1

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? I.I. Ae?AAIIAIIAA

A?eieiiia I?ia ?aai?aia

OAeE 37.02+37.031+37.04

OI?IOAAIIss ?IOAEAEOOAEUeIEO OI?IUe

IIEIAeOEO OEIEss??A O I?IOeAN? IAA*AIIss

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaaeaaia?ee E?eai??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiiae?aoiaa E?ae?y Aaeaioei?aia,

E?eai??cueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
iaaeaaia?ee.Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaeaia?/oe Aaeaioeia Oaaei??aia,

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
eaai?aoi??? iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo;

Eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aieo?aaoeue Na?a?e ?aaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee i?ae?aa?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a ?iai?
Ai?ena A??i/aiea, i?i?aeoi? c iaa/aeueii? oa iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

I?iaaeia onoaiiaa:Oa?e?anueeee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? A.N.
Neiai?iaee, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “16” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 16:30 aiaeei ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.26.053.02 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Ie?iaiaa, 9,).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Ie?iaiaa, 9,).Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “19” eeiay 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.A.Aeieeinueea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Ia?aaoaeiai? i?ioeane a noni?euenoa?,
noaiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie i?enei?eee i?ioean ?aoi?ioaaiiy oeiee.
Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith aeey ?icaeoeo aeeaeaeoeee ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ?
ni?yiiaai?noue ia ?icaeoie iniaenoino?. ?ioaeaeooaeueiee ?icaeoie
iniaenoino?, yeee o aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa. Oe?a?ia
OO? noie?ooy” aecia/aii ye i??i?eoaoiee iai?yiie ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe,
iio?aao? ia o?eueee iaaii? e?eueeino? ciaiue, aea e oi?iue. I?e/iio
ae?oaee iieaciee c a?eueoith i??ith iaae?eiino? oa?aeoa?eco? ?icoiiaee
?icaeoie oeiey??a (I.I.Iai/einueea, I.A.Ne?ei/aiei).

A inoaii? ?iee iniaeeai? aino?ioe iaaoea i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy
caaaeueii-iaa/aeueieo oi?iue oa iaae/ie. Cia/iee aeeaae a ?? ae??oaiiy
aianee i?aoe? I.I.Aeaenthea, TH.E.Aaaainueeiai, ?.ss.Ea?ia?a,
A.O.Iaeaia?/oe, I.ss.Naa/aiei oa ?i.

I?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy iaa/aeueieo oi?iue ciaeoea a?aeaeoie o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.I.Aia?iaa, A.A.Aooaiea, A.A.A?aiee, A.?.?aaeieeiiaa,
A.I.Eoeueei, O.Ae.Oeaoi?no?iai? oa ?i. Iaaiei e?ieii o ?ica’ycaii?
i?iaeaie aoea ?ic?iaea ie?aieie aaoi?aie niaoe?aeueieo i?ia?ai
oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueii-iaa/aeueieo oi?iue a o/i?a ??ciiai a?eo
(I.A.Eioea?ueiaa, A.O.Iaeaia?/oe, I.O.Ne?ei/aiei, O.?.Aeiaaa,
I.A.Ii/oiaeei oa ?i).

C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo oa ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aiiy o ii/aoeia?e
oeie? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo i?ciaaaeueii? naiino?eiino?
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (I.ss.Naa/aiei, A.N.Neeueiiaa); i?aai?caoe??
iiooeiai? oa oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a (A.?.Aiiaea?, I.N.Aaooeaiei,
?.I.oaecee); oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaii?aeo oi?iue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
(E.I.Aa?caoeueea, O.I.Eaaeeaeainueea, I.I.Oi?ioeianueea); ?icaeoie
oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a (?.N.Aieiuoe).

sse aa/eii, i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieo oi?iue o oeiey??a
ia? aeaaith ?noi??th, a?eueo?noue aniaeo?a ?? aoee i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy,
aea i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue a o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a aeiaaa? aeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?aieao iiai? ia?aaeeaie
ina?oe. Nie?ath/enue ia eeaneo?eaoe?th, iiaeaio a i?ia?ai?
I.A.Eioea?ueiai? (iaa/aeueii-i?aai?caoe?ei?, iaa/aeueii-?ioaeaeooaeuei?,
iaa/aeueii-?ioi?iaoe?ei? oa iaa/aeueii-eiioi?eaoeai? ai?iiy oa iae/ee),
ie ?icaeyaea?ii iiiyooy ?ioaeaeooaeuei? oi?iiy ye eiiiiiaio
caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieo oi?iue, aeaiaio oe?e?nii? nenoaie.

?acii c oei, iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeoeea na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeiioe?ieo
iiaeeeainoae o?ie?a iiae uiaei ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a. Oea, ia iaoo aeoieo, iia’ycaii c oei, ui, iaa/ath/e iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a iiae, a/eoae? i???ioothoueny, a ia?oo /a?ao, ia ?aae?caoe?th
e?iaa?noe/iiai aniaeoo: aeieeaaeia aea/aiiy iiae ye nenoaie (cao/aiiy oa
cia/aiiy ne?a, neiainiieo/aiue, ?a/aiue oa oe?e?niiai oaenoo; ?o
a?aiaoe/i? oi?ie; noee?noe/i? iniaeeaino?). A ?acoeueoao? oaei? ?iaioe
o/i? ciaeiieyoueny c iniiaiei ?icae?eii iaoee i?i iiao, caaaa/othoue
na?e neiaieeiaee caian, canaiththoue nenoaio e?iaa?noe/ieo iaeeieoeue ?
a/aoueny ei?enooaaoeny ieie a onieo oa ienueiiaeo aeneiaethaaiiyo.
Iciaeiiethth/enue c? no?oeoo?ith iiaii? nenoaie, oeiey?? a/aoueny
?ic??ciyoe iiao e iiaeaiiy, onio e ienaiio oi?ie e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae,
?icoi?thoue ?ieue iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino? a aeeoo? ethaeeie ? a
?acoeueoao? iaaoaathoue oi?iue ? iaae/ie ni?eeoaaiiy iath. A i?ioean?
iaa/aiiy iiae iaeaea ia ?aae?co?oueny iaaeaaia?/iee aniaeo: a o/i?a
iaaeinoaoiuei oi?io?oueny oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui iiaa ?icaeaa? ieneaiiy, a
iiaeaii?aa ae?yeuei?noue o?aio? ?icoi ethaeeie oa iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia
?icaeoie ?? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo cae?aiinoae, oi?io? iiaio iniaeno?noue.

Na?oiaee aeina?ae ia?ana?ae/o? oaeiae o aenie?e aeooaeueiino? icia/aii?
i?iaeaie (THIANEI aoa iaieioaiee ie?aiee ??e ai?ioueae c
iaienueiaii?noth; o ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao na?oo noai?ththoueny
“iaaei?ia?aie” ?icaeoeo o/i?a). Ia iiaeia caaoaaoe ? aeina?ae
i?ia?aneaieo iaaeaaia?a, ye? caaaeaee aeaaee i?i ?icaeoie o/i?a
(A.I.Nooiieeinueeee, E.Ae.Ooeinueeee, ?.A.Ianoaeioeoe? oa ?i.).

Nooi?noue aeeeaaeaiiai aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a,
aeyaeaiiy aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ui caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy oeeo oi?iue o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy iiae, ? aeooaeueiei, ia? aaaeeeaa oai?aoe/ia ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Oaia iaoiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
oi?iue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy” ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
eiiieaenii? oaie eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee E?eai??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa caoaa?aeaeaia eii?aeeiaoe?eiith ?aaeith
AII Oe?a?ie (i?ioieie ? 1 a?ae 11.01.1999 ?.).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae, ye? caaacia/othoue
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue a o/i?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee ia o?ieao
iiae.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaaea a oai?aoe/iiio ia??oiooaaii? iiaeeeainoae
iiae ye iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo a oi?ioaaii? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ? aeyaeaii? a?aeiia?aeieo oiia ?aae?caoe??
?icaeaaeueiiai aniaeoo iaa/aiiy.

A iniiao iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei iieeaaeaii i?eiouaiiy i?i oa, ui
aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
c?inoa i?e oiia? ?o aeeth/aiiy a aeoeaio iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueio
ae?yeuei?noue ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaie i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue oa
iayaiino? iaaieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iinoaaeaiith iaoith oa aenoiooith a?iioacith
aecia/ai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe no/aniee noai i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue
o/i?a a oai??? oa i?aeoeoe?.

2. Aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeeeaino? o?ie?a
iiae a oi?ioaaii? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

3. Noai?eoe aoaeoeaio aeeaeaeoe/io iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
oi?iue o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe noeoii?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ui
caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

5. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia aeiiiiiao a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue a o/i?a ia o?ieao iiae.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith oa oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?: Caeii i?i
ina?oo, Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia “Ina?oa. Oe?a?ia OO?
noie?ooy”; iieiaeaiiy no/anii? o?einionueei? oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee i?i caeiie i?ciaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?th iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? (E.I.Aaoeueoaiiaa-Neaanueea, Ae.I.Aiaiyaeainueeee,
Aeae.A?oia?, I.I.Eiii?i, ?.ss.Ea?ia?, I.I.Iai/einueea, oa ?i.); i?i
caeiiii??i?noue ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo (E.N.Aeaionueeee, A.N.Einothe); i?i
aca?iica’ycie iaa/aiiy ? ?icaeoeo (E.A.Caieia, I.A.Ne?ei/aiei); oai??y
oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieo oa niaoe?aeueieo oi?iue
(TH.E.Aaaainueeee, I.A.Eioea?ueiaa, I.A.Ii/oiaeei, I.ss.Naa/aiei,
I.O.Ne?ei/aiei oa ?i.); oai??y iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e
(I.ss.Aaeueia??i, I.O.Oaeec?ia) oa ?icaeoie ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue
(A.O.Iaeaia?/oe); iniaenoi-ae?yeuei?niee i?aeo?ae aei oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? e ?icaeoeo ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? (?.N.Aieiuoe, N.I.Neni?aa,
A.I.Nooiieeinueeee); i?i iniaeeaino? iaa/aiiy a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao
(A.?.Aiiaea?, E.I.Aa?caoeueea, I.N.Aaooeaiei, A.E.Eainueea
I.I.Oi?ioeianueea oa ?i.).

Eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy i?iaeaie coiiaea canoinoaaiiy oaeeo
iaoiae?a:

a) oai?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o: aiae?c iaoeiai?, iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c
i?iaeai aeine?aeaeaiiy; aiae?c ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo e
i?aeoeee a/eoae?a;

a) aii??e/iiai oa?aeoa?o: aan?aea (?ioa?a’th), aieaooaaiiy,
niinoa?aaeaiiy, aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?;
iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio (eiinoaooth/ee ? oi?ioth/ee); noaoenoe/i?
iaoiaee ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia
?iaioa i?iaiaeeeany o na?aaei?o oeieao i. E?eaiai ?iao oa I?eiiiey,
I?eiauainuee?e iaiiai?e na?aaei?e oa Iiianiyinuee?e na?aaei?e oeieao
Iiaiiineianueeiai ?aeiio Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?. Anueiai
aeine?aeaeaiiyi aoei ioiieaii 698 o/i?a: na?aae ieo o/i?a 2-o eean?a
282, o?ao?o 416 oa 210 a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. O oi?ioth/ee
aenia?eiaio aoei aeeth/aii 214 iieiaeoeo oeiey??a NO ?? 1, 7, 103 i.
E?eaiai ?iao.

I?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny iiaoaiii.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1992-1993 ?.?.) aea/aeany o?einionueea, ineoieia?/ia,
iaaeaaia?/ia oa iaoiaee/ia e?oa?aoo?a; aiae?coaaany aeina?ae ?iaioe
a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a; i?iaiaeeany eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio ia
aac? 2-3-o eean?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e; ?ic?iaeyeany nenoaia
i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue aeey oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1994-1995 ?.?.) ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue c aeaii?
i?iaeaie e ocaaaeueiaiiy iaeiie/aiiai aeina?aeo, nie?ath/enue ia
?ic?iaee ineoieia?a, iaaeaaia?a, i?iaiaeeeany aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa
ii oi?ioaaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ia o?ieao
iiae; ia?aa??yeany aoaeoeai?noue aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue i?e iayaiino? iaaieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1996-1997 ?.?.) aiae?coaaeeny, ooi/ithaaeeny e
ocaaaeueithaaeeny iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy, e?euee?nii ? ye?nii
ia?iaeyeeny io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?; ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny a
i?aeoeeo iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia aeiiiiiao a/eoaeyi ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue a o/i?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? a aeyaeaii? iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a i?e aea/aii? iiae; noai?aii?
nenoaiii? aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae? iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
oi?iue ia o?ieao iiae oa eiiieaeno iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo ai?aa, ye?
ia?aaeaa/athoue ?iaioo o/i?a ?c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie; aecia/aii?
e?eoa???a ae?aaiinooaaiiy ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino? o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
oi?iue i?aoethaaoe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iieyaa? o oiio, ui io?eiai? aeai? aeiiiaiththoue
oai??th ?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy iieiaeaiiyie: 1) i?i iaiao?aei?noue
aca?iica’yceo aeaio a?oi aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia i?e oi?ioaaii?
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (oiiae, ye? noinothoueny
iniaenoino? o/iy, oa oiiae, ye? noinothoueny i?aai?caoe?? a/eoaeai
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a); 2) i?i aoaeoeai?noue
nenoaiii? aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae?, iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
oi?iue o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy; ?icaeoeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui noai?aia iaie nenoaia
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo ai?aa oa ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue a o/i?a ia o?ieao iiae iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? a/eoaeyie ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, aaoi?aie i?ae?o/iee?a oa
iin?aiee?a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aea/aii iiaeeeaino? o?ie?a
iiae o oi?ioaaii? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a; noai?aii
nenoaiio aeeaeaeoe/io iiaeaeue iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
oi?iue oa aeyaeaii noeoii?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ui i?aeaeuothoue
aoaeoeai?noue ?? aeei?enoaiiy; ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue ?iaioo o/i?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie; aecia/aii e?eoa??? oa
??ai? noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue i?aoethaaoe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie;
i?aeaioiaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

A??ia?aei?noue oa ia??oioiaai?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/ai?
aaeaeaaoi?noth iaoiae?a, ui ?aae?cothoue iaoo oa caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ee o/i?a, ye? a?aee o/anoue a
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaa/aii?; aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueiith ia?aa??eith
aenoiooi? a?iioace; ?aei?noth e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai aiae?co
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1. Nenoaiia aeeaeaeoe/ia iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue,
yea neeaaea?oueny ?c caaa?oaieo aeie?a oa ?aae?co?oueny iiaoaiii ca
aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeno iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue.

2. Noeoii?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia, ye? aecia/athoue aoaeoeai?noue
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ia o?ieao iiae.

3. Eiiieaen iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue aeey oi?ioaaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o/i?a o i?ioean? ?iaioe c ??cieie e?iaa?noe/ieie
neiaieeaie ia o?ieao iiae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo a E?eai??cueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (E?eaee ??a, 1996 ??e) oa ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aoiai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano o iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? oa i?aeoeoe?
oe?a?inueei? oeiee” (E?eaee ??a, 1996 ??e) oa ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oi?ioaaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue oai?/i? iniaenoino?”
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — E?eaee ??a, 1998 ??e); aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee E?eai??cueeiai iaaeoi?aa?neoaoo, ia
nai?ia?ao oa iaoiaee/ieo ia’?aeiaiiyo a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a oe?e i.
E?eaiai ?iao; a oeie? ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo oa ia eo?nao ia?ai?aeaioiaee
a/eoae?a i?e Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio I?OA (1993-1995 ??..).
Ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao
Aeiaaeioe?anueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? a?iiac?? (i. E?eaee ??a).

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeei?enoaii aeey ?ic?iaee niaoeeo?no
“Iaoiaeeea ?iaioe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie ia o?ieao iiae” aeey
nooaeaio?a EAeIO oaeoeueoaoo i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
(aeaiia oa cai/ia oi?ia iaa/aiiy).

Ia iniia? aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii n?i noaoae (o
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, o oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao), i?aeaioiaeaii
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ?ic?iaeaii aeeaeaeoe/i? iaoa??aee.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a aei ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae (278 iaeiaioaaiue), aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 160
noi??iie. ?iaioa i?noeoue 18 oaaeeoeue, 3 iaethiee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii i?aaeiao, ia’?eo,
iaoo, caaaeaiiy oa a?iioaco aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio,
oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a; iniaenoee
aianie aaoi?a; iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno; ai?iaaoe?y
? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a” i?iaiae?ciaaii noai i?iaeaie o
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??; iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo ??cieo
i?aeoiae?a aei ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?ice?eoi aacia? iiiyooy “oi?iiy”,
“?ioaeaeooaeuei? oi?iiy” ye aaaeeea? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a; aecia/aii oiiae, ui ni?eythoue
aoaeoeaiiio iaieiae?iith niiniaaie ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?; anoaiiaeaii
oa ia??oioiaaii ca’ycie i?ae i?ioeanii canai?iiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue
? oi?ioaaiiyi i?ciaaaeueii? naiino?eiino?, ye yeino? iniaenoino?;
aeyaeaii iaiao?aei?noue niaoe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ca aeiiiiiaith
eiiieaeno i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue oa caeo/aiiy ??cieo e?iaa?noe/ieo
neiaiee?a c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o/i?a; aecia/aii
e?eoa??? noi?iiaaiino? o oeiey??a oi?iue i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeaie;
?ic?iaeaii nenoaiio aeeaeaeoe/io iiaeaeue ae?yeueiino? o/i?a oa a/eoaey
uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue.

O no/ani?e ineoieia?? ? aeeaeaeoeoe? ?niothoue ??ci? i?aeoiaee noiniaii
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? oa ?icaeoeo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.
Caaaeueiia?aeii? aeine?aeaeaiiy: 1) c i?iaeai iniaeeainoae ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe oa ?? ?ie? a ?icoiiaiio ?icaeoeo ethaeeie – I.I.Aeaieeia; 2) i?i
nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei ?icaeoeo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a – I.A.Ne?ei/aiei; 3)
c i?iaeai aca?iica’yceo iaa/aiiy ? ?icaeoeo – E.A.Caieia, A.N.Einothe,
I.I.Iai/einueea oa ?i.; 4) c i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a i?ciaaaeueii?
aeoeaiino? e oai?/iai ieneaiiy ia iniia? oe?e?niiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano I.I.Aeaenthe, A.?.Aiiaea?, E.N.Aeaionueeee,
?.N.Aieiuoe, I.ss.Naa/aiei, I.O.Ne?ei/aiei oa ?i.; 5) c i?iaeai
i?aeaeuaiiy oai?aoe/iiai ??aiy iaa/aiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? – A.A.Aeaaeaeia, Ae.A.Aeueeii?i, A.I.??ie?i oa ?i.; 6) c
i?iaeai iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e – I.ss.Aaeueia??i,
I.O.Oaeec?ia.

Oi?ioaaiiy aoaeue-yeeo oi?iue cae?enith?oueny c iaoith iaieiae?iiy
iiaeie ciaiiyie. Aea aaaeeeaei ? ia no?eueee ciaiiy nai? ii nia?,
ne?eueee iiaeeea?noue, caeaoi?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o, iia?oaaoe ieie
i?e ?ica’ycaii? oai?aoe/ieo /e i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue. O ca’yceo c oeei
oi?iiy ?icaeyaeathoueny ye i?aeoe/ia ae?y, na?aeiia oa oe?eani?yiiaaia
?ioaeaeooaeueia ae?yeuei?noue (?.I.?eue?i); ye niin?a aeeiiaiiy
i?aeoe/ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo ae?e ia iniia? ciaiue ? aeeo?aiai aeina?aeo
(I.ss.Naa/aiei), nenoaia ae?e (I.O.Oaeec?ia); noeoii?noue ieneeoaeueieo
iia?aoe?e (N.I.Aiiaea?aiei, A.?.Uoeeia); aioiai?noue, caeaoi?noue,
iiaeeea?noue aeeiioaaoe iaai? ae?? a iiaeo oiiaao (TH.E.Aaaainueeee,
N.O.Aii/a?aiei); ye ?acoeueoao iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? (I.?.I?ieiiaiei,
N.E.Oie?ia); ye neeaaeiee eiiieaen ?icoiiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo ae?e
(I.Ae.ss?ia/aiei).

Ocaaaeueithth/e aea/aiiy iiiyooy “oi?iiy”, ie aaaaea?ii, ui
?ioaeaeooaeuei? oi?iiy oea nenoaia ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ae?e, yea
neeaaea?oueny c eia?/ieo iia?aoe?e (i?eeii?a), ni?ey? canai?iith ciaiue
oa ?icaeoeo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo cae?aiinoae ?iaeea?aea. ?ioaeaeooaeuei?
oi?iiy oea noeoii?noue oi?iue, yea ii?aeio? oi?iiy o/i?a iioeaoaaoe
naith i?ciaaaeueio ae?yeuei?noue; cina?aaeaeaii ni?eeiaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th
oa canaithaaoe ??; aeeiioaaoe ieneeoaeuei? iia?aoe??; oai?/i
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaaoo? ciaiiy; naiino?eii i?aoethaaoe c iaa/aeueiith
eieaith oa aeia?aeeiaith e?oa?aoo?ith. Ia?ae?/ai? oi?iiy
oa?aeoa?ecothoue aioiai?noue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a aei
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, aenooiathoue iniiaith aeey
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?o ?ioaeaeooaeueieo cae?aiinoae, caaacia/othoue aenieo
ye?noue ciaiue.

I?eaa?oa? oaaao oie oaeo, ui aeine?aeieee oe?eaaeyoueny oi?ioaaiiyi o
oeiey??a ??cieo oi?iue. Oae, iai?eeeaae, I.I.Eaaaiiaa-Iaeea? ?icaeyioea
i?iaeaio oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ocaaaeueithth/eo oi?iue, aaaaeath/e ?o
iaeiei c iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
o/i?a; I.?.Caii?iaeaoeue aeine?aeea iiaeeea?noue ?icaeoeo oi?iue ?
iaae/ie o/i?a 4-8 eean?a o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy ?noi???; O.ss.Aeiaaa
aecia/eea oeyoe ?icaeoeo o ia?oieeaniee?a oi?iiy ieaioaaoe iaa/aeueio
ae?yeuei?noue, yea “iaeaaeeoue aei iaeaaaii?oeo aeaiaio?a eoeueoo?e
?icoiiai? i?aoe? oeiey?a”; I.ss.Naa/aiei ?ic?iaeea caaaeuei? i?aeoiaee
aei oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie o iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a; A.O.Iaeaia?/oe cai?iiiioaaea i?ia?aio ? iaoiaeeeo ?icaeoeo
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue a o/i?a 3(4) – 11 eean?a ca iaaieie aeieaie, ye?
nie?athoueny ia aacia?, aeiaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ethaenueeiai ieneaiiy; I.A.Ii/oiaeei noai?eea i?ia?aio oi?ioaaiiy
/eoaoeueeeo oi?iue o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo oeiey??a oa oi?ioaaiiy o ieo iaaieo
oi?iue aeine?aeaeoaaeany aaaaoueia iaoeiaoeyie. Aea i?e oeueiio
iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aia i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue
(cie?aia, o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a) caniaaie iiae.

Inue oiio a i?ioean? iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie aoei noai?aii
nenoaiio aeeaeaeoe/io iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue, yea
aeeth/a? a naaa eiiieaen eia?/ii caaa?oaieo aeie?a oa ?aae?co?oueny
iiaoaiii (aeea. oaae. 1). Eiaeai aoai iiaeae? iaa naith iaoo, ci?no,
iaoiaee oa oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
o/i?a; aecia/ai? nooi?iue ea??aieoeoaa ?iaioith iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ia
o?ieao iiae oa niiniae eiio?ieth e naiieiio?ieth ca ?acoeueoaoaie
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaie iiaeae? aoaea
aoaeoeaiei ca iaaieo oiia: iayaiino? a o/i?a iiceoeaii? iaa/aeueii?
iioeaaoe?? aei o?ie?a iiae; ii?aeiaii? ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? oa i?iaeoeoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? o/i?a c iinooiiaei ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee naiino?eiino? oa
oai?/ino?; o??ciiiai?oiaii? oi?i oa iaoiae?a i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?;
iaaeaii? o/iyi naiaiaee aeai?o caaaeaiue c o?aooaaiiyi ??aiy ciaiue,
oa?aeoa?o noaaeaiiy aei iaa/aiiy; noai?aii? ia o?ioe? eiaeiiio o/iaa?
neooaoe?? oni?oo oa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?acoeueoaoe iaa/aiiy;
o??ciiiai?oiaii? oi?i eiio?ieth oa naiieiio?ieth a nenoai? noinoie?a
“a/eoaeue-o/aiue”. ?aae?caoe?y aeacaieo oiia caaacia/oaaeany
i?aai?caoe??th ?iaioe oeiey??a c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie ye caniaii
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea aoaeoeaiino?
aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o/i?a caniaaie
??aeii? iiae” iiaeaii aiae?c aeina?aeo ?iaioe a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a; ?icaeyiooa iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy.

I?e i?aai?caoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o?aaa cae?enithaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith
niaoe?aeueiiai eiiieaeno iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue, a iniiao
yeeo aoei iieeaaeaii ??ci? aeaee ?iaioe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie,
ine?eueee oeae can?a ni?ey? caaaeueiiio ?icaeoeo oa caaaa/aiith
neiaieeiaiai caiano iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, oi?ioaaiith o ieo ?ioa?ano aei
iiae ye iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo.

Aieaooaaiiy 240 a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, aea/aiiy aeina?aeo ?iaioe
iaaeaaia?a-i?aeoee?a (a?aea?aeaii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii 210 o?ie?a
oe?a?inueei? oa ?in?enueei? iiae o ??cieo a/eoae?a oa a ??cieo eeanao)
i?ae /an eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo iieacaee, ui o 70% c ieo ia o?ieao
ia?aaaaeathoue caaaeaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o, ye? ia niiioeathoue
o/i?a aei iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino?; ea??aieoeoai iaa/aeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a cae?enith?oueny aacnenoaiii; i?eae?ey?oueny
iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae oi?ioaaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue (cie?aia, oi?iiy
naiino?eii i?aoethaaoe c ??cieie e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie ye
aeia?aeieeaie).

Oe?eueia i?ia?aia ie?aneth?, yeeie iathoue aooe ??ai? aeeeaaeaiiy, ye?
oi?iiy e iaae/ee iio??aii noi?ioaaoe a o/i?a, aea o?eueee i?ae?o/iee
?ice?eaa? oea eiie?aoii. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui oa?aeoa? caaaeaiue e
ieoaiue, ui ai?uai? a i?ae?o/iee, aecia/a? ??aaiue aeoeaiino? o/i?a oa
?icaeoie ?o iiae e ieneaiiy, aeiiiiaaa? oi?ioaaoe caaaeueiiiaa/aeuei?
oi?iiy e iaae/ee, ie i?iaiae?coaaee iaoiaee/iee aia?ao i?ae?o/iee?a c
iiae: “??aeia iiaa” (I.A.A?eaoeueea, I.N.Aaooeaiei i?ae?o/iee aeey 1
eeano; I.N.Aaooeaiei, I.?.Iaeueie/aeei aeey 3(2) eeano;
E.I.Aa?caoeueea, I.N.Aaooeaiei, I.?.Iaeueie/aeei, E.A.Neo?ao?anueeee
aeey 4(3) eeano) oa “?onneee ycue” (i?ae?o/iee aeey 2, 3, 4 eean?a oe?e
c ?in?enueeith iiaith iaa/aiiy; oii?yaei/ieee I.?.Eia/oe, O.A.?aica?aa).

Oaaeeoey 1.

Aeeaeaeoe/ia iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
oi?iue

aoaie oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue? i/i? (iioeaaoe?eiee)??
(ci?noiaii-i?ioeanoaeueiee)??? (eiio?ieueii-ioe?iiee)1.Iaoa
i?iaaaeaiiyIciaeiieoe o/i?a 2-o eean?a c ??cieie e?iaa?noe/ieie
neiaieeaie; iaa/eoe ?o i???iooaaoeny a neiaieeo, oaeaeei ciaoiaeeoe
iio??aio ?ioi?iaoe?th; a/eoe i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeaie o i?ioean?
aea/aiiy iiaiiai iaoa??aeo.?icoe?eoe ciaiiy o/i?a 3-o eean?a i?i
e?iaa?noe/i? neiaieee; i?iaeiaaeeoe oi?ioaaiiy oi?iiy naiino?eii
i?aoethaaoe c ??cieie neiaieeaie; noeioethaaoe iio?aao caa?oaoeny ca
aeiiiiiaith aei e?iaa?noe/ieo neiaiee?a i?e aeeiiaii? i?aeoe/ieo
caaaeaiue; cae??ieoe noi?iiaaia oi?iiy ca aeiiiiiaith oai?/eo
ai?aa.Ia?aa??eoe ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue, aei neeaaeo yeeo aeeth/a?ii oi?iiy aeeiioaaoe
ieneeoaeuei? iia?aoe?? (aiae?c, neioac, ii??aiyiiy, niinoa?aaeaiiy,
ocaaaeueiaiiy) oa oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie ye
aeia?aeieeaie.2.Ci?no iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeoAea/aiiy oai: “Caoee ?
aoeae. Neeaae. Iaaiein.”, “Neiai”.Aea/aiiy oai: “Neiai”, “Aoaeiaa
neiaa”, “*anoeie iiae”.Iiaoi?aiiy oai: “Neiai”, “?a/aiiy”,
“Oaeno”.3.Noeioeyoe?y iiceoeaii? iioeaaoe??, ?ioa?anoNoai?aiiy neooaoe??
caoe?eaaeaiino? (“Eacea i?i oea?y Neiaieea oa eiai /oaeanio e?a?io
Neiaieea??th”).I?aai?caoe?y i?ciaaaeueii? a?e-iiaei?iae? aei e?a?ie
Neiaieea???; caaacia/aiiy eiaeiiio o/iaa? neooaoe?? oni?oo.Caaacia/aiiy
o/iyi a?eueiiai aeai?o ae?yeueiino?;

noai?aiiy oiia aeey ae?aaeaiiy ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
cae?aiinoae.4.I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
iieiaeoeo oeiey??aiaoiaeeNeiaani?

(“Eacea i?i oea?y Neiaieea oa eiai /oaeanio e?a?io Neiaieea??th”,
aan?aea);

iai/i?

(aeaiiino?aoe?y e?iaa?noe/ieo neiaiee?a ia aenoaaoe?
“Neiaieee-iii?/ieee”);

i?aeoe/i?

(i?aeaioia/? ai?aae, o?aioaaeuei? ai?aae ca c?aceii).

Iai/i?

(ea?oa iiaei?iae? e?a?iith Neiaieea???th; aeaiiino?aoe?y e?iaa?noe/ieo
neiaiee?a);

i?aeoe/i?

(o?aioaaeuei? ai?aae i?iaeaiii-iiooeiaiai oa?aeoa?o).

I?aeoe/i?

(oai?/? ai?aae).oi?ieeeanii-o?i/ia, yea aeeth/a? o?aaeeoe?ei? ?
iao?aaeeoe?ei? o?ieeo?ie c eaceiaeie
aeaiaioaieo?ie-iiaei?iaeo?ie-eiieo?naeaee

ae?yeueiino?eieaeoeaiaa?oiiaa?iaeea?aeoaeueia5.Nooi?iue ea??aieoeoaa
a/eoaeai ae?yeuei?noth o/i?ai?ae ea??aieoeoaii

a/eoaeynaiino?eia ?iaioa o/i?a i?e iacia/i?e aeiiiiic? a/eoaey;
aca?iiaeiiiiiaa o/i?aNaiino?eia ?iaioa o/i?a aac aoaeue-yei? aeiiiiiae
a/eoaey6.Niiniae eiio?ieth oa naiieiio?ietheiio?ieue a/eoaeyeiio?ieue
a/eoaey, aca?iieiio?ieueeiio?ieue a/eoaey, aca?iieiio?ieue,
naiieiio?ieue7.Aeeaeaeoe/i? caniaeE?iaa?noe/i? neiaieeeAiae?c
i?ae?o/iee?a iieacaa, ui ai?aae iinyoue ia?aaaaeii ?ai?iaeoeoeaiee
oa?aeoa? (iai?eeeaae, o 2-io eean? ?o 81% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?,
a?aeiia?aeii 79,5% aeey 3-ai eeano, oa 70,6% aeey 4-ai eeano). Oi/a e
niinoa??aa?oueny aeeiai?ea ciaioaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo ai?aa a?ae iaeiiai
eeano aei ?ioiai, oa c?inoaiiy caaaeaiue i?iaeoeoeaiiai e oai?/iai
oa?aeoa?o iacia/ia. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui caaaeaiue, ye? a ni?eyee
oi?ioaaiith oi?iue i?aoethaaoe c ??cieie neiaieeaie o i?ae?o/ieeao
?in?enueei? iiae iaia? cian?i. I?ae?o/ieee ae “??aeia iiaa” oi/a e
i?noyoue ai?aae c ?aeiiaiaeaoe??th: iii?aoethe c? neiaieeii!, aea
ii-ia?oa, aeey ?o aeei?enoaiiy o/iyi aoaeooue iio??ai? eeoa i?oia?ao?/i?
neiaieee; ii ae?oaa, oe? ai?aae iathoue iicia/eo (), yea aeaco?, ui aiie
?aeiiaiaeiaai? aeey aeiiaoiueiai aeeiiaiiy.

Oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue (cie?aia, oi?iiy naiino?eii
i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeii) ie ii/aee o ae?oaieeaniee?a (naia a 2-io eean?
aea/a?oueny oaia “Neiai”). O oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio aoei aeeth/aii 214
o/i?a (o?e eeane aenia?eiaioaeuei? o o?e eiio?ieuei?) NO ? 1, 7, 103 i.
E?eaiai ?iao. I?e oeueiio a?aoiaoaaeany a?aenooi?noue ni?yiiaaiino?
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ia oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy o/iyie neiaiee?a oa
iaaeinoaoith ?ioi?iiaai?noue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a i?i ??ci? e?iaa?noe/i?
neiaieee, noai?ai? niaoe?aeueii aeey ieo. ?acoeueoaoe ae?aaiinoe/iiai
c??co, i?iaaaeaiiai aei ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy, aeiiiiiaee
iai aeyaeoe ii/aoeiaee ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a oi?iiy
i?aoethaaoe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie. C oe??th iaoith iaie aoei
aecia/aii e?eoa??? ae?aaiinooaaiiy:

1. ?ioi?iiaai?noue o/i?a i?i ??ci? e?iaa?noe/i? neiaieee.

2. I???ioaoe?y o/i?a o no?oeoo?? neiaiee?a.

3. ??aaiue naiino?eiino? oeiey??a i?e ei?enooaaii? neiaieeaie i?ae /an
aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o.

Ca oeeie e?eoa??yie ie aecia/eee 4 ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? oi?iiy
i?aoethaaoe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie:

Aenieee ??aaiue — o/i? ?ioi?iiaai? i?i ??ciiiai?oi?noue e?iaa?noe/ieo
neiaiee?a ? a?eueii i???ioothoueny a ?o no?oeoo??; naiino?eii
aeei?enoiaothoue neiaieee i?e aeeiiaii? caaaeaiue oai?/iai oa?aeoa?o oa
caa?oathoueny aei ieo c iaoith naiiia?aa??ee oa aca?iieiio?ieth.

Aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue — o/i? iathoue iaiiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i e?iaa?noe/i?
neiaieee; oi?thoue ieie ei?enooaaoeny, aea caa?oathoueny aei ieo ca
aeiiiiiaith i?e aeeiiaii? i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue eeoa ca ?aeiiaiaeaoe??th
a/eoaey.

Na?aaei?e ??aaiue — o/i? ciathoue 1-2 neiaieee; ca aeiiiiiaith a/eoaey
oi?thoue ciaoiaeeoe iio??aio ?ioi?iaoe?th, aea a?ae/oaathoue o?oaeiiu? o
naiino?eiiio ei?enooaaii? neiaieeaie ye aeia?aeieeaie.

Iecueeee ??aaiue — o/i? ciathoue o?eueee i?oia?ao?/iee neiaiee;
iaaeinoaoiuei oi?thoue iei ei?enooaaoeny; /anoi aeiioneathoue iiieeee a
iiaiiio iaoa??ae? ? ia iiaeooue ?o naiino?eii aei?aaeoe ca aeiiiiiaith
neiaiee?a.

?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo, a yeiio aoei caae?yii 282
oeiey?a, iieacaee, ui o/i?a c aenieei oa aeinoaoi?i ??aiyie
noi?iiaaiino? oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeaie aeyaeaii ia aoei. E??i
oiai, o?eueee 12,7% ae?oaieeaniee?a a?aeiia?aeaee na?aaeiueiio ??aith
noi?iiaaiino? oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeaie. ?aooa o/i?a 2-o eean?a
(a?aeiia?aeii 87,3%) iathoue iecueeee ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue
i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeaie. O i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue aiie
aeiioneaee aaaaoi iiieeie; oi/a ae?oaieeanieee e ?iaeee ni?iao
ei?enooaaoeny neiaieeaie, aea aeo?a/aee aaaaoi /ano ia iiooe iio??aii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ? /anoi ia ciaoiaeeee ??.

Oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue a o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a ia
o?ieao iiae cae?enithaaeiny ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaiii? aeeaeaeoe/ii?
iiaeae? (aeea. oaae. 1).

A aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao, ui iae?/oaaee 104 o/iy, iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
aoei i?aai?ciaaii oaeei /eiii, ui oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeaie
oi?ioaaeiny ia eiaeiiio o?ioe?. I?e oeueiio an? o/i? aoee caaacia/ai?
iaiao?aeieie neiaieeaie. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?ae /an
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy, e??i oi?ioaaiiy o iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie ye
aeia?aeieeaie, cae??iethaaeeny oi?iiy iioeaoaaoe naith ae?yeuei?noue,
aeeiioaaoe ieneeoaeuei? iia?aoe?? (aiae?c iiaiiai iaoa??aeo,
ni?anoaaeaiiy noiaeeo ne?a o nii??aeiaieo iiaao, ocaaaeueiaiiy oa
ia??oiooaaiiy aeai?o iaea?eueo oi/ieo ne?a — o iaaieo iiaieo
neooaoe?yo), oai?/i aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaaoo? ciaiiy.

Ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue ia o?ieao
iiae aoaea oni?oiei, yeui caaacia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeueia iaaeaaia?/ia
ea??aieoeoai, yea ii?aeio? o nia?:

· iiooe iiaiiai iaoa??aeo, i?aeaioiaeo niaoe?aeueieo caaaeaiue, ye?
ni?eyoeiooue oi?ioaaiith oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeaie;

· aea?? ??cieo oi?i ?iaioe c? neiaieeaie;

· aeeiiaiiy iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo ai?aa i?ae ea??aieoeoaii a/eoaey;

· naiino?eio ?iaioo o/i?a c? neiaieeaie;

· ia?aa??eo aeei?enoaiiy caaaeaiue oa aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo oi?i
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o nenoai? “o/eoaeue-o/aiue”: ni?eueii? oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ae??, iane?aeoaaiiy a ??cieo oi?iao, naii?aaoeyoeaii?
ae??.

A eiio?ieueieo eeanao (108 o/i?a) caiyooy i?iaiaeeeenue oae, ye oea
?iaeeiny i?ioyaii aaaaoueio ?ie?a, i?yeiai ao?o/aiiy aeine?aeieea o
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ia aeiioneaeiny.

O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aoei iaeiie/aii
iaoa??ae o aeaeyae? noaiia?ai o?ie?a (anueiai 468), a oaeiae cia/ia
e?euee?noue ienueiiaeo ?ia?o o/i?a (1648). Eiio?ieueii-ia?aa??i/i?
?iaioe iaia’yceiai i?iaiaeeeeny i?ney aea/aiiy oai, aecia/aieo
aeeaeaeoe/iith iiaeaeeth. E??i oiai, cae?enithaaany iioi/iee eiio?ieue:
aea??eiai ia?aa??yeeny ai?aae, aeey aeeiiaiiy yeeo o/iyi nii/aoeo ca
?aeiiaiaeaoe??th a/eoaey, a iio?i naiino?eii o?aaa aoei aeei?enoaoe
??ci? e?iaa?noe/i? neiaieee. ? a eiio?ieueieo, ? a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
eeanao an? ?iaioe i?iaiaeeeeny a iaeei ? oie aea aeaiue.

Aeai?, ye? aoee io?eiai? a i?ioean? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo oa i?ney
caaa?oaiiy i?ia?aie aeine?aeiiai iaa/aiiy na?ae/aoue i?i:

· cia/ia c?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a aei o?ie?a
iiae ye iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo oa i?aeaeuaiiy ?oiuei? i?ciaaaeueii?
aeoeaiino? e naiino?eiino? i?e aea/aii? iiaiiai iaoa??aeo;

· aoaeoeai?noue eiiieaeno iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue uiaei
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue oeiey??a ia o?ieao iiae;

· ?icoi?iiy o/iyie cia/ouino? ciaiue c iiae oa iiyao no?eei? iio?aae
naiino?eii ei?enooaaoeny neiaieeaie ye aeia?aeieeaie i?ae /an ??
aea/aiiy;

· nooo?a? ci?ie a ??aiyo noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
i?aoethaaoe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie.

Oaaeeoey 2.

?iciiae?e o/i?a 3-o eean?a ca ??aiyie noi?iiaaiino? oi?iiy

i?aoethaaoe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie (a % a?aeiioaii?)

Ii/aoie aenia?eiaiooE?iaoeue aenia?eiaioo??ai?Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
eeaneEiio?ieuei? eeaneAenia?eiaioaeuei? eeaneEiio?ieuei?
eeaneAenieee—26,3-Aeinoaoi?e—58,8-Na?aaei?e15,316,811,227,9Iecueeee84,
783,23,772,1sse aa/eii, a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao c’yaeeiny 26,3% oa
58,8% o?aoueieeaniee?a, ye? iaee a?aeiia?aeii aenieee oa aeinoaoi?e
??ai? noi?iiaaiino? oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeaie. Cia/ii nei?ioeeany
(aei 11% oa 3,7%) e?euee?noue o/i?a, ui ie a?aeianee aei na?aaeiueiai oa
iecueeiai ??ai?a. ?acii c oei, a eiio?ieueieo eeanao a?aeaoany o?eueee
iacia/iee ia?a?iciiae?e o/i?a, ye? ia?aaoaaee ia na?aaeiueiio oa
iecueeiio ??aiyo noi?iiaaiino? oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c? neiaieeaie,
a?aeiia?aeii c 16,8% aei 27,9% oa c 83,2% aei 72,1%.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ?acii c? c?inoaiiyi ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? oi?iiy
naiino?eii i?aoethaaoe c ??cieie neiaieeaie ye aeia?aeieeaie, a o/i?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a niinoa??aaeiny ? c?inoaiiy ??aiy
noi?iiaaiino?, iai?eeeaae, oi?iiy aeeiioaaoe ieneeoaeuei? iia?aoe??
(aeea. oaae. 3).

Oaaeeoey 3.

Aeeiai?ea oi?iue aeeiioaaoe ieneeoaeuei? iia?aoe??

o/iyie 3-o eean?a (o % a?aeiioaii?)

Ii/aoie aenia?eiaiooE?iaoeue aenia?eiaioo?Oi?iiyAenia?ei.

eeaneEiio?ieuei? eeaneAenia?ei.

EeaneEiio?ieuei? eeane1Oi?iiy aeae?eeoe aieiaia, nooo?aa ia iniia?
aiae?co, neioaco42,742,866,343,12Oi?iiy ii??aithaaoe, ?iaeoe
aeniiaee26,425,762,626,43Oi?iiy i??eoaaoe oa anoaiiaethaaoe
i?e/eiiai-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee39,839,55639,64Oi?iiy a?aeoai?thaaoe
iaoa??ae a iiaeo oiiaao38,838,879,438,8?c oaae. 3 aeaeii, ui o
o?aoueieeaniee?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a a?aeaoeiny cia/ia c?inoaiiy
oi?iiy aeae?eyoe aieiaia, nooo?aa ia iniia? aiae?co e neioaco (66,3%
i?ioe 42,7%); ii??aithaaoe oa ?iaeoe aeniiaee (62,6% i?ioe 26,4%);
a?aeoai?thaaoe iaoa??ae a iiaeo oiiaao (79,4% i?ioe 38,8%).

Oaeei /eiii, i?ae /an oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aeine?aeiei oeyoii aoei
aeiaaaeaii, ui ?acoeueoaoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue,
na?aae yeeo ? e oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c ??cieie aeaeaie e?iaa?noe/ieo
neiaiee?a, aeinyaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeno
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo ai?aa oa nenoaiii? aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae? i?e
aeio?eiaii? noeoiiino? iaaieo aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aiae?c ?iaioe oeiee na?ae/eoue a oe?eiio i?i iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue ia o?ieao iiae a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

2. ?nio? caeaaei?noue i?ae ??aiai noi?iiaaiino? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue
oeiey??a ? ?acoeueoaoeai?noth ?oiuei? iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe. *ei aeuee
??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, /ei
cia/i?oee ca’ycie iaa/aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??, yea aea/a?oueny, c i?aeoe/iei
aeei?enoaiiyi ?? ia o?ieao iiae, oei aeuee ?ioa?an ? iiceoeaia noaaeaiiy
aei iaa/aiiy.

3. Aaaeeeaei caniaii ?icaeoeo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue caniaaie iiae ?
?iaioa c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie, yea caaacia/o? caaaeueiee ?icaeoie
eiaeiiai o/iy ye iniaenoino?, ni?ey? ?icaeoeo iiaeaiiy oa caaaa/aiith
neiaieeiaiai caiano iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

4. Nenoaiia aeeaeaeoe/ia iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue
caniaaie iiae ia? naith niaoeeo?eo oa aeeth/a? oae? aoaie: ? —
iioeaaoe?eiee (aeoea?caoe?y ?ioa?ano o/i?a aei iaieiae?iiy oai?aoe/ieie
ciaiiyie, ona?aeiieaiiy i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy oi?iue; oi?ioaaiiy o ieo
ia?aeiieo oyaeaiue i?i iaiao?aei? oi?iiy, iio??ai? aeey oni?oiiai
canai?iiy iiaiiai iaoa??aeo); ?? – ci?noiaii-i?ioeanoaeueiee (oi?ioaaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue, cie?aia oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe c ??cieie
e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie; noeioethaaiiy iio?aae caa?oaoeny ca
aeiiiiiaith aei neiaiee?a i?e aeeiiaii? i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue;
cae??ieaiiy noi?iiaaiiai oi?iiy ca aeiiiiiaith oai?/eo ai?aa); ??? –
eiio?ieueii-ioe?iiee (ia?aa??ea noi?iiaaiiino? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue;
noeioethaaiiy aaaeaiiy naiino?eii i?aoethaaoe c aeia?aeeiaith
e?oa?aoo?ith). Aeey eiaeiiai aoaio /?oei aecia/aia iaoa, ci?no
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, iaoiaee oa oi?ie i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, nooi?iue
ea??aieoeoaa a/eoaeai ae?yeuei?noth o/i?a, niiniae eiio?ieth oa
naiieiio?ieth.

5. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy iiaeae? caaacia/o?oueny ?aae?caoe??th
oaeeo aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia ye: iayai?noue o oeiey??a iiceoeaii?
iaa/aeueii? iioeaaoe?? oa aeina?aeo i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?;
caeaoi?noue o/i?a aei eiio?ieth oa naiieiio?ieth; ii?aeiaiiy
?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ? i?iaeoeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a c iinooiiaei
c?inoaiiyi /anoee naiino?eii? ? oai?/i? ?iaioe.

6. Nenoaia i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue iiaeiia aooe ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie
oi?iiy aeae?eeoe aieiaia ia iniia? aiae?co e neioaco; oi?iiy
ii??aithaaoe, ?iaeoe aeniiaee; oi?iiy i??eoaaoe oa anoaiiaethaaoe
i?e/eiiai-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee; oi?iiy a?aeoai?thaaoe iaoa??ae a iiaeo
oiiaao. Iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ia? caaacia/oaaoeny ?aoe?iiaeueiei
iaaeaaia?/iei ea??aieoeoaii; noai?aiiyi ia o?ioe? eiaeiiio o/iaa?
neooaoe?? oni?oo oa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?acoeueoaoe iaa/aiiy;
o??ciiiai?oiaiiyi oi?i eiio?ieth oa naiieiio?ieth a nenoai? noinoie?a
“a/eoaeue-o/aiue”, ye? aoaeothoueny ia i?eioeeiao aca?iiae??,
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ni?aoai?/ino?.

Nooi?noue aeeeaaeaiiai aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iinoaaeai? o
aeine?aeaeaii? caaaeaiiy ?ica’ycai? ? iaoa aeinyaiooa. Iaoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae/a?iaei an?o aniaeo?a i?iaeaie, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny,
? iiaeaeueoiio aea/aiith i?aeeyaathoue oae? ieoaiiy: a) iaaeaaia?/i?
oiiae, ui caaacia/othoue ca’ycie iiae c ?ioeie iaa/aeueieie i?aaeiaoaie
o oi?ioaaii? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a; a)
aca?iica’ycie i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue c ?icaeoeii
?ioaeaeooaeueieo cae?aiinoae oeiey??a; a) iiaeeeaino? naiino?eii?
aeiiaoiuei? ?iaioe o cae??ieaii? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue ? ?icaeoeo
?ioaeaeooaeueieo cae?aiinoae o/i?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee.

C aea/aiiyi oeeo ieoaiue ie iia’yco?ii iiaeaeueoa aaeineiiaeaiiy ??aiy
aioiaiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a aei oai?/i? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ice?eoi o
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Aaeieiiiay I.E. ?ieue eeiaaenoe/aneeo neiaa?ae a eioaeeaeooaeueiii
?acaeoee ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia // Oi?ie?iaaiea eiiioieeaoeaiuo e
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oiaiee oeieueieeia e nooaeaioia. Na. iao/i. o?. — I. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: Ii?iae, 1994. — N.22-30.

2. A?eieiiia I.?. E?iaa?noe/i? neiaieee ye can?a ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
?icaeoeo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. – 1997. — ?4. –
N.88-94.

3. Aaeieiiiay I.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea aeoeaiie, oai?/aneie ee/iinoe a
i?ioeanna iao/aiey ?iaeiiio ycueo // Oi?ie?iaaiea aeoeaiie, oai?/aneie
ee/iinoe a o/aaiii i?ioeanna oeieu e aoca. Na. iao/i. o?. — E?eaie ?ia,
1997. — N.74-81.

4. A?eieiiia I.?. ?ioaeaeooaeueiee ?icaeoie oeiey??a ia o?ieao iiae //
Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. — 1998. — ?1. — N.12-13.

5. A?eieiiia I.?. Oai?/? ai?aae ye can?a oi?ioaaiiy o o/i?a oi?iue
i?aoethaaoe c e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie // Oi?ioaaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue
oai?/i? iniaenoino?. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea ? ina?oa, 1998. —
N.92-96.

6. A?eieiiia I.?. Naiino?eia ?iaioa ye aeae ae?yeueiino?, ui caaacia/o?
?ioaeaeooaeueiee ?icaeoie iieiaeoeo oeiey??a // Oi?ioaaiiy ?
ae?yeuei?noue oai?/i? iniaenoino?. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea ? ina?oa,
1998. — N.120-124.

7. A?eieiiia I.?. E?iaa?noe/i? neiaieee ye can?a ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
?icaeoeo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. –
1998. — ?1-2 (96-97). – N.97-101.

8. A?eieiiia I.?. Oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a: Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. E?eaee ??a, 1998. 20n.

A?eieiiia I.?. Oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o
i?ioean? iaa/aiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee.
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue o
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a i?ae /an iaa/aiiy iiae.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
oi?iue a o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, yeee ??oioo?oueny ia aeei?enoaii?
niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii? nenoaiii?
aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae?, ui neeaaea?oueny c eia?/ii caaa?oaieo aeie?a, ye?
?aae?cothoueny iiaoaiii: ? iioeaaoe?eiee, ??
ci?noiaii-i?ioeanoaeueiee, ??? eiio?ieueii-ioe?iiee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aoaeoeai?noue aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae? ii oi?ioaaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
oi?iue iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy iiae caaacia/o?oueny
noeoii?noth aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia oa eiiieaenii iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo
caaaeaiue aeey ?iaioe c ??cieie e?iaa?noe/ieie neiaieeaie. ?ic?iaeaii e
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy
i?e i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao na?aaeiuei?
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oi?iiy, ?ioaeaeooaeuei? oi?iiy, aeeaeaeoe/ia iiaeaeue
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oi?iue , aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae.

Aaeieiiiay I.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oiaiee ieaaeoeo
oeieueieeia a i?ioeanna iao/aiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oiaiee o
ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia a i?ioeanna iao/aiey ycueo.

I?aeoe/aneia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ycuea caaeneo io ycueiaiai iao/aiey e
ainieoaiey, eioi?ia aeieaeii auoue a oeaio?a aieiaiey ia/aeueiie oeieu.
A i?ioeanna eco/aiey ia/aeueiiai eo?na ycuea inouanoaeyaony ycueiaia
ia?aciaaiea ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia, eo oinoaaiiia e ?a/aaia ?acaeoea,
caeeaaeuaathony iniiau ie?iaicc?aiey, oi?ie?oaony ee/iinoue ?aa?iea.

Oniaoiinoue iao/aiey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia, eioi?ia a yoii aic?anoa
aia?aua noaiiaeony aaaeouei aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai iaeaaeaiey o/aueieny iauao/aaiuie oiaieyie e
iaaueaie, a ninoaa eioi?uo aoiaeyo e eioaeeaeooaeueiua.

Oeaeueth aeaiiiai iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony oai?aoe/aneia
iainiiaaiea aiciiaeiinoae o?ieia ycuea a oi?ie?iaaiee eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
oiaiee ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia; ii?aaeaeaiea yoaiia e niaoeeoeee yoie
?aaiou; nicaeaiea nenoaiiie aeeaeaeoe/aneie iiaeaee oi?ie?iaaiey
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oiaiee e yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?iaa?ea niaieoiiinoe
aeeaeaeoe/aneeo oneiaee e eiiieaena o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiuo caaeaiee,
eioi?ua iaania/eaatho yooaeoeaiinoue a? eniieueciaaiey.

I?aaeeiaeaiiay iiaeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oiaiee aeeth/aao
a naay ianeieueei eiae/anee caaa?o?iiuo iniiaiuo aeieia, eioi?ua
?aaeecothony iiyoaiii: I – iioeaaoeeiiiue (aeoeaece?oaony eioa?an
o/aueony e iaeaaeaieth oai?aoe/aneeie ciaieyie; oi?ie?othony ia?ae/iua
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oao oiaieyo, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oniaoiiai
onaiaiey ycueiaiai iaoa?eaea); II – niaea?aeaoaeueii-i?ioeannoaeueiue
(oi?ie?othony eioaeeaeooaeueiua oiaiey, a /anoiinoe, oiaiea ?aaioaoue n
?acee/iuie eeiaaenoe/aneeie neiaa?yie; noeioee?oaony iio?aaiinoue
ia?auaoueny ca iiiiuueth e neiaa?yi i?e auiieiaiee i?aeoe/aneeo
caaeaiee; noi?ie?iaaiiia oiaiea cae?aieyaony auiieiaieai oai?/aneeo
caaeaiee); III — eiio?ieueii-ioeaii/iue (i?iaa?yaony noi?ie?iaaiiinoue
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oiaiee; noeioee?oaony aeaeaiea naiinoiyoaeueii
?aaioaoue ni ni?aai/iie eeoa?aoo?ie). Aeey eaaeaeiai yoaia /?oei
ii?aaeaeaiu oeaeue, niaea?aeaiea o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea, iaoiaeu e oi?iu
i?aaiecaoeee o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia,
noaiaiue ?oeiaiaenoaa o/eoaeai aeayoaeueiinoueth o/aueony, niiniau
eiio?iey e naiieiio?iey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey nenoaiiie aeeaeaeoe/aneie
iiaeaee iaania/eaaaony niaieoiiinoueth aeeaeaeoe/aneeo oneiaee: iaee/eai
o o/aueony iieiaeeoaeueiie o/aaiie iioeaaoeee e eco/aieth ycuea;
aeoeaecaoeeae ?ai?iaeoeoeaiie e i?iaeoeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony n
iinoaiaiiui oaaee/aieai aeiee naiinoiyoaeueiinoe e oai?/anoaa;
eniieueciaaieai ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i e iaoiaeia iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe; i?aaeinoaaeaiea o/aueiny naiaiaeu auai?a caaeaiee n
o/?oii o?iaiy ciaiee, oa?aeoa?a ioiioaiee e o/?aa; nicaeaiea ia o?iea
eaaeaeiio oeieueieeo neooaoeee oniaoa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?acoeueoaou
iao/aiey; eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo oi?i eiio?iey e naiieiio?iey a
nenoaia ioiioaiee “o/eoaeue-o/aiee”.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?iaa?ea i?aaeeiaeaiiie iiaeaee e niaieoiiinoe
aeeaeaeoe/aneeo oneiaee, iaania/eaathueo a? yooaeoeaiinoue,
inouanoaeyeanue n iiiiuueth eiiieaena o/aaii-iiciaaaoaeueiuo caaeaiee
aeey ?aaiou n ?aciuie eeiaaenoe/aneeie neiaa?yie, eioi?ua auee
iauaaeeiaiu a o?e a?oiiu:

I iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua caaeaiey, niinianoothuea oi?ie?iaaieth oiaiee
naiinoiyoaeueii iaoiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth a neiaa?a
(oi?aaeiaiey ia auno?oth i?eaioe?iaeo a no?oeoo?a neiaa?y;
aeeaeaeoe/aneea ea?u; oi?aaeiaiey ia eniieueciaaiea ciaiee aeoaaeoa a
iiauo oneiaeyo);

II o?aie?iai/iua caaeaiey, iai?aaeaiiua ia oi?ie?iaaiea oiaiee
?aaioaoue n eeiaaenoe/aneeie neiaa?yie (oi?aaeiaiey: ia onaiaiea
eaene/aneiai cia/aiey neia; ia ciaeiinoai n yoeiieiaeae neiaa?iuo neia;
ia iiieiaiea o/aueieny iiiaicia/iinoe neia; ia i?aeoe/aneia ciaeiinoai n
iiiieiaie e ia?aaeeaiaie; ia ooi/iaiea iooaieia neiiieiia e aioiieiia);

III oai?/aneea caaeaiey, eioi?ua aeaiiino?e?otho oiaiey ieaaeoeo
oeieueieeia naiinoiyoaeueii ?aaioaoue ni neiaa?yie a iiauo oneiaeyo
(oi?aaeiaiey ia n?aaiaiea noeeae ?a/e; ?aaioa iaae caaaaeeaie,
iineiaeoeaie e e?innai?aeaie; oi?aaeiaiey i?ioi?eaioaoeeiiiiai
oa?aeoa?a).

Auiieiaiea yoeo caaeaiee niinianoaiaaei oaaee/aieth neiaa?iiai caiana
ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia e oi?ie?iaaieth o ieo eioa?ana e ycueo eae o/aaiiio
i?aaeiaoo.

I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieueciaaieth
eeiaaenoe/aneeo neiaa?ae ia o?ieao ycuea eae n?aaenoaa oi?ie?iaaiey
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oiaiee. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?eiaiaiea a
ia/aeueiuo eeannao n?aaeiae iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oiaiey, eioaeeaeooaeueiua oiaiey, aeeaeaeoe/aneay
iiaeaeue ii oi?ie?iaaieth eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oiaiee, aeeaeaeoe/aneea
oneiaey.

Belokonnaya N.I. Didactic conditions of forming intellectual skills of
primary pupils in the process of teaching.- Manuscript.

The thesis for the scientific degree of the candidate of pedagogical
sciences speciality 13.00.01 — the theory and history of pedagogics.
National pedagogical university named after M.Dragomanov, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis deals with the problem of forming intellectual skills of
primary pupils in the process of teaching the native language.

This investigation schows that the effectiveness of forming the
intellectual skills of pupils is considerably increasing while using a
specially developed didactic model representing a system of logically
completed units and while providing for definite didactic conditions.
The main results of this work have found their application in primary
classes of a secondary school.

The key words: skills, intellectual skills, didactic model on forming
intellectual skills, didactic conditions.

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