i?iaaaeaiee ii iueiio ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?aneaiee
aiae?c, c iiaeeaeaiiyi ?o niaoe?ae?caoe?? ia aeiia?aaea?noa?
niinoa??aa?oueny nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaaeaiiy aaeoc?.
A?aoiaoth/e, ui ?aeiiaiaeiaai? Oe?IAe?A?A ?i.A.?.Oa??iaa iioeiaeuei?
?ici??e (800-1200aa) aeiia?aaeieo ianaaeaeaiue iei? ia? eeoa 1
niaoe?ae?ciaaia ainiiaea?noai iaeano?, ?iaioo ii iiaeaeueo?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? iinaaeie iaiao?aeii i?iaeiaaeoaaoe, i?iaiaey/e ??
iiaoaiii, c a?aooaaiiyi iayaiino? i?eaeaoieo aeey oeueiai caiaeue,
caaacia/aiiino? o?oaeiaeie, iaoa??aeueieie oa o?iainiaeie ?ano?naie,
aeecueeino? ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa. I?e oeueiio ii?yae c
aeiia?aaea?noaii a ainiiaea?noaao iaiao?aeii ?icaeaaoe aeiaeaoeia?
aa?a?i? aaeoc? (a ia?oo /a?ao ca?ii – ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoai,
oaa?eiieoeoai, naae?aieoeoai – c ae?iuoaaiiyi ia?aaaaeii ?aiiueinoeaeeo
ii??ae ? ni?o?a ieiaeiaeo ianaaeaeaiue), a oaeiae oeaoe ii ia?a?iaoe?
n?eueainii?iaeoeoe??. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie aeaeyaeathoue 12
aeiia?aaea?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa, ia?ae?e yeeo i?eaaaeaiee a aeena?oaoe??.
A iaeaooiueiio ?o eiei iiaeiii ?icoe?eoenue o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
i?eaaaeaieie a ?iaio? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie.

C iaoith caaacia/aiiy aei?noeiai eiio?ieth ca caeeaaeaiiyi eiaeii?
eiie?aoii? ae?eyiee aeiia?aaeieeo neeaie a/aieo Ieeiea?anueei? aa?a?ii?
aeaaeai?? oa niaoe?ae?no?a-aeiia?aaea??a Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?iio
aeioe?eueii noai?eoe iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ee oeaio? ii iaaeaiith iineoa a
?ic?iaoe? i?iaeo?a caeeaaeee, eiinoeueoaoe?yo, aeaea/? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii
ae?iuoaaiith oa aeicaie?a ia iinaaeeo ianaaeaeaiue.

A Oe?a?i? aeioe?eueii noai?eoe ae?iaie/o anioe?aoe?th aeiia?aaea??a oa
aeii?ia?a (ia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio ? ?aa?iiaeueieo ??aiyo),
ooieoe?iioth/o ia eiiia?aoeaieo canaaeao ? i?ecaaio aoaeoeaii ae??ooaaoe
an? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? ?c anoaiiaeaiiyi iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae ?? o/anieeaie ? caaacia/aiiyi a?eueo
a?ae/ooi? i?aeo?eiee aeiia?aaea?noaa c aieo aea?aeaae.

Iio?aao? oaeineiiaeaiiy ? ni?oiaee neeaae ianaaeaeaiue. I?e i?aeai??
ia?niaeoeaiiai ni?oeiaioo aeiia?aaeiee?a iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe
aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaiiy eiaeiiai aiiaeia?ao?/iiai ni?oo,
oa?i?ie eiai aeic??aaiiy (c oei, uia caaacia/eoe eiai ?eoi?/ia cae?aiiy
? ia?a?iaeo), i?eaeaoi?noue aeey iaoai?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, a
oaeiae niaoe?ae?caoe?th aeicaaiaeo, iayai?noue noiaeu aeey na?aeiai
aeiia?aaeo ? i?iaeoeoe?? aeii?ianoaa oa ?i.

A eiaeiiio aeiia?aaea?nueeiio ainiiaea?noa? aeioe?eueii ae?iuoaaoe 4-6
oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a (c aeae?eaiiyi 2-3 aaaeo/eo). Iioeiaeueia e?euee?noue
noieiaeo ni?o?a aeey niaoe?ae?coth/eony ia ?o ae?iaieoeoa? ainiiaea?noa
neeaaea? 6-8, a aeey i?aei?e?inoa c ?icaeiaiei aeiia?aaea?noaii
oaoi?/iiai iai?yio – 3-4. ?aeiiaiaeo?ia e?euee?noue ni?o?a, ye?
eoeueoeaothoueny a ie?aiiio i?ae?icae?e? ainiiaea?noaa, – 2-3.

Iie?auaiiy ni?oiaiai neeaaeo iiaeiii a?aeaoaaoenue, ia?aae ona, ca
?aooiie a?eueo oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iinaaeie iaea?eueo ye?nieo
ni?o?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ae?iaieoeoaa nooeo ? iai?anooeo aei
(a ia?oo /a?ao – ia?i/ieo), a oaeiae eii’ye?a ? oaiiainueeiai. Aeey
Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie ? ni?oe oaiiainueeiai
iai?yieo (Eaaa?ia Nia?iueii, Oa?aeiia, I?ii, O?ai?ia? ? ?i.), a oaeiae
no?ee? aei oai?ia Aaao Aeiinueeee, Eooocianueeee, Ainoi?a, Ia?aaiaoeue,
No?eeee Iaaa?a/a, Aeieia.

Iacaaaeath/e ia na?eici? o?oaeiiu?, ye? ? a ?icaeoeo noieiaiai
aeiia?aaea?noaa, nei?i/oaaoe eiai ae?iaieoeoai iaaeioe?eueii. C iaeiiai
aieo, coneeey iio??aii iai?aaeoe ia ae?iuoaaiiy ?aii?o oa iaae?aii?o
ni?o?a, a oaeiae ni?o?a, ye? a?aecia/athoueny cia/iith eaaee?noth i?e
caa??aaii?, i?eoyaoth/? iieoioey ciai?oi?i aeaeyaeii a?ii ? aenieith
niaeiaith ye?noth, a c ae?oaiai – ia ia?a?iaeo aeiia?aaeo c iaoith
io?eiaiiy nie?a, ith?a, aeaeai?a, iaaeo ? ?ioi? i?iaeoeoe??, yea
ei?enoo?oueny iiieoii. Aeiaaino?ieiaa caa??aaiiy noieiaiai aeiia?aaeo
aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe ye ia aac? ?nioth/eo noiaeu-oieiaeeeueiee?a, oae
? noai?thth/e iia? (ia?aaaaeii ia eiiia?aoeai?e iniia?).

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaiee i?iaeo
ia?niaeoeaiiai ni?oeiaioo aeiia?aaeiee?a oaoi?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy aeey ENI
“Eeiainueea” I/ae?anueeiai ?aeiio. Aei iueiai i?iiiio?oueny aeeth/eoe 6
ni?o?a (Ae?aioa, A?i??ea, Eaaa?ia Nia?iueii, ?eaoe?oae?, Nia?iueii
caeaiee, Nooieeiainueeee a?e?e), eiaeiee c yeeo i?eaeaoiee aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy oaiiainueeeo aeiiiaoa??ae?a, a ie?ai? – ? aeey a?aeiieo
ia?i/ieo aei “Ia?eeia noaio”, “Ienaieo Oe?a?ie” oa ?i. Aei oiai ae aiie
aaeaei ii?aeiothoueny iaeei c iaeiei ii oa?i?iao cae?aiiy a?iaeath.
Aeiaeaoeiaee /enoee aeioiae a?ae inai?iiy i?iaeoo (iaa?oue i?e
aeinyaiooeo oaeoe/ieo ??aiyo o?iaeaeiino?, nia?aa?oino? ? oe?ie 1 oe)
neeaaea: a ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa – 841,3 a?i., a ia anth ieiuo –
608,2 oen.a?i.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy aeniei? aoaeoeaiino? ?icaeoeo aaeoc? iaiao?aeii
a?ae?iaeeoe aeiia?aaeia ieoiiieeiaiaenoai. Ae?iaieoeoai iaiao?aeieo aeey
iaeano? naaeaeaioe?a aeioe?eueii neiioeaio?oaaoe a ?aaeainiao-caaiaeao
“Aaa?ae?y ?ee?/a” AEiaoiaaiai ? “?iaoeuenueeee” Ni?ao??anueeiai ?aeii?a,
i?aai?coaaoe eiai ia ?ioaineai?e iniia?. I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii:
iaaeaoe ?i iaiao?aei? oeaio?ae?ciaai? eiooe; aaanoe ia?aaeiieaoo ca
naaeaeaioe? caiiaeai? ainiiaea?noaai, ye? caeiathoueny
ieoiiieeiaiaenoaii (a ?ici??? ia iaioa 1/3 ?o aa?oino?); i?aeaeueoe
oe?ie ia iinaaeeiaee iaoa??ae, i?iaiaeeoe ?iaioo ii iania?e eeiiia?e
o?oinai?oa?i?e naeaeoe??, i?aai?coaaoe i?aeaioiaeo eaae??a aeey
ieoiiieeiaiaenoaa ? a?aeiia?aeia ?o noeioethaaiiy o? ?i. A ?acoeueoao?
naaeaeaioe?a, ye? aoaeooue ae?iuai? a iaeano?, iiaeiii aenoa/eoue ia
o?eueee aeey caeeaaeee iiaeo aeiia?aaeiee?a (a?ey 500-600 aa a ??e), a e
aeey ?aiiioo ?nioth/eo ianaaeaeaiue (c??aeaeai?noue yeeo iei?
iaaecae/aeii aeniea iaa?oue ia ieiuao, caeiyoeo iieiaeeie
ianaaeaeaiiyie).

Aa?ioaoi?ea, yea canoiniao?oueny iiaeiia aooe ni?oiaith, ??
iaiaa?oioiaaia ni?iuaiiy iaaeiionoeia. Cae?aiiy a?iaeath aeiia?aaeo
iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iiia?aaeiuei ?ic?iaeaiei
eiiieaeniei ieaiii, a iioeiaeuei? oa?i?ie ?c canoinoaaiiyi
iioi/ii-a?oiiaiai iaoiaeo, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy cania?a
/anoeiai? iaoai?caoe??. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeai? aa??aioe i?aai?caoe??
cae?aeueieo ?ia?o aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??.

Ea?aeeiaeueiiai oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiaaa? oe?iiooai?aiiy ia aeiia?aae ?
i?iaeoeoe?th aeii?ianoaa. A?aoiaoth/e aenieo eai?oaei?ie?noue aaeoc? ?
cia/io o?eaae?noue ia??iaeo ae?iuoaaiiy ianaaeaeaiue aei anooio a
ieiaeiiioaiiy, oe?ie ia aeiia?aae iaiao?aeii i?aeaeueoe c oei, uia eiai
ae?iaieoeoai a?ae??ciyeinue a?eueo aenieith (a ii??aiyii? c iaeii??/ieie
eoeueoo?aie) i?eaooeia?noth. I?e oeueiio aa?oi iineeeoe
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th oe?i ii aiiaeia?ao?/iei ni?oai (?c caaacia/aiiyi
a?eueoi? i?eaooeiaino? iaea?eueo oe?iiei c ieo). A iniiao oaei?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aa?oi acyoe ?ai?oaae?th/ee (aei 1991?.) a Oe?a?i?
i?aeneo?aio caeoi?aaeueieo oe?i, yeee caaacia/oaaa a?eueo aenieo
i?eaooeia?noue aenieiye?niei ni?oai c iaioith o?iaeaei?noth.

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picscalex100010009000003cf0700000a00150000000000050000000902000000000500
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2d01000015000000fb02f4ff0000000000009001ff0000cc0000001254696d6573204e65
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Iaaeineiiae?noue oe?i ia aeiia?aae ? i?iaeoeoe?th aeii?ianoaa ? iaei??th
c i?e/ei iia??oaiiy no?oeoo?e aei, ye? ae?iaeythoueny a Oe?a?i? (a oiio
/ene? ? a Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano?). Iai?eeeaae, ii
ei?ii?aoe?? “Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?ii” ieoiia aaaa oaiiainueeeo
aeiiiaoa??ae?a c 1994-1997??. nei?ioeeanue ia 14,3%, eii’y/ieo – ia
23,6%, ia?i/ieo aeiiiaoa??ae?a a 1996-1997??. acaaae? ia ae?iaeyee. A
oie aea /an niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy aeioneo i?oeieo aei. Aiaeia?/ia
oaiaeaioe?y a aiae?co?iee ia??iae iaea i?noea ? a oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i?.
I?e oeueiio a?oiiaee ni?oeiaio aeiiiaoa??ae?a Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?, ye
aeaeii c ?enoieo 2, a?eueo aeineiiaeee, ine?eueee aeiey ye?nii?
aeiii?iaeoeoe?? ooo aeua.

?en. 2. A?oiiaa no?oeoo?a ae?iaeaii? a 1997?. aeiii?iaeoeoe??, %

Oe?ie ia ia?i/io aeiii?iaeoeoe?th ? oaiiainueea iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoe ?o
ae?iaieeai a?eueo aenieo a ii??aiyii? c i?aeeia?iith i?iaeoeoe??th)
i?eaooeia?noue Ii?iaoeaiee ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? iiaea eieeaaoenue
a?ae 20% ia i?aeeia?i? ? aei 200% — ia ia?i/i? aeia. I?e ia?aaeyae? oe?i
ia i?iaeoeoe?th aeii?ianoaa iio??aii i?iaiaeeoe a?aeiia?aeia ei?eaoaaiiy
oe?i ia aeiia?aae.

Iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ? onoiaiiy oaeueneo?eaoe??
aei, eii’ye?a ? oaiiainueeiai, /iio iini?eyee a i?eeiyooy Caeiio “I?i
aeii ? aeiia?aae”, anoaiiaeaiiy aei?noeiai eiio?ieth ca ye?noth
aeiii?iaeoeoe??, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy nai?oa?ieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo ii?iaoea?a ia ae?iaieoeoai nie?oo, aeiii?iaeoeoe??
(aeeth/ath/e oi?a?aeth), ica?i?iiy aeii?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa no/aniei
iaeaaeiaiiyi ? oaoiieia?yie.

Aenieiaoaeoeaia aeiia?aea?noai iaiiaeeeaa aac noai?aiiy iaae?eii?
nenoaie ia?eaoeiao ? ?aae?caoe?? aeiia?aaeii-aeii?iaii? i?iaeoeoe?? c
oe?ieei canoinoaaiiyi ?iicaiiiai aeina?aeo. Aeey oeueiai a i.Ieeiea?a?
aeioe?eueii noai?eoe iioiaee ?eiie aa?ii?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??, a a
ie?aieo ?aeiiao iaeano? – aeiia oi?a?ae? oa o??iia? iaaaceie.

A iei?oi?o oiiaao iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaee caoeno a?o/eciyieo ae?iaiee?a
aeiia?aaeo ? aeia: iaiaaeaiiy ?iii?oo aeiii?iaeoeoe?? (ia a?eueoa, i?ae
20% a?ae caaaeueiiai ianyao ?aae?caoe?? a Oe?a?i?) ? ciyooy aa?’???a ??
aenii?oo, ieoieo naieoe?e oa ?i.

Aeey ?icaeoeo aeiia?aaea?noaa iaiao?aeii aaanoe a i?aeoeeo aeae?eaiiy
athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ? i?eueaiaeo e?aaeeo?a i?ae caeeaaeeo aeiia?aaeiee?a
? ?o ae?iuoaaiiy aei anooio a ieiaeiiioaiiy (ye oea ?iaeoueny a Iieaeia?
? ?in??). Iaiao?aeii a?aeiiaeoe 8%-i? a?ae?aooaaiiy a?ae aa?oino?
aeiii?iaeoeoe??, yea ae?iaey?oueny caaiaeaie aoi?eiiiai aeii?ianoaa ?
iai?aaeyoe ?o ia ?icaeoie aeiia?aaea?noaa. Caaiaee, ?icoaoiaai? a ?ioeo
?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, iiaeii? ia?a?aoiaoaaoe oe? eiooe a iaeano?, c yeeo
aiie io?eiaee aeiiiaoa?eaee. Aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy aeiia?aaea?noaa
iiaea noaoe e /anoeia ieoieo cai??a ia ?iii?oo?i? aeia, eiiueyee ?
oaiiainueea.

O?iainoaaiiy aeiia?aaea?noaa iiaea i?iaiaeeoenue ? ca ?aooiie
caei?aeiiieo ?iaanoeoe?e (ye? aoaeooue iai?aaeai? ia?aae ona ia ni?euei?
i?aei?e?inoaa), a oaeiae aeeaaeaiue aaeeeeo a?o/eciyieo aeicaaiae?a a
?icaeoie nai?o ne?iaeiieo cii.

Ia?a?iciiae?e io?eiaieo a?ae ?aae?caoe?? aei, eiiueye?a ? oaiiainueeiai
iiiaaeii?iaoeaieo i?eaooe?a i?ae ae?iaieeaie aeiia?aaeo ? eiai
ia?a?iaieeaie (caaiaeaie ia?aeiiiai ? aoi?eiiiai aeii?ianoaa) iaiao?aeii
i?iaiaeeoe i?iii?oe?eii ieoii?e aac? cao?ao eiaeiiai c ieo a ii?iaoeai?e
iiai?e nia?aa?oino? aioiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ii aeeeaaeai?e a aeena?oaoe??
iaoiaeeoe?. Inoaiiy iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ia o?eueee a
aeiia?aaeii-aeii?iaiiio, a e ? ?ioeo i?aeeiiieaenao AIE.

I?e ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?e aeiia?aaea?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa ia?aaaao aa?oi
a?aeaeaaaoe eiiia?aoeaiei eieaeoeaiei oi?ioaaiiyi. Aeey aaeeeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, ye? iathoue aeicaaiaee, i?eeiyoia e aeoe?iia?ia oi?ia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy (aac aeeth/aiiy aa?oino? caie? a aeoe?iia?iee eai?oae).
?icae?e eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa ia ?yae ae??aieo ae?iaie/eo no?oeoo?
(i?eaaoii-i?aiaei?, eiiaiaeeoi? oa ?i. oiaa?enoaa, oa?ia?nuee?
ainiiaea?noaa) i?eeiyoiee a iniiaiiio aeey ainiiaea?noa-aaie?io?a.
Iaia’yceiaith oiiaith i?e ?aoi?ioaaii? aeiia?aaea?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa ?
caa?aaeaiiy aaeeeeo ?aeeieo ianea?a aeiia?aaeieo ianaaeaeaiue.

Noai?thth/e aioo??ainiiaea?nuee? eiiia?aoeae, iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe ?i
ae?iaie/o ? eiia?oe?eio naiino?ei?noue oa iioeiaeuei? ?ici??e. Inoaii?
aeey aeiia?aaea?nueeeo i?ae?icae?e?a neeaaeathoue: 15-20 i?aoethth/eo,
150-200 aa ianaaeaeaiue. Iiaeeeaa cae??ieaiiy ae?eyiie aeiia?aaeieeo ca
ie?aieie i?aoe?aieeaie ? ?o n?i’yie.

Aaeee? iiaeeeaino? ne?eo? a aoaeoeaiiio aeei?enoaii?
aioo??ainiiaea?nueei? i?aiaee ? noai?aiaee caie? oa iaeia a iaaeao
eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa c ia?aooaaiiyi
a?aeiia?aeii? i?aiaeii? ieaoe (a a?ioia?e /e iaoo?aeuei?e oi?i?).
Eiie?aoiee ?ici?? inoaiiuei? a eiaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? iiaeiai
aecia/aoenue aeoiaey/e c aeeeaaeaieo a ?iaio? oaeoi??a ? iaoiaee/ieo
i?aeoiae?a I?e oeueiio noaaeo i?aiaeii? ieaoe ca ae?eyieo aeiia?aaeo
aeioe?eueii aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe c a?aooaaiiyi o?iaeaeiino? ianaaeaeaiue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o?ainoa?oi? (aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee?)
oe?ie ia aeiia?aae iaiao?aeii caoaa?aeaeoaaoe aeoiaey/e c ii?iaoeaieo
cao?ao ia eiai ae?iuoaaiiy oa na?aaeiueiai ii aeiia?aaeii-aeii?iaiiio
ae?iaieoeoao ??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino?. Iieaoo i?aoe? aeioe?eueii iinoaaeoe
a caeaaei?noue aai a?ae ?ici??o aini?ic?aooieiaiai i?eaooeo eieaeoeao (c
aeei?enoaiiyi caeeoeiaiai iaoiaeo eiai oi?ioaaiiy), aai a?ae aa?oino?
?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe?? (ii ??oaiith eieaeoeao). ?iciiae?e ca?ia?oeo
i?ae i?aoe?aieeaie iiaea i?iaiaeeoenue i?iii?oe?eii e?eueeino?
a?aei?aoeueiaaieo ieie aei?a.

AENIIAEE

1. Aeey ioe?iee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ?ineeiieoeueei?
i?iaeoeoe?? (a o./. ? aeiia?aaeo) ii?yae c caaaeueiiaeciaieie
iieacieeaie iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe e oae?, ye eiao?oe??io ieoiiino?
cao?ao, ?aioaaaeuei?noue i?iaeaae oa ?aioaaaeuei?noue ?ano?niiai
iioaioe?aeo. I?e ia?aooaaii? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy
ie?aiiai aiiaeia?ao?/iiai ni?oo, e??i o?aaeeoe?eieo iieaciee?a, iiaeia
canoiniaoaaoe ocaaaeueithth/ee iieaciee yeino? ni?oo ? o?iaeaei?noue a
ia?a?aooieo ia eiai aaciao ye?noue.

2. A inoaii? ?iee ye a Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio, oae ? a Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano?
i?ieoei nooo?aa nei?i/aiiy ieiu ? aaeiaeo cai??a aeiia?aaeo. Aaaeo/a
i?noea a ?icaeoeo aeiia?aaea?noaa a iaeano? caeiathoue ainiiaea?noaa
ei?ii?aoe?? “Ieeiea?anaiaeii?ii”. Iaea?eueoith aoaeoeai?noth oey aaeocue
a?aecia/a?oueny a Aa?acainueeiio, Ieeiea?anueeiio oa I/ae?anueeiio
?aeiiao. Aieiaieie i?e/eiaie, ye? i?eaaee aei e?eciaiai noaio
aeiia?aaea?noai, ? ne?aeoth/?: i?i?aooiee a oe?iia?e, iiaeaoeia?e oa
e?aaeeoi?e iie?oeoe?; iiieeee a ?ici?uaii? ianaaeaeaiue oa ii?ooaiiy
oaoiieia?? ?o ae?iuoaaiiy; ?icaae aaeocaai? aace ieoiiieeiaiaenoaa;
iecueea iaoa??aeueia ca?ioa?aniaai?noue i?aoe?aiee?a; neeaaeiiu? c
?aae?caoe??th i?iaeoeoe??; iani?eyoeea? ee?iaoe/i? oiiae ceie 1997?. oa
?i.

3. Iniiai? ieiu? i?iieneiaeo aeiia?aaeiee?a iaiao?aeii neiioeaio?oaaoe a
Aa?acainueeiio, AEiaoiaaiio, Ieeiea?anueeiio oa I/ae?anueeiio ?aeiiao,
iaeii/anii ?icaeaath/e aaeocue a ?ioeo i?e?iciiao iaeano?, ye? neeaeenue
?noi?e/ii (o a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?eaaaeaiei a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeoii).
Aeey eiio?ieth oa eii?aeeiaoe?? caeeaaeee aeiia?aaeiee?a ?aeiiaiaeo?ii
noai?eoe niaoe?aeueiee iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ee oeaio?.

4. Aeey aeiii?aoethaaiiy oa ?iceeao aeiiiaoa??ae?a, ye? ae?iaeythoueny a
iaeano? aeioe?eueii caaacia/eoe iiaia caaaioaaeaiiy iiooaeiinoae caaiaeo
AO “Caeaiee aae”, aaanoe a ae?th e?i?? ?iceeao aei a aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoaao “?aaenaae” oa “Eiaeaai”.

5. Iaiao?aeii i?iaeiaaeeoe a?aeiiaeaiiy aeiia?aaeieo ianaaeaeaiue,
iinooiiai aeiaiaey/e ?o ieiu? (oai, aea oea iiaeeeai) aei iioeiaeueiiai
??aiy (800-1200 aa), aeoea?coaaoe ?iaioo ii noai?aiith aoaeoeaieo
aa?ii?iieneiaeo no?oeoo?. Aeey eii?aeeiaoe?? ?icaeoeo aeiia?aaea?noaa ?
aeii?ianoaa (ye ia aea?aeaaiiio, oae ? ia ?aa?iiaeueieo ??aiyo) noai?eoe
ae?iaie/o Anioe?aoe?th aeiia?aaea??a ? aeii?ia?a.

6. Aeioe?eueii iioei?coaaoe ni?oiaee neeaae ianaaeaeaiue ?aa?iio ia?aae
ona ca ?aooiie ?icoe?aiiy ianaaeaeaiue iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo ?
aenieiye?nieo ni?o?a aeiia?aaeo, ye? ei?enoothoueny i?aeaeuaiei iiieoii
ianaeaiiy ? aeii?ianoaa. A eiaeiiio aeiia?aaea?nueeiio ainiiaea?noa?,
yea niaoe?ae?co?oueny ia ae?iuoaaii? aeiia?aaeo aeey ia?a?iaee,
eoeueoeaoaaoe 4-6 oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a ??cieo oa?i?i?a aeic??aaiiy ? 3-4
noieiaeo. ?c inoaii?o ia?aaaao aa?oi a?aeaeaaaoe ?aii?i oa iiiaae?aii?i,
a oaeiae oei, ye? a?aecia/athoueny aenieith eaaee?noth i?e caa??aaii? oa
i?eaeaoi? aeey io?eiaiiy nie?a, ith?a, aeaeai?a, iaaeo oa ?ioi?
i?iaeoeoe??. Iaeii/anii aaeeoe caoiae?a ii i?aai?caoe?? o?eaaeiai
caa??aaiiy oa aoaeoeaii? ia?a?iaee noieiaiai aeiia?aaeo.

Inai?iiy cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaie aeey ENI “Eeiainueea” I/ae?anueeiai ?aeiio
ia?niaeoeaiiai ni?oeiaioo aeiia?aaeiee?a oaoi?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy (iaa?oue
i?e iei?oi?o oaeoe/ieo ??aiyo o?iaeaeiino?, nia?aa?oino? oa oe?ie
?aae?caoe?? 1 oe) caaacia/eoue eiio io?eiaiiy 608,2 oen.a?i.
aeiaeaoeiaiai i?eaooeo a ??e.

7. Ae?ae iaiao?aeii a?ae?iaeeoe aeiia?aaeia ieoiiieeiaiaenoai, i?ecaaia
caaacia/eoe iio?aae iaeano? a naaeaeaioeyo ia o?eueee aeey caeeaaeee
iiaeo, a e aeey ?aiiioo ?nioth/eo ianaaeaeaiue (c??aeaeai?noue yeeo iei?
iaaeoi aeniea). Eiai iaiao?aeii neiioeaio?oaaoe a ?aaeainiao-caaiaeao
“Aaa?ae?y ?ee?/a” oa “?iaoeaoeueeee” ei?ii?aoe?? “Ieeiea?anaaeaeii?ii”.

8. Caaacia/eoe i?aeaeuaiiy caeoi?aaeueieo oe?i ia aeiia?aae c
iaeii/aniith ?o aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th ii aiiaeia?ao?/iei ni?oai oa
ia?aooaaiiyi iaaeaaaie (neeaeie) ca ia?aaeuaiiy (cieaeaiiy) oeoe?enoino?
a ii??aiyii? c aaciaei ??aiai. Ca iniiao ia?aaeyaeo oe?i iiaeia acyoe
?ai?oaae?th/ee (aei 1991?.) i?aeneo?aio oe?i. I?e oeueiio aeiia?aae c
ai?noii oeoe?o aei 14% aeioe?eueii i?eeiaoe ia ia?a?iaeo ii oe?i? ia
ni?oinoi?o.

9 Iaiao?aeii ciaioeoe iiaeaoeiaee oyaa? ? oi?aia? iaaeaaaee ia
i?iaeoeoe?th aeii?ianoaa, iaiaaeeoe ?? ?iii?o oa onoiooe aa?’??e aeey
aenii?oo. Oe?ie ia ia?i/io aeiii?iaeoeoe?th ? oaiiainueea iiaeii?
caaacia/oaaoe ?o ae?iaieeai a?eueo aenieo (a ii??aiyii? c i?aeeia?ieie
aeiaie) i?eaooeia?noue.

10. I?aai?coaaoe a i.Ieeiea?a? iioiaee ?eiie aa?ii?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, a a ie?aieo ?aeiiao iaeano? – oi?a?aaeuei? aeiie oa o??iia?
iaaaceie.

11. I?ae caeeaaeeo aeiia?aaeieo ianaaeaeaiue ainiiaea?noaai iaaeaaaoe
i?eueaia? aeiaaioa?i?iia? e?aaeeoe, /anoeio ieoieo cai??a a?ae ?iii?oii?
aeiii?iaeoeoe?? oa i?eaooeo aeicaaiae?a. Iiiaaeii?iaoeaiee i?eaooie,
yeee io?eiothoue caaiaee aoi?eiiiai aeii?ianoaa, ?iciiae?eyoe i?ae
ae?iaieeaie aeiia?aaeo oa eiai ia?a?iaieeaie ii aeeeaaeai?e a
aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeeoe?.

12. I?e ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aeiia?aaea?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa ia?aaaao
iaaeaaaoe eiiia?aoeaiei oi?ioaaiiyi c iioeiaeueieie ?ici??aie ?o
aioo??ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ae?icae?e?a. Iiae?e aea ?o ia ?yae ae??aieo
oi?ioaaiue i?eeiyoiee a iniiaiiio aeey i?aei?e?inoa-aaie?io?a.
Iaia’yceiaith oiiaith i?e oeueiio ? caa?aaeaiiy ?aeeieo aaeeeeo ianea?a
aeiia?aaeieo ianaaeaeaiue.

13. I?e i?aai?caoe?? aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei ia?aaaao
iaaeaaaoe i?aiae? oa noai?aiae? caie? oa iaeia c ia?aooaaiiyi i?aiaeii?
ieaoe a?aeiia?aeii aeeeaaeaiei a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaee/iei i?aeoiaeai.

14. A iniiao anoaiiaeaiiy o?ainoa?oieo oe?i ia aeiia?aae iaiao?aeii
iieeanoe ii?iaoeai? cao?aoe ia eiai ae?iuoaaiiy oa na?aaei?e ii
aeiia?aaea?nueei-aeii?iaiiio ae?iaieoeoao ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?.
Iieaoo i?aoe? aeiia?aaea??a iinoaaeoe a caeaaei?noue aai a?ae
aini?ic?aooieiaiai aeioiaeo eieaeoeao (yeee oi?ioaaoe ii caeeoeiaiio
i?eioeeio), aai a?ae aa?oino? ?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe??.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

1. Aa?eooa I.I. Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aeiia?aaea?noaa
//A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee I?e/i?iiii?`y, Aeione 3 – 1998. – N.44–47.

2. Aa?eooa I.I. Aieiai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aa?a?iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei //A?niee aa?a?ii?
iaoee I?e/i?iiii?`y. – Aeione 5, 1998. – N.19–22.

3. Aa?eooa I.I. Aei ?ici?uaiiy aeiia?aaea?noaa ? aeii?ianoaa a
Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? //A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. – 1999. – ? 6.

4. *a?aai ?.?., Aa?eooa I.I. I?i iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? //A?niee
aa?a?ii? iaoee I?e/i?iiii?`y, Aeioen 5. – 1998. – N.6–9.

5. Aa?eooa I.I. Iiaeeaeaiiy niaoe?ae?caoe?? ainiiaea?noa oa
aa?ii?iieneiaa ?ioaa?aoe?y – iaeaaaeeea?o? ?aca?ae i?aeeiio
aeiia?aaea?noaa //A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee I?e/i?iiii?`y, Aeione 6. – 1999.

6. *a?aai ?.?. Aa?eooa I.I., *a?aai A.A. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aecia/aiiy
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy ni?o?a aeiia?aaeo oa iioei?caoe??
?o neeaaeo. – Ieeiea?a, 1999. – 18n.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aa?eooa I.I. Oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo iniia
aenieiaoaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo aeiia?aaea?noaa a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei
(ii iaoa??aeao Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?).

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02 – aeiiii?ea
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE. – Ieeiea?anueea aea?aeaaia aa?a?ia
aeaaeai?y, Ieeiea?a, 1999.

Aeine?aeaeai? oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? iniiae aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ia aac? i?iaaaeaiiai ii ainiiaea?noaao
Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? aiae?co ?ic?iaeai? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii oi?ioaaiith aenieiaoaeoeaiiai aeiia?aaea?noaa. Na?aae
ieo – i?iiiceoe?? ii: ?ici?uaiith ianaaeaeaiue ii i?e?iciiao;
iiaeeaeaiith niaoe?ae?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa; eiiia?aoe?? ? iioei?caoe??
ne?iaeiieo cii aeicaaiae?a; aaeineiiaeaiith oe?iiooai?aiiy ia aeiia?aae
? aeiii?iaeoeoe?th; iie?auaiith o?iainoaaiiy ? e?aaeeooaaiiy
aeiia?aaea?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa, ?o ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??, ?eieo i?iaeoeoe??,
iaoa??aeueiiai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a ? ?i.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeiia?aaea?noai, ?eiie, aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue,
?ici?uaiiy, niaoe?ae?caoe?y, eiiia?aoe?y, oe?iiooai?aiiy, o?iainoaaiiy,
e?aaeeooaaiiy, ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y, iaoa??aeueia noeioethaaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aa?eooa A.I. Oi?ie?iaaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeo iniia
aunieiyooaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey aeiia?aaea?noaa a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee (ii iaoa?eaeai Ieeieaaaneie iaeanoe).

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony ?oeiienueth. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie
noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02 –
yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e AIE. – Ieeieaaaneay ainoaea?noaaiiay
aa?a?iay aeaaeaiey, Ieeieaaa, 1999.

Enneaaeiaaiu oai?aoe/aneea e iaoiaee/aneea iniiau yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e yoii ia iniiaa aiaeeca ?aaio
oeaeiai ?yaea o/aiuo-yeiiiienoia ?ane?uoa nouiinoue eaoaai?ee
“yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo”, “yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue” e
“?acoeueoaoeaiinoue”, ii?aaeaeai e?oa iaeaieaa i?eaieaiuo iieacaoaeae
ioeaiee yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ?anoaieaaiae/aneie
i?iaeoeoeee, a oii /enea aeiia?aaea e aai ioaeaeueiiai
aiiaeia?aoe/aneiai ni?oa.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu ?acaeoea e yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa
aeiia?aaea ii iauanoaaiiiio naeoi?o Ieeieaaaneie iaeanoe a oeaeii, aa
?aaeiiai, aaaeiinoaai e ioaeaeueiui oicyenoaai. Aeey n?aaiaiey
eniieueciaaiu iauaoe?aeineea iieacaoaee, a oaeaea aeaiiua ninaaeieo
iaeanoae. Ia iniiaa i?iecaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca auyaeaiu iniiaiua i?e/eiu,
i?eaaaeoea e e?eceniiio ninoiyieth aeiia?aaea?noaa: i?in/aou a oeaiiaie,
iaeiaiaie e e?aaeeoiie iieeoeea; ioeaee a ?aciauaiee ianaaeaeaiee e
ia?ooaiea oaoiieiaee eo aicaeaeuaaiey; aeaa?aaeaoeey ieoiiieeiaiae/aneie
aacu io?anee; ieceay iaoa?eaeueiay caeioa?aniaaiiinoue ?aaioieeia;
neiaeiinoe n ?aaeecaoeeae i?iaeoeoeee; ii?iciay ceia 1997a. e ae?.

Iainiiaaiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey e i?aaeeiaeai i?iaeo ?aciauaiey
aeiia?aaeiuo ianaaeaeaiee ii aaeieieno?aoeaiui ?aeiiai e iee?iciiai
iaeanoe ia ia?niaeoeao. ?ac?aaioaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oaeoaeaieth
niaoeeaeecaoeee, aeaeueiaeoae eiiia?aoeee e eioaa?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
niaa?oainoaiaaieth ni?oiaiai ninoaaa aeiia?aaeieeia e iioeiecaoeee
nu?ueaauo cii aeicaaiaeia. Aeey ENI “Eeiaineia” I/aeianeiai ?aeiia
ii?aaeaeaia iioeiaeueiay no?oeoo?a oaoie/aneeo ni?oia aeiia?aaea.

Aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth oeaiiia?aciaaiey ia aeiia?aae
e aeiiaeaeue/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth, oeiaine?iaaiey e e?aaeeoiaaiey
aeiia?aaea?neeo oicyenoa. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iieo/aaiuo caaiaeaie aoi?e/iiai e ia?ae/iiai aeiiaeaeey naa?oii?iaoeaiuo
i?eaueae iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e ia?a?aaio/eeaie aeiia?aaea.

Iieacaiu iaiaoiaeeiinoue e iooe aic?iaeaeaiey aeiia?aaeiiai
ieoiiieeiaiaenoaa, niaethaeaiey oaoiieiaee aicaeaeuaaiey aeiia?aaeiuo
ianaaeaeaiee. Eceiaeaiu iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiua aa?eaiou i?aaiecaoeee
oai?ee o?iaeay.

?ane?uou iai?aaeaiey niaa?oainoaiaaiey ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (a oii
/enea nicaeaiea iioiaiai ?uiea e oi?aiauo aeiiia), ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee
aeiia?aaea?neeo oicyenoa e i?aaiecaoeee aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey ?aaioieeia.
I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaee/aneea iiaeoiaeu e ii?aaeaeaieth a?aiaeiie ieaou e
o?ainoa?oiuo oeai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeiia?aaea?noai, ?uiie, yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue,
?aciauaiea, niaoeeaeecaoeey, eiiia?aoeey, oeaiiia?aciaaiea,
oeiaine?iaaiea, e?aaeeoiaaiea, ?aaeecaoeey, ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey,
iaoa?eaeueiia noeioee?iaaiea.

SUMMARY

Mr. Garkusha A.N. Formation of organization – economic principles of
highly efficient development of viniculture within the market relations
(according to the Nicolaev Region data) is presented.

The Thesis is submitted for a doctor’s of economy degree defense, the
specialty: 08.07.02 economics of agriculture.

Nicolaev State Academy of Agriculture, Nicolaev, 1999.

The theoretic and methodological principles of economic efficiency of
agriculture have been investigated. The organizational and economic
recommendations for high efficient vine – growing have been worked out.

The proposals for arrangement of planning in micro areas; specialization
intensification of production; cooperation and optimization of raw
materials basis of production enterprises and its restructuring; price
forming development for wine and wine products, improvement of financing
and credit of wine farming, market of products, financial support etc.

Key words: viniculture, market, economic efficiency, arrangement
specialization, cooperation, price formation, credit, re-structuring,
financial support.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 12.05.99

Oi?ia 60o86/16 1 ae?oe. eeno.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai ? ____

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