I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AEIIII?*IEE

OI?AA?NEOAO

?aoaoi?eiaa ??eia Eaii?ae?aia

OAeE 658.8

Oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.02- I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a- 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ia?eaoeiao Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:-aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaaeaiei Aiaoie?e Oaaei?iae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee

aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, ?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: -aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eica/aiei Na?a?e A?eoi?iae/

I?aeia?iaeiee Oeaio? ?icaeoeo

i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? iaiaaeaeiaioo,

aee?aeoi? (i. Ee?a)

— aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ei?ieueeia ?aai ?aaiiae/

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee

oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ia?eaoeiao

— aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ia?a?aa Iao?i A?eai?iae/

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee

iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa

oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii (i.Oa?e?a)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

eaoaae?a ia?eaoeiao (i. Aeiiaoeuee).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “24” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.006.04
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:

252057, i. Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 54/1,

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “20” na?iiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio I.N.Oaaeii?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I???ioaoe?y aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ia ?eiie i?aeaeueea
?ioa?an a/aieo ? i?aeoee?a aei iaoiae?a, ui caaacia/othoue aoaeoeaia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo? ca iiaeo oiia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Oeaio?aeueia i?noea c-iii?ae ieo iin?aea? ia?eaoeia,
yeee /anoi aeyaey?oueny iaea?eueo “aocueeei i?noeai”. I?e
iai?aai?ciaai?e aai iaaoaeoeai?e ia?eaoeiaia?e nenoai? iacaieoaieie
caeeoathoueny aio/e?noue ? ?ano?ni? iiaeeeaino? ae?iaie/i?, o?iainiai?
oa ?ioeo i?aenenoai i?aei?e?inoaa. Iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaoiaee
ia?eaoeiao iaaoaathoue aeey i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ui ae?iaeythoue
i?iaeoeoe?th aeey e?ioeaaiai niiaeeaaiiy. Ca oiia ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa ?oiy i?iaeoeoe?y noaea iaeiieo?aioini?iiiaeiith, ?
iiaeaeueoa ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa aeo?ae c e?ece iiaeeeaee o?eueee ia iniia?
aeia?a i?iaeoiaii?, nieaiiaaii? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??, ui a?aoiao?
eii’thieoo?o oe?eueiaiai ?eieo ? iioaioe?ae i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui a inoaii?e /an aaaaoi a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa
aaea a?ae/oee iaaaeueio iio?aao noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a
aeey aea/aiiy ?eieo, oi?ioaaiiy ii?ooaey caiiaeaiue, noeioethaaiiy caooo
? ?aae?caoe?? ?ioeo ooieoe?e ia?eaoeiao. *anoi oe? a?aeae?ee
noai?ththoueny aac iaeaaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oa a?aooaaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae naiiai i?aei?e?inoaa. A iaeieo aeiaaeeao
?aea i?inoa ia?aeiaioaaiiy a?aeae?e?a caooo, eiia?oe?eieo a?aeae?e?a
oiui, a ?ioeo — eii?thaaiiy ac??oe?a ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?oeoo? cao?aeieo
o??i ? eiiiai?e aac a?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee ?
eoeueoo?e (oiaoi /eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua). A ?acoeueoao?
a?aenooi? ii?aeiaiiy ie?aieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue a ?aeeio nenoaio
ae?e, ni?yiiaaio ia ?aae?caoe?th ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??, a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aeae?eo ia?eaoeiao, ui noai?th?oueny, ia
eii?aeeio?oueny c ae?iaie/ith ? o?iainiaith ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?e?inoaa.
I?ioa noai?aiiy no?oeoo? ia ae??oo? an?o i?iaeai i?aai?caoe??
ia?eaoeiao.

Caeiiii??iei ? e ?ioa?an a/aieo aei i?iaeai ia?eaoeiao. Ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
iniiae ia?eaoeiao, ?ic?iaeai? a?aeiieie ca?oa?aeieie aaoi?eoaoaie O.
Eioea?ii, N. Iaaeaea?i, ?. Aeoei?iii, AE.-AE. Eaiaaiii, Aeae. Aaainii,
A. Aa?iaiii, ?. Aeeooeai, O. Oa?oaaiii, I. Ii?oa?ii, E. Aiaa, io?eiaee
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie o ?iaioao oe?a?inueeeo ? ?in?enueeeo
a/aieo-ia?eaoieia?a: A. A. Aie/aea, A. A. Aa?anei/oea, I. Ae. Ca?oae, A.
ss. Ea?aeaoa,?. ?. Ei?ieueeiaa, A. ?. E?aaeeniaa, A. I. Iieuaiea, A. O.
Iaaeaiea, I. A. Ia?a?ae, ?. A. ?iiaoa, ?. A. Naaaeue?aa, A. I.
Noa?ino?ii?, A. A. Aa?ai?oa?e?, I. N. Caa`yeiaa, ?. I. Aieoaeiaa, Ae. ?.
Einotho?ia, A. ?. Eiaaeueiaa, ?. ?. E?aoiaa, N. I. Eaa?iaa, ?. A.
Iicae?ueiai?, A. I. ?iiaiiaa, E. ?. Oeeae/ei oa ?ioeo.

Iiaeia ?c caaeiaieaiiyi a?aecia/eoe, ui ca inoaii? ?iee a?aeaoeiny
noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee ia?eaoeiao, ui ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
noai?aii? Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Ia?eaoeiao.

Iacaaaeath/e ia c?ineo e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo
ieoaiiyi ia?eaoeiao, i?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ioean?a ia
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao i?eae?eaii ua iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae.
A?eueo?noue c aeaeaiue ?ice?eaathoue oai?aoe/i? canaaee ? aeaye?
i?eeeaaee ?aae?caoe?? ie?aieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue o i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe
cao?aeieo o??i ? eiiiai?e. A?aenooi? na?eici? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?enay/ai? iniaeeainoyi ia?eaoeiao a oiiaao a?o/eciyiiai ?eieo,
aaeaioaoe?? ?ino?oiaioa??y ia?eaoeiao. Iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeai? ieoaiiy
oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiaith ae?yeuei?noth, o oiio /ene? eiai no?aoaa?/iee
aniaeo.

Iniaeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? ia?eaoeiao a a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe? iia’ycai?,
ia?aaeian?i, c ia?icaeiai?noth ?eieo, aeaiaioe yeiai o?eueee ii/eiathoue
neeaaeaoeny; iaiaaeaiith eiieo?aioe??th; ianoaa?euei?noth aeiiii?/ii? ?
iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a e?a?i?; iecueeith ieaoini?iiiaei?noth
i?aei?e?inoa ? ianaeaiiy a oe?eiio; iaaeineiiaeith caeiiiaeaa/ith
nenoaiith; neeaaeiei nioe?aeueiei noaiiaeuai oa ?ioeie /eiieeaie, ui
aeanoea? ia?ao?aeiiio ia??iaeo ? ?acii neeaaeathoue “ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeua” ia?eaoeiao ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? i?aai?caoe??. Ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeua aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaa? ia aioo??oi? na?aaeiaeua ? a
e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo aecia/a? ia?eaoeiaiao no?aoaa?th i?aai?caoe??.
Oiiae aeiiii?/ii? ianoaa?eueiino?, ui iathoue ca?ac i?noea a Oe?a?i?,
i?aeaeuothoue ?ecee ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue ? oneeaaeiththoue i?ioean
?ic?iaee ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ia?niaeoeao.
I?aei?e?inoaa aeeaooue nueiaiaei?oi?i aeiai, i?eeoth/enue eeoa i?i
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy o?iainiaeo eioo?a aeey iieaoe nai?o caai?aiaaiinoae.
I?ioa aac /?oei ae?iaeaii? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? ie?ai? ia?eaoeiaia?
caoiaee caeeoathoueny iaeiaoaeoeaieie.

O neooaoe??, ui neeaeany, iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiei ? nenoaiia
aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo aniaeo?a
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? ia a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoaao.

Iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy ia?a?aoiaaieo i?iaeai ? aecia/eea
ni?yiiaai?noue aeine?aeaeaiue ? aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? iaeaaeeoue aei
oaie: “Noai oa ?icaeoie ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0195U015888), a oaeiae o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? aea?aeaaii?
athaeaeaoii? oaie AI-17-96 “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua
i?aei?e?inoa ?aa?iio ca oiia ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo”, iiia? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? AII 196U021041.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? iaoeiaa
iaa?oiooaaiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??
i?aei?e?inoaa ca oiia aeiiii?/ii? ianoaa?eueiino? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo
? ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai
iaoai?cio ?? ?aae?caoe??.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue
iinoaiiaee ? ae??oaiiy oaeeo iniiaieo caaea/:

— ?ice?eooy ci?noo ia?eaoeiao i?aai?caoe?? ye oe?e?nii? e?aa?iaoe/ii?, a
ioaea nenoaie, a ye?e cae?eniththoueny i?ioeane oi?aae?iiy;

— aecia/aiiy ci?noo no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy ia?eaoeiao ? ?ic?iaea
iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??;

— cae?eniaiiy eeaneo?eaoe?? /eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
i?aai?caoe?? c iaoith aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae noaio iae?ina?aaeiaeua
a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aaeocaaeo ?eie?a Oe?a?ie ca oiia
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ? ?oiueiai aieeao ia aea?? no?aoaa?/ieo
aeueoa?iaoea;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ioe?iee eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e i?aei?e?inoaa ia
?eieo;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeieia?? cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?iaiico iiaeeeainoae
i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia iiaoaeia? noeaia???a
?icaeoeo ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? ioe?ioe? eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa
i?aei?e?inoaa;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yie?a aeei?enoaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae o i?ioean?
aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??;

— noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? ia?eaoeiaiai?
no?aoaa??, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? oii?yaeeoaaiiy no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaii c iaoith i???ioaoe?? ?? ia ia?eaoeia ? ?aaeaiaioaoe?th
i?ioeaaeo? ia?eaoeiaiaiai ieaioaaiiy ? eiio?ieth.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ci?no iaea?eueo cia/oueo
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo iniaenoi aaoi?ii o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
iinoaaeaieo caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii ? i?aeoe/ii ?aae?ciaaii nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei
aiae?co ia?eaoeiao ye oe?e?nii? i?aenenoaie i?aai?caoe??. Oia?oa
ia?eaoeia i?aai?caoe?? ?icaeyiooi ye e?aa?iaoe/io nenoaio, ui neeaei
iaoiaeieia?/io aaco oii?yaeeoaaiiy oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiaeie i?ioeanaie;

— eiioeaiooaeueii ?ic?iaeaii ? cae?eniaii eeaneo?eaoe?th ooieoe?e
ia?eaoeiao ? ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii ia iniia? no?oeoo?ecaoe??
no?aoaa?/ieo oe?eae ia?eaoeiao ? iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a oi?aae?iiy ia
i?aei?e?inoa?;

— ?ice?eoi ci?no ? ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaiooaeueio iiaeaeue no?aoaa?/iiai
ieaioaaiiy ia?eaoeiao ia i?aei?e?inoa?;

— oaeineiiaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th /eiiee?a iae?ina?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe??,
yea aeicaiey? eiiieaenii ioe?ieoe iniaeeaino? ?oiueiai i?iyao a
a?o/eciyieo oiiaao;

— cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aiae?co eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa i?aei?e?inoa
eaaei? i?iieneiaino? na?aae ae?th/eo eiieo?aio?a;

— cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo o?iainiai? ioe?iee eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e ?
?eieiaiai ?aeoeiao i?aei?e?inoaa na?aae iioaioe?eieo eiieo?aio?a, yea
aeeth/a? nenoaio iieaciee?a e?ea?aeiino?, ieaoini?iiiaeiino? ?
i?eaooeiaino?;

— iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?iaiico
iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo;

— iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue ? noa?e canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a ? iiaeaeae i?e aeai?? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? ca oiia
ianoaa?eueiino?;

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo? ia?eaoeiao ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao;

— ooi/iaii ? ?aaeaiaioiaaii iniiai? i?ioeaaeo?e iia?aoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy
ia?eaoeiao;

— ooi/iaii ? ocaaaeueiaii aeaee ? caniae ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth,
?ic?iaeaii ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th, ui aeicaiey? oii?yaeeoaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe eiio?ieue ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui iniiai?
oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeai? aei ??aiy iaoiaee/ieo
?ic?iaie ? i?eeeaaeieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai?
no?aoaa?? aeey a?o/eciyieo i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. C?iaeai? ia iniia?
aiae?co noaio ?eieo Oe?a?ie aeniiaee i?i iniaeeaino? iae?ina?aaeiaeua
a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa eaaei? i?iieneiaino? aeei?enoai? Eoaainueeith
Iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??th i?ae /an ?ic?iaee “I?ia?aie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Eoaainueei? iaeano? ia 1998-2010
?iee”.

?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii iaoiaeeea o?iainiai? ioe?iee eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e ?
?eieiaiai ?aeoeiao i?aei?e?inoaa ia? i?eeeaaeia cia/aiiy. An?
cai?iiiiiaai? iieacieee ?ic?aoiaai? ia iniia? aeaieo aaeaino
i?aei?e?inoaa, ui ?iaeoue ?? aeinooiiith. Iaoiaeeea aeei?enoiao?oueny ia
?yae? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Eoaainueei? iaeano?

Iaoiaeeea ?ic?iaee ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?iaiico iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa,
yea ai?iaiaaia ia Eoaainuee?e o?eeioaaei?e oaa?eoe? “Eoo?e”, iiaea aooe
canoiniaaia ia ?ioeo i?aei?e?inoaao eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.
Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?
ia?eaoeiao ai?iaaaeaeai? ia Eoaainueeiio iaoeiiaoae?aiiio caaiae? ?i.
Ia?oiiaiea.

Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ? iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai?
aaoi?ii i?e ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ia caiiaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoa ?
i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia??a c i?iaeai ia?eaoeiao aeey ea??aiee?a ? oao?aoe?a
i?aei?e?inoa, a oaeiae i?ae /an i?aeaioiaee iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a:
“Ia?eaoeia”, “I?iieneiaee ia?eaoeia”, “No?aoaa?/iee ia?eaoeia”,
“Ia?eaoeiaiaee iaiaaeaeiaio” o No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe cae?eniaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ? io?eiaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia
i?aeia?iaeieo ? anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo,
neiiic?oiao ? nai?ia?ao, a naia: “I?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeiiai ?icaeoeo,
aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo ?oo?a”. (O?aioe?y, Ia?eae, CEDIMES, 1994);
“I?aeia?iaeia eia?noeea ? ia?eaoeia a e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith” (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1996); “Ia?eaoeia o nenoai? oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaii” (i. Ee?a, 1996); “Ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae a e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?iie” (THaineaa?y, A?ea?aae, YASF, 1997);
“No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiao ? ?oi?e aieea ia i?ioeane
iaa/aiiy” (Iieueua, E?ae?a, 1997); “Aeaye? i?iaeaie oai??? i?iaeaaeo”
(Neiaae?y, A?ao?neaaa, 1997); “Oi?aa?neoao ? ?aa?ii” (i. Eoaaine, 1997);
“Oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe??th: ae?aaiinoeea, no?aoaa?y, aoaeoeai?noue” (i.
O?oneaaaoeue, 1998, 1999); “Ia?eaoeia: oai??y ? i?aeoeea” (i. Ee?a,
1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o iiiia?ao??, ianyaii
15.7 ae.a., 13 noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, 8 iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e, o iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo
?ic?iaeao. Onueiai c i?iaeaiaoeee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii 29 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeue (o o?i /ene?, iiiia?ao?y),
caaaeueiei ianyaii 33,2 ae.a., c ieo, iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 31,2
ae.a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 235
iaeiaioaaiue ? aeeth/a? 58 oaaeeoeue, 34 ?enoiee, 4 aeiaeaoee .
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 400 noi??iie, o oiio /ene? oaaeeoeue —
8, ?enoie?a — 3, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae — 18, aeiaeaoe?a — 20.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. No?aoaa?/i? aniaeoe oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aeaiaioe ia?eaoeiao a o?e aai ?io?e i??? aaea
canoiniaothoueny o a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe?, aein? a?aenooi?e eiiieaeniee
i?aeo?ae aei ia?eaoeiao ye aei oe?e?nii? nenoaie ? /?oea iinoaiiaea eiai
aeiaaino?ieiaeo oe?eae. ?aae?caoe?y ie?aieo nueiai/anieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo
ae?e ia caeaoia caaacia/eoe oiai aoaeoo, yeee aea? no?aoaa?/ia
oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii ye ?aeeiith nenoaiith a iaaeao i?aei?e?inoaa. C
iaeyaeo ia oea a aeena?oaoe?? a iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy no?aoaa?/ieo
aniaeo?a oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii iieeaaeaiee nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei
aiae?co ia?eaoeiao ye oe?e?nii? i?aenenoaie ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei?
i?aai?caoe??.

Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae ? iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aea/aiiy on?o aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a ? yaeu. Eiai aeei?enoaiiy aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iaae? ia`?eoo,
ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, ? a?aooaaoe aace?/ /eiiee?a iae??ciiiai?oi?oiai
oa?aeoa?o, ui iaea?eueo aieeaathoue ia ia’?eo c oi/ee ci?o
noi?ioeueiaaieo caaaeueiinenoaiieo oe?eae ? e?eoa???a.

I?e nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae? i?aei?e?inoai ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?aeeiee
eiiieaen aca?iiiia`ycaieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?. Aiaeii/an a?oie ie?aieo
aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, ui c oi/ee ci?o i?eeiyooy aeayeeo oi?aae?inueeeo
??oaiue iiaeia aaaaeaoe a?aeiinii naiino?eieie, ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye
i?aenenoaie i?aei?e?inoaa. Oea noino?oueny ? ia?eaoeiao.

Ia?eaoeiaia? ??oaiiy iieyaathoue a iniia? an??? ae?yeueiino? o??ie.
Iaeiae a?aeiinia iaeii??aei?noue ??oaiue, iayai?noue caaaeueieo aeaieo
aeey aaaaoueio c ieo ? niaoe?ae?caoe?y ia?niiaeo, ui aa?a o/anoue o
i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue ? ?oiueiio cae?eniaii?, — ana oea aecia/a?
aeioe?euei?noue ?icaeyaeo ia?eaoeiao ye i?aenenoaie
ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? i?aai?caoe??.

Aoaeue-yeo nenoaio iiaeia i?ae?icae?eeoe ia aeaiaioe — i?aenenoaie
ieae/eo ii?yaee?a, yeei i?eoaiaii? a?aeiinia a?aeie?aieai?noue ?
niaoeeo?/i? aeanoeaino?. Nenoaia “ia?eaoeiao” ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei?
i?aai?caoe?? neeaaea?oueny c i?aenenoai: “Oiaa?”, “Oe?ia”, “?iciiae?e” ?
“Eiioi?eaoe??”, ui a?aeii? c i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo ia?eaoieia?a ye “4-?”
(?1 — product; ?2 — price; ?3-place; ?4 — promotion). Naia aiie, ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, neeaaeathoue “Aioo??oi? na?aaeiaeua” nenoaie ia?eaoeiao.
Eiaeia c iaaaaeaieo i?aenenoai a naith /a?ao iiae?ey?oueny ia aeaiaioe ?
ieaco? niaoeeo?/io ae?th ia niiaeeaa/a. Aea o?eueee ?acii ? o
aca?iica’yceo aiie noaiiaeyoue nenoaio ia?eaoeiao i?aei?e?inoaa, yea
cae?enith? eiiieaeniee aieea ia oe?eueiaee ?eiie.

Ei?enooth/enue i?eeiyoith a oai??? eeaneo?eaoe??th nenoai, iiaeia
a?aecia/eoe, ui ia?eaoeia ? e?aa?iaoe/iith nenoaiith, oiio ui ia? an?
i?eoaiaii? ?e iciaee. Ia?eaoeiaia? nenoaie — oea aaeee?, neeaaei?,
aeeiai?/i? nenoaie, a??ia?aei?niiai oa?aeoa?o, aiiainoaoe/ii? i?e?iaee.

Aaeeea e?euee?noue neeaaeieo ? iaiaeii??aeieo ca nai?th i?e?iaeith
aeaiaio?a nenoaie ia?eaoeiao, a oaeiae aace?/ ca’yce?a, ui aeieeathoue
i?ae ieie, ?iaeyoue ???a?o?/io no?oeoo?o ia?eaoeiao aeoaea neeaaeiith ?
oaeith, ui aaaeei i?aeaea?oueny oi?iae?caoe??. Oiio caaea/? ia?eaoeiao,
ye i?aaeei, aaaaoie?eoa??aeuei? ? ia iathoue ?aeeiiai ??oaiiy.

Aeeiai?/i?noue nenoaie ia?eaoeiao iaoiiaeth?oueny ?? iino?eiei ?ooii
(ci?iith ia?aiao??a). Ci?ie a iaeiiio c aeaiaio?a nenoaie, ye i?aaeei,
ni?e/eiththoue ci?ie a ?ioeo ? a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo i?ecaiaeyoue aei
ci?ie noaio an??? nenoaie ia?eaoeiao. Oae, ci?ie a oiaa?i?e iie?oeoe?
i?aei?e?inoaa (iai?eeeaae, inai?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa iiaiai i?iaeoeoo)
aieeiooue ia eiioi?eaoe?eio iie?oeeo (caaeaaeathoue ?ic?iaee ?aeeaiii?
eaiiai??, iiaeo cania?a i?inoaaiiy oiaa?o), aeeee/ooue ci?ie a
i?aai?caoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? ia?eaoeiao (aeae?eaiiy iiaiai ea??aieea c
i?iaeoeoo, ui inaith?oueny, yeui ia?eaoeiaiaa no?oeoo?a ia? oiaa?io
i???ioaoe?th) oa ?io?. ? an? oe? ?iiaaoe?? a ie?aieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo
i?aenenoaiao iiaeooue a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo cia/ii o?ainoi?ioaaoe anth
nenoaio ia?eaoeiao ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? i?aai?caoe??. Ia?eaoeia, ye
a?aee?eoa aeiiii?/ia nenoaia, aaco?oueny ia i?ioeanao iai?io
?ioi?iaoe??th c aeiae?eeyi. Aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa ?io?
oiiae, eii’thieoo?a, ui neeaeany, ? aaaeeeaeie /eiieeaie oi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie ia?eaoeiao, aea aiaeii/an nai? ? aeeiai?/ieie i?ioeanaie, ui
caeaaeaoue a?ae aeiaaeeiaeo ci?i, ? a?aooaaoe ye? iiai?noth ia ?
iiaeeeaei.

Aiiainoaoe/i?noue ia?eaoeiaiaeo nenoai yaey? niaith ?oi? i?aaiaiiy aei
caa?aaeaiiy ??aiiaaae, no?eeino?. Aiiainoaoe/ia i?e?iaea e?aa?iaoe/ieo
nenoai ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac ?oith caeaoi?noue aei aaeaioaoe??.

sse aoaeue-yea e?aa?iaoe/ia nenoaia, ia?eaoeia ? i?aai?ciaaiith
nenoaiith, a ye?e cae?eniththoueny i?ioeane oi?aae?iiy, ia? na?e
“ao?ae”, “aeo?ae”, “cai?ioiee ca’ycie”, “aioo??oi?” ? “ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeua”.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei aoaiii nenoaiiiai aiae?co ? aecia/aiiy iaae?
“ciai?oiueiai” na?aaeiaeua, a?aeiinii yeiai aiai?youe, ui nenoaia ae??
ana?aaeei? iueiai. A aeine?aeaeaiiyo ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo
ia?eaoieia?a ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua ia?eaoeiao, ye i?aaeei,
?aeaioeo?eo?oueny c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai i?aai?caoe??.

C iaaaaeaii? ia ?en.1 noaie aeaeii, ui ia?eaoeia, ye i?aenenoaia
i?aei?e?inoaa, ia? oa ae naia ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua, ui ? i?aei?e?inoai,
aea, ye a?aeiinii naiino?eia nenoaia, a?i ia? nai? ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua.

?en. 1 — Ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua nenoaie “ia?eaoeia”

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oea ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua aeey ia?eaoeiao neeaaeathoue
ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?aenenoaie i?aei?e?inoaa. Ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua
i?aei?e?inoaa aieeaa? ? caaea? ia?aiao?e ooieoe?iioaaiiy an??? nenoaie
“i?aei?e?inoai” ? ?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?aenenoai, ? e??i oiai, eiaeia ?c
cacia/aieo i?aenenoai, yea ? a?aeiinii ia?eaoeiao aeaiaioii eiai
“ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua”, cae?enith? ia nenoaio “ia?eaoeia” na?e
aieea.

Iaaeo ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua nenoaie “ia?eaoeia”, ia a?aei?io a?ae
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua nenoaie “i?aei?e?inoai”, ia iao iiaeyae, iiaeia
aecia/eoe eeoa c aeayeith /anoeith oiiaiino?. Aeaye? aeaee ae?yeueiino?
ciaoiaeyoueny ia noeeao a?aeiia?aeieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noa?
i?aei?e?inoaa, oiaoi, ca?aeii c ?en. 1, i?noyoueny o caoo?eoiaaieo ciiao
? a ??ai?e i??? iaeaaeaoue aei iaio i?aenenoai i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ao?aeieie aaee/eiaie nenoaie ia?eaoeiao, ui caaeathoue oe?e? ? ia?aiao?e
?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ?, c iaeiiai aieo, ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i noai ?eieo, oiaoi
ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeu? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe??, a c ?ioiai —
?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? i?aei?e?inoaa, oiaoi ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeu? nenoaie ia?eaoeiao. I?e oeueiio aeaoaeuei?e ae?aaiinoeoe?,
ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiaeii? i?aeaeaaaoeny ia?aaeon?i o? aeaiaioe
ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?aenenoai i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o
caoo?eoiaaieo ciiao (oiaoi o?, ui aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia
aeinyaiaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo oe?eae i?aai?caoe??).

“Aeoiaeii” nenoaie ia?eaoeiao ? aieea ia ?io? ooieoe?iiaeuei?
i?aenenoaie i?aei?e?inoaa ? ia eiai oe?eueiaee ?eiie. I?iaeoiaia
oiaa?ia, oe?iiaa, eiioi?eaoe?eia iie?oeea i?aei?e?inoaa aieeaa? ia
iinoa/aeueiee?a, eiieo?aio?a, niiaeeaa/?a, eiioaeoi? aoaeeoi??? oa ?ioeo
o/aniee?a ?eieo, ?aaoethth/e a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo iiieo ? i?iiiceoe?th
oiai aai ?ioiai oiaa?o.

?icaeyae ia?eaoeiao i?aai?caoe?? ye ia’?eoo nenoaiiiai aiae?co ?
a?aeianaiiy eiai aei ?ic?yaeo “e?aa?iaoe/ieo nenoai” aeicaiey?
?aae?coaaoe i?aeo?ae aei eiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui a?oioo?oueny ia
aea/aii? aeanoeainoae ? iniaeeainoae nenoaie ia?eaoeiao ye oaei?, a ye?e
a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane oi?aae?iiy.

O e?aa?iaoe/ieo nenoaiao caaaeaee i?enooi?e i?aai, ui cae?enith?
ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy. C iaeyaeo ia oea noa’?eoaie oi?aae?iiy nenoaie
ia?eaoeiao i?aai?caoe??, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ? no?oeoo?i? i?ae?icae?ee,
neoaeae ? ie?ai? oao?aoe?, ui cae?enithoue ?aae?caoe?th ooieoe?e
ia?eaoeiao. Ia’?eoaie oi?aae?iiy a nenoai? ia?eaoeiao ? i?ioeane,
iia’ycai? c aea/aiiyi ? oi?ioaaiiyi iio?aa, ?ic?iaeith ? ae?iaieoeoaii
oiaa??a, ?ic?aooieii oe?ie, a oaeiae ?oi?i ?iciiae?eii ? i?inoaaiiyi
a?ae ae?iaieea aei niiaeeaa/a.

?icaeyiooee ci?no ? no?oeoo?a ia?eaoeiao ye e?aa?iaoe/ii? nenoaie ?
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ?ic?iaeaii? a aeena?oaoe?? iiaeae? i?ioean?a
oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii, yea aeicaieeea noi?ioethaaoe iniiai? ooieoe??
oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiao. Ieie ? :

— ieaioaaiiy ia?eaoeiao, ui aeeth/a? aiae?c ?eieiai? neooaoe?? ?
iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa; aecia/aiiy oe?eae ia?eaoeiaiai?
ae?yeueiino?; aea?? no?aoaa?? ? ieai?a ?? ?aae?caoe??;

— i?aai?caoe?y ia?eaoeiao, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ?ic?iaeo ? noai?aiiy
i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ia?eaoeiao; ?aaeaiaioaoe?th ? eii?aeeiaoe?th
ae?yeueiino? ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?oeoo?; noi?ae?yaei?noue ? iia’ycaiiy ?o c
?ioeie no?oeoo?ieie i?ae?icae?eaie;

— iioeaaoe?y, ui ia?aaeaa/a? niiioeaiiy aei aeoeaiino? i?aoe?aiee?a
ia?eaoeiaiaeo neoaea o i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?? ? ieai?a
ia?eaoeiao aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo oe?eae;

— eiio?ieue ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?, ui aeeth/a? c?noaaeaiiy
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a c caaea/aie ? oe?eyie ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie
ia?eaoeiao ? aianaiiy nai?/anieo ?aaoethth/eo aieea?a.

Oi?aae?inueeo ae?yeuei?noue o??ie iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aeaa ??ai?:
no?aoaa?/iee ? iia?aoeaiee. O oeueiio ca’yceo aeae?eythoue aeaa ??ai?
ia?eaoeiaiai? aeoeaiino? o??ie: no?aoaa?/iee ? iia?aoeaiee ia?eaoeia.

No?aoaa?/iee ia?eaoeia aeeth/a? nenoaiaoe/iee ? iino?eiee aiae?c iio?aa
? aeiia oe?eueiaeo a?oi niiaeeaa/?a, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeo eiioeaioe?e
aoaeoeaieo oiaa??a aai iineoa, ui aeicaieythoue eiiiai?? ianeoaiaoaaoe
aea?ai? a?oie iieoioe?a e?aua, i?ae eiieo?aioe, ? caaaeyee oeueiio,
caaacia/othoue ae?iaieeo no?eeo eiieo?aioio ia?aaaao.

?ieue iia?aoeaiiai ia?eaoeiao iieyaa? a i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa
oiaa??a, ia?aaeaa/aieo no?aoaa?/iei ieaiii, ?oiueiio ?iciiae?e?, caooo,
i?iaeaaeo ? iie?oeoe? eiioi?eaoe?? aeey ?ioi?ioaaiiy iioaioe?eieo
iieoioe?a ? aeaiiino?aoe?? a?aeie?aiethaaeueieo yeinoae oiaa?o.

No?aoaa?/iee ia?eaoeia a?aeiinii nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii ?
i?ioeanii oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiaith ae?yeuei?noth a no?aoaa?/iiio
aniaeo?. Eiai caaea/a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??,
noai?aii? aaeaeaaoiiai i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ? caaacia/aii?
?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?? oeyoii iioeaaoe?? ? eiio?ieth aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo oe?eae o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ?eieiaeo iio?aa ?
iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa.

A ?iaio? cae?eniaii aeaeiiiiceoe?th no?aoaa?/ieo oe?eae ia?eaoeiao, yea
aeicaieeea eeaneo?eoaaoe iniiai? ooieoe?? ia?eaoeiao. Aei ieo
iaeaaeaoue: aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo, cae?eniaiiy oiaa?ii?, oe?iiai?,
iie?oeee ?iciiae?eo ? eiioi?eaoe?eii? iie?oeee. O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
aeae?eaieo ooieoe?e, aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia aeaoaeueia eeaneo?eaoe?y
aeae?a ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei?
i?aai?caoe??, yea ? iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeey noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii?
no?oeoo?e ia?eaoeiao a ?icae?e? 5.

Ia?eaoeiaiaa no?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy — oeaio?aeueia /anoeia no?aoaa?/iiai
oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii, ui aeeth/a? a naaa neooaoe?eiee aiae?c,
oe?eaiieaaaiiy, aea?? no?aoaa?? ? oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?aie ?? ?aae?caoe??.
Oea oeeee?/iee i?ioean, yeee iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 2.

?en. 2 — Iiaeaeue no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy ia?eaoeiao

Ia?eaoeiaiaa no?aoaa?y i?aei?e?inoaa eiie?aoeco?ony a eiiieaen?
no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue ii eiaeiiio c aeaiaio?a ia?eaoeiao-mix. Iniiaieie
ia?eaoeiaiaeie no?aoaa?yie ?: no?aoaa?? iiaaae?iee ia ?eieo, oiaa?i?,
oe?iia?, i?iaeaaeo oa eiioi?eaoe?ei?.

??ciiiai?oi?noue ?eieiaeo neooaoe?e ia?aaeaa/a? ??ciiiai?oi?noue
eiia?iaoe?e eiiieaeno ia?eaoeiaiaeo cania?a, ui neeaaeathoue
ia?eaoeiaiao no?aoaa?th i?aei?e?inoaa. Iioeiaeueiei ? eiiieaen
no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue, yeee c iaea?eueoith ?iia??i?noth aeicaiey?
aeinyaoe iinoaaeaieo oe?eae ia?eaoeiao ca iaeiaioeo aeo?ao
i?aei?e?inoaa.

?icae?e 2. Ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? ca oiia ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? ? ii/aoeiaei aoaiii
oi?ioaaiiy ?? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??. Aeey c’ynoaaiiy iniaeeainoae
i?iyao /eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa,
ioe?iee ?oiueiai noaio ? i?iaiicoaaiiy oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aeioe?eueiei
? aeie?aieaiiy a ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu? i?aai?caoe?? iae?i — ?
i?e?ina?aaeiaeua. *eiieee iae?ina?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? a?eueo neeaaei?
? iaaecia/ai?, i?ae /eiieee i?e?ina?aaeiaeua, aea iaio aca?iiiia`ycai? ?
?ooeea?, a oiio iaiao?aeiei ? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co
/eiiee?a iae?i — ? i?e?ina?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? ? ioe?iee ?oiueiai
aieeao ia ia?eaoeiaiao ae?yeuei?noue.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy a?aeiieo a e?oa?aoo?? eeaneo?eaoe?e
/eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio
?oiuei? iiaaae?iee c oi/ee ci?o oa?aeoa?enoee iae?i — ? i?e?ina?aaeiaeua
aeicaieeee aaoi?o cai?iiiioaaoe eeaneo?eaoe?th /eiiee?a iae?ina?aaeiaeua
i?aai?caoe??, ye? aecia/athoue ?? ia?eaoeiaiao no?aoaa?th. Eeaneo?eaoe?y
aeeth/a? caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? ? ?aa?iiaeueiee /eiieee.
Caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? /eiieee i?aaenoaaeai? i`youeia a?oiaie:
aeiiii?/ieie, iie?oeei-i?aaiaeie, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie,
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieie ? aeieia?/ieie. ?aa?iiaeueiee /eiiee
iaeeaaea? nai? iniaeeaino? ia oie aai ?ioee caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiee /eiiee.
Iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa? a?aooaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo /eiiee?a aeey
a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa, ui i?aoeththoue ca oiia ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.
I?iaeaie ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a iineeththoue aaaeeee iie?oe/iee ? aeiiii?/iee
noai, aiaeii/an ye a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao ?oi?e iioaioe?ae, niaoeeo?/i?
iniaeeaino? aeicaieythoue yeinue aaeaiooaaoeny aei neooaoe??. ? ni?aaa
ooo ia o?eueee a oi?eiio ea??aieoeoa? aieiae aaei?i?no?aoe??, a ? a
ia’?eoeaieo ?aa?iiaeueieo oiiaao, ui iineeththoue aieea aeiiii?/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a ia ?eiie i?aei?e?inoaa
(iaiia ae a?aeo?iythoue ?oith ae?th). *ei aeuee ??aaiue ia??aiii??iino?
?icaeoeo ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a, oei neeuei?oee aieea ?aa?iiaeueieo /eiiee?a.
A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao i?ae noa?o ?oiueiai aieeao iiaeooue iio?aieyoe
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia ? iie?oeei-i?aaiaa na?aaeiaeua.

?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y /eiiee?a iae?ina?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? ? ?oi?o
iniiaieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee aeei?enoiao?oueny aaoi?ii aeey aiae?co noaio
a?o/eciyiiai iae?ina?aaeiaeua ? oa?aeoa?o eiai aieeao ia ia?eaoeiaiao
ae?yeuei?noue i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. E??i oiai, aiia ? iaoiaee/iith
iniiaith ?ic?iaee ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?iaiico iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa ia
?eieo (i. 3.3).

I?iaaaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a
Oe?a?i? aeicaiey? noi?ioethaaoe ianooii? oaiaeaioe?? aeiiii?/iiai
na?aaeiaeua, ui aecia/athoue no/aniee noai caaaeueiiainiiaea?nueei?
eii’thieoo?e ? ? aacith aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo aaeocaaeo ?eie?a:
nei?i/aiiy oaii?a ?ioeyoe??; ?ioeyoe?eiee i?ioean noa? ea?iaaiei;
nei?i/aiiy oaii?a c?inoaiiy iioiaeo oe?i; nei?i/aiiy athaeaeaoiiai
aeao?oeeoo; ?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeieo ca’yce?a; c?inoaiiy aenii?oo oiaa??a;
noai?aiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e; nei?i/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??
(a ioaea nei?i/aiiy i?iiiceoe??) a on?o aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa; i?aeaeuaiiy /anoee iaae?iaie/i? noa?e a caaaeueiiio
ianyc? aaeiai? aeiaeaoeiai? aa?oino?; aea?iaeono??ae?caoe?y aeiiii?ee —
i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii? aaae ne?iaeiieo aaeocae; nei?i/aiiy i?enei?aieie
oaiiaie ae?iaieoeoaa a aaeocyo, ui ae?iaeythoue i?iaeoeoe?th aeey
e?ioeaaiai noni?eueiiai niiaeeaaiiy — iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, eaae?e ?
oa?/ia?e i?iieneiaino?; iaeiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue a?o/eciyii?
i?iaeoeoe?? cacia/aieo aaeocae, ni?e/eiaia iecueeith ye?noth ? aenieeie
aeo?aoaie (ye ?acoeueoao a?aenoaeeo oaoiieia?e); ieao?aeia e?eca; aeniea
ieoiia aaaa ne?iaeie, iai?aoaa?eeao?a ? aa?aaao?a o no?oeoo?? aenii?oo;
iaiiaiaiiy ?eieo ?iii?oieie niiaeea/eie oiaa?aie.

Iniiaiee aeniiaie, yeee iiaeia c?iaeoe a?aeiinii noaio ? oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e, — oea cia/ia nei?i/aiiy ?aaeueieo
i?eaooe?a, cieaeaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ? a?aie/ii iecueea eoi?aaeueia
ni?iiiaei?noue ianaeaiiy, ui iaiaaeo? niiaeea/ee ?eiie ? a e?ioeaaiio
i?aenoieo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ua a?eueoi? e?ece o noa?? ae?iaieoeoaa.

I?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiee aiae?co iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa, iiaeia a?aecia/eoe ianooii?
“iiaeeeaino?”: a?aenooi?noue eieaeueieo ? iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a;
noai?aiiy ? aacia?a?aia aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaa/i? aace, ui caaacia/o?
naiaiaeo ? caoeno i?aei?e?iieoeoaa; iaeiie/aiiy iaaiiai caeiiioai?/iai
aeina?aeo; ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy; oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoioeeaaeii?
aeiiii?ee, e?ea?aeaoe?y aea?aeaaii? iiiiiie??; ?icaeoie iaeiai a?ciano.
“Caa?ice” iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua: noia?a/eea? a?aeiineie i?ae
aeeiiaa/ith, caeiiiaeaa/ith ? i?aceaeaionueeith aeaaeith; /anoa ci?ia
o?yae?a ? ye ?acoeueoao — iie?oe/ia ianoaa?euei?noue; iaaeineiiae?noue
ie?aieo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ui cieaeo? ?oith ae??a?noue ?
aoaeoeai?noue; aeniea ?ooeea?noue ? ianoaa?euei?noue i?aaiaiai
na?aaeiaeua iia’ycaia c iino?eiith ci?iith ? aaeineiiaeaiiyi
caeiiiaeaa/i? aace.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iaoeiai-oaoi?/io neeaaeiao ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
a?o/eciyieo i?aai?caoe?e, iiaeia a?aei?oeoe iineaaeaiiy ?? aieeao.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeii? ?ioaa?aoe??,
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c Caoiaeii a?aee?eei iia? ia?niaeoeae aeey canai?iiy
no/anieo aenieiaoaeoeaieo ? aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e, i?aei?e?inoaa
Oe?a?ie ia iathoue o?iainiaeo eioo?a ia ?oi? i?eaeaaiiy ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, oae naii, ye ? ia noai?aiiy aeanieo
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeieo ae?iaieoeoa. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an ia?anoaa
aooe o ian “ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii”, ye oea aoei a iaaeaeaeii ieioeiio.

Aiae?coth/e noai aeieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoa,
iiaeia a?aei?oeoe aea? noia?a/eea? oaiaeaioe??. C iaeiiai aieo —
nei?i/aiiy ianya?a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? coieiee aeayeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, o oiio /ene? oeo, ui cae?enithaaee oe?aeeea? aeeeaee a
iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua, ni?ey? aeieia?/iiio icaei?iaeaiith noni?euenoaa.
A ?acoeueoao? coieiee i?aei?e?inoa o?i?/ii? ? iaoaeo?a?eii?
i?iieneiaino? cia/ii nei?ioeeeny aeeeaee a iia?o?yiee ? aiaeiee aanaei
ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a. C ?ioiai aieo — canoa??ea iaeaaeiaiiy ? oaoiieia??, ui
iathoue i?noea ia a?eueoino? aaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoa, a oaeiae ia’?eoeai?
o?oaeiiu? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo iia’ycai? c a?aenooi?noth o?iainiaeo
eioo?a ia i?e?iaeiioi?iii? caoiaee, i?ecaiaeyoue aei iino?eiiai
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? aaa??e, eaoano?io oa ?ioeo iaaecae/aeieo
neooaoe?e. Neeaaeiee aeieia?/iee noai aeiaaa? a?ae ea??aiee?a
a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa anaa?/ii? ioe?iee an?o /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue
ia i?eeiyooy ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue.

?icaeyaoo? a aeena?oaoe?? a?aei?iiino? a ??ai? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/iiai noaio no?aeieo ? cao?aeieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aieea ?aa?iiaeueiiai /eiieea — neeaaeieea
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe??. Ua aeoae/a ?aa?iiaeueiee /eiiee
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua aeyaey?oueny a eoeueoo?ieo ? iaoe?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoyo ianaeaiiy ??cieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie. Cao?aei? ?aa?iie Oe?a?ie
oi?iaeiaae noie?oue aoee iin?yie iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e ? o?aaeeoe?e ?
noaee oeaio?ii a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, oiae? ye
no?aei? iaeano?, ui iaaeothoue c ?in??th, ? E?ei a?eueoa oyae?thoue aei
?in?enueei? eoeueoo?e. Niaee ? ia?aaaae niiaeeaa/?a, iia’ycai? c
eoeueoo?ieie ? iaoe?iiaeueieie o?aaeeoe?yie, ?ae?a?eieie oa/?yie,
iiaeooue noaoe ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii i?ae /an i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i
eoi?aeth oiaa?o ? iathoue a?aoiaoaaoeny ia?eaoieiaaie caoe?eaaeaieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c noaio ? i?iyao iniiaieo /eiiee?a iae?ina?aaeiaeua
i?aei?e?inoa na?ae/eoue i?i ?oith iaaei??io neeaaei?noue,
aca?iiii`ycai?noue ? ?ooeea?noue, ui coiiaeth? iaaecia/aiee oa?aeoa?
na?aaeiaeua i?eeiyooy ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue ? a?aeaeaa?oueny ia caniaao
?ic?iaee ? aeai?o ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??.

Iaaecia/ai?noue ? ianoaa?euei?noue iae?ina?aaeiaeua a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoa a naith /a?ao iaoiiaeth? ?ooeea?noue /eiiee?a oe?eueiaiai
?eieo i?aei?e?inoaa, iniiaieie o/anieeaie yeiai ? niiaeeaa/?,
eiieo?aioe, iinoa/aeueieee, eiioaeoi? aoaeeoi???. Naia aiie a e?ioeaaiio
i?aenoieo aecia/athoue eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa ? eiai
i?iaeoeoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?eueiaiai ?eieo i?aei?e?inoaa —
iaeaaaeeea?oee iai?yi neooaoe?eiiai aiae?co, yeee aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
caa?ice ? iiaeeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? o??? aai ?ioi? ia?eaoeiaiai?
no?aoaa??. Aeey aecia/aiiy iiaeeeaeo aeueoa?iaoea ia?eaoeiaiai?
no?aoaa?? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia? ?ici?ciaiiy iaeaooi?o ci?i ?ici??o ?
ianyao ?eieo, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, eiai aeeiai?ee, ??aiy iane/aiino?,
noeeueiinoae iieoioe?a, no?oeoo?e e ?ioaineaiino? eiieo?aioe?? oiui.

Oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ?eieo i?aei?e?inoaa, ia iao iiaeyae,
neeaaeathoueny, c iaeiiai aieo, i?ae aieeaii ci?i, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
caaaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? aeaiiai ?eieo — iae?ina?aaeiaeu? i?aei?e?inoaa,
a c ?ioiai — ? i?iyaii caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo, ui iiyniththoueny ca
aeiiiiiaith oai??? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?eieo.

?eiie, oae naii ye ? oiaa?, o nai?io ?icaeoeo i?ioiaeeoue aeae?eueea
aoai?a: oi?ioaaiiy, c?inoaiiy, c??e?noue ? niaae. Oeeee aeeooy ?eieo, ye
i?aaeei, cia/ii aeiaoee oeeeeo aeeooy i?iaeoeoo ? ni?aiaaea? c iei
o?eueee ia noeneee ia??iae, i?ioyaii yeiai oe?eeii i?ea?iaeueiee
i?iaeoeo aaia?o? iiaee ?eiie, i?ney /iai aeo?niy?oueny iiaeie
i?iaeoeoaie, ye? e?aua caaeiaieueiythoue oo ae iio?aao. Eiaeia oaca
oeeeeo aeeooy ?eieo ia? nai? niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ? noai?th? iaai?
oiiae aeey ?aae?caoe?? o??? aai ?ioi? no?aoaa?? ae?th/eo ia iueiio o??i.

A e?a?iao c aaaaoie?oiueith ?noi???th ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a?eueo?noue
?eie?a, iia’ycaieo ?c caaeiaieaiiyi niiaeea/eo iio?aa, ciaoiaeeoueny o
oac? c??eino?. A Oe?a?i? ae ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy ae?enii? oace ?icaeoeo
?eieo ? aeoaea neeaaeiei. Oea iia’ycaii c aeiiii?/ieie ? iie?oe/ieie
ci?iaie, a naia: a?aee?eooyi aioo??oiueiai ?eieo aeey ca?oa?aeieo o??i,
i?eaaoecaoe??th, ca?eueiaiiyi oe?i oiui. A oae?e neooaoe?? iiaeia
neacaoe, ui aeaye? aaeocaa? ?eiee aeaaeieiaai?, aiie ii/aee iiaee oeeee
?icaeoeo ? ? ?eieaie, ui oi?iothoueny, (iai?eeeaae ?eiie i?iaeoeo?a
oa?/oaaiiy). ?io? ?eiee c i?e/eie nei?i/aiiy iiieoo ? a?aenooiino?
?aaeueii? iiaeeeaino? a?o/eciyieie i?aei?e?inoaaie aeei?enoiaoaaoe iia?
oaoiieia?? iieieeeny a noaae?? niaaeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?eieo, oae naii ye ? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo
ie?aiiai i?iaeoeoo, iiaeiii aooe ia’?eoii iino?eii? oaaae o??ie. ??ciei
noaae?yi aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?eieo i?eoaiaiia ??cia i?e?iaea ?
?ioaineai?noue eiieo?aioe??, a oiio o??ia ia? aeei?enoiaoaaoe
ia?eaoeiaia? no?aoaa??, aaeaeaaoi? noaio ?eieo. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia
eeaneo?eaoe?y ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?aoaa?/ieo aeueoa?iaoea caeaaeii a?ae
noaae?e aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?eieo.

O?eaae?noue noaae?e aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?eieo cia/ii eieeaa?oueny caeaaeii
a?ae aaeoc?. Aaeocaaa eiieo?aioe?y iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ia aeey
oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo ? oiio ? a aeaa? 3 ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiae?c
eii’thieoo?e a?o/eciyiiai ?eieo, i?iaaaeaiee a i. 2.2, na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae a Oe?a?i? iicia/eany anooiii ia?a?iaieo
aaeocae o oaco niaaeo. Oea noino?oueny ? eaaei? i?iieneiaino?.
Iacaaaeath/e ia an? o?oaeiiu?, iia’ycai? c oacith niaaeo, neooaoe?th
aeey ia?eaoeiao ia a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoaao, ui ae?iaeythoue
o?eeioaaei? ae?iae, o oe?eiio iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye i?eeiyoio.
Ca?aeii c i?iaaaeaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ca ?ic?iaeaiith aaoi?ii
iaoiaeeeith, c 17 ?icaeyiooeo /eiiee?a noaio neooaoe?? aaeocaaiai ?eieo
aeanyoue iiaeia a?aeianoe aei “iiaeeeainoae” (/eiieee, ui iathoue
ioe?ieo “ni?eyoeeaa” ? “i?eeiyoia”) ? n?i — aei “caa?ic” ?eieo (/eiieee,
ui iathoue ioe?ieo “iani?eyoeeaa”).

I?ioean aeai?o eiie?aoii? no?aoaa?? o??ie a ia??iae niaaeo aaeocaaiai
?eieo caiaeeoueny aei iiaiaeaeaiiy aaaeaiiy caeeoeoeny a aaeoc? c ??
iioaioe?eieie ia?aaaaaie a?aeiinii eiieo?aio?a. O??ie c ??ciei
noaiiaeuai ia ?eieo ei?enooaaoeiooueny i?ae /an niaaeo ??cieie
ia?eaoeiaiaeie no?aoaa?yie. Inoaoi/iee aea aea?? iioeiaeueii?
ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? eiie?aoiiai i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeia c?iaeoe o?eueee
ioe?ieaoe eiai aioo??oi?e iioaioe?ae (neeuei? ? neaae? noi?iie), yeee
aeicaiey? aeinyaoe iaaieo eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa ia ?eieo.

?icae?e 3. Ioe?iea eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo

Aea?? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa o aaaaoi /iio caeaaeeoue
a?ae eiai eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e ia ?eieo. C oi/ee ci?o ia?eaoeiao, i?ae
eiieo?aioiini?iiiaei?noth i?iaeoeoe?? ?icoi??oueny noeoii?noue
ia?aiao??a, ui caaacia/othoue ?e oi?ciaiiy ? aeie?aieaiiy iieoioeyie
c-iii?ae ?ioiai oiaa?o ia eiieo?aioiiio ?eieo. Ana /ano?oa oa?i?i
“eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue” iioe?th?oueny ia o?eueee ia i?iaeoeoe?th, aea
? ia i?aei?e?inoaa. Eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo
aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie eiai eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa.

Aeey ioe?iee eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa i?aei?e?inoaa a eiaeiiio ie?aiiio
aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeiee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae, aeeaieee aiae?c
niaoeeo?ee ie?aiiai naeoi?a ?eieo. Caaea/a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o
aeyaeaii? caaaeueieo /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue iaaiei /eiii ia
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa, aeai?? iieaciee?a ? ioe?ioe? ?o
cia/ouino?.

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaiaaia iaoiaeeea aiae?co eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa
i?aei?e?inoa eaaei? i?iieneiaino?, yea ia?aaeaa/a? aeaa aoaie:

-aiae?c eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa na?aae ae?th/eo eiieo?aio?a ia ?eieo
Oe?a?ie;

-aiae?c eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa i?aei?e?inoaa na?aae iioaioe?eieo
eiieo?aio?a ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ?eieo.

Ia’?eoii aeaoaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai aiae?co c iaoith ioe?iee
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa noaei Eoaainueea o?eeioaaeia ia’?aeiaiiy CAO
“Eoo?e”. A Oe?a?i? na?aae a?o/eciyieo ae?iaiee?a eiieo?aioaie CAO
“Eoo?e” a iei?oi?e /an ? i’youe o?eeioaaeieo i?aei?e?inoa: Oa?e?anueea
o?eeioaaeia ia’?aeiaiiy, Aeiiaoeueea o?eeioaaeia oaa?eea, Ee?anueea
o?eeioaaeia ia’?aeiaiiy “O?iyiaea”, Ioea/?anueea o?eeioaaeia
ia’?aeiaiiy, Iaeeoiiieuenueea o?eeioaaeia oaa?eea.

Aiae?c eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa “Eoo?e” na?aae ae?th/eo eiieo?aio?a ia ?eieo
o?eeioaaeieo ae?ia?a Oe?a?ie i?iaiaeeany ca ?ic?iaeaiith aaoi?ii
iaoiaeeeith, yea aeeth/a? oae? aoaie:

1. ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y e?eoa???a eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoa ?
oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie iieaciee?a, ui ?o ioe?iththoue.

2. Oi?ioaaiiy a?oi aenia?o?a aeey ioe?iee iieaciee?a
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?.

3. Noai?aiiy oeaee ioe?iee a?aeiinii? cia/ouino? eiaeiiai iieacieea i?e
aecia/aii? caaaeueiiai ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

4. I?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy “Aeaeueo?-Iaoiaeii”.

5. Noia?ia iiaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co a oaaee/iiio aeaeyae?,
?ic?aooiie i?aenoieiaeo ioe?iie ii eiaeiiio iieacieeo c o?aooaaiiyi eiai
eiao?oe??ioo cia/ouino?.

6. I?aenoieiaa ioe?iea eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ia ?eieo i?aei?e?inoaa,
ui aiae?co?oueny, ? eiai eiieo?aio?a.

7. ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ? oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa ia
?eieo i?aei?e?inoaa, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

Nenoaia iieaciee?a eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?, ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii ca
o/anoth oao?aoe?a eaaei? i?iieneiaino?, aeeth/a? oae? iieacieee: /anoea
?eieo, ye?noue oiaa?o, ani?oeiaio, aoaeoeai?noue eaiae?a oiaa?i?ooo,
aoaeoeai?noue ?aeeaie ? noeioethaaiiy caooo, iayai?noue o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a, ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae, ?aiooaoe?y o niiaeeaa/?a, iiaeeeaino?
a oe?iia?e eiieo?aioe??, ?iiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue, i?aai?caoe?y
ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?.

O oe?eiio, i?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiee aiae?co eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa CAO
“Eoo?e” ia ?eieo o?eeioaaeieo ae?ia?a Oe?a?ie, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i eiai a?aeiinii aenieee ??aaiue eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?. C 1000
iiaeeeaeo aae?a i?aei?e?inoai iaa?aei 655, i?iionoeaoe oia?aae
Ioea/?anueea (740) ? Ee?anueea o?eeioaaeia ia’?aeiaiiy (665).

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? aiae?cothoueny ia?aaaae ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy (CAO
“Eoo?e”) ia oe? i?aei?e?inoa, ye? a iei?oi?e /an ia ? aaciina?aaei?ie
eiieo?aioaie, aea aeecuee?noue oaoiieia?e, aaeocaaa i?eiaeaaei?noue ca
iaaieo oiia aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe ?o ye iioaioe?eieo eiieo?aio?a.
Nii??aeiai?noue aea ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo Eoaainueei? iaeano? iiaea
c?iaeoe oeth eiieo?aioe?th aeinoaoiuei aei?noeith. Ia i?aenoaa? oiai, ui
a iei?oi?e /an oe? i?aei?e?inoaa ae?iaeythoue ??ciiiai?oio i?iaeoeoe?th,
? ii??aiyoe ?? ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia ? iiaeeeaei, a iniiao aiae?co
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa iieeaaeaia o?iainiaa ioe?iea ia?eaoeiaiaeo iiceoe?e
i?aei?e?inoa ia ?eieo ca ?ic?iaeaiith aaoi?ii iaoiaeeeith.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aea? iiaeeea?noue ?iaeoe ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c
iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa, aecia/aoe eiai “neeuei?” ? “neaae?” a
o?iainiaiio a?aeiioaii? noi?iie, a oaeiae ?eieiaee ?aeoeia na?aae
i?aei?e?inoa — eiieo?aio?a. Nenoaia aeeth/a? /ioe?e a?oie iieaciee?a:
e?ea?aeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa; oi?aae?iiy aeoeaaie; oi?aae?iiy
caai?aiaai?noth i?aei?e?inoaa; ?aioaaaeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa. Aei
neeaaeo nenoaie oa?eoee a?aeiini? iieacieee, ye? a iaea?eueo?e i???
oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?aei?e?inoai ia ?eieo ? a?aeia?aaeathoue eiai
ia?eaoeiaiao ae?yeuei?noue. An? aiie ?ic?aoiaothoueny ia iniia? aeaieo
aaeaino i?aei?e?inoaa ? oi?ie 2, ui ?iaeoue iaoiaeeeo aeinooiiith
iaa?oue ca a?o/eciyieo oiia aeao?oeeoo ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa CAO “Eoo?e” na?aae iioaioe?eieo
eiieo?aio?a ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ?eieo, c oi/ee ci?o ?oi?o o?iainiaeo
iiceoe?e, i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i aeinoaoiuei no?ee?
eiai iiceoe??. “Eoo?e” ia? eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae c iieaciee?a
e?ea?aeiino? ? iieaciee?a oi?aae?iiy aeoeaaie. *a?ac neaae? o?iainia?
iiceoe?? ?icaeyioo? i?aei?e?inoaa iaa?yae /e ciiaeooue oa?eoe aei
oe?eueiaiai ?eieo “Eoo?e” ? noaoe eiio eiieo?aioaie. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa CAO “Eoo?e” aeicaiey? ia?aeoe aei ?ic?iaee
ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?iaiico noaiiaeua i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo a i. 3.3.

Ia?eaoeiaiaee i?iaiic, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ? caaaa/aiiyi iaeaooiueiai
noaio nenoaie ia?eaoeiao i?aei?e?inoaa, ? ye ?acoeueoao —
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ia ?eieo eiai i?iaeoeoo. I?ioeaaeo?a ?ia?o c
?ic?iaee i?iaiico ia?aaeaa/a? /ioe?e aoaie:

— aiae?co?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ioi/aiiy i?aei?e?inoaa ? ?ic?iaey?oueny
noeaia??e eiai ?icaeoeo;

— aiae?cothoueny neeuei? ? neaae? noi?iie i?aei?e?inoaa o ii??aiyii? c
eiieo?aioaie;

— i?iaiaeeoueny noi?uaiiy oaiaeaioe?e ioi/aiiy ? aioo??oi?o iiaeeeainoae
i?aei?e?inoaa ? eiai i?iaeoeoe??;

— i?iaiaeeoueny i?iaiicia ioe?iea oain?a ia oni?o o??? aai ?ioi?
no?aoaa??.

Iniiaieie caaea/aie aiae?co ioi/aiiy ?: aea/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e noni?eueieo
i?ioean?a, ui iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a iia?e no?aoaa??
i?aei?e?inoaa; aeyaeaiiy no?aoaa?/ieo eeth/iaeo i?iaeai ci?ie
eii`thieoo?e ?eieo ? aeyaeaiiy neaaeeo neaiae?a iaeaooiueiai iiieoo. Ia
aoai? aiae?co ioi/aiiy i?aei?e?inoaa iaeiei c iaea?eueo aeioe?eueieo
iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy ? iaoiae noeaia???a. Iaoiaeeeo i?iaiico
ai?iaiaaii ia i?eeeaae? CAO “Eoo?e”. I?e ?ic?iaoe? noeaia??th ?icaeoeo
?eieo i?aei?e?inoaa aeei?enoiaoaaeany ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii o ?icae?e? 2
eeaneo?eaoe?y /eiiee?a iae?ina?aaeiaeua ? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aiae?co ?oi?o iniaeeainoae o a?o/eciyieo oiiaao.

Ioe?iea, cae?eniaia ia ia?oiio aoai? ?ic?iaee i?iaiico, aeicaiey?
ioe?ieoe ciai?oi? ioi/aiiy — ?eiie i?aei?e?inoaa. Iaeiae iaaecae/aeii
iio??aia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino? naiiai i?aei?e?inoaa, ye?
iiaeia aeei?enoaoe i?e ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa??. Oiio iaiao?aeiei ?
c?noaaeaiiy neaaeeo ? neeueieo noi??i on?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?aenenoai c
?eieiaith neooaoe??th. Ia aeaiiio aoai? i?iaiico aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
io?eiai? aaoi?ii aeniiaee i?i eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae “Eoo?e” ia ?eieo
o?eeioaaeieo ae?ia?a. O?eueee ca?a iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ?
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo ?eieo iiaea aa?aiooaaoe oaine ia oni?o o aeai??
no?aoaa?? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo, oiaoi oaine ia oni?oia ?nioaaiiy naiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo.

Ca ioe?ieo ia?niaeoeaiino? ? iaae?eiino? ia?aaeaa/oaaii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeia i?eeiyoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieiu o?ao?: i?ae
iioaioe?eii iiaeeeaei i`yoeeooieeii ? iiaoaeiaaiei ia io?eiaieo
ioe?ieao. Ia ?en. 3 iaaaaeaii ia?eaoeiaiaee i?iaiic iiaeeeainoae
CAO“Eoo?e”.

?en. 3 — Aaaaoii??iee i?iaiic iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo.

E?eoa???i iaae?eiino? aeaii? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa ca oiia i?ieeaiai
aeiae?eey ? ieiua o?ao?e-ciie, yea ? noiith i’yoe ie?aieo naaiaio?a.
Iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea a?aie/ieo cia/aiue:

-Ciia E?aea?noaa — ieiua ciie noaiiaeoue 28.30 ea.iae. (i?e ?aae?on?
9.0);

-Ciia Oiaaiaiino? — ieiua ciie noaiiaeoue 17.10 ea.iae. (i?e ?aae?on?
6.0);

-Ciia ?eceeo — ieiua ciie noaiiaeoue 11.84 ea.iae. (i?e ?aae?on? 5.0);

-Ciia I?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo — ieiua ciie noaiiaeoue — 7.56 ea.iae. (i?e
?aae?on? 4.0);

-E?eoe/ia ciia — ieiua ciie noaiiaeoue 4.27 ea.iae. (i?e ?aae?on? 3.0).
A oaae. 1 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueooth/? ioe?iee.

Oaaeeoey 1- Eiiieaenia ioe?iea iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo ia
i?eeeaae? CAO “Eoo?e”

Noa?aIoe?iea

aa??aiooIeiua

ciieCiiaae?yeueiino?AASiiaae?eiino?Iie?oeei —

aeiiii?/ia5.45.213.32Oiaaiai?noueOaoi?ei —

aeiiii?/ia5.25.814.78Oiaaiai?noueNioe?aeueii —

oaoi?/ia5.84.211.56?eceeNioe?aeueii —

aeieia?/ia4.26.011.91Oiaaiai?noueIie?oeei —

aeieia?/ia6.05.414.95Oiaaiai?noue

Noia

26.6

26.6

66.52

?icaeyiooa iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?iaiico iiaeeeainoae
i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo ? iniiaith aeey ii??aiyiiy ? aeai?o no?aoaa?/ieo
aeueoa?iaoea i?aei?e?inoaa. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?ic?iaeythoueny noeaia???
ii eiaei?e c iiaeeeaeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?aoaa?e i?aei?e?inoaa, a i?ney
oeueiai ioe?iththoueny ? ii??aiththoueny io?eiai? ciie i?enooiino? ia
?eieo. Iioeiaeueiith aaaaea?oueny ia?eaoeiaiaa no?aoaa?y, ui caaacia/o?
iaea?eueoo ieiuo ciie i?enooiino? ia ?eieo.

?icae?e 4. Aea?? no?aoaa?? ia?eaoeiao

Aea?? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? i?aai?caoe??, c oi/ee ci?o oai???
oi?aae?iiy, ? i?ioeanii i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy. Ia?eaoeiaia? ??oaiiy
iaeaaeaoue aei ?ic?yaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo ? iacai?ia?aiiaaieo; oiiae
i?eeiyooy ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue ia no?oeoo?iaai? ? niieo/ai? c
iaa?aeiieie /eiieeaie. I?eeiyooy ia?eaoeiaiaiai ??oaiiy, ye ?
aoaeue-yeiai oi?aae?inueeiai ??oaiiy, iia’ycaia c iaiaaeaiiyie.
Oi?ioethaaiiy iaiaaeaiue ? e?eoa???a aeey aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo
aeueoa?iaoea ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? cae?enith?oueny ia iniia?
aeine?aeaeaiue ?eieo (iae?i — ? i?e?ina?aaeiaeua) ? ioe?iee iiaeeeainoae
naii? i?aai?caoe??, aeeth/ath/e aaciina?aaeiuei nenoaio ia?eaoeiao.
C?noaaeaiiy caa?ic ? iiaeeeainoae ?eieo c neeueieie ? neaaeeie noi?iiaie
i?aai?caoe?? aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iaiao?aei? iaiaaeaiiy ? e?eoa??? aeai?o
iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo no?aoaa??. Ia?eaoeiaia? ??oaiiy /ano?oa onueiai
i?eeiathoueny a oiiaao /anoeiai? aai iiaii? iaaecia/aiino?. Aieiaieie
i?e/eiaie aeieeiaiiy oiia ?eceeo ? iaaecia/aiino? i?eeiyooy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue ?: noioanoe/i?noue i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
noni?euenoa?; a?aenooi?noue ia’?eoeaii?, a??ia?aeii? ? aeinoaoiuei?
?ioi?iaoe?? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaee
i?iaiic?a; aieea noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a.

Ca oiia ianoaa?eueiino? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo iaeiei c iai?yie?a
cieaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo ? i?aeaeuaiiy iaa?oioiaaiino? ??oaiue ?
noai?aiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie (IA?N), ui i?eionea?
oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo ? noaoenoe/ieo iiaeaeae ?
iaoiae?a. A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy
iiaeaeae o i?ioean? i?eeiyooy ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue. Iniiaieie ??
i?e/eiaie ?: neeaaei?noue nenoaie ia?eaoeiao ? neooaoe?e, iia’ycaieo c
?? ooieoe?iioaaiiyi; aaaaoie?eoa??aeuei?noue caaea/ ia?eaoeiao;
iaiiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a o ?aaeueiiio aeeoo? ?
i???ioaoe?y ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue ia iaeaooi?.

I?e i?eeiyoo? ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiei ?
canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a ? iiaeaeae e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy, oai??? ?ai?,
ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy, oi?aae?iiy caianaie, ?i?oaoe?eiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, ia?aaeaaiai ieaioaaiiy, “aea?aaa ??oaiue”, ??ciiiai?oieo
iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy. Aaoi?ii i?iiiio?oueny eeaneo?eaoe?y iaoiae?a ?
iiaeaeae i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ii noa?ao ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?. Ca oiia
iaaecia/aiino? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiei iaoiaeii
aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo ia?eaoeiaiai? oiaa?ii? oe?iiai? no?aoaa??
? oai??y ?ai?. sse a?aeiii, a iniia? anoaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? oe?ie ia
iiaee ae??a iieyaa? iaoiae aiae?co aaccaeoeiaino?, ui a?oioo?oueny ia
caeaaeiino? i?ae ae?o/eith a?ae ?aae?caoe??, aeo?aoaie ? i?eaooeii
i?aei?e?inoaa. Aeinyaoe ca?eueoaiiy i?eaooeo i?e o?eniaaieo aeo?aoao
iiaeia ??cieie oeyoaie: aai ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ianyao i?iaeaae?a,
aai ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy oe?ie ae?iao (ca?eueoaiiy ii?ie i?eaooeo).
Oiio i?aei?e?inoai, ui aeaiaeeoue iiaee ae??a ia ?eiie, iinoa? ia?aae
aeai?ii iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo oe?iiai? no?aoaa??, yea ia?
caaeiaieueieoe iiieo o ae?iaao, ia o?aaeath/e i?e oeueiio eiai o?iainia?
?ioa?ane. Aeey aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai ianyao i?iaeaae?a ? iioeiaeueiiai
?ici??o caeeaaeaii? ?aioaaaeueiino? i?iaeoeoe?? (a ioaea ? ??aiy oe?ie)
iiaeia nei?enoaoeny oai???th ?ai?. A ee?oeiao iao?eoe? i?inoaaey?oueny
i?eaooie, yeee io?eia? i?aei?e?inoai i?e oiio aai ?ioiio aa??aio?
no?aoaa??. Ii ai?eciioae? oeacothoueny aa??aioe no?aoaa?e, a ii
aa?oeeae? — iiieo, ui aecia/a?oueny noaiii ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
i?aei?e?inoaa. O ?iaio? cae?eniaii aea?? oe?iiai? no?aoaa?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi oai??? ?ai?.

Ca oiia aeniei? ianoaa?eueiino? ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? a?aenooiino?
a??ia?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iiieo (oiia iinoaaee, ieaoini?iiiaeiino?
ee??io?a oa ?i.) iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii i???iooaaoeny ia e?eoa??e
Aaeueaea, yeee iioei?co? ei?eni?noue a i?eiouaii?, ui na?aaeiaeua
ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeiaaea?aei?oiio noai?.

?icae?e 5. Noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe??
ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??

Oni?oia ?aae?caoe?y ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? iiaeeeaa eeoa ca iayaiino?
ia i?aei?e?inoa? aaeaeaaoiiai i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio, yeee aeeth/a?:
aoaeoeaio no?oeoo?o oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii; ?aaeaiaioaoe?th i?ioeaaeo?
iia?aoeaiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai ieaioaaiiy; eiio?ieue aeeiiaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ia?ai.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaiaioii i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ? no?oeoo?a
oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii. Aaeaioaoe?y i?aei?e?inoaa aei aieeao
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? aea?aii? no?aoaa??
aeiaaa? ia?aaeian?i o?ainoi?iaoe?? ae?th/eo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy.
I?iaaaeaiee aaoi?ii aiae?c i?aei?e?inoa eaaei? i?iieneiaino?
Eoaainueeiai ?aa?iio iieacaa, ui o?eueee o?aoeia c ieo iathoue o nai?e
no?oeoo?? niaoe?ae?ciaaiee a?aeae?e ia?eaoeiao. A ?ioeo aeiaaeeao
ooieoe?? ia?eaoeiao aeeiio? a?aeae?e caooo ? ea??aiee. A oaae. 2
iaaaaeai? aeaye? aeai?, ui na?ae/aoue i?i i?aai?caoe?th ? ianooaae
ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aei?e?inoaao.

A?aenooi?noue o no?oeoo?? i?aei?e?inoa a?aeae?e?a ia?eaoeiao ia
i?aeoeoe?, ye i?aaeei, icia/a? a?aenooi?noue oe?eani?yiiaaii? nenoaiii?
ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?. Oea ciaoiaeeoue i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a
iaaaaeaieo aeaieo i?i aeaeaoee ia ?aeeaio. Iacaaaeath/e ia noaa?aeaeaiiy
ea??aiee?a i?i oa, ui ia i?aei?e?inoaao cae?eniththoueny an? ooieoe??
ia?eaoeiao, o?eueee o? ?aniiiaeaioe ciiaee oi/ii aeacaoe aeaeaoee ia
?aeeaio, aea ooieoe?iiothoue a?aeae?ee ia?eaoeiao.

*enaeuei?noue neoaeaiaoe?a a?aeae?e?a ia?eaoeiao noaiiaeoue o
na?aaeiueiio 0.3-0.5% a?ae caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a ia
i?aei?e?inoa?. (Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui c i?e/eie ia/eneaiiino? a neeaae?
a?aeae?e?a caooo ooieoe?? ia?eaoeiao aeeiio? iaeia ethaeeia).
I?aai?ciaai? neoaeae ia?eaoeiao, ye i?aaeei, ca ooieoe?iiaeueiith
iciaeith ? i?aeii?yaeeiaai? aieiaiiio ea??aieeia?.

Eiie?aoia no?oeoo?a ia?eaoeiao ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei
iniaeeainoyi oiai aai ?ioiai i?aei?e?inoaa ? aooe iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaiith. C oe??th iaoith aaoi?ii aoee ?ic?iaeai? ? ai?iaiaai?
“Iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee uiaei noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? ia?eaoeiao
ia i?aei?e?inoaao”.

O no/anieo oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, aeey e?oiieo i?iieneiaeo a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa
aeioe?eueiei aa/eoueny iiaoaiia noai?aiiy ?ioaa?iaaieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo
no?oeoo?.

Oaaeeoey 5.2. I?aai?caoe?y ia?eaoeiao ia ?yae? i?aei?e?inoa eaaei?
i?iieneiaino? Eoaainueei? iaeano? (ca aeaieie 1997 ?ieo)

I?aei?e?inoaaIanya ?aae?-caoe?? i?iaeoe-

oe??

oen.a?i.*enaeuei?noue

i?aoe?a-iee?a /ie.*enaeuei?noue oi?aa-e?inue-eiai ia?nii

/ie.A?aeae?e, ui aeeiio? ooieoe?? ia?eaoeiaoEiio

i?aeei?y?ouenyE?euee. neoaeaiaoe?a o oeueiio a?aeae?e? /ie.O % aei
caaaeueii? /enaeue-iino?

Aeo?aoe ia ?aeea-

io

oen.a?i1. CAO Ia?aiiaenueea acooo?aa oaa?eea820.0110087A?aeae?e
ia?eaoeiaoCano.aee?aeoi?a30.31.02. AOCO ?iaaiuee?anueea
oaa?eea321.070238Eiia?oe?eiee a?aeae?eAee?aeoi?30.4- -3. AOCO “Eoaaiue”
(acooo?aa ia’?aeiaiiy)8836.01800180A?aeae?e ia?eaoeiaoEiia?oe?eiee

aee?aeoi?60.340.04. AOCO “?oaaaeaiea” (iai/?oia
oaa?eea)6336.91500120A?aeae?e ia?eaoeiaoCano. aee?aeoi-?a c
eiia?oe??.70.410.05. EI o??ia “A?aoe?y”2026.033029A?aeae?e
ia?eaoeiaoAee?aeoi?41.25.06. CAO “Eooaen”2549.355082A?aeae?e
ia?eaoeiaoAee?aeoi?20.310.07. EI “Oa?i” i. Eene/ainuee

642.031029A?aeae?e caoooCano. aee?aeoi-?a c eiia?oe??30.9- -8.AOCO
“Ae/aanueeniaoeiaeyana?a?n”810.032027A?aeae?e caoooCano. aee?aeoi-?a c
eiia?oe??30.9- -9. EI “E?aii” i. E?aniee eo/3140.059543A?aeae?e
iinoa/aiue ? caoooCano. aee?aeoi-?a c eiia?oe??30.5- -10. “E?oaaei” i.
E??ianuee450.028012A?aeae?e iinoa/aiue ? caoooCano. aee?aeoi-?a c
eiia?oe??20.7- -11. EI Noa?ia?euenueea oaaoeueea
oaa?eea927.01879A?aeae?e iinoa/aiue ? caoooAee?aeoi?21.0- -12. EI
“Aeaaaio” i. Iiiania672.61449A?aeae?e caoooAee?aeoi?21.3- -13. AAO
Noaoaiianueea oaaoeueea oaa?eea3926.732212A?aeae?e caoooAee?aeoi?30.9-
-14. AOCO “Oaenoeeue-Oeanoioaoi?ea”i.Eene/ainuee87.059028A?aeae?e
caoooAee?aeoi?40.7- -15. CAO Eoaainueea oaaoeueea oaa?eea
“Noeeue”84067.7296560A?aeae?e caoooAee?aeoi?20.0720.016. CAO Eoaainueea
o??ia “Eoo?e”9134.0160080A?aeae?e ia?eaoeiaoEiia?oe?eiee

aee?aeoi?o70.45.0

Ia ia?oiio aoai? cae?enith?oueny oii?yaeeoaaiiy no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaii c iaoith i???ioaoe?? ?? ia ia?eaoeia oeyoii noai?aiiy
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiai? no?oeoo?e. Nooo?a?noue ?? iieyaa? a i?aeoiae? aei
ia?eaoeiao ye aei oe?e?nii? nenoaie, aeyaeaii? ? eii?aeeiaoe??
ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ioean?a, aca?iica’yce?a ? caeaaeiinoae, ui
caaacia/othoue iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae. Ia aeaiiio aoai?
canioaaiiy niaoe?aeueieo ?ioaa?iaaieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo ooai?aiue
(a?aeae?e?a, neoaea) ? ia?aae/aniei. Ia i?aei?e?inoaao, ye? ia
canoiniaothoue eiioeaioe?th ia?eaoeiao, caaaeaee ?nio? ineoieia?/iee
aa?’??, yeee ii?iaeaeo? ii?? cai?iaaaeaeaiith ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?oeoo?.
Oei/aniaa i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaa no?oeoo?a, ui i???ioo?oueny ia ia?eaoeia,
aeicaiey? i?aeaiooaaoe i?aei?e?inoai aei noai?aiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
i?ae?icae?e?a.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? a no?oeoo?o oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii cai?noue
?ic??ciaieo i?ae?icae?e?a aeeth/a?oueny ie?aia eaiea c ia?eaoeiao, yea
cae?enith? eeth/ia? ooieoe?? ia?eaoeiao, ui ? ia aeaiee iiiaio iaea?eueo
aaaeeeaei aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo oe?eae ia?eaoeiao.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? aia?ao oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiaith ae?yeuei?noth o??ie
?icoe?th?oueny ? oneeaaeith?oueny. A?aeae?e ia?eaoeiao iaaoaa? noaoono
???a?o?/ii? no?oeoo?e, iiaoaeiaaii? ca ooieoe?iiaeueiith, oiaa?iith,
aaia?ao?/iith aai ?ioith iciaeith. Noai?aia oaeei /eiii ?ioaa?iaaia
no?oeoo?a aeicaiey? nenoaiaoecoaaoe ia?eaoeiaiao ae?yeuei?noue ia
i?aei?e?inoa?.

Aea?aia ia?eaoeiaiaa no?aoaa?y i?aai?caoe?? iiaeiia ao?eeoeny o i?ia?aio
ae?e, ui eiie?aoeco? no?aoaa?/i? oe?e? ? aecia/a? caniae, ui
caaacia/othoue ?o aeinyaiaiiy. I?ioean iia?aoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy
ia?eaoeiao i?eionea? iine?aeiaia cae?eniaiiy iaaiei /eiii
?aaeaiaioiaaieo i?ioeaaeo?, iaeaaaeeea?oeie c yeeo ?: ?ic?iaea nenoaie
ieaiiaeo iieaciee?a ca aeaiaioaie eiiieaeno ia?eaoeiao-mix i?aei?e?inoaa
(o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei aea?aii? no?aoaa?? ? oe?eae nenoaie ia?eaoeiao);
oi?ioaaiiy iaai?o caoiae?a c a?aeiia?aeieo i?ia?ai ia?eaoeiao (oiaa?ii?,
?iiaaoe?eii?, ?aeeaiii?, eiioi?eaoe?eii?, ina?oiuei? oa ?i.), ye?
aeicaieythoue aeinyaoe ieaiiaeo iieaciee?a ? ?aae?coaaoe aea?aio
no?aoaa?th; aecia/aiiy aoai?a aeeiiaiiy i?ia?ai ia?eaoeiao; aecia/aiiy
?ano?n?a: iaoa??aeueieo, o?oaeiaeo, o?iainiaeo, iaiao?aeieo aeey
?aae?caoe?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ia?ai; ?ic?iaea athaeaeaoo ieaio ia?eaoeiao;
aeiaaaeaiiy ieaio ia?eaoeiao aei aeeiiaaoe?a oa ?i. Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo
PERT aeey oii?yaeeoaaiiy i?ioeaaeo? ieaioaaiiy aeicaiey? o?enoaaoe an?
aeaee ?ia?o, ui iaiao?aei? aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai, aecia/eoe ?oith
iine?aeiai?noue ? o?eaae?noue, aecia/eoe e?eoe/i? ae?eyiee, iaiaa?oaaoe
?ano?naie ia iae?eoe/ieo ?iaioao. O aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? cacia/aiiai
iaoiaeo ?ic?iaeaii ia?ae?e ?ia?o c aeaaaeaiiy iiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia ?eiie
(iiaa iiaeaeue acoooy) ? iiaoaeiaaii ni?iuaiee a?ao, ui aeicaieea
?ic?aooaaoe e?eoe/iee oeyo — oa?i?i, i?ioyaii yeiai iathoue aooe
aeeiiai? an? ?iaioe.

Ia?eaoeiaiaee eiio?ieue ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy,
ui aeicaiey? ?aae?coaaoe cai?ioiee ca’ycie o nenoai? ia?eaoeiao.
Aeae?ey?oueny aeaa aniaeoe eiio?ieth: ae?aaiinoe/iee, iia’ycaiee c
ioe?ieith noaio nenoaie ? a?aeiia?aeiino? ?? caieaiiaaiei ia?aiao?ai, ?
i?iaiiciee, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ?ic?iaeo i?ia?aie ei?aaoth/iai aieeao,
caeaoii? onoiooe aeyaeai? a?aeoeeaiiy.

O ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth,
ca?aeii c yeith i?ioean ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
iniiaieo aoai?a: anoaiiaeaiiy noaiaea?o?a, aei??thaaiiy (ioe?iee)
oaeoe/ii aeinyaiooeo ?acoeueoao?a ? i?iaaaeaiiy iaiao?aeieo ei?aaoaaiue.
Ia?oee aoai eiio?ieth o?nii iia’ycaiee c i?ioeanii ieaioaaiiy
ia?eaoeiao, ai an? noaiaea?oe, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey eiio?ieth,
aeae?athoueny c /eneaiieo oe?eae ? iieaciee?a ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??
i?aai?caoe??. A aeena?oaoe?? ooi/iaii ? ocaaaeueiaii aeaee ? caniae
ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth, ?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeae?a
ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth, ui aeicaiey? oii?yaeeoaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe
eiio?ieue ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Oaaeeoey 3 — Eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth

Eeaneo?eaoe?eia

iciaeaAeae eiio?iethIa’?eo eiio?ieth

1. Ca /anii cae?eniaiiy (a?aeiinii i?ioeano ieaioaaiiy ia?eaoeiao)

iiia?aaei?e

iioi/iee

caeeth/iee

?ioi?iaoe?ei? ?ano?ne;

o?oaeia? ?ano?ne;

iaoa??aeuei? ?ano?ne;

o?iainia? ?ano?ne

an? aeaee ?ia?o, ui iia’ycai? c? cae?eniaiiyi ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?

?acoeueoaoe ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?

2. Ca ??aiai oi?aae?iiy ia?ea-oeiaii

no?aoaa?/iee

iia?aoeaiee

iae?i-na?aaeiaeua;

oe?eueiaee ?eiie;

iioaioe?ae i?aai?caoe??;

nenoaia ia?eaoeiao-mix

oe?e?; iieacieee iia?aoeaiiai ieaio;

?ano?ne, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny;

caoiaee; i?aai?caoe?ei? i?ioeane

3.A?aeiinii i?aai?caoe??

ciai?oi?e

aioo??oi?e

iae?i-, i?e?ina?aaeiaeua

aioo??oi? na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe??;

nenoaia ia?eaoeiao-mixI?iaeiaaeaiiy oaae.3

Eeaneo?eaoe?eia

iciaeaAeae eiio?iethIa’?eo eiio?ieth4. Ca ?aaoey?i?noth
i?iaaaeaiiyaacia?a?aiee

?aaoey?iee

ai?ciaee/ieecaoiaee ia?eaoeiao; caniae, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny

oe?eueiaee ?eiie i?aei?e?inoaa; iioaioe?ae i?aai?caoe??; nenoaia
ia?eaoeiao-mix;

?acoeueooth/? iieacieee

ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua, iioaioe?ae i?aai?caoe??, nenoaia ia?eaoeiao-mix

Cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aei?e?inoa? iio?aao? iaaieo
aeo?ao iaoa??aeueieo, o?oaeiaeo ? o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a. Ae?aaeai? a
a?ioia?e oi?i?, aiie neeaaeathoue athaeaeao ia?eaoeiao i?aei?e?inoaa.
Aeioe?euei?noue ia?eaoeiao noa? i/aaeaeiith aeey i?aei?e?inoa o?eueee a
oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui aoaeo, yeee io?eio?oueny a?ae ia?eaoeiaiaeo
caoiae?a, ia?aaeuo? aeo?aoe ia ?o i?iaaaeaiiy. A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii
noaio oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE ? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

Ca oiia ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa? ia?eaoeiaiaa
ae?yeuei?noue i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. Aiia iiaeiia cae?enithaaoeny
nenoaiii, oe?eani?yiiaaii, ca?aeii c iaa?oioiaaiith ? aea?aiith
ia?eaoeiaiaith no?aoaa??th. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe ? caaea/, aeicaieeee
noi?ioethaaoe eiioeaiooaeuei? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??
i?aei?e?inoa ca oiia aeiiii?/ii? ianoaa?eueiino? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ?
c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. Ia?eaoeia ? iaei??th c i?aenenoai oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeith
i?aai?caoe??th ia??ai? c oaeeie, ye ae?iaieoeoai, iinoa/aiiy, o?iaine,
?iiaaoe??, ia?niiae, ea??aieoeoai. Aca?iiae?th/e i?ae niaith, oe?
i?aenenoaie iaaoaathoue iiaeo iciae ? aeanoeainoae, ui neeaaeathoue
nooi?noue i?aai?caoe?? ? caaacia/othoue oe?e?ni?noue
ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? nenoaie. Aiaeii/an ia?eaoeia ? a?aeiinii
a?aeie?aieaiith i?aenenoaiith c? niaoeeo?/ieie oe?eyie ? aeaeaie
ae?yeueiino?.

Ia?eaoeia ? e?aa?iaoe/iith, a ioaea i?aai?ciaaiith nenoaiith, a ye?e
cae?eniththoueny ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy. A?i ia? “aioo??oi?” ? “ciai?oi?”
na?aaeiaeua, /anoeio, ui oi?aaey?, ? /anoeio, yeith oi?aaeythoue.
Aioo??oi? na?aaeiaeua nenoaie “Ia?eaoeia” neeaaeathoue i?aenenoaie:
“oiaa?”, “oe?ia”, “?iciiae?e” ? “eiioi?eaoe??”. Ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua
ia?eaoeiao neeaaeathoue ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?aenenoaie i?aei?e?inoaa, ye?
ia??ai? c /eiieeaie ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? aieeaathoue ia
oe?e? ? ia?aiao?e ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?eaoeiao.

3. ?ice?eoi ci?no no?aoaa?/iiai ia?eaoeiao ? aecia/aii eiai i?noea a
nenoai? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii. No?aoaa?/iee ia?eaoeia aeeth/a?
nenoaiaoe/iee ? iino?eiee aiae?c iio?aa ? aeiia oe?eueiaeo a?oi
niiaeeaa/?a, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeo eiioeaioe?e aoaeoeaieo oiaa??a aai
iineoa, ui aeicaieythoue eiiiai?? ianeoaiaoaaoe aea?ai? a?oie iieoioe?a
e?aua, i?ae eiieo?aioe, ? caaaeyee oeueiio, caaacia/othoue ae?iaieeo
no?eeo eiieo?aioio ia?aaaao. No?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy ? oeaio?aeueiith
/anoeiith no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy. Oea oeeee?/iee i?ioean, ui aeeth/a?:
no?aoaa?/iee aiae?c, oe?eaiieaaaiiy, ?ic?iaeo ? ?aae?caoe?th no?aoaa??.
Ia?eaoeiaiaa no?aoaa?y i?aei?e?inoaa — oea eiiieaen no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue
ii eiaeiiio c aeaiaio?a ia?eaoeiao-mix i?aei?e?inoaa. Iioeiaeueiei ?
eiiieaen no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue, yeee c iaea?eueoith ?iia??i?noth
aeicaiey? aeinyaoe iinoaaeaieo oe?eae ia?eaoeiao ca iaeiaioeo aeo?ao
i?aei?e?inoaa.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? ? ii/aoeiaei
aoaiii oi?ioaaiiy ?? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??. Aeey c’ynoaaiiy
iniaeeainoae i?iyao /eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua a?o/eciyieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ioe?iee ?oiueiai noaio ? i?iaiicoaaiiy oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo a ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y /eiiee?a iae?ina?aaeiaeua,
yea aeeth/a? caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? ? ?aa?iiaeueiee /eiieee.
Caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? /eiieee i?aaenoaaeai? i`youeia a?oiaie:
aeiiii?/ieie, iie?oeei-i?aaiaeie, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie,
nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/ieie ? aeieia?/ieie. ?aa?iiaeueiee /eiiee
iaeeaaea? nai? iniaeeaino? ia oie aai ?ioee caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiee /eiiee.
O oe?eiio, iae?ina?aaeiaeua ca oiia ia?ao?aeiiai ia?eiaea
a?ae??ciy?oueny nai?th ?ooeea?noth ? aca?iiiia`ycai?noth /eiiee?a, ui ??
neeaaeathoue. Iaaeaoa?i?iiaai?noue e iaaecia/ai?noue i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a iie?oe/iiio oa aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo?, i?aeaeuothoue
?ecee i?eeiyooy ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue.

5. I?aei?e?inoai cae?enith? naith ae?yeuei?noue ia eiie?aoiiio ?eieo,
oiio aeey aecia/aiiy aeueoa?iaoea ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? aaaeeeaee
aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aaeocaaiai ?eieo. Oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ?eieo
i?aei?e?inoaa, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, neeaaeathoueny, c iaeiiai aieo, i?ae
aieeaii ci?i, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iae?ina?aaeiaeu?, a c ae?oaiai — ?
i?iyaii caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo, ye? iiyniththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith
oai??? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?eieo. Eiaeia oaca oeeeeo aeeooy ?eieo ia? nai?
niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ? noai?th? iaai? oiiae aeey ?aae?caoe?? o??? aai
?ioi? no?aoaa?? oe?i, ui ae?thoue ia iueiio. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aaeocaaeo ?eie?a cai?iiiiiaai? no?aoaa?/i?
aeueoa?iaoeae, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ??ciei oacai ?eieo.

6. Cae?eniaii aiae?c eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoa eaaei?
i?iieneiaino?, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? aeaa aoaie: aiae?c ia?aaaa na?aae
ae?th/eo eiieo?aio?a ia ?eieo Oe?a?ie ? aiae?c eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa
i?aei?e?inoaa na?aae iioaioe?eieo eiieo?aio?a ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ?eieo.
Aeey ioe?iee eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa na?aae ae?th/eo
eiieo?aio?a cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia iieaciee?a, yea aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe
iiceoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo o?eeioaaeieo ae?ia?a. Iniiaith
cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee aiaeeco eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa i?aei?e?inoa
na?aae iioaioe?eieo eiieo?aio?a ? eiiieaenia nenoaia iieaciee?a
o?iainiai? no?eeino? oa ?eieiaiai ?aeoeiao i?aei?e?inoaa.

7. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?iaee ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?iaiico, yeee ?
caaaa/aiiyi iaeaooiueiai noaio nenoaie ia?eaoeiao i?aai?caoe?? ? ??
ae??caeaoiino? ia ?eieo. I?ioeaaeo?a ?ia?o c ?ic?iaee i?iaiico
ia?aaeaa/a? /ioe?e aoaie: aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ioi/aiiy i?aei?e?inoaa
? ?ic?iaeo noeaia??th eiai ?icaeoeo; aiae?c neeueieo ? neaaeeo noi??i
i?aei?e?inoaa o ii??aiyii? c eiieo?aioaie; noi?uaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aiae?co aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?aei?e?inoaa c oaiaeaioe?yie ci?ie
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua; i?iaiicio ioe?ieo oain?a ia oni?o o??? aai
?ioi? no?aoaa??. Ia?eaoeiaiaee i?iaiic aeicaiey? ?ic?iaeoe noeaia???
aeueoa?iaoeaieo no?aoaa?e ia?eaoeiao ? ioe?ieoe ?oi? iiaeeea? iane?aeee,
i?aeaiaey/e iniiao aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo.

8. Aeiaaaeaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy iiaeaeae o i?ioean? i?eeiyooy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue. Iniiaieie ?? i?e/eiaie ?: neeaaei?noue nenoaie
ia?eaoeiao ? neooaoe?e, iia’ycaieo c ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiyi;
aaaaoie?eoa??aeuei?noue caaea/ ia?eaoeiao; iaiiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaio?a o ?aaeueiiio aeeoo? ? i???ioaoe?y ia?eaoeiaiaeo
no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue ia iaeaooi?. I?e i?eeiyoo? ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue
iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiei ? canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a ? iiaeaeae e?i?eiiai
i?ia?aioaaiiy, oai??? ?ai?, ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy, oi?aae?iiy
caianaie, ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, ia?aaeaaiai ieaioaaiiy, “aea?aaa
??oaiue”, ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy.

Aaoi?ii i?iiiio?oueny eeaneo?eaoe?y iaoiae?a ? iiaeaeae i?eeiyooy
??oaiue ii noa?ao ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?. Ca oiia iaaecia/aiino?
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ? eiieo?aioe??, ui ?icai?oa?oueny ia ?eieo,
iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiei iaoiaeii aeai?o iioeiaeueii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
no?aoaa?? ? oai??y ?ai?.

9. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aai?caoe?eiee iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? ia?eaoeiaiai?
no?aoaa??, yeee aeeth/a?: aoaeoeaio no?oeoo?o oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii;
?aaeaiaioaoe?th i?ioeaaeo? iia?aoeaiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai ieaioaaiiy;
eiio?ieue aeeiiaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ia?ai. Eiie?aoia no?oeoo?a
ia?eaoeiao ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei iniaeeainoyi oiai aai
?ioiai i?aei?e?inoaa ? aooe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiith, caeaaeaoe a?ae: oeio
ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeionea?oueny; ?eieo, ia yeiio i?aoeth?
aeaia i?aei?e?inoai; ?ici??o i?aei?e?inoaa; nooiaiy oeaio?ae?caoe?? aai
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

O no/anieo oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, aeey e?oiieo i?iieneiaeo a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa
aeioe?eueia, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiaoaiia noai?aiiy ?ioaa?iaaieo
ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?oeoo?. Noai?aiiy oe?eueiaeo i?aenenoai oi?aae?iiyi
ia?eaoeiaii a iaaeao ae?th/eo no?oeoo? aeicaiey? neii?aeeioaaoe ooieoe??
? caaacia/o? oe?e?ni?noue nenoaie ia?eaoeiao; nei?i/o? iai?iaeoeoeai?
aeo?aoe ia noai?aiiy iiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a; aeeeth/a? iaiao?aei?noue
aeiei??iiiai ?oeioaaiiy ?nioth/i? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii;
caaacia/o? o?nio aca?iiae?th ea??aieea c ia?eaoeiao c? an?ia
ooieoe?iiaeueieie i?ae?icae?eaie.

10. Ooi/iai? ? ?aaeaiaioiaai? iniiai? i?ioeaaeo?e iia?aoeaiiai
ieaioaaiiy ia?eaoeiao. Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo PERT aeey oii?yaeeoaaiiy
i?ioeaaeo? ieaioaaiiy aeicaiey? o?enoaaoe an? aeaee ?ia?o, iaiao?aei?
aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai, aecia/eoe ?oith iine?aeiai?noue ? o?eaae?noue,
aecia/eoe e?eoe/i? ae?eyiee, iaiaa?oaaoe ?ano?naie ia iae?eoe/ieo
?iaioao.

11. Ocaaaeueiaii ? nenoaiaoeciaaii aeaee ? caniae ia?eaoeiaiaiai
eiio?ieth. ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?ieth,
yea aeeth/a? ianooii? iciaee: ca /anii cae?eniaiiy — iiia?aaei?e,
iioi/iee, caeeth/iee; ca aniaeoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii — no?aoaa?/iee
? iia?aoeaiee; noiniaii i?aai?caoe?? — ciai?oi?e ? aioo??oi?e; ca
?aaoey?i?noth i?iaaaeai-iy — aacia?a?aiee, ?aaoey?iee, ai?ciaee/iee.
Cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y aeicaiey? oii?yaeeoaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe
eiio?ieue ia?eaoeiaiai? aeayeueiino?, ? oeei i?aeaeueoe eiai
aoaeoeai?noue.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? ia
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao ? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. No?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa: iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey ia
ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Iiiia?aoey. — Eoaaine: AOAO, 1998. — 270n.

2. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. I?aaiecaoeeiiiua aii?inu oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aaeeceoeee
ieaiia oaoieei-i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey. // Nai?iee
iao/iuo ?aaio, AIE, Ai?iiaae,1986. — n. 96-101.

3. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E., Eyiei C.O. Ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa a i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
no?oeoo?ao i?aaei?eyoee ia yoaia noaiiaeaiey ?uiea: Na.iao/.?aaio.
Ai?iiaaeneiai iieeoaoie/aneiai einoeoooa. Ai?iiaae, 1992. —
n.48-52.(Iniaenoi aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia no?oeoo?a oe?eae ? eeaneo?eaoe?y
ooieoe?e ia?eaoeiao).

4. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. O/ao aaia?aoe/aneiai oaeoi?a i?e aiaeeca
iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?aaeii/oaiee: Vybrane problemy teorie obchodu. —
Ekonomicka univerzita v Bratislave. Bratislava, 1997. — c. 74-80.

5. Reshetnikova. Marketing strategy of Ukrainian enterprises under
transition period: Transition in Central and Eastern Europe. — YASF.
STUDENT CULTURAL CENTRE. Belgrade, 1997. — p. 378-393.

6. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Oeiainiaay ioeaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo iiceoeee
i?aaei?eyoey: Ca.iaoe.i?. NOAeO “Ia?eaoeia: oai??y ? i?aeoeea”, 1997. —
?1. — n.23-30.

7. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. O/ao ?aaeiiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia i?e ?ac?aaioea
ia?eaoeiaiauo no?aoaaee i?aaei?eyoey: Ca.iaoe.i?. NOAeO. — Eoaainuee,
NOAeO 1998. — n. 107-110.

8. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. O?aioeocneee iiuo iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia ii
ia?eaoeiao // Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu. — 1997. — ?4. — n.88-89.

9. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Eaeie noaiaea?o iai ioaeai? (eiiiaioa?ee e ANOO
3294-95 “Ia?eaoeia. Oa?ieiu e ii?aaeaeaiey iniiaiuo iiiyoee”) //
Yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu. — 1997. — ?8 — n. 86-88.

10. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Auai? ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee a oneiaeyo
ianoaaeeueiinoe ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea: Ca. iaoe. i?. NOAeO “Ia?eaoeia:
oai??y ? i?aeoeea”, 1998. — ?2. — n. 12-22.

11. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. ?aaeaiaioaoeey i?ioeaaeo? iia?aoeaiiai ieaie?iaaiey
ia?eaoeiaa // A?ni. No?aeiioe?. aea?ae. oi-oo — 1998. — ?4 — n.197-202.

12. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Iaoiaeu e iiaeaee i?eiyoey ia?eaoeiaiauo ?aoaiee
//A?ni. No?aeiioe?. aea?ae.oi-oo. — 1998. — ?6. — n.71-77.

13. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Ia?eaoeiaiaue eiio?ieue. // A?ni. Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?ae.oi-oo. Na??y A: “Aeiiii?ea ? i?aai” — 1999.- ?1. — n.64-68.

14. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey ?uiea i?aaei?eyoey e eo
aeeyiea ia auai? no?aoaae/aneeo aeueoa?iaoea.// Iaiaaeaea?. A?niee Aeii.
Aea?ae. Aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy.-1999.?1 (3).-N.89 — 95

15. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Nioeeaeueii yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeaiey
ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth.// I?iiaoae. ?aaeiiaeueiue nai?iee
iao/iuo o?oaeia ii yeiiiieea. AeYAE. Einoeooo yeiiiieei-i?aaiauo
enneaaeiaaiee IAI Oe?aeiu.- 1999.- ?1. — n.183-189.

16. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E., Eyiei C.O. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
nicaeaieth i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? ia?eaoeiaa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo //
Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. EOeIOYE. Eoaaine. 1993. — 22 n. (Iniaenoi
aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaeo no?oeoo?
ia?eaoeiao ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao).

17. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E., ssaioa?ia A.I. Ioeaiea oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe e
?aeoeiaa i?aaei?eyoey a oneiaeyo aaeaioaoeee e ?uieo // Iaoiaee/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee. EOeIOYE. 1993. — 28 n. (Iniaenoi aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia
eiieaenia nenoaia iieaciee?a o?iainiai? ioe?iee ?eieiaiai ?aeoeiao
i?aei?e?inoaa).

18. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E., Eaeaoieeiaa A.I. Nicaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo no?oeoo?
ia i?aaei?eyoeyo auoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey // Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie ?85-93
EOeIOYE 1993. — 4 n. (Iniaenoi aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?oeoo? ia i?aei?e?inoaao iiaooiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy).

19. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E., Nae?eaeia A.A., Iai/aiei N.A.. ?ac?aaioea
ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee i?aaei?eyoey eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie ?30-95 EOeIOYE 1995. — 4n. (Iniaenoi aaoi?ii
?icaeyioo? oeie no?aoaa?e ia?eaoeiao oa iniaeeaino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy ia
i?aei?e?inoa? eaaei? i?iieneiaino?).

20. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E., Iaca?aiei I.A. No?aoaae/aneia ieaie?iaaiea
ia?eaoeiaa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie ?43-95. Eoaaine, 1995. — 4n. (Iniaenoi aaoi?ii
cai?iiiiiaaia no?oeoo?a ieaio ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey
Ae/aanueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo).

21. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E., Aii/a?ia A.I. Iaoiaee/aneea iniiau ieaie?iaaiey
IOI ia i?aaei?eyoee // Iaci?iay eioi?iaoeey. Na?ey “Yeiiiieea,
oi?aaeaiea e i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa a iaoeiino?iaiee”, I., AIEEOYI?,
1990. — n.40. (Iniaenoi aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia no?oeoo?a oe?eae
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?ionaa, oa nenoaia e?eoa???a ?o
ioe?iee, cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iioei?caoe?? ieai?a IOI ia
i?aei?e?inoaao).

22. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. ?aaeecaoeey ooieoeee ia?eaoeiaa a aeaenoaothueo
no?oeoo?ao i?aaei?eyoee // Iaoa?eaeu eiioa?aioeee “I?iaeaiu ei?aiiie
ia?ano?ieee oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie”. — Eoaaine. — 1991. — n. 24-26.

23. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E., Iao?ia A.A Iniaaiiinoe ?ac?aaioee oiaa?iie
iieeoeee i?aaei?eyoee // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?.iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. 3-4
aeiaoiy, 1996. Ee?a. EAeAO. — n.156-157. (Iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue
ia?ae?e /eiiee?a iae?ina?aaeiaeua, ui aieeaathoue ia ?ic?iaeo oiaa?ii?
iie?oeee i?aei?e?inoaa).

24. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Ia?eaoeiaiaay no?aoaaey i?aaei?eyoee a oneiaeyo
yeiiiie/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.
3-4 aeiaoiy, 1996. Ee?a. EAeAO. — n.179-180.

25. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Iiuo iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia ii ia?eaoeiao ai
O?aioeee // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?. iao/i.-i?aeo. naieia?a:
“Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiaenoeea e ia?eaoeia a no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieeie”. Eeaa-Aeiiaoee, naioya?ue, 1996. — n.

26. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay ianoaiiaea a Eoaaineie
iaeanoe e aa iniaaiiinoe ia oiia ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia Oe?aeiu // Iaoa??aee
IV Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. “Oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe??th:
ae?aaiinoeea, no?aoaa?y, aoaeoeai?noue”. — Ee?a-O?oneaaaoeue. — 1998. —
n. 133-134.

27. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. ?aaeiiaeueiue ia?eaoeia // Iaoa??aee ?? I?aeia?.
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. “Ia?eaoeia: oai??y ? i?aeoeea”. — Ee?a. EIAO. — 1998.
— n. 156-157.

28. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Iiuo i?aaiecaoeee neoaea ia?eaoeiaa ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. // Iaoa??aee V i?aeia?.
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. 8-9 ea?oiy, 1999. Ee?a-O?oneaaaoeue-Ae?iaiae/. — n.
246-249.

29. ?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey e auiieiaieth ?acaeaea
aeeieiiiie ?aaiou “Ia?eaoeiaiaue iaiaaeaeiaio” aeey nooaeaioia,
iao/athueony ii iai?aaeaieth “Yeiiiieea” (niaoeeaeueiinoue 7.050108 —
ia?eaoeia) // Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey. Eoaaine. AOAO. 1996. — 32 n.

Aiioaoe?y

?aoaoi?eiaa ?. E. Oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa.-
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02 — I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia.
— Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i. Ee?a. 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ? ?ic?iaeo eiioeaiooaeueieo
canaae oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa. ?ice?eoi ci?no
ia?eaoeiao ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? i?aai?caoe?? ye oe?e?nii? nenoaie,
a ye?e a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane oi?aae?iiy; ooi/iaii nooo?a?noue
no?aoaa?/iiai ia?eaoeiao ? aecia/aii eiai i?noea a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaii.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeieia?th cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?iaiico
iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo, iniiaith yeiai ? ioe?iea
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa. O ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue ? noa?e
canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a ? iiaeaeae i?e aeai?? ia?eaoeiaiai?
no?aoaa?? ca oiia ianoaa?eueiino?. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaiaaii iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? ia?eaoeiao ia
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?eaoeia, no?aoaa?y, oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii, ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe??, ?eiie, eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae, ia?eaoeiaiaee
i?iaiic, no?aoaa?/iee aea??, i?aai?caoe?eiee iaoai?ci, ia?eaoeiaiaee
eiio?ieue.

Aiiioaoeey

?aoaoieeiaa E.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee i?aaei?eyoey.
-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02 — I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio e
ia?eaoeia. — Eeaaneee iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao, a. Eeaa.
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo iao/iia iainiiaaiea e ?ac?aaioeo
eiioeaiooaeueiuo iniia oi?ie?iaaiey ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee
i?aaei?eyoey. ?ane?uoi niaea?aeaiea ia?eaoeiaa
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee eae oeaeinoiie, oi?aaeyaiie
nenoaiu. A aeenna?oaoeee inouanoaeaia aeaeiiiiceoeey no?aoaae/aneeo
oeaeae ia?eaoeiaa, iicaieeaoay noi?ioee?iaaoue iniiaiua ooieoeee
ia?eaoeiaa. A niioaaonoaee n auaeaeaiiuie ooieoeeyie aaoi?ii
i?aaeeiaeaia aeaoaeueiay eeanneoeeaoeey aeaeia ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee e i?ioeannia,
?ane?uaathueo eo niaea?aeaiea, eioi?ay yaeyaony iaoiaeieiae/aneie
iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiie no?oeoo?u ia?eaoeiaa. Ooi/iaia
nouiinoue no?aoaae/aneiai ia?eaoeiaa e ii?aaeaeaii aai ianoi a nenoaia
oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

I?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey oaeoi?ia iae?in?aaeu i?aaiecaoeee e eo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ii?aaeaeythueo aa ia?eaoeiaiaoth no?aoaaeth.
I?aaeeaaaaiay eeanneoeeaoeey aeeth/aao iauaainoaea?noaaiiua e
?aaeiiaeueiue oaeoi?u. Iauaainoaea?noaaiiua oaeoi?u i?aaenoaaeaiu
iyoueth a?oiiaie: yeiiiie/aneeie, iieeoeei-i?aaiauie,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie, nioeeaeueii — aeaii-a?aoe/aneeie e yeieiae/aneeie.
?aaeiiaeueiue oaeoi? iaeeaaeuaaao naie iniaaiiinoe ia oio eee eiie
iauaainoaea?noaaiiue oaeoi?. ?ac?aaioaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey oaeoi?ia
iae?in?aaeu i?aaiecaoeee e eo iniiaiuo e?eoa?eaa ioeaiee, eniieuecoaony
aaoi?ii aeey aiaeeca ninoiyiey ioa/anoaaiiie iae?in?aaeu e oa?aeoa?a aa
aeeyiey ia ia?eaoeiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.
Eeanneoeeaoeey yaeyaony iaoiaee/aneie iniiaie ?ac?aaioee ia?eaoeiaiaiai
i?iaiica aiciiaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aiciiaeiuo aeueoa?iaoea ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee iniaia
cia/aiea eiaao ?aniiciaaaiea i?aaenoiyueo eciaiaiee aaee/eiu e iauaia
enneaaeoaiiai ?uiea, aai aeeiaieee, o?iaiy ianuuaiiinoe, i?aaeii/oaiee
iieoiaoaeae, no?oeoo?u e eioaineaiinoe eiieo?aioeee e o.ae. Eaaeaeay
oaca oeeeea aeecie ?uiea eiaao naie niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe e
nicaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiua oneiaey aeey ?aaeecaoeee oie eee eiie no?aoaaee
aeaenoaothueo ia iai oe?i. ?aciui noaaeeyi aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ?uiea
i?enoua ?aciay i?e?iaea e eioaineaiinoue eiieo?aioeee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii
oe?ia aeieaeia eniieueciaaoue ia?eaoeiaiaua no?aoaaee, aaeaeaaoiua
ninoiyieth ?uiea.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeieiaey inouanoaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiaiai i?iaiica
aiciiaeiinoae i?aaei?eyoey ia ?uiea, iniiaaiiiai ia ioeaiea eiieo?aioiuo
i?aeiouanoa. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eiieo?aioiuo i?aeiouanoa i?aaei?eyoey a
eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii neo/aa, iaiaoiaeei aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiue iiaeoiae a
auai?a iieacaoaeae e ioeaiea eo cia/eiinoe. Aaoi?ii ?ac?aaioaia e
ai?iae?iaaia iaoiaeeea aiaeeca eiieo?aioiuo i?aeiouanoa i?aaei?eyoee
eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aeeth/athuay aeaa yoaia: aiaeec eiieo?aioiuo
i?aeiouanoa n?aaee aeaenoaothueo eiieo?aioia ia ?uiea Oe?aeiu e aiaeec
eiieo?aioiuo i?aeiouanoa ia ?aaeiiaeueiii ?uiea.

A ?aaioa iainiiaaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue e noa?u i?eiaiaiey iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoiaeia e iiaeaeae i?e auai?a ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee a oneiaeyo
ianoaaeeueiinoe. Aaoi?ii i?aaeeaaaaony eeanneoeeaoeey iaoiaeia e
iiaeaeae i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ii noa?ai ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. A
oneiaeyo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea e ?acai?a/eaathuaeny
eiieo?aioeee ia ?uiea, iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui iaoiaeii auai?a
iioeiaeueiie ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee yaeyaony oai?ey ea?. A ?aaioa
inouanoaeai auai? oeaiiaie no?aoaaee n eniieueciaaieai oai?ee ea?.

I?aaeeiaeai i?aaiecaoeeiiiue iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee ia?eaoeiaiaie
no?aoaaee, aeeth/athuee: yooaeoeaioth no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey ia?eaoeiaii;
?aaeaiaioaoeeth i?ioeaaeo? iia?aoeaiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai ieaie?iaaiey ia
iniiaa i?eiaiaiey naoaauo iaoiaeia; eiio?ieue auiieiaiey ia?eaoeiaiauo
i?ia?aii.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu e ai?iae?iaaiu iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ii nicaeaieth i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? ia?eaoeiaa ia i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea, ia yoaia
noaiiaeaiey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, aeey e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo ioa/anoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee i?aaeeaaaaony iiyoaiiia nicaeaiea eioaa?e?iaaiiuo
ia?eaoeiaiauo no?oeoo?, oeaio?aeueiui iiiaioii eioi?iai yaeyaony
nicaeaiea i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaie no?oeoo?u, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia ia?eaoeia

A aeenna?oaoeee inouanoaeaia ?aaeaiaioaoeey i?ioeaaeo? iia?aoeaiiai
ieaie?iaaiey ia?eaoeiaa, iaania/eaathuay oniaoioth ?aaeecaoeeth
ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee. I?eiaiaiea iaoiaea PERT aeey oii?yaei/aiey
i?ioeaaeo? ieaie?iaaiey iicaieyao oeene?iaaoue ana aeaeu ?aaio,
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aii, ii?aaeaeeoue eo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, ii?aaeaeeoue e?eoe/aneea
o/anoee, iaiaa?e?iaaoue ?ano?naie ia iae?eoe/aneeo ?aaioao.

Ooi/iaiu e iaiauaiu aeaeu e niiniau ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?iey.
I?aaeeiaeaiiay aaoi?ii eeanneoeeaoeey aeaeia ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiio?iey
iicaieyao oii?yaei/eoue e nenoaiaoece?iaaoue eiio?ieue ia?eaoeiaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe, e oai naiui iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaeecaoeee
ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeenna?oaoeee aiaae?aiu ia
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo e a o/aaiii i?ioeanna.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?eaoeia, no?aoaaey, oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii, aiaoiyy
n?aaea i?aaiecaoeee, ?uiie, eiieo?aioiua i?aeiouanoaa, ia?eaoeiaiaue
i?iaiic, no?aoaae/aneee auai?, i?aaiecaoeeiiiue iaoaieci, ia?eaoeiaiaue
eiio?ieue.

Abstract

Reshetnikova I.L. Formation of the enterprise strategy. -Manuscript.

The dissertation for Doctor`s degree award on the speciality 08.06.02. —
entrepreneurship, management and marketing. — Kiev national economic
university, Kiev. 1999.

The thesis contains scientific basis and developments of formation
grounds of the enterprise, marketing strategy. There found the marketing
matter of production and economic organization as the whole managing
system, there defined more exactly the strategic marketing matter and
its place in the managing system.

The methodology of marketing forecast, realization of the enterprise
possibilities at the market is developed. It is based on the evaluation
of competitive advantages. This work presents the advisability and
application of mathematical methods and models while choosing
marketing strategy under the conditions of unstability. The developed
and approbated methodical recommendations for creation of marketing
organizational structures at industrial enterprises.

Key words: marketing, strategy, marketing management, organization
environment, market, competitive advantages, marketing forecast,
strategic choice, organizational mechanism of the strategy realization,
marketing control.

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