?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE ? INEOIEIA?? I?IOAN?EII? INA?OE

AEAAeAI?? IAAeAAIA?*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

OAIAEAIEI Oaoyia Eaii?ae?aia

OAeE: 37:372.8

OI?IOAAIIss EIIOI?EAOEAIEO OI?IUe NOOAeAIO?A

AEIIII?*IIAI OI?AA?NEOAOO A I?IOeAN? AEA*AIIss

INEOIEIAI-IAAeAAIA?*IEO AeENOeEIE?I

13.00.04 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

NAAA* Aaeeia Ieoaee?aia, Ee?anueeee

oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e eia?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

AeUeII?I Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e
iaaeaaia?ee ?

ineoieia??

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe, aeioeaio

IE?EIEE A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/,

Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y
ea??aieo eaae??a

ina?oe, aeieoi?aio

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia??,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i. Oaeai?iae

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “14” ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.451.01. a ?inoeooo?
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
254060, i.Ee?a, aoe. I.Aa?eeinueeiai,9, 5-e iiaa?o, cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie
(254060, i.Ee?a,

aoe. I.Aa?eeinueeiai,9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “13” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.I. Oeeaoeuenueea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ica”ycaiiy neeaaeieo
i?iaeai no/aniiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei noaaeoue ia?aae aeuith oeieith
caaaeaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei oi?ioaaiiy aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo niaoe?ae?no?a.
Iniiai? aeiiae aei ??aiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a a?aeia?aaeai?
a Caeii? Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”, Aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai?
“Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”).

A Oeac? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie “I?i iniiai? iai?yiee ?aoi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?” (1996?.) i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui i?ioan?eia
ina?oa ia aoea ci???ioiaaia ia i?aeaioiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a aei ?iaioe a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ina?oe a iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao noiniaii anaa?/iiai
?icaeoeo ethaeeie ye iniaenoino? oa ?? iaeaeui? oe?iiino? aeey
noni?euenoaa coiiaeth? ye iaaaeueio i?iaeaio iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo
i?aeoiae?a aei i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a, ye? ii?aeioaaee a aeeaie?
ooiaeaiaioaeuei? oai?aoe/i? ciaiiy ? ?aoaeueio i?aeoe/io i?aeaioiaeo.
Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo oiia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/ieie ci?iaie o
aca?iia?aeiineiao i?ae o/anieeaie aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, iaaoaa?
i?iaeaia aoiai?oa?ii? yeino? i?aeaioiaee aeioneiee?a aeiiii?/ieo
oi?aa?neoao?a o ca”yceo c ?o iaeaooiueith iie?ooieoe?iiaeueiith
i?ioan?eiith ae?yeuei?noth.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie a/aieo o?einio?a, ineoieia?a, iaaeaaia?a aeiaaaeaii,
ui a eiiieaen? aca?iicaeaaeieo aeeiai?/ii ?iaa??aioii neii?aeeiiaaieo
aeaoa?i?iaio aoaeoeaiino? oi?ioaaiiy an?o i?aeno?oeoo? i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? nenoaiioai?/ei aenooia? eiioi?eaoeaia eiiiaoaioi?noue
niaoe?ae?noa, aaaiiith neeaaeiaith yei? ? eiioi?eaoeai? oi?iiy, ye?
noai?ththoue nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/io iniiao aca?iiae?? ? ni?eythoue
?ioaineaiiio aeeth/aiith iniaenoino? o ae?iaie/o ae?yeuei?noue,
caaacia/oth/e ?? ye?niee ?acoeueoao.

Naia oiio iaoeiaoe?, ye? aeine?aeaeothoue i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee aeiiii?no?a ? iaiaaeaea??a, cia/io oaaao
i?eae?eythoue iiooeo aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a oa oiia oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue o nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae
??aiy aeiiii?/ii? ina?/aiino? noni?euenoaa ? ia?o ca ana o/i?anueei?
iieiae?. O ca”yceo c oeei aeooae?co?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ye?nii?
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aei
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, yea ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ?
eiioi?eaoeaiith.

Ii?aeiaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ciaiue aeiiii?ee c eiioi?eaoeaiith
i?aeaioiaeai?noth aea? nooaeaioai oaeo oi?aa?neoaonueeo ina?oo, yea
aeicaiey? ?i aoaeoeaii cae?enithaaoe ye iniiaio i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue
a noa?? oi?aae?inueei? i?aoe?, iia”ycaii? c i?aai?caoe??th aca?iiae?? c
oe?ieei eieii in?a, oae ? aeeeaaeaoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue o ??cieo oeiao
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Ana aeuacacia/aia aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

O oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? aeui? oeiee iaeiie/aii cia/iee aeina?ae
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?. Aea/aiiy aeaii?
i?iaeaie cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ieoaiue
?noi??? oa o?einio?? aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe (N.O.Aii/a?aiei,
?.A.Cycthi, A.E.Iaeai?iaea, I.A.Ie/eaei, C.?.?aae?i oa ?i.), caaaeueieo
caeiiii??iinoae ? iaoai?ci?a ni?eeoaaiiy (A.A.Aiaiue?a, A.I.Aiae?a?aa,
E.N.Aeaionueeee, I.I.Eaiioue?a, A.Ae.Ia?ea?i, N.E.?oa?iooaei oa ?i.).

I?iaeai? oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? aeioneiee?a aoc?a
i?enay/aii i?aoe? I.I.Aiaeaeueiaa, A.I.Eai-Eaeeea, I.A.Ee?e/oea,
ss.E.Eieiieinueeiai, I.A.Eocuei?ii?, A.I.Neanoueii?ia, A.A.Naie/aiei,
I.I.Oa?anaae/, O.N.ssoeaiei oa ?i., a yeeo aeine?aeaeothoueny iaoeia?
iniiae nooiino?, iniaeeainoae ? no?oeoo?e ni?eeoaaiiy, iaa?oioiaothoueny
oi?iiy, ye? caaacia/othoue oeae i?ioean. Aeaye? aeine?aeaeaiiy
noinothoueny ?ic?iaee nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue (A.A.Eaieeinueeee, E.I.Naaaieiaa), aea/aiiy ca”yceo
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue c eoeueoo?ith: eiioi?eaoeaiith
(A.A.Iieoi?aoeueea), iaaeaaia?/iith (I.I.Aaneeue?aa), caaaeueiith
(I.I.?oaeieoeueea), c oai?/ith ae?yeuei?noth a/eoaey (A.I.Iieyei,
N.I.Neni?aa). A ie?aieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?iiiiothoueny iaoiaeeee
iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a eiioi?eaoeaiei oi?iiyi (A.A.Aaaea?oaiiaa,
I.A.Eocuei?ia, I.I.Eaiioue?a, TH.E.Eueaiaa, A.A.Ie?eiee,
E.I.Iao?ianueea, O.N.ssoeaiei oa ?i.).

Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui iaea?eueo aea/aia i?iaeaia
eiioi?eaoeaii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a. A inoaii?
aeanyoee?ooy iai?oeeeny cia/i? c?ooaiiy a aeine?aeaeaii? ie?aieo
aniaeo?a oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a a oiiaao
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a eiioaeno? ?ice?eooy caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo
iniia ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee (I.A.Aeociai, A.A.Naaa?aea,
A.N.Oa?iianueea, ?.?.Oiaethe), iiooeo oeyo?a oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano (N.?.E?naeueaio, E.N.Ia/aii?aiei, E.ss.?oaeinueeee),
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, iaoiae?a ? oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy
(A.I.Aeaenthe, A.I.Aaee, A.?. Aeueii?i, A.A.Eicaeia, A.I.Naaa/,
I.?.Oe?eue). Cacia/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae/a?iothoue on?o i?iaeai
eiioi?eaoeaii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoao?a, a aieiaia — ia
aecia/athoue aeaoa?i?ioth/i? ?ie? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? o oi?ioaaii?
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaioo?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i a oiiaao aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Iaa/aeueiee i?ioean caeaa?eueoiai ni?yiiao?oueny ia ?icaeoie oaoiaeo
ciaiue ? oi?iue, a eiioi?eaoeaiee aniaeo iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a?aeoiaeeoue ia ae?oaee ieai, ia ?aae?co?oueny, ui
ii?iaeaeo? ?yae noia?a/iinoae:

— i?ae ooiaeaiaioaeueiith oai?aoe/iith ina?/ai?noth aeioneiee?a ?
iaaeinoaoi?i ??aiai ?o i?aeaioiaee aei i?aai?caoe?? aca?iiae?? c
o/anieeaie ae?iiaie/iai i?ioeano (/e o/iyie);

— i?ae i?aeaeuaiiyi aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue nooaeaio?a ? a?aenooi?noth iaeaaeii? oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii?
aace, yea a ni?eyea ae??oaiith i?iaeaie;

— i?ae iioaioe?eieie eiioi?eaoeaieie iiaeeeainoyie aeenoeeie?i
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo ? ?o ?aae?caoe??th o?aaeeoe?eieie
oi?iaie ? iaoiaeaie iaa/aiiy. Iiaeieaiiy oeeo noia?a/iinoae iaoiiaeth?
ia”?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ? i?aeoe/iiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue i?e aea/aii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, iaaeinoaoi?noue ?? ii?aoethaaiiy coiiaeee
aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a i?ioean? aea/aiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i”.

Oaia aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie ye neeaaeiaa
eieaeoeaii? oaie eaai?aoi??? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? aeui? oeiee
“Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae ?aoi?ioaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?? ? ci?noo
ae?yeueiino? aeui? oeiee a Oe?a?i? (oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aniaeo)”
(?E ? 0196E008876).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ioean aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i a aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee oi?ioaaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a i?ioean?
aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?, oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia aoaeoeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Eiioeaiooaeuei? ?aea? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioothoueny ia iieiaeaiiyo
oai??? ae?yeueiino?, ca?aeii c yeeie aoaeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue
iiaeeeaa o?eueee o i?ia?aei?e ae?yeueiino?, ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee yei?
ei?aeththoueny c oa?aeoa?ii oi?iue, ui oi?iothoueny.

Aecia/ath/e i?ia?aeio eiioeaiooaeueio ?aeath, ie a?aoiaoaaee, ui
iei?oiee i?ioean i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a a no/aniiio
aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ia caaacia/o? iaeaaeiiai ??aiy eiioi?eaoeaii?
aioiaiino? iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Aiae?c
aeina?aeo oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue na?ae/eoue, ui iaea?eueo
ae??aith oa aoaeoeaiith ? oaea i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aiiy, yea caaacia/o?
caeo/aiiy nooaeaio?a aei eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?. ?aae?caoe?y
i?ia?aeii? ?aea? aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aao? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a o?aaeeoe?eio
nenoaio iaa/aiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai iaoiaeo, yeee ?iaeoue iaa/aeueiee
i?ioean eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaiei. Eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaia iaa/aiiy
aecia/a?oueny ye iaa/aiiy, a oiae? yeiai nooaeaioe iaieiae?aathoue
eiioi?eaoeaieie oi?iiyie a i?ioean? ni?eeoaaiiy, oiaoi eiioi?eaoeaii?
ae?yeueiino?, yea, aeeiioth/e ooieoe?? caniao ? oiiae iaa/aiiy, noa? ?
eiai iaoith.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. O aeine?aeaeaii? ie aeoiaeeee ?c i?eiouaiiy,
ui aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a cia/ii
c?inoa ca oiia: i?aai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?eueiiai a?aeai?o oi?i ?
iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, ye? a caaacia/eee noa’?eoii-noa’?eoio aca?iiae?th;
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ni?yiiaaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano;
i?aai?caoe?? aoiai?noe/ii-ni?yiiaaieo a?aeiinei a nenoai?
“aeeeaaea/-nooaeaio”, “nooaeaio-nooaeaio”; caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy
eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? aeeeaaea/?a.

Ca?aeii c iaoith ? a?iioacith aoee aecia/ai? iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aea/eoe noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? iaa/aiiy
o aeu?e oeie?;

— aeyaeoe eiioi?eaoeai? iiaeeeaino? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i ? aecia/eoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae ?o aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe??;

— iaa?oiooaaoe e?eoa??? oa iieacieee ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue o aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a;

— ?ic?iaeoe oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a ? aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe ??
aoaeoeai?noue;

— i?aeaiooaaoe iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aeeeaaea/?a uiaei
oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? ?
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy, eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy
o?einio??, ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?ee i?i i?ia?aeio ?ieue ae?yeueiino? o
oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino?, ?aei?noue ae?yeueiino? ? na?aeiiino?,
aca?iica’ycie ae?yeueiino? ? ni?eeoaaiiy, aeoeai?noue iniaenoino? ye
noa’?eoa ae?yeueiino?, aeaoa?i?ioth/o ?ieue i?ia?aeii? ae?yeueiino? o
oi?ioaaii? iniaeno?nieo iiaiooai?aiue. Cae?enithth/e aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie
nie?aeeny ia iieiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaiiai
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-oai?/iai i?aeoiae?a aei i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a o aeu?e
oeie?.

Oai?aoe/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeee iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
ineoieia?/ii? ? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoe a?aeiinii:

— oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? oa ?? ?icaeoeo a i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? ?
ni?eeoaaiiy (A.A.Aiaiue?a, A.I.Aaee, E.N.Aeaionueeee, I.I.Eaiioue?a,
A.I.Iieyei, N.E.?oa?iooaei oa ?i.);

— caeiiii??iinoae ? iaoai?ci?a ni?eeoaaiiy (E.A.Aaoeueoaiiaa-Neaanueea,
A.I.Aiae?a?aa, I.I.Aiaeaeueia, ss.E.Eieiieinueeee, I.I.Eaiioue?a,
A.A.Naie/aiei oa ?i.);

— i?ioan?eiiai ?icaeoeo nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoao?a (A.I.Aeaenthe,
A.I.Eai-Eaeee, A.?.Aeueii?i, A.A.Eicaeia, A.A.Naaa?aea, A.I.Naaa/ oa
?i.);

— ci?noo ? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (I.A.Aaaeoee?ia, ?.A.Cycthi,
N.O.Aii/a?aiei, I.I.Eiiae?aothe, I.I.?oaeieoeueea, N.I.Neni?aa,
O.?.Nouaiei, I.I.Oa?anaae/ oa ?i.).

Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa i?iaiaeeeanue i?ioyaii 1993-1998
?ie?a ? ioiiethaaea o?e aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1993-1995 ??.) ia iniia? aea/aiiy o?einionueei?,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aoei aecia/aii aeo?aei? oai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy: iaa?oioiaaia oaia, noi?ioeueiaaia a?iioaca,
eiie?aoeciaai? i?ia?aei? aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy oa iaoiaee;
aea/aeenue ae?th/? iaa/aeuei? ieaie e i?ia?aie c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i, aeina?ae ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a oi?aa?neoaoo, i?iaiaeeany
eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio, neeaaeaeany i?ia?aia ? ?ic?iaeyeany iaoiaeeea
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a eiioi?eaoeai?e ae?yeueiino?.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1995-1997 ??.) i?iaiaeeany oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio:
ia?aa??yeanue aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaie aenia?eiaioaeueii?
oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue, cae?enithaaany aiae?c
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ?o ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1997-1998 ??.) oi?ioethaaeeny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaiaeeeiny ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo
?iaioe aoc?a, ?ic?iaeyeenue i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ?ica”ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue,
aeinyaiaiiy iaoe, ia?aa??ee a?iioace aeei?enoiaoaaany eiiieaen iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— oai?aoe/iee aiae?c (aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, oai?aoe/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy, eiioaio-aiae?c);

— ca?? aii??e/ieo aeaieo (niinoa?aaeaiiy, aieaooaaiiy, ?ioa?a’thaaiiy,
aan?aee, aiae?c ianiaiai ? ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo);

— iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio (eiinoaooth/ee ? oi?ioth/ee);

— iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa i?iaiaeeeanue ia aac?
E?eai??cueeiai aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
I?aai?caoe?y na??? iaaeaaia?/ieo aenia?eiaio?a cae?enithaaeany ia aac?
eo?n?a i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i
??cieo oei?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a (oe?e, eieaaeae?a, e?oea?a,
oaoi?eoi?a, i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeu) i?noa E?eaiai ?iao, i?noa
Ee?aa, Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?.

Ia ??cieo aoaiao iaoeiaiai iiooeo aea/aany aeina?ae ?iaioe
Caii??cueeiai, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai, Ee?anueeiai, Oa?e?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoao?a, ??aiainueeiai aeiiii?ei-aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo.

A aenia?eiaio? a?aei o/anoue 1185 nooaeaio?a ? 97 aeeeaaea/?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaaea a oiio, ui aia?oa
iaa?oioiaaii ? ?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia??
oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a
i?ioean? aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i; oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue ia iniia? i?aai?caoe?? eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaiiai iaa/aiiy;
iaaoei iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aecia/aiiy e?eoa???a oa iieaciee?a ??ai?a
noi?iiaaiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? o iiaeaeueoiio ooi/iaii? a?aeiieo
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue;
aeyaeaii? eiioi?eaoeaieo iiaeeeainoae ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i ? oeyo?a ?o ?aae?caoe?? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?;
iaa?oiooaaii? iaiao?aeiino? oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ye iaeiiai ?c aaaeeeaeo /eiiee?a ?o aoaeoeaii?
i?aeaioiaee aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?; iaa?oiooaaii? ci?noo, oi?i ?
iaoiae?a i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
aei i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c eo?no “Eiioi?eaoe?ei? i?ioeane iaa/aiiy” (aeey
nooaeaio?a on?o niaoe?aeueiinoae), cania?a iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaiiai iaa/aiiy (ea?oie-caaaeaiue,
iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e, ai?aa oa ?i.); iaoiaee/i?e ?ic?iaoe? ae?eiai?
a?e, i?ia?aie nai?ia?o-i?aeoeeoio “Eiioi?eaoeaia ae?yeuei?noue
aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?”.

Ii?yae c oeei i?aeaioiaeaii iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee “Oaoiieia?y
eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa” (?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/i?
iaoa??aee a noaiao ? oaaeeoeyo) aeey aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a ? caeeaae?a
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue o aoc?anueeeo eaeoe?eieo eo?nao, ia i?aeoe/ieo
caiyooyo, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai, iaoiaee/ieo
iin?aiee?a.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, iaa/aeuei? iaoa??aee, iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ai?iaaaeaeaii a nenoaio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
E?eai??cueeiai aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (aeia?aeea ? 01-185 a?ae 25.06.98),
E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (aeia?aeea ? 331 a?ae 02.07.98).
I?iaaaeaii oeeee eaeoe?e aeey aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaiai e?oeath
i.Ee?aa c i?iaeaie “Eiioi?eaoeaia ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a
o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?” (aeia?aeea ? 101 a?ae 01.01.98).

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa?:

— o oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? iniiaieo ?aeae ? iieiaeaiue
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie;

— ?ic?iaoe? iiaeae? iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

— ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeee iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a eiioi?eaoeai?e ae?yeueiino? a
eo?n? “Eiioi?eaoe?ei? i?ioeane iaa/aiiy”, i?ia?aie niaoenai?ia?o
“Eiioi?eaoeaia ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean?”;

— aeyaeaii? eiioi?eaoeaieo iiaeeeainoae aeenoeeie?i
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo;

— ?ic?iaoe? ? ai?iaaaeaeaii? ae?aaiinoe/ieo iaoiaeee aea/aiiy ??aiy
aioiaiino? aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a aei eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?.

A??ia?aei?noue caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/o?oueny iaoiaeieia?/iith
iaa?oioiaai?noth aeo?aeieo iiceoe?e aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiiieaenii
aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a, a?aeiia?aeieo iinoaaeai?e iao?, ia’?eoo,
i?aaeiaoo, a?iioac? aeine?aeaeaiiy, canoinoaaiiyi anaa?/iiai
e?euee?niiai e ye?niiai aiae?co aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeaieo,
?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ee, ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe aeui? oeiee.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

— oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue ia iniia? i?aai?caoe?? eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaiiai
iaa/aiiy;

— iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue
nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a i?ioean? aea/aiiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i;

— e?eoa??aeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeeeaaeai? ia I?aeaoc?anuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey
i?aoe?” (E?eaee ??a, 1995), Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aoiai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano o
iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? oe?a?inueei? oeiee” (E?eaee ??a,
1996), ia I?ae?aa?iiaeueiiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio nai?ia?? “Noai?aiiy
?i?aeaeo no/aniiai caeeaaeo ina?oe” (Caii??aeaey, 1997), ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaaea?iaaia iniaeno?noue:
iiooe, ?icaeoie, aeiiiiiaa” (Ee?a, 1998). Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaai?aoi???
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? aeui? oeiee ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie

(1995-1998 ??.), ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??,
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo E?eai??cueeiai aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o 9 ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a (c ieo 7 iaeiiin?aieo): 5 noaoae,
1 — o i?ioan?eiiio iaoeiaiio ca??ieeo, 2 – o oaoiaiio aeo?iae?, 2 — o
iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e, 2 oacao, 2 iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a aei eiaeiiai ?icae?eo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (270 iaeiaioaaiue, c ieo 6 — aiae?enueeith
iiaith), 12 aeiaeaoe?a (40 n.). Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 221
noi??iea (157 n. — iniiaia /anoeia). O ?iaio? iaaaaeaii 8 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii
ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, caaaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii a?iioaco, ?ice?eoi
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiao
iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa,
aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeaii a?aeiiino? uiaei ai?iaaoe?? oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ye iaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeaia” — ?icaeyaeathoueny
oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe i?iaeaie eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ? eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue ia iniia? e?eoe/iiai aiae?co o?einionueei?, nioe?ieia?/ii?,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo o?einionueei?, iaaeaaia?/ii? ?
ineoieia?/ii? iaoe a?aenooiy ?aeeia ia?aaeeaia ni?eeoaaiiy, ui iia’ycaii
c ??cieie iiceoe?yie aeine?aeiee?a o ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i oa?aeoa?
aca?iica’yceo eaoaai??e “ni?eeoaaiiy” ? “ae?yeuei?noue”. Iaeia a?oia
aaoi??a (A.A.Aiaiue?a, E.I.Ao?aa, I.N.Eaaai, E.ss.Eieiieinueeee,
I.I.Eaiioue?a, A.I.Iyneuaa, A.A.Iao?ianueeee oa ?i.) ?icaeyaeathoue
ni?eeoaaiiy ye iniaeeaee aeae ae?yeueiino? — eiioi?eaoeaii?. C oi/ee
ci?o I.I.Aiaeaeueiaa, A.N.A?aoi?aa, A.A.Aeia?iae/a, I.A.Eocuei?ii?,
A.O.Eiiiaa oa ?ioeo ni?eeoaaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye can?a, oiiaa
i?aaeiaoii? ae?yeueiino?. Ni?iao neioacoaaoe ??ci? i?aeoiaee c?iaeea
A.I.Aiae?a?aa, yea ?icaeyaea? ni?eeoaaiiy ? ye ni?eueio ae?yeuei?noue, ?
ye nai???aeiee i?iaeoeo oe??? ae?yeueiino?.

Caoaaaeeii, ui i?e iayaiino? ?icoiaeaeaiue a iiaeyaeao, iaoiaeieia?/ia
ni?euei?noue ?o aeyaey?oueny a oiio, ui a ieo iiae?ey?oueny oi/ea ci?o
ia ?aei?noue ni?eeoaaiiy ? ae?yeueiino?, yea aeyaey?oueny a iayaiino?
ni?eueii? yeino? — aooe a?aeiinii naiino?eieie oi?iaie nioe?aeueii?
aeoeaiino? ?iaeea?aea.

O nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? ie nie?aeeny ia eiioeaioe?th ae?yeuei?niiai
i?aeoiaeo a?aeiia?aeii aei yeiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ni?eeoaaiiy ?
eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ?icoi??oueny ye ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oe?eiai ?
/anoeie. Ni?eeoaaiiy ye aca?iiae?y aeieea? ? cae?enith?oueny a
?acoeueoao? ae?aeaeoe/iiai neioaco iaeii/aniiai ia?aa?ao eiioi?eaoeaieo
ae?yeueiinoae aeaio aai a?eueoa ?iaeea?ae?a (A.N.Aaneeue?a).

Eiioi?eaoeaia ae?yeuei?noue ia?aaeaa/a? aeey aoaeoeaiiai ?? cae?eniaiiy
iayai?noue niaoeeo?/ieo oi?iue — eiioi?eaoeaieo.

Aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue i?i ?nioaaiiy
aa??aioeaiino? i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeaie nooiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue,
yea iaoiiaeaia iaiaeiicia/i?noth ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy aca?iica’yceo iiiyoue
“oi?iiy” ? “iaae/ee”.

Ie aeio?eio?iiny oi/ee ci?o aaoi??a (E.A.Aa?aaaiueeia, N.?.Aieei,
N.?.Eenaeueaio, I.A.Eocuei?ia, N.?.I?ea?yi, E.E.Ieaoiiia, E.O.Ni???i oa
?i.), ye? aaaaeathoue oi?iiy ooai?aiiyi a?eueo aenieiai ??aiy, i?ae
iaae/ee, caaa?ooth/ith noaae??th iaae/ie. I?e oeueiio ne?ae aeacaoe, ui
ai?iiy yaey? niaith ia iaoai?/io eiia?iaoe?th iaae/ie, a ui?aco iiaee
“nieaa ciaiue, iaae/ie, aeina?aeo ? oai?/eo iiaeeeainoae ethaeeie”
(N.?.Eenaeueaio). Iniiaieie aeanoeainoyie oi?iiy ? ona?aeiieai?noue,
ocaaaeueiai?noue, aio/e?noue, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ?iaeea?aeo oaeaeei
ia?aeeth/aoeny c iaeiiai niiniao ae?? ia ?ioee, aeei?enoiaoaaoe ??ci?
i?eeiie aieeao, ui oae iaiao?aeii a eiioi?eaoeai?e ae?yeueiino?.

Aiae?c aca?iica’yceo oi?iue, iaae/ie ? ciaiue oa ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei
aecia/aiiy nooiino? iiiyooy “eiioi?eaoeai? oi?iiy”, aeicaieea
onoaiiaeoe, ui caaaeueiei o aaoi??a (A.I.Aiae?a?aa, N.E.Aiiaea?aiei,
ss.E.Eieiieinueeee, I.I.Einiaa, I.A.Eocuei?ia, A.A.Ioae?ee,
I.?.Ieaoeiaa, N.E.?oa?iooaei, E.I.Naaaieiaa, A.A.Naie/aiei oa ?i.) ? oa,
ui eiioi?eaoeai? oi?iiy iia’ycothoueny c i?aai?caoe??th aca?iia?aeiinei,
aca?iiae??.

Cacia/aia aeua aeaei iiaeeea?noue i?ae?eoe aei ?icoi?iiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue ye ?ioaa?aoeaii? aeanoeaino? iniaenoino?, yea iaaooa ia iniia?
?ai?oa canai?ieo ciaiue, iaae/ie ? aeyaey?oueny o caeaoiino? aeeiioaaoe
eiioi?eaoeaio ae?yeuei?noue a iiaeo oiiaao.

Oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue ye
aeanoeaino? iniaenoino? cae?enithaaeiny c o?aooaaiiyi iieiaeaiue ?yaeo
a/aieo ineoieia?a i?i ae?aeaeoe/io ?aei?noue oi?iue c ineo?/ieie
iniaeeainoyie iniaenoino? ? ia?o ca ana ?? cae?aiinoyie, iio?aaaie,
aieueiaeie yeinoyie oa oa?aeoa?ieia?/ieie ?enaie, ye? noaiiaeyoue
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/io iniiao i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue,
oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy yei? iiaeaii a ?iaio?.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? ? aeinoaoiuei? aeey cae?eniaiiy aoaeoeaii?
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? noeoiiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue ie nie?aeeny
ia iniiai? i?aeno?oeoo?e eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?, aei yeeo cia/ia
/anoeia aeine?aeiee?a a?aeiineoue: aiinoe/io i?aeno?oeoo?o (ni?eeiyooy ?
?icoi?iiy ia?oia?a ii ni?eeoaaiith), aeni?aneaio (naiiae?aaeaiiy
iniaeno?noth nai?? nooiino?), ?ioa?aeoe?eio (aieea iniaenoino? ia
ia?oia?a).

I?e ?ic?iaoe? no?oeoo?e eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue ii?yae c aiae?cii
e?oa?aoo?e aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeai? iieooaaiiy nooaeaio?a i?i ?ieue
??cieo eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue o iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?. Oea
aeicaieeei ia’?aeiaoe iniiai? eiioi?eaoeai? oi?iiy a a?oie ?
i?aaenoaaeoe ?o a o?ueio i?aeno?oeoo?ao: oi?iiy nioe?aeueii? ia?oeaioe??
? aiiao??, oi?iiy naiii?acaioaoe??, oi?iiy aa?aaeueiiai ? iaaa?aaeueiiai
eiioaeoo.

O oiae? eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo e?eoa???a oa
iieaciee?a aoee aecia/ai? ??ai? (aenieee, aeinoaoi?e, na?aaei?e,
iecueeee, ioeueiaee) noi?iiaaiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue o nooaeaio?a ?
aeaia ?o oa?aeoa?enoeea.

E?euee?niee oa ye?niee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo
cana?ae/ea ianooiia: ciaiiy nooaeaio?a o noa?? eiioi?eaoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? neaae?, iio?aaa a iaieiae?ii? eiioi?eaoeaieie oi?iiyie
iaaeinoaoiuei ae?aaeaia; ia aeyaeaii nooaeaio?a c aenieei ??aiai
noi?iiaaiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue, a na?aaei?e oa iecueeee
ooieoe?iiaeueiee ??aaiue oa?aeoa?iee a?aeiia?aeii aeey 36,9% ? 44,1%
nooaeaio?a.

Oaeei /eiii, ?nioth/a nenoaia eiioi?eaoeaii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai nueiaiaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa ii
oi?ioaaiith eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo”
— cae?eniaii aiae?c eiioi?eaoeaieo iiaeeeainoae aeenoeeie?i
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo, aeyaeaii ? iaa?oioiaaii iaaeaaia?/i?
oiiae ?o aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, aecia/ai?
eia?ea oa iniiai? iiceoe?? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo, aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??aia oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue o i?ioean? aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i oa aoaeoeai?noue ?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

C?iaeaiee aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui i?e iayaiino? cia/ieo iioaioe?eieo
eiioi?eaoeaieo iiaeeeainoae aeenoeeie?i ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo
caa?iai?noue aei i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ? iacia/iith. Aeoeaiooth/e iniiaio oaaao ia
iaieiae?ii? niaoe?aeueieie ciaiiyie, oi?iiyie, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
aeeeaaea/?a caeeoa? iica oaaaith eiioi?eaoeaiee aniaeo iaeaooiuei?
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? a oe?eiio ? iaaeaaia?/ii? cie?aia. O
iaa/aeuei?e ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio ia caiyooyo /anoi aenooia? eeoa ye
ia’?eo iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao ? aeeiiaaaoeue i?aai?ciaaii? aeeeaaea/ai
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

Aeoiaey/e c aeuacacia/aiiai, a ?iaio? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai?
iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, ye? nooo?ai coiiaeththoue aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a: 1) i?aai?caoe?y iaaeaaia?/ii
aeioe?eueiiai a?aeai?o oi?i ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, ye? a caaacia/eee
noa’?eoii-noa’?eoio aca?iiae?th; 2) i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia
ni?yiiaai?noue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano; 3) i?aai?caoe?y
aoiai?noe/ii-ni?yiiaaieo a?aeiinei a nenoai? “aeeeaaea/-nooaeaio”,
“nooaeaio-nooaeaio”; 4) caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy eiioi?eaoeaii?
eiiiaoaioe?? aeeeaaea/?a.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy, aiae?co io?eiaieo a aeine?aeaeaii? aeaieo
cacia/eii, ui aeae?eai? iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae noaiiaeyoue niaith
noeoii?noue aca?iiae?th/eo eiiiiiaio?a, ye? ni?eythoue oe?e?niiio
i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? iaa/ath/iai ni?eeoaaiiy ? noai?ththoue
iiaeeea?noue aeey aeeeaaea/?a iiaiith i??ith ?aae?coaaoe eiioi?eaoeaiee
iioaioe?ae ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue.

Eia?ea ? iaoiaeeea oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aacoaaeeny ia iieiaeaii?
i?i oa, ui ineo?ea ethaeeie aeyaey?oueny ? oi?io?oueny o?eueee a
ae?yeueiino? ? o a?aeiia?aei?e nenoai? a?aeiinei, i?e /iio ia a
aoaeue-ye?e ae?yeueiino?, a o?eueee a ae?yeueiino?, aiaeia?/i?e (oi/a ?
ia oioiaei?e) o?e, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae iaiao?aeieo aeanoeainoae
(I.I.Eaiioue?a). E??i oiai, nooi?iue noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue caeaaeeoue ia
no?eueee a?ae o?eaaeino? ae?yeueiino?, ne?eueee a?ae oa?aeoa?o ??
i?aai?caoe??, a?ae iniaeeainoae cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie ae?e
(N.?.Eenaeueaio).

O oeueiio aniaeo? i?aee?aneeii aaaeeea?noue aeeeaae?a a/aieo
A.I.Aiae?a?ai?, A.A.Aa?eoo?, ?.I.Ceiiuei?, A.I.Eai-Eaeeea, E.A.Eiaaeue,
I.I.Eaiioue?aa, N.?.Ianiaa, I.I.Oaoueyi/aiei oa ?ioeo, a yeeo
aeiaaaeaii, ui aoaeoeaia iaieiae?iiy eiioi?eaoeaieie oi?iiyie iiaeeeaa
eeoa o i?ioean? eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?.

Oiio iaa/aeueiee i?ioean iiaeiai aooe i?aai?ciaaiee oae, uia ca nai?ie
iniiaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie a?i noaiiaea niaith eiioi?eaoeaio
ae?yeuei?noue. Oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue aoaea aecia/aoeny ia
no?eueee ci?noii, ne?eueee oi?iaie ? iaoiaeaie iaa/aiiy. Nie?ath/enue ia
iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aoaeue-ye? oi?ie ni?eeoaaiiy ? niaoeeo?/ieie
oi?iaie ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? (A.I.Aiae?a?aa), ui yeino? iniaenoino?
oi?iothoueny a eieaeoeai?e ae?yeueiino? ia iniia? ni?eeoaaiiy
(A.?.Ua?aaeia); ui iaa/aiiy, caniiaaia ia ni?eeoaaii?, aea nooaeaio
aenooia? ye aeoeaiee noa’?eo o i?ioean? eiioi?eaoe??, aeiaaa? eiai
i?aai?caoe?? ia iniia? aaciina?aaeiuei? aca?iiae?? i?ae nooaeaioaie
(O.E.E?eiaon), ui iniiaiith oi?iith iaa/ath/iai ni?eeoaaiiy ?
“neooaoe?? ni?eueii? i?iaeoeoeaii? ae?yeueiino?” (A.ss.Eyoae?n), aea
?aae?co?oueny i?eioeei ?aeiino? ae?yeueiino? ? ni?eeoaaiiy, o /eiio
nenoaio aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i aoei ai?iaaaeaeaii
iaaeaaia?/io oaoiieia?th oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue ia iniia?
i?aai?caoe?? eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaiiai iaa/aiiy, a yeiio nooaeaio o
an?o aeaeao ?ioaeaeooaeueii? e i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? aenooia? aeoeaiei
noa’?eoii ni?eeoaaiiy. Oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue ia iniia?
cai?iiiiiaaii? oaoiieia?? noaiiaeoue niaith oe?e?niee, na?aeiiee,
iiaoaiiee i?ioean, yeee aeeth/a?:

— canai?iiy oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue noo? oa ci?noo eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue,
ciaiue i?i niiniae oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo eiioi?eaoeaieo ae?e ?
oi?ioaaiiy oyaii? iiaeae? oe??? ae??;

— iaieiae?iiy nenoaiith iaae/ie, ye aaoiiaoeciaaieo eiiiiiaio?a
?aae?caoe?? oyaii? iiaeae?;

— oi?ioaaiiy aeina?aeo ia?aiino canai?ieo iaae/ie o iia? neooaoe??, ye?
aeiaaathoue ?o oai?/iai canoinoaaiiy (aeania eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue).

Aoaeoeai?noue iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia?? ia?aa??aii i?ae /an oi?ioth/i?
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, yea i?iaiaeeeany ia aac?
E?eai??cueeiai aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a oiiaao i?e?iaeiueiai ia?aa?ao
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano i?e aea/aii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i i?ioyaii 1995-1997 ?ie?a. C oe??th iaoith aoei aeei?enoaii
aenia?eiaioaeueio (44 /ie.) ? eiio?ieueio (42 /ie.) a?oie.

Aoaeoeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee c?iaeei i/aaeaeiith
iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? aeeeaaea/?a.
Ae??ooaaeiny oea caaaeaiiy /a?ac nai?ia?-i?aeoeeoi “Eiioi?eaoeaia
ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?”, yeee
aoa ni?yiiaaiee ia ?icoe?aiiy oa iiaeeaeaiiy ciaiue c i?iaeaie
eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?, oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue i?aai?caoe?? iaa/ath/iai
ni?eeoaaiiy.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? a ci?no? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i aoa
aecia/aiee ianya ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo, iaiao?aeiiai aeey oi?ioaaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaii cia/oueo ciaiue, ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy iaae/ie ? oi?iue.
Cae?eniaii a?aea?? iaoa??aeo ia iniia? aiae?co iaoiaee/ii?
aeioe?eueiino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy, iiaeeeaino? aeooae?coaaoe
iioeaaoe?eiee eiiiiiaio oa aeoea?coaaoe eiioi?eaoeaio aeoeai?noue
nooaeaio?a.

A?aeo?ae a?ae o?aaeeoe?eii? noa’?eoii-noa’?eoii? aca?iiae?? ia eaeoe?yo
caaacia/oaaany i?aai?caoe??th ?o i?iaeaiiiai /eoaiiy, aeei?enoaiiyi
i?eeii?a “noai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ?ic?eao”, “ae?aaeaiiy i?ioeeaaeieo
aeoiie”, “/eoaiiy nooaeaioii /anoeie eaeoe??”, ?ieueiaeo aeeneon?e oa
?ioa.

Aeei?enoaiiy cacia/aieo aeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy noai?th? iiaeeeaino?
aeey eiaeiiai nooaeaioa noaoe aaciina?aaei?i o/anieeii iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano, cae?enithaaoe iiooe eiioi?eaoeaieo cania?a ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioan?eieo i?iaeai.

Ae?oaee aoai ni?yiiaoaaany ia ocaaaeueiaiiy e nenoaiaoecaoe?th iaaooeo
ciaiue c iaoith ?o ?ioaa?aoe??, iaieiae?iiy i?ioeaaeo?ii-i?aaiaoe/ieie
ciaiiyie, oi?ioaaiiy iaae/ie oa oi?iue eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ?
cae?enithaaany a oiae? i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue. I?aeoe/i? caiyooy aoaeoaaeeny
ca ieaiii: 1) aeooae?caoe?y oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue oa ciaiue i?i niiniae
aeeiiaiiy ae?? (i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?ieo), i?eaaaeaiiy ?o a nenoaio,
iieac cia/ouino? ciaiue c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy ?ioa?ano ? iio?aae a
iaieiae?ii? ieie; 2) o?ai?ia ie?aieo niinia?a ae??, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey
iaaiiai eiioi?eaoeaiiai oi?iiy, aaoiiaoecaoe?y eiai; 3) ?icaeoie
eiiieaeno niinia?a ae?? oeyoii naiino?eiiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy ia
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiio ??ai?; 4) oi?ioaaiiy ai?iiy ia?aiineoe a?aei?aoeueiaai?
iaae/ee a iia? ianoaiaea?oi?, oai?/? eiioi?eaoeai? neooaoe??.

Aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue
caaacia/o?oueny oeyoii caeo/aiiy nooaeaio?a aei ae?yeueiino?, yea
iaeneiaeueii iiaeaeth? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean ? noai?th? oiiae aeey
i?ioan?eii i???ioiaaiiai ni?eeoaaiiy. Iaea?eueo ?acoeueoaoeaieie ia
aeaiiio aoai? aenia?eiaioo aeyaeeeny oae? iaoiaee ye ?ieueia? oa ae?eia?
?a?e. Naia ?a?iaa iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioan?eieo neooaoe?e aeaaaei
iiaeeea?noue iaoa??ae?coaaoe ? ia’?eooaaoe ??ci? aniaeoe eiioi?eaoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a.

I?e i?aai?caoe?? ?a?iaeo caiyoue ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui oni?oi?noue ?o
i?iaaaeaiiy aeaoa?i?iiaaii aaeaeaaoi?noth ci?noo ?a?iai? ae?yeueiino?
ciaiiyi, ui aea/aeeny; /?oe?noth aecia/aiiy i?iaeaie a?e; i?aai?caoe??th
ae?aeia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy o/aniee?a; a?aooaaiiyi ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
eiioi?eaoeaiiai aeina?aeo nooaeaio?a; ?ica’ycaiiyi caaea/ ia iniia?
oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue, a ia aeanii? iiceoe?? /e aeaniiai aaaeaiiy.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae? ??ciiaeaee ?ai?: 1) nthaeaoi?,
ye? aeiaaaee o?eueee ?i?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aeieo ae?e, caaeaieo ?ieeth; 2)
neooaoe?eii-?ieueia?, ye? iaee iiaeeeaino? aeey /anoeiai? aai iiaii?
?ii?ia?caoe??; 3) ae?eia? ?a?e.

A ?i?oaoe?ei?e a?? nooaeaioo c iaoith ciaeaeaiiy ae?e, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia?ac, ? a?aeoai?aiiy ?o, iaiao?aeii aoei iinoaaeoe
naaa a iiceoe?th aeaiiai ia?niiaaeo. Oey nai???aeia a?a a iiaaae?ieo
(E.N.Noai?neaanueeee) aeiaaaea a?ae nooaeaio?a oi?iiy eaaei ? oaeaeei
i?eeiaoe oiiae, cai?iiiiiaai? neooaoe??th, i?enoiniaoaaoeny aei ieo ?
iae?aoe aaeaeaaoiee niin?a aieeao ia ia?oia??a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaei, ui cia/ia /anoeia nooaeaio?a ia caeaoia aei
aaeaeaaoiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy caaeaieo ?ieae i? o aa?aaeueiiio, i? a
ieanoe/iiio, i? a aiioe?eiiio ieai?, i? a ieai? noai?aiiy oa?aeoa?o
?ie?. A ?acoeueoao? aeieeathoue o?oaeiiu? o aeai?? ? i?eeiyoo?
eiioi?eaoeaii a??ieo ??oaiue.

Aeey oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue ?ii?ia?caoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny neooaoe??, ye?
iio?aaoaaee naiino?eiiai i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a?aeiia?aeii aei iniaeeainoae
o/aniee?a a?e. Iio?i aeey a?e i?iiiioaaeeny neooaoe??, no?oeoo?a ? iaae?
ci?noo yeeo aoee /anoeiai icia/ai?, ui noai?thaaei nooaeaioai
iiaeeeaino? aeey naiaiaee eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?. ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiy iiae?aieo caiyoue iieacaee, ui yeui ci?no, oa?aeoa?enoeea
ae?th/eo in?a, oiiae oa ?io? aeo?aei? aeai? aecia/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei
/?oei, a ?acoeueoao? /iai nooaeaioai aea?oueny caiaaeoi oe?iea iiea aeey
eiioi?eaoeaii? ?ii?ia?aeaoe??, /anoi a?aeaoaa?oueny ao?aoa naiiai nieneo
“i?ia?aaaiiy”, oiio ui nooaeaioe ia /othoue, ia ?icoi?thoue iaeei
iaeiiai, a eiaeai ae?? o nai?io eiioi?eaoeaiiio iie?.

I?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue o iiae?aieo
neooaoe?yo, ye na?ae/eoue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeiiiiiaa? iiia?aaei?
?ica”ycaiiy ?o ia ??ai? noai?aiiy oyaii? iiaeae? ae??. A?aoiaoth/e oea,
ia ianooiieo aoaiao oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo ie ae??ooaaee neooaoe??,
ye? i?noeee a nia? aeaiaioe ?i?oaoe?? oa ?ii?ia?caoe??, a ?acoeueoao?
/iai nooaeaioe iaee iiaeeea?noue iae?aoe aeaniee oeyo ?o ?ica’ycaiiy.
I?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?eiai? a?e ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui aiia, aeeth/ath/e
a naaa ?i?oaoe?ei? ai?aae, aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e, ?a?iaa
i?iaeooaaiiy, aeicaiey? a oiiaao aa??aoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy
oi?ioaaoe eiiieaen eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue: oi?iiy aa/eoe ia?oia?a ii
ni?eeoaaiith, oi?iiy ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe naaa c iei ? ciaoiaeeoe aaeaeaaoi?
aa?aaeuei? e iaaa?aaeuei? niiniae aieeao aeey aeinyaiaiiy iiceoeaiiai
e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo. Aiia noai?th? iiaeeeaino? aeey ai?iaaoe?? iiaeo
oi?i eiioi?eaoeaii? iiaaae?iee oa ioe?iee aeanieo eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue
oa oi?iue ia?oia?a ii ni?eeoaaiith.

O i?ioean? /eoaiiy eaeoe?e, ia i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo cai?iiiiiaai?
nooaeaioai ai?aae, neooaoe??, iaaeaaia?/i? caaea/? aoaeoaaeeny ca
i?eioeeiii oneeaaeiaiiy ae?yeueiino?, ia?aoiaeo a?ae caaaeaiue
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o aei oai?/eo caaaeaiue.

A?aei?aoeueiaoaaeeny ? cae??iethaaeeny noi?iiaai? eiioi?eaoeai? oi?iiy
a oiae? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee, yea aenooiaea caaa?ooth/ei ?
eiio?ieueiei aoaiii oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo ? i?aai?ciaoaaeany oaeei
/eiii, uia noai?eoe oiiae aeey ??ciiiai?oii? eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a. I?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a, aeoiaieo caoiae?a o ??cieo oi?iao
(eaeoe??, aan?aee, aeeniooe, eiioa?aioe?? oiui), iino?eia ni?eeoaaiiy c
o/iyie e ae?oaeie o/anieeaie iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano oi?ioaaei
iiceoeaiee eiioi?eaoeaiee aeina?ae iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a.

Ia ??cieo aoaiao aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aoei i?iaaaeaii o?e
aei??thaaiiy: ae?aaiinoe/ia, eiio?ieueia e i?aenoieiaa.

Ii??aiyiiy aeaieo, io?eiaieo o oi?ioth/iio aenia?eiaio?, c iieacieeaie
eiinoaooth/iai aoaio ? eiio?ieueii? a?oie (Aeea.oaae.1), aeicaieeei
c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue nooaeaio?a. Cia/ia c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? nooaeaio?a
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie c aeinoaoi?i ??aiai (ia 29,6%) i?e a?aeiia?aeii
??ceiio ciaioaii? (ia 36,0%) e?eueeino? c iecueeei ??aiai noi?iiaaiino?
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue, iiyaa a?oie nooaeaio?a c aenieei ??aiai i?e
caa?aaeaii? a iniiaii? /anoeie nooaeaio?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie iecueeiai
(33,4%) oa na?aaeiueiai (52,3%) ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue, na?ae/eoue i?i aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
oaoiieia?? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a i?ioean?
iaieiae?iiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieie aeenoeeie?iaie oa aeioe?euei?noue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?? o iaaeaaia?/io i?aeoeeo.

Oaaeeoey ?

Iieacieee ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo

oi?iue nooaeaio?a (o a?aenioeao)

A?oie,aenia?eiaioaeueia eiio?ieueia??ai?aei
aenia?ei.i?ney aenia?.aei aenia?ei.i?ney aenia?.Aenieee

Aeinoaoi?e

Na?aaei?e

Iecueeee-

11,3

34,5

54,24,5

40,9

36,4

18,2-

11,9

35,7

52,4-

14,3

52,3

33,4Anueiai100100100100

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao c?iaeaii i?aenoiee oai?aoe/iiai e
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iai?/aii ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoi?
?iaioe. Caaaeii, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee c?iaeoe oae?
aeniiaee:

1. Eiioi?eaoeai? oi?iiy — oea ?ioaa?aoeaia aeanoea?noue iniaenoino?,
yea iaaooa ia iniia? ?ai?oa canai?ieo ciaiue, iaae/ie, i?iyaey?oueny a
caeaoiino? aoaeoeaii aeeiioaaoe eiioi?eaoeaio ae?yeuei?noue o iiaeo
oiiaao ? aenooia? nenoaiioai?/ei eiiiiiaioii i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a.

2. ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? (ci?noiaee, iioeaaoe?eiee, ae?yeuei?niee)
oa iieacieee aeicaieeee onoaiiaeoe iaaeinoaoi?e aeey cae?eniaiiy
aoaeoeaii? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? eiioi?eaoeaieo
oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

3. Cia/i? iioaioe?ei? eiioi?eaoeai? iiaeeeaino? ineoieiai –
iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i aoaeoeaii ia ?aae?cothoueny o?aaeeoe?eieie
oi?iaie ? iaoiaeaie iaa/aiiy. Caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy noi?iiaaiino?
eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue iia’ycaia c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, ye? coiiaeththoue aeaiie?aoeci i?aeiniaeno?nieo
noinoie?a, ae?aeia?ci iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae??, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai oa
ni?aoai?/?noue i?ae aeeeaaea/ai ? nooaeaioaie a i?ioean? iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, aoiai?caoe?th a?aeiinei a nenoai? “aeeeaaea/-nooaeaio”,
“nooaeaio-nooaeaio”.

4. Aoaeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue aaco?oueny ia
i?aai?caoe?? eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaiiai iaa/aiiy, a yeiio eiioi?eaoeai?
oi?iiy aenooiathoue ia o?eueee oiiaith ? caniaii iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, aea ? ?? iaoith. Eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaia iaa/aiiy
noaiiaeoue niaith ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ia iniia? ??cieo aeae?a ni?eueii?
?iaioe nooaeaio?a iaae eiioi?eaoeaieie caaea/aie ? aca?iiae?th a
i?ioean? ?o ?ica’ycaiiy. Aea aein? ia a?aei?aoeueiaaia iaoiaeeea eiai
nenoaiiiai aeei?enoaiiy, oa i?eioeeie, ia iniia? yeeo iiaeeeai aeinyaoe
ni?iaiiciaaiiai ?acoeueoaoo a i?ioean? aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i caniaaie iaa/ath/iai ni?eeoaaiiy, ?aae?coaaaoe ?o
iioaioe?ei? eiioi?eaoeai? iiaeeeaino?.

5. ?ic?iaeaia, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia ? aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aia
iaaeaaia?/ia oaoiieia?y oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i noaiiaeoue niaith
?icai?iooee o /an? iiaoaiiee i?ioean, ni?yiiaaiee ia oi?ioaaiiy oyaii?
iiaeae? eiioi?eaoeaii? ae??, ia iniia? canai?ieo oai?aoe/ieo ?
i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?ieo ciaiue, ?icaeoie nenoaie iaae/ie ye
aaoiiaoeciaaieo eiiiiiaio?a aeeiiaiiy ae??, iaieiae?iiy aeina?aeii
ia?aiineoe canai?i? iaae/ee a iia? neooaoe?? oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o.

Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? noai?ththoue aeinoaoi? i?aenoaae
aeey ioe?iee iaa/aeueiiai aenia?eiaioo ye oni?oiiai ca nai?ie e?ioeaaeie
?acoeueoaoaie, ye? iathoue cia/aiiy ia o?eueee aeey aeiiii?/ieo
oi?aa?neoao?a, aea ? aeey nenoaie aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe a oe?eiio.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, cie?aia
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaiiai iaa/aiiy i?e aea/aii?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy eiioi?eaoeaii?
eiiiaoaioe?? aeeeaaea/?a oeyoii noai?aiiy a oi?aa?neoao? a?oi
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai eiioi?eaoeaiiai o?ai?iao.

Iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy iio?aaothoue oae? aniaeoe i?iaeaie: oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie ?iaioe aeeeaaeaoeueeiai eieaeoeao aeiiii?/ieo
oi?aa?neoao?a ii oi?ioaaiith o nooaeaio?a eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue;
aeyaeaiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai iioaioe?aeo niaoe?aeueieo aeenoeeie?i ? oeyo?a
eiai ?aae?caoe??; aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo iaieiae?iiy
aeeeaaea/aie ? nooaeaioaie eiioi?eaoeaieie oi?iiyie.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Oaiaeaiei O.E. Oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue aa?aaeueiiai eiioaeoo o
iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey //I?ioan?eia oai?/?noue a nenoai? i?aeaioiaee oa
ia?ai?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. —
Ee?a-Caii??aeaey — 1997. — Aei. 6. — N.94-98.

2. Oaiaeaiei O.E. Oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a a
i?ioean? ?ieueiai? a?e // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. –
1998. — ? 4. – N. 222 – 229.

3. Oaiaeaiei O.E. Oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue o iaeaooi?o
aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii? ina?oe –
1998. — ?5. – N. 232 – 237.

4. Oaiaeaiei O.E. Aei i?iaeaie aa?aaeueii? eiioi?eaoe?? a/eoaey
// Iaoa??aee i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai nai?ia?o “Noai?aiiy
?i?aeaeo no/aniiai caeeaaeo ina?oe”. — Caii??aeaey. — 1997. — N.281-286.

5. Oaiaeaiei O.E. Eiioi?eaoeai? cae?aiino? ye oiiaa
?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? iaaea?iaaiino? // Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii?
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?. “Iaaea?iaaia iniaeno?noue: iiooe, ?icaeoie,
aeiiiiiaa”. — E.: 1998. — N.281-286.

6. Eiceaiei I.E., Oaiaeaiei O.E., Aaaaiei E.A. Iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c eo?no “Eiioi?eaoe?ei? i?ioeane a
iaa/aii?” aeey nooaeaio?a on?o niaoe?aeueiinoae. — E?eaee ??a, 1996. —
44 n. (aaoi?nuee? — 28-33 n.).

7. Aaaaiei E.A., Oaiaeaiei O.E. Oaoiieia?y eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
iaaeaaiaa: ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/iee iaoa??ae a noaiao ? oaaeeoeyo:
//Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee aeey nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/ieo oi?aa?neoao?a
? iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a. — E?eaee ??a. — 1997. — 31 n.
(aaoi?nuee? – 18-31 n.).

8. Oaiaeaiei O.E. Oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eiiai
iiaeaiiy iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey // Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoe.-i?aeo.eiioa?. “I?iaeaie aoiai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
o iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? oe?a?inueei? oeiee”. — E?eaee ??a. —
1996. — N.56-57.

9. Oaiaeaiei O.E. Oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue ae?aciiai iiaeaiiy o
iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a i?aoe? // Iaoa??aee iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?. “No/ani?
i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey i?aoe?”. — E?eaee ??a. — 1995. — N.32-33.

Oaiaeaiei O.E. Oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo a i?ioean? aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.04 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe. — ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue oai?aoe/ia e aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue. Cae?eniaiee aiae?c eiioi?eaoeaieo
iiaeeeainoae ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, aeyaeai? ? oai?aoe/ii
ia??oioiaai? iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae ?o aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean?.

Aecia/aia iaiao?aeia ? aeinoaoiy aeey cae?eniaiiy aoaeoeaii?
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? noeoii?noue eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue ? i?iaaaeaii
?o no?oeoo?oaaiiy ia iniia? ooieoe?e, ye? aiie aeeiiothoue. A ?iaio?
i?aaenoaaeai? ae?aaiinoe/i? iaoiaeeee ? e?eoa??aeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
a?oi nooaeaio?a, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? ci?noiaiai,
aiioe?eiiai ? ae?yeuei?niiai eiiiiiaio?a eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue.

?ic?iaeaia, oai?aoe/ii ia??oioiaaia ? aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aia
iiaeaeue iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, oeyoii
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaiiai
iaa/aiiy, yea noaiiaeoue niaith ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ia iniia? ??cieo aeae?a
ni?eueii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a iaae eiioi?eaoeaieie caaea/aie ? aca?iiae?th
a i?ioean? ?o ?ica’ycaiiy. A ?iaio? i?anoaaeai? ?ic?iaeai? caniae
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaiiai
iaa/aiiy, iaoiaee/ia ?ic?iaea ae?eiai? a?e, i?ia?aia nai?ia?o-i?aeoeeoio
aeey aeeeaaea/?a. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeaioiaeaii iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aeeeaaea/?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiioi?eaoeaia ae?yeuei?noue, eiioi?eaoeai? oi?iiy,
eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaia iaa/aiiy, iaa/ath/a ni?eeoaaiiy, aeoeai?
iaoiaee iaa/aiiy, iaaeaaia?/ia oaoiieia?y.

Oaiaeaiei O.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea eiiioieeaoeaiuo oiaiee nooaeaioia
yeiiiie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa a i?ioeanna eco/aiey
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeenoeeieei. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.04 — oai?ey e iaoiaeeea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaa- iey. — Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee e ineoieiaee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo oai?aoe/aneia e yenia?eiaioaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea i?iaeaiu eiiioieeaoeaiuo oiaiee. A ?aaioa ooi/iaiu
oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey eiiioieeaoeaiuo oiaiee
nooaeaioia yeiiiie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa a i?ioeanna eco/aiey
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeenoeeieei.

Inouanoaeai aiaeec eiiioieeaoeaiuo aiciiaeiinoae aeenoeeieei
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneiai oeeeea. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a niaea?aeaoaeueiii
aniaeoa ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea aeenoeeieeiu iaeaaeatho cia/eoaeueiuie
iioaioeeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey eiiioieeaoeaiuo
oiaiee, eioi?ua yooaeoeaii ia ?aaeecothony a iaicia/aiiuo o/aaiui ieaiii
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?iao e iaoiaeao iao/aiey. Ii?aaeaeai iauai
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaoa?eaea, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
eiiioieeaoeaii cia/eiuo ciaiee, iaaueia e oiaiee. Inouanoaeai ioai?
iaoa?eaea ia iniiaa aiaeeca iaoiaee/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe aai
eniieueciaaiey, aiciiaeiinoae aeooaeece?iaaoue iioeaaoeeiiiue eiiiiiaio
e aeoeaece?iaaoue eiiioieeaoeaioth aeoeaiinoue nooaeaioia. Auyaeaiu e
oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaiu iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey yooaeoeaiiai
oi?ie?iaaiey eiiioieeaoeaiuo oiaiee a o/aaiii i?ioeanna: i?aaiecaoeey
iaaeaaiae/anee oeaeaniia?aciiai ioai?a oi?i e iaoiaeia iao/aiey, eioi?ay
iaania/eaaea au noauaeoii-noauaeoiia acaeiiaeaenoaea;
i?ioanneiiaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue o/aaiiai i?ioeanna;
i?aaiecaoeey aoiaienoe/anee iai?aaeaiiuo ioiioaiee a nenoaia
«i?aiiaeaaaoaeue-nooaeaio», «nooaeaio-nooaeaio»; iaania/aiea aunieiai
o?iaiy eiiioieeaoeaiie eiiiaoaioeee i?aiiaeaaaoaeae. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
i?aaiecaoeey o/aaiiai i?ioeanna ia iniiaa i?aaeeiaeaiiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo
oneiaee iaania/eaaao aeaiie?aoeci iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaiee, aeeaeiaeci
iaaeaaiae/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, nio?oaeie/anoai e nioai?/anoai iaaeaeo
i?aiiaeaaaoaeai e nooaeaioaie, aoiaiecaoeeth eo ioiioaiee.

Ii?aaeaeaia iaiaoiaeeiay e aeinoaoi/iay aeey inouanoaeaiey yooaeoeaiie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe niaieoiiinoue eiiioieeaoeaiuo oiaiee e
i?iaaaeaii eo no?oeoo?e?iaaiea ia iniiaa auiieiyaiuo ooieoeee. Auaeaeaii
o?e iiaeno?oeoo?u: ia?oeaioeaiua oiaiey (oiaiey aaeaeaaoii aini?eieiaoue
e iiieiaoue ae?oaiai /aeiaaea); yeni?anneaiua oiaiey ( oiaiey e
naiiau?aaeaieth naiae ee/iinoe); eioa?aeoeeiiiua oiaiey (oiaiey
onoaiaaeeaaoue eiioaeo ia niaea?aeaoaeueiii, yiioeeiiaeueiii e
i?ioeannoaeueiii o?iaiyo). Auaeaeaiiua a eaaeaeie iiaeno?oeoo?a
eiiioieeaoeaiua oiaiey iaoiaeyony ai acaeiinayce e
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoe.

A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaiu aeeaaiinoe/aneea iaoiaeeee e e?eoa?eaeueiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee o?iaiaauo a?oii nooaeaioia (aunieee, aeinoaoi/iue,
n?aaeiee, ieceee, ioeaaie) a caaeneiinoe io noi?ie?iaaiinoe
niaea?aeaoaeueiiai, yiioeeiiaeueiiai e aeayoaeueiinoiiai eiiiiiaioia
eiiioieeaoeaiuo oiaiee.

?ac?aaioaia, oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia e yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aia
iaaeaaiae/aneay oaoiieiaey oi?ie?iaaiey eiiioieeaoeaiuo oiaiee a
i?ioeanna eco/aiey ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeenoeeieei, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acaa?iooue ai a?aiaie iaaeaaiae/aneee i?ioeann,
iai?aaeaiiue ia oi?ie?iaaiea oiaiee no?ieoue iuneaiioth iiaeaeue
eiiioieeaoeaiiai aeaenoaey ia iniiaa onaiaiiuo oai?aoe/aneeo e
i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?iuo ciaiee, ?acaeoea nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo
eiiiiiaioia auiieiaiey aeaenoaey, iaeaaeaiea iiuoii ia?aiina onaiaiiuo
iaaueia a iiaua neooaoeee, o?aaothuea eo oai?/aneiai i?eiaiaiey.

Ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiie iaaeaaiae/aneie oaoiieiaee eco/aiey
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeenoeeieei aeieacaii, /oi cia/eoaeueiia
iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey eiiioieeaoeaiuo oiaiee
iaania/eaaaony i?aaiecaoeeae eiiioieeaoeaii iai?aaeaiiiai iao/aiey,
i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie nio?oaeie/anoai ia iniiaa ?acee/iuo aeaeia
niaianoiie ?aaiou nooaeaioia iaae eiiioieeaoeaiuie caaea/aie e
acaeiiaeaenoaea a i?ioeanna eo ?aoaiey, aaea eiiioieeaoeaiua oiaiey
aunooiatho ia oieueei oneiaeai e n?aaenoaii o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii e
aa oeaeueth.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea i?aaiecaoeee e i?iaaaeaiey i?aeoe/aneeo caiyoee
ii i?aaeiaoo «Eiiioieeaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu iao/aiey» ia iniiaa
ee/iinoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea. ?ac?aaioaiu n?aaenoaa
o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneiai iaania/aiey eiiioieeaoeaii iai?aaeaiiiai iao/aiey,
i?ia?aiia naieia?a-i?aeoeeoia aeey i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, ninoaaeaia
iaoiaee/aneay ?ac?aaioea aeaeiaie ea?u. Iaoa?eaeu enneaaeiaaiey
iieiaeaiu a iniiao iiaeaioiaeaiiuo iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiioieeaoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue, eiiioieeaoeaiua
oiaiey, eiiioieeaoeaii iai?aaeaiiia iao/aiea, iao/athuaa iauaiea,
aeoeaiua iaoiaeu iao/aiey, iaaeaaiae/aneay oaoiieiaey.

Shepelenko Tanya. Communicative skills forming in the surroundings of
students of an University of Economics during their study of subjects of
psychological and pedagogical courses. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a submition of scientific degree of a candidate of
Pedagogics on the speciality by the code 13.00.04 — Theory and method of
vocational training. — Institute of Pedagogics and psychology of
vocational training of the APS of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

Thesis contains theoretical and practical approaches to the problems of
communicative skills. The communicative means in the psychological and
pedagogical disciplines has been analysed, the pedagogical terms have
been expozed and substantiated in theory.

The necessary and sufficient aggregate of the communicative skills for
carrying out an effective professional skills has been determined and
their structure has been carried out on the basis of the functions they
perform. The diagnostic methods and criterional testimonials of
students’ groups depending on the level of the creation of the semantic
emotional and functioning components of the communicative skills are
represented in the work.

The model of the pedagogical technology in forming of the communicative
skills on the basis of the introduction of the direct training,
including the collaboration on the basis of the different kinds in
students’ work at the communicative tasks and the interaction in the
process of their solution has been worked out, theoretically
substantiated and experimentally tested. The means of the learning and
methodical ensuring of the direct training, methodical elaboration of
the business game, the programme of the seminar and practical work are
represented in the work.

Methodical recommendations for teachers were prepared on the basis of
the research.

Key words: communicative activity, communicative skills,
communicate-directed training, training course contact, active methods
of training, pedagogical technology.

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