Oeiiini?eea

Euea?anueea eiia?oe?eia aeaaeai?y

I?IOeEOEI Ienaia ?iiai?aia

OAeE 65.9(2)421+65.9/4Oe

OI?IOAAIIss EIIEO?AIOIIAI NA?AAeIAEUA A OI?A?AE?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.05.

Aeiiii?ea oi?a?ae? oa iineoa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai?? Oeiiini?eee.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiii?e A?eoi? Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Euea?anueea eiia?oe?eia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e eiia?oe?eii?

ae?yeueiino? oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iieuaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieeeiiae/,

Ee?anueeee oi?aiai-aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a ia?eaoeiao ? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?

– eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeaieeaiei Ieaia Aaenaio??aia,

Euea?anueea eiia?oe?eia aeaaeai?y,

eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Iieoaanueeee eiiia?aoeaiee

?inoeooo Oeiiini?eee,

eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee oi?a?ae?

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny __________ 1999 ?ieo i _____ aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E – 35.840. 01 Euea?anueei?
eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 290008, i.Euea?a, aoe. Ooaai-
Aa?aiianueeiai, 10.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueei?
eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai?? (i. Euea?a, aoe. Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeiai, 10).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii _______________ 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A.?.Aeiinueea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?eiie ? eiieo?aioe?y – eaoaai???
i?aai?/ii aca?iiiia’ycai? oa aca?iiiaoiiaeai?. Oiio i?ioeane ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee ia’?eoeaii aeiaaathoue oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoiiai
eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua. Oea aaccaia?a/ia oai?aoe/ia oaa?aeaeaiiy.

?eieiaa i???ioaoe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie oaeiae
i?eo?eio?oueny oe??? oai???. I?ioeane ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy,
aeaiiiiiie?caoe??, e?aa?ae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ?icaeoie
a?eueiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa noai?ththoue iniiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy
eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua o an?o aaeocyo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ?,
ia?o ca ana, o oi?aiaaeuei?e – iaea?eueo noeeuei?e aei ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i.
I?ioa ia?aaeoiiae e oiiae ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe?? a oi?aiaaeuei?e noa??
Oe?a?ie noai?ththoueny o?aaiaioa?ii ? iaiine?aeiaii, aac a?aeiia?aeiiai
iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy. A
?acoeueoao? eiieo?aioia na?aaeiaeua oi?io?oueny iia?eueii oa
caia?a/eeai. Aiii ia ni?ey? aoaeoeai?e ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e
eiieo?aioe??, eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a, oe?ieiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae, a aieiaia, ia i?eaiaeeoue
aei nooo?aiai iineeaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oi?aiai? noa?e.

?acii c oei, o i??o iiaeeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo i?ioean?a ?ieue oi?a?ae? ??cei
c?inoa?, iineeth?oueny ?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia cia/aiiy ia o?eueee ye
eiiiiiaioo ?eieo, aea e ye aaaeeeaiai naeoi?o aaaaoioeeaaeii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. ? a oeueiio iieyaa? aeooaeuei?noue ie?aneaii?
i?iaeaie.

O oai?aoe/iiio ieai? eiieo?aioe?y ye eaoaai??y aeine?aeaeaia anaa?/ii o
?iaioao eeanee?a oai??? eiieo?aioe?? ?.Ainiooa, A.Ea?eioa, I.Ii?oa?a,
Aeae.?ia?inii, ?.Oioa?iaia, O.Oaeaea, ?.Ooiiaoa?a oa ?ioeo. Oeeie oa
?ioeie ca?oa?aeieie a/aieie aeine?aeaeai? oaeiae aeaee eiieo?aioe??,
eiieo?aioi? neee, iaoai?ci ae?? eiieo?aioe??. Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui oe?
aaoi?e ?icaeyaeathoue i?iaeaio eiieo?aioe?? a oiiaao c??eeo ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei oa ?ioaineaiiai eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua.

A inoaii? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiiy oai??? oa i?aeoeee eiieo?aioe??
?icaeyaeathoueny a?o/eciyieie a/aieie oa aeine?aeieeaie c e?a?i NIAe:
Aaeaaaiiaith E.A., Aa?anei/oeii A.A., A?aaeiaei A.A., Aeaoiii ?.,
Ca?iaiith I.I., E?eaaieii E., Ei?ieueeiaei ?.?., Ia?oeeiei A.N.,
Iicae?aaith ?.A., Iieuaieii A.I., ?oaeiii TH., Naa?eue?aei ?.A.,
Noa?iaeoa?ianueeith ?.A., THaeaiiaei A.TH., sseiae?aei A. oa ?ioeie.
?oi? ?iaioe noinothoueny, aieiaiei /eiii, i?iaeai ci?noo eiieo?aioe?? oa
eiieo?aioieo no?aoaa?e.

sse na?ae/eoue aiae?c ? ?aoa?oaaiiy e?oa?aoo?e, i?iaeaia eiieo?aioe?? o
oi?aiaaeuei?e noa?? aeine?aeaeaia aeineoue a iaiaaeaiiio eie? ?ia?o
a?o/eciyieo o/aieo. Na?aae ieo i?aoe? Aaeaaaiiai? ?.A., Eauoe I.I.,
Iaca?ae? A.A., I??ioie/aiea A.A., Oeoeiai? I.?. oa ?ioeo. I?e oeueiio
ia?aaeoiiae oa oiiae oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua, oaeoi?e
?ioaineo?eaoe?? eiieo?aioe?? o oi?aiaaeuei?e aaeoc? aeine?aeaeai?
iaaeinoaoiuei. O ca’yceo c oeei ia’?eoeaii aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue
iaoeiaiai aiae?co oa iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aaeoiia oa oiia ?icaeoeo
eiieo?aioe?? o oi?aiaaeuei?e noa??, aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ? oaeoi??a
oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a ie?aieo naaiaioao ?eieo oiaa??a
oa iineoa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee c ?aae?caoe??th caoiae?a o iaaeao Eiioeaioe??
?icaeoeo aioo??oiuei? oi?a?ae? Oe?a?ie, i?eeiyoi? Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie a?ae 20.12.1997 ?ieo ? 1449. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
neeaaeiaith iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie “Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo niiaeea/i?
eiiia?aoe?? Oe?a?ie a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?” ? 256/97 aea?aeaaia
?a?no?aoe?y 0197 ?017310, yea aeeiioaaeanue Euea?anueeith
eiia?oe?eiith aeaaeai??th, ?A IAI Oe?a?ie oa ?inoeoooii aea?aeaae ?
i?aaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iniia oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua a aaeoc? oi?a?ae?, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
?ioaineo?eaoe?? eiieo?aioe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aae?caoe?? ??
ooieoe?e. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy:

aeine?aeeoe ? oai?aoe/ii ocaaaeueieoe iieiaeaiiy i?i oi?ioaaiiy oa
aaiethoe?th eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua;

i?iaiae?coaaoe o?ainoi?iaoe?? o noa?? oiaa?iiai ia?ao ye iniiao
oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua;

aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua o aioo??oi?e
oi?a?ae?;

aecia/eoe oaeoi?e ? aeyaeoe ?o aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae?;

ioe?ieoe ?ioaineai?noue eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua;

i?iaanoe ae?aaiinoeeo eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa o
eiieo?aioiiio na?aaeiaeu?, ui oi?io?oueny;

iaa?oiooaaoe i?aeoiaee aei aeai?o iaoiae?a, ?ino?oiaio?a eiieo?aioii?
ai?ioueae oa eiieo?aioii? no?aoaa?? c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

aecia/aii nooi?noue ? ?ice?eoi no/aniee ci?no eiieo?aioe?? o oi?a?ae? a
o?ueio aei??ao: ye yaeua, i?ioean oa oiiaa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo;
aeyaeaii oi?ie eiieo?aioe?? oa iniaeeaino? ?o ?icaeoeo a oi?a?ae?,
coiiaeai? iae?iaeiiii?/ieie oa aaeocaaeie oaeoi?aie;

ooi/iaii ? aeiiiaiaii ooieoe?? eiieo?aioe??, aecia/aii oiiae ?
?acoeueoaoe ?o ?aae?caoe??, ye? caeeaaeai? a iniiao iaoai?cio
eiieo?aioe?? e ioe?iee eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa;

aeiaaaeaii, ui a i?ioean? o?ainoi?iaoe?? noa?e oiaa?iiai ia?ao
ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua neeaaeathoueny ca
?aooiie: ci?i ooieoe?e oi?a?ae?, i?aai?caoe?eii? ia?aaoaeiae oa
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? oe??? aaeoc?, aeaiiiiiie?caoe??, i?eaaoecaoe??,
e?aa?ae?caoe?? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo ? aeaii
ioe?ieo ?o aieeao ia i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy eiieo?aioe??;

aeyaeaii iae?iaeiiii?/i? aeeni?iii?oe?? oa i?ioe??//y, ui no?eiothoue
?icaeoie eiieo?aioe?? o aaeoc?, cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe ?o e?ea?aeaoe?? ia
iniia? i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ?icaeoeo oi?a?ae?, i?aeaaeocaaeo aaeainiaeo
oa’ycie ? a?aeiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy oi?aiaaeueiith aaeoccth;

cai?iiiiiaaii ?ioaineo?eoaaoe oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua ca
?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa ca ii?iaoeaiei e?eoa???i,
iaa?oioiaaii oa nenoaiaoeciaaii iaea?eueo i?eeiyoi?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? oi?ie ainiiaea?thth-/eo noa’?eo?a ia ?eieo
oiaa??a oa iineoa;

aecia/aii oa iaa?oioiaaii iieacieee, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue eiieo?aioi?
ia?aaaae ?icae??aieo oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa i?iaeiaieue/iai
i?io?eth; nenoaiaoeciaaii ye?ni? oa e?euee?ni? eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae ?
cai?iiiiiaaii niiniae ?o iiiaeaiiy oa caeiaoooy iiaeo;

aeiiiaiaii iaoiaee eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae (oe?iiaee oa iaoe?iiaee)
?ino?oiaioaie, oa?aeoa?ieie aeey noa?e oiaa?iiai ia?ao, cai?iiiiiaaii
iaoiaeeeo ?o aeai?o oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee
eiieo?aioii? no?aoaa?? oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue aaaaoianiaeoia canoinoaaiiy.

Ii-ia?oa, iaoai?ci i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua, aeiiae
aei ia?aaeoiia oa oiia ?icaeoeo oaeiai na?aaeiaeua iiaeooue aooe
ia?aianai? a ?io? noi?aei? aaeoc? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e c a?eueo iecueeeie
noa?oiaeie iiaeeeainoyie aoiaeaeaiiy o ?eiie, i?ae oi?a?aey.

Ii-ae?oaa, ia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoao aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioothoueny
noai?ai? iaie iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee aeey i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a o oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeueo ? na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao. Cie?aia, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue c aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii?
aeaaeai??, a naia a ?iai/eo i?ia?aiao c aeenoeeie?i “Eiia?oe?eia
ae?yeuei?noue ia ?eieo oiaa??a oa iineoa” oa “Iniiae eiia?oe?eiiai
a?ciano”, a oaeiae eaeoe?y-aeiiia?aeue “Noaiiaeaiiy eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua a oi?aiaaeuei?e noa??” (aeia?aeea a?ae 09.09.98 ?.).

Ii-o?ao?, cai?iiiiiaai? niiniae caeiaoooy eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa, aeai?o iaoiae?a oa ?ino?oiaio?a eiieo?aioii?
ai?ioueae, ?ioaineo?eaoe?? eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee no/anieo ?aa?iiaeueieo eiioeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
oi?a?ae?, aecia/aiiy aaciaeo no?aoaa?e ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a o
?icae??ai?e oi?aiaaeuei?e ia?aae?. Ie?ai? i?iiiceoe?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
aaoi?a ai?iaaaeaeai? o i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino? oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa,
a naia: iaoiaeeea uiaei aecia/aiiy cia/ouino? eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa,
aeai?o ?ino?oiaio?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae oa ?ic?iaee eiieo?aioii?
no?aoaa?? (aeia?aeea ? 01-28/201 a?ae 04.11.98 ?.).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a c iaoeiai? i?aoe?, iioae?eiaaii? o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, yeee aeei?enoaii o aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? oa
nenoaiaoecaoe?? iai?yi?a aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ae?yeueiino? oi?aiaaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? aeniiaee ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe?? aoee aena?oeai? ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a Euea?anueei?
eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai?? ca i?aenoieaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o
1994-1997 ??., ia IV anaoe?a?inuee?e ? V i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe??th:
ae?aaiinoeea, no?aoaa?y, aoaeoeai?noue”, (1998-1999 ??., Ee?a –
O?oneaaaoeue).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca i?aenoieaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii 14 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii 4,35 ae?oeiaaieo
a?eoo?a, c yeeo iiniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 4,3 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.
Aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 211 noi??ieao, o o./. – 22 ?enoiee ia 12 noi??ieao,
23 oaaeeoe? ia 12 noi??ieao, 14 oi?ioe, a oaeiae aeiaeaoee A-? ia 25
noi??ieao. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae neeaaea? 170 iaeiaioaaiue
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a ? caeia? 13 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/athoueny iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aeaco?oueny
ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie, ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia
oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Nooi?noue eiieo?aioe?? oa ?? iniaeeaino? o
oi?a?ae?” a oai?aoe/iiio ieai? aeine?aeaeothoueny nooi?noue, aeaee,
aeiiii?/iee ci?no eiieo?aioe??, ?? iniaeeaino? oa oa?aeoa?i? ?ene aeey
oi?aiaaeueii? aaeoc?, aiae?cothoueny ia?aaeoiiae noai?aiiy eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua o noa?? oiaa?iiai ia?ao.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy no/anieo oai??e ? iiaeo eiioeaioe?e ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe??
aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui eiieo?aioe?y i?iyaey?oueny o
??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao ye eaoaai??y, yaeua, i?ioean, eiiiiiaio ?eieo,
oiiaa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. O ca’yceo c aaaaoianiaeoi?noth
oi?i i?iyao eiieo?aioe?? aecia/eoe ?? nooi?noue aeineoue neeaaeii. Ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, o aocueeiio cia/aii? nooi?noue eiieo?aioe?? ia ?eieo
oiaa??a oa iineoa iieyaa? o ianooiiiio: eiieo?aioe?y – aeiiii?/ia yaeua,
ui i?iyaey?oueny o niaoeeo?/i?e oi?i? noia?ieoeoaa ?ioa?an?a
ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a ?eieo, ai?iouea? ca iaea?eueo aea?aei? oiiae
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa ca /anoeo ?eieo c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai
i?eaooeo, ? iaa?ae’?iiei aeaiaioii iaoai?cio ?eieo ? iaiao?aeiith
oiiaith eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Eiieo?aioe?th ye neeaaeia yaeua o ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? i?iiiio?ii
eeaneo?eoaaoe ca iciaeaie: noa?ith ae?? eai?oaeo, ianyaii ae?? o
aaeocyo, oa?eoi??aeueiei aniaeoii, iaoiaeaie eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae,
noa’?eoaie oa ?ioaineai?noth ae?? oa ?i.

Na?aae aeae?eaieo iaie eeaneo?eaoe?eieo iciae eiieo?aioe?? aeey
a?o/eciyii? aaeoc? oi?a?ae?, a neeo niaoeeo?ee ?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae ? oa?aeoa?ieie:

eieaeueia ? ?aa?iiaeueia eiieo?aioe?y, ine?eueee eiieo?oaaoe
oi?aiaaeuei? i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeooue eeoa a iaai?e cii? ianeoaiaoaaiiy;

oe?iiaa ? ia?aaaaeath/a iaoe?iiaa – ca iaoiaeaie eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae;

iieoioe?a ? i?iaeaaoe?a, ine?eueee i?aei?e?inoaa aaeoc? oi?a?ae?
caeiathoue iiina?aaeeiaaia i?noea i?ae ae?iaieeaie ? niiaeeaa/aie;

i?aeaaeocaaa eiieo?aioe?y, eio?a cae?enith?oueny a i?ioean?
eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo oiaa??a ? iineoa i?ae aaeocyie, /ey i?iaeoeoe?y
?aae?co?oueny a oi?aiaaeuei?e noa??;

aioo??oiueiaaeocaaa eiieo?aioe?y, eio?a ?icaeaa?oueny o iaaeao aaeoc? ca
??cieie iai?yiaie, oaiiaie, ianooaaaie oiui.

Aeiiii?/iee ci?no eiieo?aioe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny /a?ac i?ecio ?? ooieoe?e
? oi?i. Aaoi?ii aeae?eai? i?ia?aei? ooieoe?? eiieo?aioe??: ?aaoethth/a,
noeioethth/a, caaacia/oth/a, caoenia. O oiae? eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae
aiie ni?eythoue aeaiiiiiie?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, ?icaeoeo IOI,
?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith ? ?iciiae?eo aeiiii?/ieo ?ano?n?a oa ?ioei
i?ioeanai. Eiaei?e oi?i? eiieo?aioe?? i?eoaiaii? iaea?eueo ae?aaeai?
ooieoe??, ao?aei? aa?’??e, iaaia eiioeaio?aoe?y noa’?eo?a ia ?eieo,
aeaee ?eie?a, oiaoi a?aei?ii? oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? (oaae.1). Aeey
aaeoc? oi?a?ae? iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieie ? ?ene iiiiiie?noe/ii?
eiieo?aioe??: ia ?eieo ooieoe?iio? cia/ia e?euee?noue iaeeo ? na?aaei?o
i?aei?e?inoa, aeiaeia c yeeo ia ia? cia/ii? /anoee a caaaeueiiio ianyc?
i?iaeaaeo, eio?? cae?eniththoue oi?a?aeth oiaa??a ? iineoa,
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y yeeo caaacia/o?oueny canoinoaaiiyi ??cieo oi?i ?
iaoiae?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae, ui aea? ciiao aeayeith i??ith
aieeaaoe ia oe?io; aa?’??e aoiaeo a aaeocue ? aeoiaeo c ia?
iacia/i?.

O o?niiio ca’yceo c ooieoe?yie eiieo?aioe?? iinoa? iaiao?aei?noue
noi?ioethaaoe iniiai? caaaeaiiy ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe?? o a?o/eciyi?e
oi?a?ae?. Ia iao iiaeyae, ia?oi/a?aiaeie caaaeaiiyie ?:

noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo ia?aaeoiia ? ??aieo oiia aeey ?icaeoeo
eiieo?aioe?? o ??cieo naaiaioao ?eieo oiaa??a ? iineoa;

noeioethaaiiy aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? oi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
niaoe?ae?caoe?? ? oei?caoe?? oi?aiaa

Oaaeeoey 1

Oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? oi?i eiieo?aioe??

Oi?ie

Eiieo?aioe?? Iaea?eueo ae?aaeai? ooieoe?? eiieo?aioe?? Ao?aei? aa?’??e
Eiioeai-o?aoe?y noa’?eo?a Aeaee ?eie?a

A?eueia *enoa Caoeua? aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane noa’?eo?a ?ei-eo, ni?ey? ?o
a?eueiiio aeai?o ae?yeueiino?, anoaiiaeaiith ?eiei-ai? oe?ie ca iiieoii
? i?iiiceoe??th, oi?io-aaiith iaoai?cio a?ae-ai?o iaeaoaeoeai?-oeo
??oaiue. A?aenooi?

aoaeue-ye?. ( 0 %,

aea ( 0 A??aeiaee ?eiie oe?iieo iaia??a.

Aeineiiaea Caaacia/o? Ia?aoiii-oeiaeueiee ?iciiae?e ?ano?n?a,
ae??aithaai-iy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aa?-oinoae ? ?iciiae?eo
i?e-aooeo,i?aeaeuaiiy aoa-eoeaiino? ae?iaaa. Eaae?: iacia/i?
eai?oaei-aeeaaeaiiy. Aei

10 %

?eiie n?eue-nueeiainii-aea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??.

Iiiiiie?noe/ia Caaacia/o? iaea?aeai-iy aeiiii?/iiai i?eaooeo, ?aaoeth?
ia?aeea eai?oaeo i?ae aaeocyie, noeio-eth? aeaiiiiiie?ca-oe?th
aeiiii?ee, c?in-oaiiy ae?eiai? aeoea-iino?, ?icaeoie IOI. Iacia/i?:
e?oea-ic??,iaoaioe,oi?aia? ciaee, aee-oa?aioe?aoe?y i?iaeoeoe??,
aee-aa?neo?eaoe?y, na?aaei?e ??aaiue eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, aeo?aoe ia
?aeeaio, aeoe-a?caoe?th oi?a?a-e? oiui. Aei 40% ?icae??aia oi?a?aey,
noa?a iineoa, ia?iai? aaeoc?, ?eiee aaoiiia?e?a, iaeyao, aia?aoo?e.

Ie?aiiie?y Noeioeth? ai?i-aaaeaeaiiy ? aea?? iiaiaaaaeaiue, iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic-?iaee, ni?ey? caaith-aaiith /anoee ?eieo.
Aenie?:aeiii-i?y a?ae ianooa-ao,iaoaioe,i?i-oan?ei? nae?a-oe uiaei
oaoii-eia??,ciiaa ui-aei oe?i, cia/i? ?iaanoeoe??. 40– 60 %
Aeaeiaoaaiiy ? ia?a?iaea iaooe, othoth-iia? ?eiee,ei-ii’thoa?iiai
i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy.

Aeoiiie?y Caaacia/o? iaea?-aeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai i?eaooeo. ??aee?ni?noue
oiaa?o, ?ano?-n?a, oi?eaeuei? oaoiieia??. 50– 90 % Iaoaeo?a?ei? aaeoc?,
aaae-ea iaoeii-aoaeoaaiiy.

eueieo i?aei?e?inoa;

noai?aiiy ae??aiai ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio ooieoe?iioaaiiy oi?a?ae?,
iineeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy;

eaaae?caoe?y “o?iueiaiai” naeoi?o oi?a?ae?;

iineeaiiy eiio?ieth oa naieoe?e ca iaaeia?inia?nio eiieo?aioe?th.

Ianooaae ? oaiie ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe?? aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeaoue a?ae
aeeaeie o?ainoi?iaoe?e o oi?aiaaeuei?e noa?? o i?ioean? ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i.
?icaeyaeath/e ci?ie o noa?? oiaa?iiai ia?ao a ?ic??c? eiai ci?noo,
ooieoe?e, no?oeoo?e, c’yniaaii, ui aiie noai?ththoue ia?aaeoiiae aeey
oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua. I?e oeueiio aeyaeai? na?eici?
iae?iaeiiii?/i? aeeni?iii?oe?? oa i?ioe??//y, ye? no?eiothoue eiai
oi?ioaaiiy o aaeoc? oi?a?ae?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Oiiae oa oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae?” a aiae?oe/iiio ieai? aeine?-aeaeothoueny
i?ioeane ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe??, noai?aiiy iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i ye oiiae oa oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy
eiieo-?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae?, a oaeiae aieea aeeaa?neo?eaoe??
ae?yeueiino? oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa ia aeaiee i?ioean.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua ia iiaea aooe
noeo?eiei i?ioeanii, a ia? caaacia/oaaoeny iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieie
?aoi?iaie, ni?yiiaaieie ia noai?aiiy ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea-?thaaiiy. A /ene? ia?oeo ?aoi?i, ye? ?icii/aee naith ae?th o
aea?aeaa? c iaoith iiaeieaiiy iiiiiieueiiai aieeao ia aeiiii?eo oa
noai?aiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua – ?aoi?ie, ui noinothoueny
aeaiiiiiie?caoe??. Aiia ia?aaeaa/a? i?iaaaeaiiy ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ?
i?eaaoecaoe?? i?ae /an ?inoeoooe?iiaeueii? ia?aaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa. A ?acoeueoao? c?oeiiaaii iiiiiie?th oiaa?io, a?aeii/o,
oa?eoi??aeueio; cia/ii nei?i/aiee aea?aeaaiee iiiiiie?ci; noi?iiaaii
aaaaoioeeaaeio noa?o oiaa?iiai ia?ao; caaa?oo?oueny no?oeoo?ia
ia?aaoaeiaa oi?a?ae?; ai?iaaaeaeothoueny ?eieia? iaoiaee
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Oaeoi?e ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae?
aecia/ai? ? ca?oiiaai? ye iineethth/? oa iineaaethth/?. Aei iineethth/eo
oaeoi??a, e??i ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe?? a?aeianee: ooai?aiiy
iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, iecueeo aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th oiaa??a ?
iineoa, canoinoaaiiy aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? oa ?ioeo ?ino?oiaio?a eiieo?aioii?
ai?ioueae, iecuee? aa?’??e anooio a aaeocue ? aeoiaeo c ia? oa ?i. Aei
iineaaeth/eo ?ioaineai?noue eiieo?aioe?? oaeoi??a a?aeianee: nei?i/aiiy
e?eueeino? i?aei?e?inoa ?icae??aii? oi?a?ae?, iecueea caaacia/aii?noue
ianaeaiiy oi?ai-aaeueiith ieiuath, iani?eyoeeaa iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea
o?yaeo oa ?i. Ca iaoeie i?ae?aooieaie, aeey ?nioaaiiy caei?iai?
eiieo?aioe??, cie?aia a ?icae??ai?e oi?aiaaeuei?e ia?aae? iaiao?aeiei ?
noai?aiiy ua aeecueei 29,3 oen. iaaacei?a, aeoiaey/e c e?eoa??th
ii?iaoeao oi?aiaaeueii? ieiu? ia 1000 aeeoae?a (250i2).

Na?aae aecia/aieo oaeoi??a, ui cae?eiththoue aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua, aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oae?, ye noai?aiiy
oa ?icaeoie iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? o oi?a?ae?, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y
ae?yeueiino? oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa. C iaoith iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy
oeeo oaeoi??a i?iaiaeeeinue niaoe?aeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?acoeueoao?
ianoaaeaiue aeyaeaia ioe?iea aieeao eiieo?aioe?? ia ae?yeuei?noue
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa ??cii? oi?ie aeaniino? (oaae.2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Ioe?iea aieeao eiieo?aioe?? ia ae?yeuei?noue ianoaaeaieo oi?aiaaeueieo

i?aei?e?inoa ??cii? oi?ie aeaniino?, (%)

3,5 58,6 20,0 12,4 Aiaeia?/i? i?aei?e?inoaa

?acii 21,8 11,1 17,3 3,9 O?ce/i? iniae

24,6 10,6 13,1 17,9 ?eiie

35,3 4,2 3,5 5,4 Iaeaaae?ciaai? no?oeoo?e

Na?aaeiy ioe?iea 21,3 22,1 13,5 9,9 ?acii

Aeai? oaaeeoe? 2 aeiaiaeyoue, ui a?eueoa /anoea ?aniiiaeaio?a aaaaea?,
ui a?ae/oaathoue eiieo?aioe?th neaaei? (21,3% a?aeiia?aeae) ? iii??ii?
(21,1% a?aeiia?aeae) ae??.

Ioaea, a?aoiaoth/e aiae?c aieeao ??cieo iineethth/eo ? iineaaethth/eo
/eiiee?a ia ?icaeoie eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua, a oaeiae ?acoeueoao?a
i?iaaaeaiiai ianoaaeaiiy iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeyaeaio ?ioaineai?noue
eiieo?aioe?? a aaeoc? iii??iith.

Uiaei canoinoaaiiy aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ae?yeueiino? ?icae??aieo
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa, oi o a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe? aecia/aii
iai?yie: o oaoiieia?th oi?a?ae?, o i?aai?caoe?th oi?a?ae?, o a?e
eiia?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? c ?ioeie aeaeaie ae?yeueiino?.
An? iai?yie aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? ni?e/eiththoue
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?th eoeueoo?e ? ??aiy ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

Ca eiaeiei iai?yiii aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y i?iieea? o ??ci? noa?e ae?yeueiino?
oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa (?en 1).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Oeyoe ?ioaineo?eaoe?? eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua
? iineeaiiy eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa”
aiae?cothoueny eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa oa
iaoiaee ?o ?aae?caoe??.

C iaoith aeyaeaiiy cia/ouino? iieaciee?a, ui oi?iothoue eiieo?aioi?
ia?aaaae oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa, aecia/aiiy ?o i??i?eoaoiino? aoea
i?iaaaeaia aenia?oia ioe?iea ca aeanyoeaaeueiith oeaeith. O ?acoeueoao?
?aiaeoaaiiy iieaciee?a aeyaeaii, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia iineeaiiy
eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa cae?eniththoue
ani?oeiaio oiaa?o, o?iainia? oa ?acoeueoaoeai? iieacieee (9,2 – 9,8
aae?a).

Aecia/ai? eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ie
ni?iaoaaee eeaneo?eoaaoe ca oaeeie iciaeaie: cia/ouino? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? i?aei?e?inoaa – ia o?e ??ai?: iaoiiaethth/?,
ci?ii?, ?acoeueoaoeai?; ca iaoiaeii ioe?ithaaiiy – ye?ni?, e?euee?ni?;
ca no?ieii ae?? – oaeaeeiia?ao?aei?, aeiaaio?eaae?.

Cae/aeii, eeoa iayai?noue eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa ia oi?io?
eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue i?aei?e?inoaa. Iaei? ia?aaaae i?aei?e?inoai iiaea
iaoe a iayaiino?, i?ioa iaaeiioe?ithaaoe ?oith cia/ou?noue ? ia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino?, a ?io? o?aaa
caeiaoaaoe oeyoii iai?oaeaii? ai?ioueae.

O ca’yceo c oeei cai?iiiiiaaii canoiniaoaaoe ?ino?oiaioe iniiaieo
(oe?iiaiai oa iaoe?iiaiai) iaoiae?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae aeey
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa: oi?aiaaeueio iaoe?ieo, cieaeeo, ooe?ieo
oiaa??a, i?iaeaae o e?aaeeo, caniae aeoea?caoe?? oi?a?ae?,
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?th oa ?i. Cai?iiiiiaaiee ia?ae?e ?ino?oiaio?a oe?iiaiai ?
iaoe?iiaiai iaoiae?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae ? eeoa i???ioiaiei,
ine?eueee ia iiaea a?aeia?aceoe anth /enaeueio ?o e?euee?noue, a oaeiae
aeueoa?iaoeaieo eiia?iaoe?e ?o ii?aeiaiiy. Ia i?aeoeoe? oi?aiaaeuei?
i?aei?e?inoaa canoiniaothoue iaeii/anii ?ino?oiaioe ye oe?iiaiai, oae ?
iaoe?iiaiai iaoiae?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae. I?aaeeueiee aea??
?ino?oiaio?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae iiaeia aecia/aoe ca eiao?oe??ioii
aoaeoeaiino? (1):

(1)

aea Ae.a. – eiao?oe??io aoaeoeaiino? eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae
oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa,

?e.a. – ?ino?oiaioe eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae,

E.I. – aeinyaioo? eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae.

sse aa/eii, /ei iaioa cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo, oei a?eueoa aoaeoeai?noue
a?ae caae?yieo ?ino?oiaio?a.

Ie??i oeueiai aea?? iaoiae?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae caeaaeeoue a?ae
i???ioaoe?? ia aaciao no?aoaa?th: ?icaeoeo, noaa?e?caoe??, aeaeeaaiiy.
Ia ?en.2 cia?aaeaia cai?iiiiiaaia “iiaeaeue aaae” aeey aeai?o aaciai?
no?aoaa?? caeaaeii a?ae aeyaeaii? iiceoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa
uiaei iayaiino? eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa, a oaeiae i???ioiai? no?aoaa?/i?
??oaiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ia?aia no?aoaa?y.

Eiaeia i?aei?e?inoai, yea i?iaiaeeoue eiieo?aioio ai?ioueao a aaeoc?,
ia? ?ic?iaeyoe eiieo?aioio no?aoaa?th, yea ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy oa
i?aeo?eieo eiai eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa, caaacia/aiiy o?eaaeiai
ooieoe?-iioaaiiy a oiiaao eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua. O ?iaio?
cai?iiiiiaaii cae?enithaaoe ?ic?iaeo eiieo?aioii? no?aoaa?? aeey
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa o o?noue iine?aeiaieo aoai?a:

aiae?c eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua;

aecia/aiiy no?aoaa?/iiai noaiiaeua i?aei?e?inoaa ca ie?aieie oaeoi?aie;

aeyaeaiiy eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa, yeeo iio??aii aeinyaiooe;

aea?? ?ino?oiaio?a ? iaoiae?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae a iaaeao
?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo c i???ioaoe??th ia aaciaee oei no?aoaa??
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa;

?aae?caoe?y eiieo?aioii? no?aoaa??;

ioe?iea aeinyaiooeo ?acoeueoao?a ? oaeineiiaeaiiy no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, o ?acoeueoao? iiooeo ? aeai?o oeyo?a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ca ?aooiie
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa, ye? aeinyaathoueny /a?ac canoinoaaiiy ??cieo
?ino?oiaio?a oa iaoiae?a eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae, iineeth?oueny
eiieo?aioe?y, ui ? ni?ey? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua a aaeoc? oi?a?ae?.

AENIIAEE

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue eiiieaeno oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo
i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae? iiaeia c?iaeoe
oae? aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??:

Nooue ? ci?no eiieo?aioe?? o oi?a?ae? iathoue nooo?a? iniaeeaino?,
iaoiiaeai? oa?aeoa?ii oiaa?iiai iai?io oa niaoeeo?ee oiia ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. Aeey eiieo?aioe?? o a?o/eciyi?e oi?a?ae?
oa?aeoa?iei ? oa, ui:

eiieo?aioe?y ioiieth? ia aanue ?eiie oiaa??a ? iineoa, a eeoa eiai
naaiaio – i?aai?ciaaio oi?a?aeth;

o oi?a?ae? Oe?a?ie ? i?ia?anoth/ith iaoe?iiaa eiieo?aioe?y;

c i’yoe eiieo?aioieo nee (ca Ii?oa?ii) iaea?eueo ae??aeie ? aea?:
noia?ieoeoai ?nioth/eo eiieo?aio?a ? caa?ica iiyae iiaeo;

iaaeia?inia?nia eiieo?aioe?y caeia? cia/ia i?noea;

iiceoeai? iane?aeee eiieo?aioe?? iaeiiii?oi?.

Ooieoe?? eiieo?aioe??, ye? aeiiiaiai? ? nenoaiaoeciaai? a aeena?oaoe??
ia iiaeooue aooe ?aae?ciaai? aac noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
ia?aaeoiia, ye?

oi?iothoueny ca ?aooiie:

no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae oi?aiaaeueii? noa?e;

aeaiiiiiie?caoe?? oi?a?ae? /a?ac i?eaaoecaoe?th;

e?aa?ae?caoe?? eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?;

iiyae i?eioeeiiai iiai? nenoaie eiieo?aioieo a?aeiinei.

Oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae? nooo?ai no?eio? eiiieaen
oaeoi??a. Aeaoa?i?ioth/eie c ieo aenooiathoue oae?, ye iae?iaeiiii?/i?
aeeni?iii?oe??, aeeaiea aeiiii?/ia ? nioe?aeueia e?eca, iaea?iaai?noue
oi?a?ae?. Aeey ciaioaiiy ?o iaaaoeaiiai aieeao i?iiiio?oueny:

Nooo?ai ci?oeieoe ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco ae?yeueiino? oi?a?ae? oeyoii
i?eeiyooy i?yiiai caeiio “I?i aioo??oith oi?a?aeth”, “Eiia?oe?eiiai
eiaeaeno”, aa?iii?coaaoe caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe c i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie oa
aeiiaaie AAAO/NIO;

A. Noai?eoe /?oei iaeaaiaeaeaia aa?oeeaeueia oi?aae?iiy oi?aiaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth a e?a?i?, i?iaiaeeoe aea?aeaaio iie?oeeo a noa?? oi?a?ae?,
eii?aeeioaaoe ?icaeoie nioe?aeueieo oi?i oi?a?ae?, oi?ioaaiiy
eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua;

A. Iineeeoe aieea aioeiiiiiieueiiai eii?oaoo ia iai?aai?ciaaiee ?eiie,
nooo?ai nei?ioeaoe eiai /anoeo , iniaeeai o noa?? iioiai? oi?a?ae? oa
iina?aaeieoeoaa;

A. ?ic?iaeoe iaoe?iiaeueio i?ia?aio ?icaeoeo aioo??oiueiai ?eieo,
ia?aaeaa/eaoe ie?aiee iai?yiie – “Oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a
oi?a?ae?”.

4. I?iaaaeaia iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui o?e a?oie oaeoi??a
(nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?, i?aai?caoe?ei?, oaoiieia?/i?) iaea?eueo aeoeaii
aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae?. A ?iaio?
aeaia ioe?iea ?o aieeao, aeyaeai? ?aca?ae ?ioaineo?eaoe?? eiai ?icaeoeo.

5. ?ioaineo?eaoe?th eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii
cae?enithaaoe oeyoii:

aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ae?yeueiino? oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa;

i?aai?caoe?eii? ia?aaoaeiae oi?a?ae? oa noai?aiiy iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i;

?icoe?aiiy noa’?eo?a ?eieo, iniaeeai a naeoi?? i?eaaoii? oi?a?ae?.

6. Aeiaaaeaii, ui eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa iiaea
aooe aeyaeaia ca oaeeie iaoiaeaie: ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??ioa
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino?, aiae?co ???a?o?e, aiae?co ?aia?a. Ia ?o aac?
aecia/aii ??aaiue eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae?
Euea?anueeiai ?aa?iio.

7. Aeyaeaii ? nenoaiaoeciaaii eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae oi?aiaaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa c o?aooaaiiyi ?oi?o ??ai?a, oa?aeoa?enoee iieaciee?a.
Ie?aii i?iaiae?ciaai? ye?ni? oa e?euee?ni? ia?aaaae. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae iacaaeia?eueii aeei?enoiaothoueny o eiieo?aioi?e
ai?iouea?. Cai?iii-iiaaii a?aeiia?aei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? noiniaii iineeaiiy
eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa.

8. Aeiaaaeaii, ui a oi?a?ae? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? oi?ie
eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae: i?eoiaaia, a?aee?eoa, eaaaeueia oa iaeaaaeueia.
Ui noino?oueny iaoiae?a – oi aeey no/aniiai aoaio oi?ioaaiiy
eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua iaea?eueo aeinooiiei ? oe?iiaee.

9. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeoiaee oa aoaie oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioii? no?aoaa?? o
oi?a?ae?, c o?aooaaiiyi eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua, ui oi?io?oueny.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

O oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo:

I?ioeeoei I.?. Oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua ye aeaiaio ?eieiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue a aaeoc? oi?a?ae? // Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae. ?aa?iiaeuei? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.
(Ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue). Aei. 7 // IAI Oe?a?ie ?inoeooo
?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. – Euea?a, 1998. – N. 383-389.

I?ioeeoei I.?. Aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y ae?yeueiino? oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa
// Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea, oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai (Oe?a?inueeee ?inoeooo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ? aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??). – Ee?a, 1999. — ?3. N.
26-29.

I?ioeeoei I.?. Oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? oi?i eiieo?aioe?? // A?niee
Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai??. Aei. 4, Euea?a: “Eiiiina?oa” EEA,
1999. – N. 276 -281.

I?ioeeoei I. ?. Cia/ou?noue eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa aeey oi?aiaaeueiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa // A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” Iaiaaeaeiaio ?
i?aei?e?iieoeoai a Oe?a?i?: aoaie noaiiaeaiiy ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo.
Euea?a: “AeO EIO”, 1999. — ? 369. – N. 55-60.

I?ioeeoei I.?. Iaoiaee oa ?ino?oiaioe eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa // A?niee Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii?
aeaaeai??. Aei. 5, Euea?a: “Eiiiina?oa” EEA, 1999. – N. 288-291.

A ?ioeo aeaeaiiyo

I?ioeeoei I.?. Noaiiaeaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a oi?aia?e noa??. –
Euea?a: “Eiiiina?oa” EEA, 1997. – 2,0 ae.a.

I?ioeeoei I.?. Aei ieoaiiy noo? oa ci?noo eiieo?aioe?? // Iaoa??aee
eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? ani??aio?a EEA ca
i?aenoieaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o 1994 ?ioe?. – Euea?a, 1995.
– 0,1 ae.a.

I?ioeeoei I.?. Iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo niiaeea/i? eiiia?aoe?? a oiiaao
eiieo?aioe?? // Iaoa??aee eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeue-eiai
neeaaeo ? ani??aio?a EEA ca i?aenoieaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o
1994 ?ioe?. – Euea?a, 1995. – 0,1 ae.a.

I?ioeeoei I.?. Aei ieoaiiy i?i aeaee eiieo?aioe?? // Iaoa??aee
eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? ani??aio?a EEA ca
i?aenoieaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o 1996 ?ioe?. – Euea?a, 1997. –
0,2 ae.a.

I?ioeeoei I.?. Iniaeeaino? eiieo?aioii? no?aoaa?? oi?aiaaeueiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa // Iaoa??aee IV Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe??th: ae?aaiinoeea, no?aoaa?y,
aoaeoeai?noue”. – Ee?a-O?oneaaaoeue: IOOO EI?. AeAeIO, 1998. –
0,1ae.a.

I?ioeeoei I.?. ?icaeoie iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? ye oiiaa
oi?io-aaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae? // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue EEA “Oi?a?aey, eiia?oe?y, i?aei?e?iieoeoai”. – Euea?a, 1998. –
0,15 ae.a.

I?ioeeoei I.?. No?aoaa?y oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa niiaeea/i?
eiiia?aoe?? a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua // Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue o/aniee?a i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo niiaeea/i? eiiia?aoe?? a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?”. –
Euea?a: “Eiiiina?oa” EEA, 1998. – 0,2 ae.a.

13.I?ioeeoei I.?., Aiii?e A.A. Aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y ye iaoiae eiieo?aioii?
ai?ioueae oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa niiaeea/i? eiiia?aoe?? // Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue o/aniee?a i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo niiaeea/i? eiiia?aoe?? a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?”. –
Euea?a: “Eiiiina?oa” EEA, 1998. – 0,15 ae.a.

14.I?ioeeoei I.?. Eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae ye oaeoi? iineeaiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoa oi?aiaaeueii? aaeoc? // Iaoa??aee V
I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Oi?aae?iiy
i?aai?caoe??th: ae?aaiinoeea, no?aoaa?y, aoaeoeai?noue”. –
Ee?a-Ae?iaiae/, 1999. – 0,1ae.a.

AIIOAOe??

I?ioeeoei I.?. Oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a oi?a?ae?. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.05. – Aeiiii?ea oi?a?ae? oa iineoa.
Euea?anueea eiia?oe?eia aeaaeai?y. Oeiiini?eea. Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua a
oi?a?ae?. O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeothoueny nooi?noue, aeiiii?/iee ci?no oa
oi?ie ?eieiai? eiieo?aioe??. O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co oai??e ?
i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo c i?iaeai eiieo?aioe??, eeaneo?eiaaii ?? aeaee,
aeyaeaii oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? oa ?ene aeey oi?aiaaeueii? noa?e,
aecia/aii ?? i?ia?aei? ooieoe?? ? aeiiiaiaii iio?aei?, aiane?aeie /iai
noi?ioeueiaai? ia?oi/a?aia? caaaeaiiy uiaei ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe?? a
aaeoc?. Cae?eniaii a?oioiaiee aiae?c oiia oi?ioaaiiy eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua oa oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?th oeueiai
i?ioeano. O ?iaio? ?ica’ycaii eiei caaaeaiue, iia’ycaieo c iineeaiiyi
eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e i?aei?e?inoa /a?ac aeyaeaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?th
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ciaeoee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
o i?aeoeoe? ae?yeueiino? oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa i?e ?ic?iaoe?
eiieo?aioii? no?aoaa??, a oaeiae o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?ae?no?a o oi?aiai-aeiiii?/ieo aeueo ? na?aaei?o
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiieo?aioe?y, eiieo?aioia ai?ioueaa, i?eaaoecaoe?y,
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? oi?ie, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y, eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae,
eiieo?aioia no?aoaa?y.

I?ioeeoei I.?. Oi?ie?iaaiea eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu a oi?aiaea. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.05 – Yeiiiieea oiaa?ia e oneoa. Eueaianeay
eiiia?/aneay aeaaeaiey. Oeiiinithc. Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu a
oi?aiaea. Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, o??o aeaa,
auaiaeia, nienea eniieueciaaiiuo eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia e i?eeiaeaiee.

Ai aaaaeaiee iainiiaaia aeooaeueiinoue aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey,
ii?aaeaeaiu oeaee, caaea/e, iao/iia e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea iieo/aiiuo
?acoeueoaoia, eo ai?iaaoeey.

A ia?aie aeaaa “Nouiinoue eiieo?aioeee e a? iniaaiiinoe a oi?aiaea” a
oai?aoe/aneii ieaia enneaaeothony nouiinoue, aeaeu, yeiiiie/aneia
niaea?aeaiea eiieo?aioeee, a? iniaaiiinoe e oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou aeey
oi?aiaie io?anee, ii?aaeaeaiu aaaeouea ooieoeee eiieo?aioeee e
aeiiieiaiu i?iecaiaeiua, e a nayce n yoei noi?ioee?iaaiu ia?aii/a?aaeiua
caaea/e ?acaeoey eiieo?aioeee a yoie io?anee. Aeieacaii, /oi
i?aaeiinueee oi?ie?iaaiey eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu a oi?aiaea aicieeatho ca
n/?o i?iaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i a yoie io?anee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
aeoaieei o?ainoi?iaoeeyi ooieoeeiiaeueiiai e no?oeoo?iiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ai aoi?ie aeaaa “Oneiaey e oaeoi?u oi?ie?iaaiey eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu a
oi?aiaea” a aiaeeoe/aneii ieaia enneaaeothony ?acainoaea?noaeaiea e
i?eaaoecaoeey, nicaeaiea iiauo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i eae oneiaey
e oaeoi?u oi?ie?iaaiey eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu a oi?aiaea, a oaeaea aeeyiea
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee ia aeaiue
i?ioeann. Oi?ie?iaaieth eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu a oi?aiaea nouanoaaiii
i?aiyonoaoao eiiieaen oaeoi?ia. Aeaoa?ieie?othueie n?aaee ieo yaeythony
iae?iyeiiiie/aneea aeeni?iii?oeee, aeoaieee yeiiiie/aneee e nioeeaeueiue
e?ecen, iaoi?aaeyaiinoue oi?aiaee. N oeaeueth oiaiueoaiey eo iaaaoeaiiai
aeeyiey i?aaeeaaaaony: nouanoaaiii eciaieoue ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaoth aaco
aeayoaeueiinoe oi?aiaee ioo?i i?eiyoey i?yiuo caeiiia; aiaae?eoue /?oei
io?aaoee?iaaiiia aa?oeeaeueiia oi?aaeaiea oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth a
io?anea; i?iaiaeeoue ainoaea?noaaiioth iieeoeeo a noa?a oi?aiaee,
eii?aeeie?iaaoue ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiuo oi?i oi?aiaee e oi?ie?iaaiea
eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu; oneeeoue aeeyiea aioeiiiiiieueiiai eiieoaoa ia
iai?aaieciaaiiue ?uiie; ?ac?aaioaoue iaoeeiiaeueioth I?ia?aiio ?acaeoey
aioo?aiiaai ?uiea, o/eouaay ioaeaeueiia iai?aaeaiea – “Oi?ie?iaaiea
eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu a oi?aiaea”. Eioaineoeeaoeeth eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu
iaeaieaa oeaeanaia?acii inouanoaeyoue ioo?i aeeaa?neoeeaoeee
aeayoaeueiinoe oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie ia?ano?ieeie
oi?aiaee, nicaeaieai iiauo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i, ?anoe?aieai
nouaeoia ?uiea, iniaaiii a naeoi?a /anoiie oi?aiaee.

A o?aoueae aeaaa “Iooe eioaineoeeaoeee eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu e oneeaiey
eiieo?aioiuo iiceoeee oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee” aiaeece?othony eiieo?aioiua
i?aeiouanoaa oi?aiaiai i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua nenoaiaoece?iaaiu n o/?oii
eo o?iaiae, oa?aeoa?enoee iieacaoaeae, oeacuaathony iaoiaeu eo
?aaeecaoeee. Aeieacaii, /oi a oi?aiaea iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue ioe?uoua,
oaiaaua, eaaaeueiua e iaeaaaeueiua oi?iu eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau. *oi
eanaaony iaoiaeia eiieo?aioeee, oi aeey nia?aiaiiiai yoaia oi?ie?iaaiey
eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu iaeaieaa aeinooiiui aunooiaao oeaiiaie, oioy
i?aeiouanoai eiaao iaoeaiiaie.

A caeeth/aiee aaoi?ii noi?ioee?iaaiu iniiaiua auaiaeu e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee,
auoaeathuea ec i?iaaae?iiiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiieo?aioeey, eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa, i?eaaoecaoeey,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu, aeeaa?neoeeaoeey, eiieo?aioiua
i?aeio-uanoaa, eiieo?aioiay no?aoaaey.

Protsyshyn O.P. Developing the competitive sphere in trade.

Dissertation presented for candidate academic degree in economy /
Manuscript, speciality 08. 07. 05. – Economy of Trade and Service, Lviv
Commerce Academy, Lviv, 1999.

The dissertation deals with the problem of developing competitive sphere
in trade, namely with the essence, content and forms of a competitive
market. Having analyzed theory and practical experience in the sphere of
competition, the author classifies its types, reveals specific
peculiarities and characteristic features of competition in trade,
defines its main as well as additional functions and formulates urgent
tasks for future development of competition in trade. The detailed
analysis of specific conditions of developing the competitive sphere
make it possible to single out factors that influence the
intensification of this process and resolve a number of questions
connected with the activation of competitive policy of firms through
revealing and realization their competitive advantage. The main results
of the paper have been introduced into practical activities of some
trade firms through the development of their competitive strategy as
well as into educational process in teaching specialists in commercial
and economic colleges of secondary and higher education.

Key words: nompetition, competitive struggle, privatization,
organizational and law forms, diversification, competitive advantage,
competitive strategy.

I?ei?oea. ssno?ainueeee I.?., A?eoeaiei I.A. Iniiae i?e?iaeiiii?ee /
I?ae?o/iee. – E.: Oiaa?enoai “Ciaiiy”, EII, 1998. – N. 489.

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