OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Aao?ooei Aieiaeeie? ?aaaiiae/

OAeE 537.311:539.219:539.67:546.28:621.382

OI?IOAAIIss AeII?OEIAI-AeAOAEOII? I?AeNENOAIE OA O?CE*I?
AEANOEAINO? NEAAEIEAAIAAIEO IIIIE?ENOAE?A ? IIIIE?ENOAE?*IEO OA??A
AAAAOIOA?IAEO EIIIICEOe?E

01.04. 07 — «O?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea»

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Ai?aaiue Ieaenaiae?

Ieeieaeiae/,
Caii??cueeee ?inoeooo aea?aeaaiiai ? ioi?oeeiaeueiiai

oi?aae?iiy, ia?oee
i?i?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. *eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Eeoia/aiei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/ —
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo o?ceee iiaa?oi? oa i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee ?inoeoooo
o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie

2. *eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Neueicia A?oae?e Aaeaioeiiae/ — caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
aeeooc?eieo oa aeaeo?iiieo i?ioean?a o oaa?aeeo o?eao ?inoeoooo
oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee IIOe «Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo»

3. Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Einaae/ Aaaeei Ia?eiae/ —
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aenia?eiaioaeueii? oa oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Aeiiaoeuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 4 » /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 13-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.051.03 Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (310077, i. Oa?e?a, i. Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. ?i. E.Ae.
Neiaeueieeiaa).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (310077, i. Oa?e?a,
i. Naiaiaee, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 29 » ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.I. Iieaea

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Neaaeieaaiaai? iiiie?enoaee yaeythoue niaith ?icaaaeai? oaa?ae? ?ic/eie.
No/ania oai??y ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?eionea?, ui
eiioeaio?aoe?? oiiiaeo aeii?oie oa aonoeie no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a o ieo
iae?, oiio aiie ?noioii ia aieeaathoue ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ?ic/eio.
Aea aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiai? ca inoaii?
?iee na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui oiiia? aeii?oee oa no?oeoo?i? aeaoaeoe
(aaeain??, aeeneieaoe??, iaae? ca?ai, i?e?iaeaoaeoe ??ciiai oeio oa
?io?) iiaeooue nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia aeanoeaino? neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a
iaoa??ae?a ??ciiai oeio, aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy aeii?oeiai-aeaoaeoieo
eeanoa??a oa aeii?oeiaeo aoiinoa? a?ey aeaoaeo?a. Oea coiiaeth?
aeooaeuei?noue oa iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?oiueiai
aieeao ia i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy aeii?oeiai-aeaoaeoii? i?aenenoaie oa
o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? oaeeo e?enoae?a.

Neaaeieaaiaai? e?enoaee yaeythoue niaith aeai- aai aaaaoieiiiiiaioi?
oaa?ae? ?ic/eie, ui i?noyoue eaaoth/ee aeaiaio, yeee ?noioii aieeaa? ia
o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? e?enoaea i?e iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo, o oiio /ene? o
aeiaaeeo, eiee eiai eiioeaio?aoe?y ieae/a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?e oiiiaeo
aeii?oie oa no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a. I?e oeueiio oeie oa eiioeaio?aoe??
oiiiaeo aeii?oie ? aeaoaeo?a aecia/athoueny aeiaaeeiaeie /eiieeaie oa
iiaeooue aooe iaa?aeiieie. I?eeeaaeaie oaeeo neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a,
ui oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny a no/ani?e oaoi?oe?, ? ?icaaaeai? oaa?ae?
?ic/eie ia iniia? e?aii?th oa aa?iai?th, i?e?ieaaiaai? noae?, nieaae
i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a, aeoeai? ae?aeaeo?eee oa ?io?.
Cie?aia, o neaaeieaaiaaieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao eiioeaio?aoe?y eaaoth/iai
aeaiaioo, yeee aecia/a? ?oi? aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino?, ia?aaoaa? cae/aeii
o iaaeao 1012 — 1015 ni-3, ui ?ieiee ? ieae/ith a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?e
oiiiaeo aeii?oie, ye? neeaaeathoue 1010 — 1014 ni-3 aeey aoii?a
ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a, 1012 — 1016 ni-3 aeey aeaiaio?a III oa V a?oi, 1015
— 1018 ni-3 aeey eenith, aoaeaoeth, acioo oa aiaeith, a oaeiae
aeiaeaoeiaeo eaaoth/eo aeii?oie (aa?iai?e, ieiai), eiioeaio?aoe?? yeeo
iiaeooue nyaaoe 1020 ni-3. ?noioiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a aeyaeythoue no?oeoo?i?
iaaeineiiaeino? e?enoaeo ? eiiieaene aeanieo oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a oa
aeii?oie, ye? ooai?ththoueny i?e ??ciiiai?oieo ciai?oi?o ae?yo. O
no/anieo oaa?aeio?eueieo i?eeaaeao (aenieiaieueoieo ae?iaeao ?
o?aicenoi?ao, oe?enoi?ao, oioii?eeia/ao, aeaoaeoi?ao aei?ii?ithaaiue oa
?ioeo) aeei?enoiaothoueny neaaeieaaiaai? oa?e ??cieo iaoa??ae?a. Aiie
iaaeothoue ?c oa?aie, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ca oeiaie oa eiioeaio?aoe?yie
eaaoth/eo oa oiiiaeo aeii?oie. I?ae /an oi?ioaaiiy neaaeieaaiaaiiai
oa?o oa ianooiieo aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo i?ioean?a oe? aeii?oee
aeeooiaeothoue o neaaeieaaiaaiee oa?, ui iiaea nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia
ia?aiao?e i?eeaaeo. O ca’yceo c oeei ?nio? iio?aaa a aeine?aeaeaii?
aieeao oiiiaeo aeii?oie oa no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino?
neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a oa iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo
eiiiiceoe?e.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

*anoeia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeiioaaeany a iaaeao iaoeiai — oaoi?/ii?
i?ia?aie I?iaoco O?N? «?aae?aoe?eia iaoa??aeiciaanoai» (oaie N 1/91
«O?ce/i? iniiae aca?iiae?? oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a a neeaaeiieaaiaaieo
e?enoaeao iaoa??ae?a aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee i?e ?ii?coth/iio aieea?», 1/92″
Aca?iiae?y aeaoaeo?a o neeaaeiieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoaeao iaoa??ae?a
aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee i?e ?ii?coth/eo aieeaao»); eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (N 67/95 «Iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e,
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo oa iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae aenieiaeineiiaeeo
iiiie?enoae?a», N 67/96 «Iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e, aeaeo?io?ce/ieo
oa iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae neaaeiia?aeaaeueieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a»).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oiiiaeo aeii?oie ?
no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a ia caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aeii?oeiai-aeaoaeoii?
i?aenenoaie oa o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ?aaeueieo ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo
?ic/ei?a iaoa??ae?a ??cieo oei?a, o ia?oo /a?ao, ia aeanoeaino?
neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a oa neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a
aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? e?aii?th.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe o ?iaio? aoee iinoaaeai? ? ?ica’ycai?
ianooii? caaea/?:

— ?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? ? aeeiiai? ?ic?aooiee ?iciiae?eo eaaoth/eo aoii?a
ca iiceoe?yie (noaiaie) ??ciiai oeio oa ?oiueiai aieeao ia o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a aeey ?yaeo oeiiaeo iiaeaeueieo
neooaoe?e, a oaeiae aeey neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a e?aii?th,
neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e ? oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a
i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?th;

— aeine?aeaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao oiiiaeo aeii?oie noi?aeiiai oa?o
oa iaae? iiae?eo oa??a ia oi?ioaaiiy o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ia?ao?aeii?
iaeano? neaaeieaaiaaiiai oa?o aeaioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e, aenia?eiaioaeueii
? oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaiee aieea ia?aiao??a oa??a, oiia inaaeaeaiiy, a
oaeiae a?aeiaeo ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ia?ao?aeii? iaeano?
neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii??aeo aaoiai?oaen?eieo eiiiiceoe?e;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeai? i?ioeane c?inoaiiy, eaaoaaiiy ?
aaoieaaoaaiiy, no?oeoo?ia aeineiiae?noue oa o?ce/i? aeanoeaino?
neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii??aeo aaoiai?oaen?eieo eiiiiceoe?e, ye?
io?eiai? ca iaoiaeaie aiaeiaaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy o?eoei?neeaio ?
aeeoei?neeaio, aieea aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo ia?iaie oa ?ioeo ciai?oi?o ae?e
ia aeanoeaino? oaeeo oa??a ? neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a e?aii?th, ui
i?noyoue iaioa ca 1*1015 ni-3 aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a aeaiaio?a III aai V
a?oie, a oaeiae aieea oiia iaea?aeaiiy ? a?aeiae?a ia o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?th.

Ca i?aenoieaie aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe io?eiai? iia? iaoeiai
ia??oioiaai? ?acoeueoaoe a aaeoc? o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea, ye? o
noeoiiino? ?ica’ycothoue aaaeeeao iaoeiao i?iaeaio — aea/aiiy
caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo
iiiie?enoae?a oa iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e, ui
i?noyoue oiiia? aeii?oee oa no?oeoo?i? aeaoaeoe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?yae iiaeaeae aeey ?ic?aooieo ?iciiae?eo aeii?oeiaeo
aoii?a ca iiceoe?yie (noaiaie) ??ciiai oeio ? oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a, caniiaaieo ia i?eiouaii?, ui
o ?aaeueiiio oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? aoiie aeii?oee iiaeooue iaoe ??cio
aia?a?th, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae e?enoaeia?ao?/iiai oeio caeiaieo ieie
iiceoe?e, ?o ioi/aiiy ? ca?yaeiaiai noaio; i?e oeueiio ??aiiaaaeiee
?iciiae?e aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ca iiceoe?yie (noaiaie) ??ciiiai?oiiai oeio
aecia/a?oueny o caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo noaoenoeeith Oa?i?. Canoinoaaiiy
oeeo i?eiouaiue aei aiae?co ?yaeo iiaeaeueieo nenoai aeicaieeei:

— aia?oa iieacaoe iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy a?aeoeeaiue a?ae ?aeaaeueiino?
o ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/eiao i?e ciaioaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/iai
aeaiaioo, ui coiiaeaii aca?iiae??th eiai aoii?a c oiiiaeie aeii?oeaie oa
no?oeoo?ieie aeaoaeoaie;

— aia?oa iieacaoe, ui o neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoaeao iiaeeeaa cia/ia
ciaioaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aeenioe?aoe?? aeii?oeiaeo aoiinoa? ia
aeeneieaoe?yo oa ?ioeo no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeoao i?e iaaeeaeaii? e?eueeino?
aoii?a aeii?oee aei /enea aeinooiieo aeey ieo i?noeue o aeii?oeia?e
aoiinoa??;

— iieacaoe, ui ia?a?iciiae?e aoii?a aeii?oee i?ae iiceoe?yie (noaiaie)
??ciiiai?oiiai oeio noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iiyaith iaeneioio ia
oaiia?aoo?i?e caeaaeiino? ieoiii? oaiei?iiino? aeii?oee, ui iiaea
na?ae/eoe i?i i?io?eaiiy oaciaiai ia?aoai?aiiy o aeii?oeia?e i?aenenoai?
e?enoaeo;

— iieacaoe iiaeeea?noue ?noioieo a?aeoeeaiue ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo
?ic/ei?a a?ae ?aeaaeueiino?, coiiaeaieo iiaeeea?noth ia?a?iciiae?eo
aoii?a aeii?oee i?ae iiceoe?yie ??ciiiai?oiiai oeio, a oaeiae i?ae
?ii?ciaaiei oa iaeo?aeueiei noaiaie;

— iieacaoe, ui ?nio? oaiia?aoo?iee ?ioa?aae, o yeiio aoaeoeai?noue
ieaia?iiai aaoa?oaaiiy oaeaeeiaeeooiaeoth/eo aeii?oie c neaaeieaaiaaieo
oa??a oaa?aeio?eueieo no?oeoo? aeinyaa? iaeneioio; cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaoa?oaaiiy aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy
aoaeoeaii? oiaueie aaoa?oth/iai oa?o, a i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e cieaeo?
aoaeoeai?noue aiane?aeie i?aaiaiiy aeii?oie aei a?eueo ??aiii??iiai
?iciiae?eo i?ae neaaeieaaiaaiei oa?ii oa aaoa?ii.

2. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy o neaaeieaaiaaieo oa?ao
aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e i?e ?o io?eiaii? ca iaoiaeaie ai?oaen?? oa
oa?iieiii?an?eiiai c’?aeiaiiy, a oaeiae i?e aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo ia?iaeao
i?ioa?e?a, a yeeo iniiaiith aeii?oeith ? oiiiaa aeii?oea, ui aeeooiaeo?
c ia’?io aai c caa?oaeiaiiai i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o i?aeeeaaeee. Oaeee
i?ioa?ie oi?io?oueny, yeui ia’?iia aai iiaa?oiaaa eiioeaio?aoe?y oiiiai?
aeii?oee ia?aaeueoue e?eoe/ia cia/aiiy, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia
i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano, oeio oa eiioeaio?aoe?e eaaoth/eo aeii?oie a
neeueii- oa neaaeieaaiaaieo oa?ao ? iiaea aooe ia aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a
ieae/ith a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/i? aeii?oee i?aeeeaaeee.
Aeine?aeaeaii aieea oeeo ia?aiao??a ia e?eoe/io eiioeaio?aoe?th, a
oaeiae oa?aeoa? ci?ie iieiaeaiiy oa oiaueie i?ioa?eo c /anii ? iieacaii,
ui aiie ?noioii ?ic??ciythoueny caeaaeii a?ae aeaea?aea oiiiai?
aeii?oee.

3. Iieacaii, ui aeeooc?eiee ia?a?iciiae?e oiiiaeo aeii?oie i?ae oa?aie
e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e iiaea ?noioii aieeaaoe ia i?io?e? niioai?aiue
e?enoae?/ii? ??aoee, naa?aaaoe?th aeii?oie, oi?ioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? o ia?ao?aei?e iaeano? eiiiiceoe??.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?aaeueieo neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoaeao e?aii?th ?
neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa?ao e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e i?e
eiioeaio?aoe?yo eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo, iaioeo ca 1013 — 1014 ni-3,
iiaeooue niinoa??aaoeny oae? aiiiaeuei? aoaeoe:

— ianoaa?euei?noue aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a i?e aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo
(aeua ca 1000 iN) oa?i?/ieo ia?iaeao aiane?aeie oi?ioaaiiy
iaoanoaa?eueieo aeeaiei??aiaaeo aeiii?ieo oeaio??a;

— aeiaeaoeiaa eaaoaaiiy neaaeieaaiaaiiai ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o a i?ioean?
eiai inaaeaeaiiy aeii?oeith, ui aeia?iao?oueny c ?iai/i? noi?iie
i?aeeeaaeee;

— oi?ioaaiiy i?ioa?e?a c i?ia?aei?noth i?ioeeaaeiiai oeio aai ?icoe?aiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?eii? ia?ao?aeii? iaeano? e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e, io?eiaieo
ca iaoiaeaie ai?oaen?? oa oa?iieiii?an?eiiai c’?aeiaiiy ca ?aooiie
aeeooc?? oiiiaeo aeiii?ieo ? aeoeaioi?ieo aeii?oie ?c neeueiieaaiaaiiai
oa?o aai c i?eiiaa?oiaaiai caa?oaeiaiiai oa?o i?aeeeaaeee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

1. ?ic?iaeaii iiaeae? ??aiiaaaeieo oa ia??aiiaaaeieo noai?a o
?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/eiao, ui iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
aea/aiiy ? ?ic?aooie?a o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a
oa neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e, a oaeiae i?ioean?a
?o oi?ioaaiiy.

2. ?ic?iaeaii eiii’thoa?i? i?ia?aie uiaei iiaeaethaaiiy o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a, ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano
aaoa?oaaiiy oaeaeeiaeeooiaeoth/eo aeii?oie ?c neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a
oaa?aeio?eueieo no?oeoo?, i?io?e?a eiioeaio?aoe?e a?eueieo iin??a
ca?yaeo, ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o ? i?io?e?a niioai?aiue e?enoae?/ii?
??aoee a ia?ao?aei?e iaeano? e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e.

3. Io?eiaii iia? aeai? i?i aieea oiia inaaeaeaiiy ia no?oeoo?io
aeineiiae?noue ? o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? neaaeieaaiaaieo ai?oaen?eieo oa??a
e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e, ui iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iioei?caoe??
?nioth/eo oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy
eiiiiceoe?e, ?ic?iaee iiaeo oei?a eiiiiceoe?e.

4. Aecia/aii i?e/eie oi?ioaaiiy iaiaeii??aeiino? oiaueie ai?oaen?eieo
oa??a e?aii?th, ui oi?iothoueny ca iaoiaeii aiaeiaaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy
o?eoei?neeaio o ?aaeoi?ao aa?oeeaeueiiai oeio.

5. Aecia/aii e?eoe/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? oiiiaeo aeii?oie o e?aii??aeo
ieanoeiao, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey io?eiaiiy neaaeieaaiaaieo
ai?oaen?eieo oa??a e?aii?th.

6. Anoaiiaeaii iaiaaeaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a eiio?ieth
ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o oa iayaiino? e?i?e eiacaiiy o
neaaeieaaiaaieo oa?ao e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e.

Eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe oa iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno

1. Aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? aoii?a eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo c aoiiaie oiiiaeo
aeii?oie oa no?oeoo?ieie aeaoaeoaie o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? e?enoae?a
iiaeooue nooo?ai a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae aeanoeainoae ?aeaaeueieo oaa?aeeo
?ic/ei?a ia o?eueee i?e aaeeeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo, aea
oaeiae ? i?e eiai iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo. I?e aeinoaoiuei iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?ao aeanoeaino? e?enoaeo iiaeooue ?noioii a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae
aeanoeainoae ?aeaaeueiiai ?icaaaeaiiai ?ic/eio i?e aoaeue-yeeo
eiioeaio?aoe?yo eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo.

2. ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy oa ?ic?aooie?a ?iciiae?eo aeii?oeiaeo
aoii?a ca iiceoe?yie (noaiaie) ??ciiai oeio ? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae
iiaeaeueieo nenoai, oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a Si, Si, a oaeiae
nieaa?a i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?th, ye? anoaiiaeththoue:

— iiaeeea?noue nooo?aiai aieeao ia?a?iciiae?eo aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ca
iiceoe?yie (noaiaie) ??ciiai oeio ia eiao?oe??io oa?iiaeeiai?/ii?
aeoeaiino? aeii?oee o oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei?;

— ?nioaaiiy iaeneioio ieoiii? oaiei?iiino? aeii?oeiai? i?aenenoaie,
coiiaeaiiai ia?a?iciiae?eii aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ca iiceoe?yie (noaiaie)
??ciiai oeio;

— ??cea cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aeenioe?aoe?? (ae?iaeaeaiiy) aeii?oeiaeo
aoiinoa? ia aeeneieaoe?yo oa ?ioeo no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeoao i?e iaaeeaeaii?
e?eueeino? aoii?a aeii?oee o e?enoae? aei /enea aeinooiieo aeey ieo
i?noeue o aoiinoa?ao;

— ?nioaaiiy iioeiaeueiiai ?ioa?aaeo oaiia?aoo? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
i?ioeano aaoa?oaaiiy oaeaeeiaeeooiaeoth/eo aeii?oie o neaaeieaaiaaieo
oa?ao oaa?aeio?eueieo no?oeoo?.

3. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai oa oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy i?ioa?e?a ?c ia?aaaaith oiiiai? aeii?oee o
neaaeieaaiaaieo oa?ao aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e, o oiio /ene?:

— aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie ?icoaooaaiiy oa oiaueie oaeiai i?ioa?eo
a e?aii??aeo aeaioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?yo, ui oi?iothoueny ca iaoiaeaie
aacioacii? ai?oaen?? oa oa?iieiii?an?eiiai c’?aeiaiiy, aeey aeiaaee?a,
eiee aeaea?aeii oiiiai? aeii?oee ? ia’?i neeueiieaaiaaii? i?aeeeaaeee
aai ?? iiaa?oiy;

— aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao oiia oi?ioaaiiy ? ia?aiao??a oa??a
e?aii??aeo aeaioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e ia e?eoe/i? cia/aiiy ia’?iieo oa
iiaa?oiaaeo eiioeaio?aoe?e oiiiaeo aeii?oie.

4. ?nioaaiiy a?aeie?aiethaaeueieo iniaeeainoae i?ioean?a iaea?aeaiiy oa
o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo (Nd 1013 — 1014 ni-3)
iiiie?enoae?a oa aaoiai?oaen?eieo oa??a e?aii?th, o oiio /ene?:

— aieeao oeio oa eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/i? aeii?oee i?aeeeaaeee ia oei
i?ia?aeiino? ? aaee/eio ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o;

— ci?io aaee/eie ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o oa?o a iai?yieo ?ooo
aaciaiai no?oio a ?aaeoi??;

— nooo?aiai ciaioaiiy aaee/eie ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o oa /ano
aeeooy iainiiaieo iin??a ca?yaeo i?e aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio a?aeiae?
e?aii??aeo ieanoei oa ai?oaen?eieo eiiiiceoe?e o aiaei? aiane?aeie
aaia?aoe?? aeeaiei??aiaaeo aeiii?ieo oeaio??a.

5. Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a ?inoo, eaaoaaiiy oa
aeaoaeoiooai?aiiy i?ae /an inaaeaeaiiy neaaeieaaiaaieo aaoiai?oaen?eieo
oa??a e?aii?th ca iaoiaeaie aiaeiaaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy o?eoei?neeaio oa
aeeoei?neeaio.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aoee
aeeiiai? aaoi?ii, i?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii aai i?e eiai aecia/aeuei?e
o/ano?. Aaoipii iniaenoi noipioeueiaaii iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeniiaee, a?ae?a?aii iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy, picpiaeaii iiaeae? oa
i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo aeaeo?io?ce/ieo, oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ? iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a ? neaaeieaaiaaieo
iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e, cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeae?
oi?ioaaiiy ia?ao?aeieo iaeanoae oa aaoa?oaaiiy oaeaeeiaeeooiaeoth/eo
aeii?oie o neaaeieaaiaaieo oa?ao oaa?aeio?eueieo no?oeoo?, aeyaeaii
?nioaaiiy oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo iaae iaeano?
?aeaaeueiino? ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a, i?iaaaeaii aiae?c
iaoai?ci?a aaoieaaoaaiiy i?e aacioaci?e ai?oaen?? neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a
e?aii?th, aeine?aeaeaii aieea aonoeie aeaoaeo?a ia oaiia?aoo?o
aeenioe?aoe?? aeii?oeiaeo aoiinoa? ia ieo, i?iaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th
oei?a aeeneieaoe?eieo e?i?e eiacaiiy a e?aii??aeo no?oeoo?ao, aeeiiaii
aei??e niaeo??a aioo??oiueiai oa?oy oa aeeiai?/ieo iiaeoe?a ii?iaeueii?
i?oaeiino? nieaa?a ia iniia? i?ia?th. Aaoip a?aa o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe?
oaoiieia?e ? aeaioiaeaii? c?ace?a oaa?aeio?eueieo no?oeoo? oa oaa?aeeo
?ic/ei?a i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?th, ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?ai ?ic?aooieo
?iciiae?eo aeii?oie oa niioai?aiue ??aoee a ia?ao?aei?e iaeano?, a
oaeiae niaeo??a ?io?a/a?aiiiai a?aeaeooy neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii?th,
i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a, ?ic?aooie?a oa iaaiai?aii? ?oi?o ?acoeueoao?a
(eiie?aoiee aianie aaoi?a aeacaiee o a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?eao
aeena?oaoe??). A iniiaieo i?aoeyo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??, ye?
i?aeaioiaeaii o ni?aaaoi?noa? ? ia?ae?e yeeo iaaaaeaii a e?ioe?
aaoi?aoa?aoo, iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio. A?i iniaenoi
aecia/ea caaaeaiiy o i?aoeyo [4, 6, 8, 11, 15, 19, 24, 25, 28-32, 34,
35], oa a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe? caaea/ o i?aoeyo [2,
3, 5, 7, 10, 12-14, 16-18, 20, 33, 38, 39, 40]. Aaoi? iniaenoi aiooaaa
ia’?eoe aeey aeine?aeaeaiue o i?aoeyo [2-5, 10, 12-20, 24, 25, 30, 31,
33, 38, 39], aaciina?aaeiuei aeeiioaaa aei??thaaiiy oa ?ic?aooiee o
i?aoeyo [2-8, 10-12, 14-16, 19, 20, 24, 25, 28-31, 33-35, 41]. Aaoi?
a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a ia?iaoe? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa
?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a on?o i?aoeue, a
oaeiae o ?o i?aeaioiaoe? aei iioae?eoaaiiy.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a oa ia??oioiaai?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe caaacia/othoueny aeei?enoaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo ?
aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo no/anieo ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia??oioiaai?noth i?eiouaiue, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aeeiiaii? oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a ? iiaoaeia?
iiaeaeae, aeia?ith a?aeiia?aei?noth i?ae ?acoeueoaoaie, io?eiaieie
??cieie iaoiaeaie. Caeiaoo? aeai? ia noia?a/aoue iaeia iaeiiio,
oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ciaoiaeyoueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c a?aeiieie
aenia?eiaioaeueieie oaeoaie oa iiyniththoue ?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoee ai?iaiaai? ia 29 iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, o oiio
/ene? ia ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c iaoai?ci?a aioo??oiueiai oa?oy o
iaoaeao oa iai?aai?/ieo iaoa??aeao (Aaooi?, 1985), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «No/ani? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy o iaoaeiciaanoa?» (Onoeiia,
1985), IV ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oa?iiaeeiai?ea ? iaoa??aeiciaanoai
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a» (Iineaa, 1989), XIV ananithci?e (Iaea??anuee?e)
ia?aae? c oai??? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a (Aeiiaoeuee, 1989), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Ia?niaeoeai? iaoa??aee oaa?aeio?eueii? aeaeo?ii?ee.
Oaa?aeio?euei? ia?aoai?thaa/? a aaoiiaoeoe? oa ?iaioioaoi?oe?» (I?inuee,
1990), V ananithci?e ia?aae? c iaoa??aeiciaanoaa oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
iniia io?eiaiiy eaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a e?aii?th (Iineaa, 1990),
iaeanii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? «Eiiiiiaioe oa iaoa??aee aeaeo?iiii?
oaoi?ee» (Caii??aeaey, 1990), VI ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aiae?oe/i?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a ? ae?ia?a i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee» (Eeoei?a,
1991), VIII eii?aeeiaoe?ei?e ia?aae? c aeine?aeaeaiiy oa canoinoaaiiy
nieaa?a e?aii?e-aa?iai?e (Oaoeaio, 1991), VIII ananithci?e eiioa?aioe??
c ?inoo e?enoae?a (Oa?e?a, 1992), 14-th European Crystallographic
Meeting (Enschede, Netherlands, 1992), III i?aeaea?aeaaiiio nai?ia??
«Iaoa??aee aeey oa?iiaeaeo?e/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a» (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a,
1992), XVI International Conference on Applied Crystallography (Poland,
1994), The First International Conference on Material Science of
Chalcogenide and Diamond-Structure Semiconductors (Chernivtci, 1994), I
and II International School-Conferences «Physical Problems in Material
Science of Semiconductors» (Chernivtsi, 1995, 1997), VI i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai — oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??-aenoaaoe? «Aieieiiia — iioe/i? e?i??
ca’yceo oa nenoaie ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? — 95″ (Caii??aeaey, 1995), VI
i?aeaaeocaa?e ia?aae?-nai?ia?? c ?aae?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a a aeaeo?ii?oe?
(Iineaa, 1996), VI eiioa?aioe?? c iaoa??aeiciaanoaa oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
iniia io?eiaiiy eaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a e?aii?th (Iineaa, 1996), V
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oa?iiaeeiai?ea oa iaoa??aeiciaanoai
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a» (Iineaa, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 1 iiiia?ao??, 37 noaooyo o
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 2 noaooyo, ui
aeaiiioaaeeny, 45 oacao aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa
ia?aaeao. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee
8 aeiaoiae?a, ia ye? io?eiai? aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa aai iiceoeai?
??oaiiy aea?aeaaii? aenia?oece.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe??
noaiiaeoue 409 noi??iie, o oiio /ene? 106 ?enoie?a caeiathoue 55
noi??iie, 21 oaaeeoey caeia? 13 noi??iie, 16 aeiaeaoe?a caeiathoue 37
noi??iie, nienie ?c 492 aeaea?ae aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e caeia? 53
noi??iee.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? ?icaeyiooi no/aniee noai i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny,
ia??oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeai? eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe oa iieiaeaiiy, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a oaeiae aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a oa
ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? » Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e oa aea?? iniiaieo
iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy» iaaiaeeoueny iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo i?i
caaaeuei? aeanoeaino? neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a oa neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a
aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e, iiaeae? ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a oa
iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ?oi?o aeanoeainoae, no/ani? iaoiaee oi?ioaaiiy oa
o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a e?aii?th ?
neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e, a oaeiae i?i o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?th,
ia??oioiao?oueny aea?? iniiaieo iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iieacaii, ui
o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a iaoa??ae?a ??cieo
oei?a (iaoae?a, iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, ae?aeaeo?ee?a) oa neaaeieaaiaaieo
iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e aecia/athoueny noaiii
aeii?oeiai-aeaoaeoii? i?aenenoaie, oiaoi iaai?ii oa eiioeaio?aoe?yie
(aonoeiaie) eaaoth/eo ? oiiiaeo aeii?oie, aeanieo oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a,
aeii?oeiai-aeaoaeoieo eiiieaen?a, aeeneieaoe?e oa i?e?iaeaoaeo?a.
Aecia/ai? iaoa oa iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? «Caaaeueia iaoiaeeea, aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a iaea?aeaiiy neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii?th, iaoa??aee oa
iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy» iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioean?a io?eiaiiy ? iniiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ? no?oeoo?ii? aeineiiaeino?
neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e ? oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a
i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?th, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeeny a ?iaio?.

Neaaeieaaiaai? oa?e e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e aoee io?eiai? ca iaoiaeii
aiaeiaaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy o?eoei?neeaio aai aeeoei?neeaio i?e oaiia?aoo?ao
1273 — 1473 E o ?aaeoi?ao aa?oeeaeueiiai oeio «O-82», «Neie-202»,
«OIAN-2IE-A». Oa?e ?c ieoiiei aeaeo?e/iei iii?ii 0,5 — 20000 Ii*ni ?
oiaueiith 5 — 300 iei inaaeaeoaaee ia i?aeeeaaeeao, ui iie??oaaeeny c
aeaio noi??i. I?aeeeaaeee iaee aeaeo?e/io i?ia?aei?noue aeaeo?iiiiai
oeio c ieoiiei aeaeo?e/iei iii?ii 0,001 — 100 Ii*ni, aai ae??eiaiai oeio
c ieoiiei aeaeo?e/iei iii?ii 8-12 Ii*ni; i???ioaoe?th iiaa?oi? (111),
(100) oa (110). A?aeiae e?aii??aeo ieanoei oa eiiiiceoe?e i?iaiaeeee a
ai?oaen?eieo ?aaeoi?ao «O-82» ? «Neie-202» i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 1273 — 1473
E. Oaiia?aoo?o i?ioean?a aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith iioe/iiai i??iiao?a
aai ?io?a/a?aiiiai aeao/eea oaiia?aoo?e, ?ica?aei?noue iieac?a yeeo ia
ia?aaeuoaaei 5 E. Oiaueio neaaeieaaiaaiiai oa?o aei??thaaee ca iaoiaeaie
niaeo?ineii?? ?io?a/a?aiiiai a?aeaeooy, noa?e/iiai oe?oa, a oaeiae ca
aaee/eiith aieo aeaoaeoo iaeoaaiiy. ?icoiaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aei???a
ia ia?aaeuoaaei 5%. Ieoiiee aeaeo?e/iee ii?? neaaeieaaiaaiiai oa?o
aecia/aee ca /ioe?ueiociiaeiaei oa IA* iaoiaeaie ?c a?aeiiniith
iioeaeith ia a?eueoa 5%. I?io?e? ?iciiae?eo ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o
aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii iii?o ?ico?eaiiy. Iioeaea aei???a ia ia?aaeuoaaea
15% i?e cia/aii? ieoiiiai iii?o 0,01 — 100 Ii*ni ? c?inoaea aei 50% i?e
aei??thaaii? ieoiieo iii??a, a?eueoeo ca 1000 Ii*ni. Aeiaaeeiaa
neeaaeiaa iioeaee aei??o aaee/eie i?e?iiaiaeii??aeiino? ieoiiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o c aeia??/ith ?iia??i?noth 0,95 neeaaeaea 2 % a?ae
aei??yiiai cia/aiiy iaiaeii??aeiino?. *an aeeooy ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a
no?oio aecia/aee ca iaoiaeaie iiaeoeyoe?? i?ia?aeiino? a oi/eiaiio
eiioaeo? c a?aeiinii? iioeaeith ia a?eueoa 20% i?e aei??thaaii? cia/aiue
iiiaae 3 ien. I?e aei??thaaii? a?eueo iecueeeo aaee/ei /ano aeeooy
iioeaea nooo?ai c?inoaea ? iaea?aeai? o oeueiio aeiaaeeo cia/aiiy ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe ye ioe?ii/i?. An? aei??e aeeiioaaee a caoaiiaiee eaia?? i?e
oaiia?aoo?? aeecueei 300 E. Eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith oa aoaeaoeth o
neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoaeao e?aii?th aei??thaaee ca iaoiaeii niaeo?ineii??
?io?a/a?aiiiai iiaeeiaiiy. Iioeaea aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith ia
ia?aaeuoaaea 10%, a eiioeaio?aoe?? aoaeaoeth — 50%. Aeey aecia/aiiy
aonoei oa ?iciiae?eo aeeneieaoe?e ? aeaoaeo?a iaeoaaiiy a
neaaeieaaiaaiiio oa??, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeiae e?i?e eiacaiiy
aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoaeia?ao?/i?e aiae?c iiaa?oi? i?ney naeaeoeaiiai
o?aaeaiiy c aeiiiiiaith iioe/iiai i?e?ineiia. Aenioo no?aeoe?a cnoao
aecia/aee ?c aeiiiiiaith ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiiai i?e?ineiia. Aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?i?e eiacaiiy canoiniaoaaee oaeiae ?aioaai?anueeo
oiiia?ao?th ca Eaiaii. Aeey aecia/aiiy oaenoo?e iie?e?enoae?/ieo oa??a
aeei?enoiaoaaee ?aioaai?anuee? aeeo?aeoiiao?e/iee oa oioiiaoiaee.
Aoaeiao iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a i?ney a?aeiaeo aeine?aeaeoaaee ca
iaoiaeaie iioe/ii? i?e?ineii?? oa ?ano?iai? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??
(?aaeeie a?aeaeoeo ? aoi?eiieo aeaeo?ii?a) aac iiia?aaeiuei? ia?iaee
iiaa?oi?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iayaiino? caa?oaeiaiue ia iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo
ieanoei oa eiiiiceoe?e cae?enithaaeiny ca iaoiaeaie
i?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co oa Iaea — niaeo?ineii??.

I?ia?e oa eiai nieaae c aieueo?aiii (aei 12 ao. %) oa aaoi??i (aei 6
ao. %) aoei iaea?aeaii aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaei aeoiieaiiyi ? i?ieaoaia o
eeno oiaueiith 100 iei. Nieaae aeaaacoaaee a?aeiaeii i?e oaiia?aoo??
2300 — 2600 E o aaeooi? ia a??oa 0,002 Ia i?ioyaii 0,5 — 1 aiaeeie. Aeey
aei??o aioo??oiueiai oa?oy oa aeeiai?/ieo iiaeoe?a ii?iaeueii?
i?oaeiino? aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaee ciooaieo oa a?eueieo eieeaaiue
eiinieueia cae??ieaiiai c?acea. Aei??e aeeiioaaee a aaeooi? ia a??oa
0,01 Ia. Iioeaea aecia/aiiy aaee/eie aioo??oiueiai oa?oy ia ia?aaeuoaaea
5*10-4, iiaeoe?a i?oaeiino? — 0,1 AIa, oaiia?aoo?e — 1 E. Aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iioe/io oa ?ano?iao
aeaeo?iiio i?e?ineii?th. ?iciiae?e aieueo?aio oa aaoi?th a c?aceao
ia?aa??yee ca iaoiaeii i?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co. Ia??iaee
e?enoae?/ii? ??aoee nieaa?a oa ?o oaciaee neeaae aecia/aee ca
?aioaai?anueeei aeeo?aeoiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii. Aonoeio c?ace?a aei??thaaee
ca ?aioaai?anueeei iaoiaeii oa ca iaoiaeii a?ae?inoaoe/iiai caaaeoaaiiy
c a?aeiiniith iioeaeith ia a?eueoa 1 %.

Oaeaee?noue iiia?aaeiueiai aaciaiai o?aaeaiiy e?aii??aeo i?aeeeaaeie
i?iii?oe?eia eiioeaio?aoe?? oei?enoiai aiaeith ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
e?enoaeia?ao?/ii? i???ioaoe?? i?aeeeaaeie. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
i?ioean o?aaeaiiy eaea a iaeano? aeeooc?eiiai eiio?ieth, ui ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o ?c iaeith aonoeiith no?oeoo?ieo
aeaoaeo?a. Oaeaee?noue ?inoo ai?oaen?eieo oa??a oaeiae ia caeaaeeoue
a?ae e?enoaeia?ao?/ii? i???ioaoe?? i?aeeeaaeie. Aiia ? i?iii?oe?eiith
eiioeaio?aoe?? e?aii??ai?uoth/i? ?a/iaeie (o?eoei?neeai, aeeoei?neeai) ?
ia caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e inaaeaeaiiy. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
i?ioean c?inoaiiy ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o ?aea a iaeano? aeeooc?eiiai
eiio?ieth, ui ni?ey? iaea?aeaiith iaeii??aeieo ca oiaueiith oa??a c
aenieith no?oeoo?iith aeineiiae?noth. O iaoiio aeiaaeeo
iaiaeii??aei?noue oiaueie ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o ciaoiaeeeanue o iaaeao 2 —
5 %, aonoeia aeeneieaoe?e a oa?? — 100 — 500 ni-2, aonoeia aeaoaeo?a
iaeoaaiiy — ia a?eueo 50 ni-2 aeey 90 % c?ace?a. ?acii c oei, iaie aoei
aeyaeaii, ui o no/anieo ?aaeoi?ao aa?oeeaeueiiai oeio ia? i?noea
neiao?e/ia a?aeiinii aa?oeeaeueiiai ae?aiao?o i?aeeeaaeee ci?ia oiaueie
oa?o, ui iaoiiaeaia, ca iaoith aeoieith, iayai?noth a?aae??ioo
oaiia?aoo?e, iia’ycaiiai ?c iniaeeainoyie eiino?oeoe??
i?aeeeaaeeio?eia/a, yeee ia? oo ae neiao??th.

Ieoiiee aeaeo?e/iee ii?? ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o iae?i?eii ciaioo?oueny ?c
c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? oino?io o aacia?e oac?. I?e ??aieo
eiioeaio?aoe?yo oino?io ieoiiee ii?? oa?o, ui inaaeaeo?oueny c
o?eoei?neeaio, aeyaey?oueny, ye i?aaeei, aeua, i?ae aeey oa?o, ui
inaaeaeo?oueny c aeeoei?neeaio. O inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo, e??i oiai,
ieoiiee aeaeo?e/iee ii?? oa?o i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao aeyaey?oueny
a?eueo iecueeei, yeui i?ioean i?iaiaeeoueny i?e cieaeaiiio oeneo. O oie
aea /an iaie ia niinoa??aaeiny caeiiii??iiai ca’yceo aaee/eie ieoiiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o oa?o c oaiia?aoo?ith i?ioeano. Iaaaaeai? aeai?
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?ioean eaaoaaiiy oa?o eaea a iaeano? ci?oaiiai
aeeooc?eii-e?iaoe/iiai eiio?ieth, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaii?
iaiaeii??aeiino? ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o oa?o.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? «Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeii?oeiai-aeaoaeoii?
aca?iiae?? oa o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a»
iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a oa aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeayeeo caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae ci?ie oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a aeey ?yaeo aeiaaee?a, ui iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye iiaeaeuei? neooaoe??, ui iaea?eueo /anoi cono??/athoueny
o neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoaeao.

1. Aia?a?? E aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a iathoue aacia?a?aiee ii?iaeueiee
?iciiae?e a?aeiinii aeayeiai na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy En?, aaee/eia yeiai
i?eeiaeany ca ioeueiaee ??aaiue, a?aeiia?aeiee ?aeaaeueiiio ?ic/eio.
Oeae ?iciiae?e iieno?oueny ae?acii:
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 , (1)

aea (E)dE — e?euee?noue iiceoe?e, a yeeo aoiie aeii?oee iathoue aia?a?th
a?ae E aei E + dE, — caaaeueia e?euee?noue iiceoe?e, — aeenia?n?y
?iciiae?eo.

?iciiae?e aoii?a aeii?oee ca iiceoe?yie ??ciiai oeio iiaea aooe
iienaiee ae?acii:
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 .
(2)

Oeae aeiaaeie a?aeiia?aea?, iai?eeeaae, iayaiino? oaioe/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e e?enoae?/ii? ??aoee a?ey aeaoaeo?a oa aeayeeo aeii?oie. C
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeoiaeeoue, ui iaa?oue i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao
oa iaeeo cia/aiiyo aeenia?n?? ?iciiae?e aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ca iiceoe?yie
??ciiai oeio a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aeiaaeeiaiai. A?aeoeeaiiy oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio a?ae ?aeaaeueiino? c?inoathoue i?e cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e,
ca?eueoaii? aeenia?n?? ?, ui oyaey?oueny iao?ea?aeueiei, i?e cieaeaii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oee a ?ic/ei?. Inoaii? coiiaeaia oei, ui i?e
i?aeaeuaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? e?euee?noue aoii?a aeii?oee, ye? caeiathoue
iiceoe?? c iecueeith aia?a??th, iaaeeaea?oueny aei e?eueeino?
a?aeiia?aeieo iiceoe?e. O ca’yceo c oeei an? aoiie aeii?oee ia iiaeooue
?icoaooaaoenue a oaeeo iiceoe?yo ? ?oi?e ?iciiae?e noa? a?eueo aeecueeei
aei oaioe/iiai (aio?ii?y aeii?oee c?inoa?).

2. Oeae aeiaaeie a?aeiia?aea? iayaiino? aeaio oei?a iiceoe?e, o yeeo
aoiie aeii?oee iathoue ??ci? aia?a??. Oea iiaea aooe iane?aeeii
e?enoaeia?ao?/ii? ??cieoe? iiceoe?e (iai?eeeaae ieoaaae?e/i? oa
oao?aaae?e/i? i?aeaocey, aocee oa i?aeaocey ??aoee), aai iayaiino?
neeueii? aca?iiae?? aoii?a eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo c aoiiaie aeii?oee ?ioiai
ni?oo aai aeaoaeoaie aeey aeiaaeeo, eiee ia a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ae?eooy
iie?a aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui ooai?ththoue oe? aeaoaeoe. O inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo
aoiie eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo iiaeooue caeiaoe iiceoe?? aeaio oei?a, iaeei c
yeeo a?aeiia?aea? ?cieueiaaiiio aoiio, a ae?oaee — aoiio, ?icoaoiaaiiio
a?ey aoiia aeii?oee ?ioiai oeio aai a?ey aeaoaeoo. I?eeiath/e aia?a?th
?cieueiaaiiai aoiia aeii?oee u1 = 0, iaea?aeo?ii:
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, (3)

aea = exp (-/kT), e = exp (u2/kT), 1 oa 2 -. e?eueeino? iiceoe?e
ia?oiai oa ae?oaiai oeio, u2 — aia?a?y aoiia eaaoth/iai aeaiaioa,
?icoaoiaaiiai a?ey aeaoaeoo. ?ica’ycoth/e (3), ia?ii:
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,
(4)

aea f — eiao?oe??io aeoeaiino?, ? = 2 + 1e — n — ne. Cia/i? a?aeoeeaiiy
a?ae ?aeaaeueiino? niinoa??aathoueny i?e iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo
eaaoth/iai aeaiaioa. Aoee oaeiae aeeiiai? ?ic?aooiee ieoiii?
oaiei?iiino?, ye? iieacaee, ui ia oaiia?aoo?i?e caeaaeiino? ieoiii?
oaiei?iiino? aeii?oeiai? i?aenenoaie ? iaeneioi, coiiaeaiee i?io?eaiiyi
o a?aeiia?aeiiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? ia?a?iciiae?eo aoii?a aeii?oee
i?ae iiceoe?yie ??ciiai oeio. Iiaeaethaaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio, o yeiio aoiie eaaoth/i? aeii?oee
?iciiae?eai? i?ae iiceoe?yie aeaio oei?a iieacaei, ui a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae
?aeaaeueiino? c?inoathoue ?c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e. Oea iia’ycaii c aeai?ii
iniiaiiai noaio. Iai?eeeaae aeey aoii?a aeii?oee i?iieeiaiiy oaeei
noaiii ? ieoaaae?e/i? i?aeaocey, aea c?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iiaea
aeeeeeaoe ia?ao?ae /anoee aoii?a aei oao?aaae?e/ieo i?aeaoceue.

3. Nenoaia, o ye?e aoiie eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo aca?iiae?thoue ia o?eueee
c aeii?oeith ?ioiai ni?oo aai no?oeoo?ieie aeaoaeoaie, aea oaeiae ?
iaeei c iaeiei. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?noioi? a?aeoeeaiiy eiao?oe??ioo
aeoeaiino? a?ae iaeeieoe? niinoa??aathoueny ia o?eueee a iaeano? aenieeo
eiioeaio?aoe?e eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo, ui coiiaeaia aca?iiae??th eiai
aoii?a iaeei c iaeiei, aea oaeiae ? a iaeano? eiai iecueeeo
eiioeaio?aoe?e. Inoaii? iia’ycaii c oei, ui i?e iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo
an? aoiie eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo iiaeooue aooe iia’ycai? a aeii?oeia? aai
aeii?oeiai-aeaoaeoi? eiiieaene c aoiiaie ?ioi? aeii?oee aai no?oeoo?ieie
aeaoaeoaie. I?e i?aeaeuaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo /enei
eiai aoii?a a ?ic/ei? aeyaey?oueny a?eueoa e?eueeino? iiceoe?e aeey
ooai?aiiy oaeeo eiiieaen?a. Oiio c?inoa? /anoea aoii?a eaaoth/iai
aeaiaioo ia ca’ycaieo o eiiieaene, ui aaaea aei ciaioaiiy a?aeoeeaiiy
a?ae ?aeaaeueiino? oa iaaeeaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa aeoeaiino? eaaoth/iai
aeaiaioo aei iaeeieoe?. I?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao iiaea ?nioaaoe
neooaoe?y, eiee iaeano? a?aeoeeaiue a?ae ?aeaaeueiino?, iia’ycai? c?
aca?iiae??th aoii?a eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo iaeei c iaeiei oa ?oiuei?
aca?iiae?? c aoiiaie ?ioeo aeii?oie aai no?oeoo?ieie aeaoaeoaie
ia?ae?eaathoueny ? oaa?aeee ?ic/ei aeyaey?oueny ia?aeaaeueiei a onueiio
ae?aiacii? eiioeaio?aoe?e eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo. ?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e
eiao?oe??io aeoeaiino? iaaeeaea?oueny aei iaeeieoe?, ui iia’ycaia c
i?aaiaiiyi aoii?a eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo aei a?eueo ??aiii??iiai
?iciiae?eo.

4. Iiaeaeueia nenoaia, o ye?e ii?yae c iniiaiith eaaoth/ith aeii?oeith
i?noeoueny i’youe oei?a oiiiaeo aeii?oie (aeaoaeo?a). O ia?o?e
eii?aeeiaoe?ei?e noa?? aeaoaeoo iioaioe?eia aia?a?y aoiia iniiaii?
aeii?oee ciaioo?oueny ia aaee/eio, ui aeey eiaeiiai c aeaoaeo?a
iae?aeanue aaia?aoi?ii aeiaaeeiaeo /enae c ?ioa?aaeo 0,2 — 1,2 aA. O
?ioeo eii?aeeiaoe?eieo noa?ao aia?a?y aeii?oeiaiai aoiia i?eeiaeany
oaeith ae, ye ? o ?cieueiaaiiai aoiia. Eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaoaeo?a oaeiae
iae?aeeny aaia?aoi?ii aeiaaeeiaeo /enae c ?ioa?aaeo 1010 — 1015 ni-3.
Eiioeaio?aoe?y iiceoe?e aeey aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a aoea i?eeiyoa ??aiith
5*1022 ni-3. Aia?a?y aca?iiae?? i?ae aeaiia aoiiaie eaaoth/i? aeii?oee a
ia?o?e eii?aeeiaoe?ei?e noa?? aoea i?eeiyoa ??aiith 0,5 aA. Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 1, aea aeaeii, ui ?nio? ?ioa?aae
eiioeaio?aoe?e, o yeiio oaa?aeee ?ic/ei ? iaeaea ?aeaaeueiei, a i?e
iaeeo ? aaeeeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo aeii?oee a?i noa? ia?aeaaeueiei. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa ia?aiao??a oiiiaeo aeaoaeo?a oeae
?ioa?aae iiaea aooe oe?ieei, aocueeei aai a?i acaaae? iiaea aooe
a?aenooi?e.

Aeey ioe?iee e?ai? iaae? ?ioa?aaeo ?aeaaeueiino? iiaeia nei?enooaaoeny
oaeeie i?eiouaiiyie: 1 — ~ eae; 2 — aeey on?o ni, e??i n1, ui
a?aeiia?aea? ?cieueiaaiei aoiiai eaaoth/i? aeii?oee, ni/n << 1. Oiae? ia?ii: picscalex1000100090000034a0100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e003e00b1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbaffffffa00b00009a0300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000b00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc01be09050000001302fc01960b17000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000 320a80024000010000006e00c00009000000320a6601500a010000007500c0000a000000 320a8c03de09020000006b54c000ec0017000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000cc 0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0102000400 0000f001010009000000320ae0027004010000006900510010000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010200 0a000000320a80026b01020000003e3ed300d30009000000320a80023305010000002d00 d30009000000320a80028603010000006800e60009000000320a80026006010000006800 e60017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f00101000c000000320a8002 5e070300000065787000ac00c000c0000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000 10000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc04000000 2d01010004000000f0010200030000000000000000000000000000000000. (5) Ca oiiae ns-s << n aeey i?aai? iaae? ?ioa?aaeo ?aeaaeueiino? iaea?aeo?ii: picscalex100010009000003960100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e003a00d1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbaffffff600d00009a0300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000b00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc018203050000001302fc01a10417000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000 320a80024000010000006e00c00009000000320a80029b07010000007500c0000a000000 320a80022a0b020000006b54c000ec0017000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000cc 0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0102000400 0000f001010009000000320ae0026b080100000073006e0009000000320ae00296090100 000073006e0010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01010004000000f00102000a000000320a80026701020000003c3cd300 d30010000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00020400 00002d01020004000000f001010009000000320ae002dc08010000002d009e0010000000 fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010100 04000000f001020009000000320a6601ac03010000006800e60009000000320a8c039303 010000006100ec0017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d65 73204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f00101000d00 0000320a8002e1040400000065787028ac00c000c000800009000000320a80026a0a0100 00002f00660009000000320a8002d80c01000000290080000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000000000000000000000ff ffff. (6) ?ioa?aae, o yeiio oaa?aeee ?ic/ei ? iaeaea ?aeaaeueiei, ?nio?, yeui oiiae (5) oa (6) aeeiiothoueny aiaeii/an. Oea iiaeeeai, yeui oaiia?aoo?a ia?aaeuo? aeayea e?eoe/ia cia/aiiy, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae aia?a?e aca?iiae?? oa eiioeaio?aoe?e aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ? aeaoaeo?a. A?aoiaoth/e ??cea c?inoaiiy aeniiiaioe, iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa aeiaaeee (?en. 2). sseui ui >> us-s — kTln, oiae? e?eoe/io oaiia?aoo?o iiaeia ciaeoe c
ae?aco:
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. (7)

Oeae aeiaaeie a?aeiia?aea? ia?aoeio e?i?e 1 ? 2 ia ?en. 2, oiaoi
neooaoe??, eiee iaeanoue ?aeaaeueiino? iaiaaeaia ye c aieo aenieeo
eiioeaio?aoe?e eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo, oae ? c aieo eiai iecueeeo
eiioeaio?aoe?e. O i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo, eiee ui << us-s - kTln, e?eoe/ia oaiia?aoo?a aecia/a?oueny ae?acii picscalex1000100090000039d0100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c024004c00a1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbaffffff800a0000fa0300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc01da02050000001302fc017b0a17000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000 320a80024000010000005400ec0009000000320a66017305010000007500c00009000000 320a8c03fa02010000006b00c00017000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000 f001010009000000320ac60143060100000073006e0009000000320ac6016e0701000000 73006e0009000000320aec037b07010000006900510010000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00102000900 0000320a80028c01010000003d00d30010000000fb02e0fe000000000000900100000002 0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320ac601 b406010000002d009e0017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc000200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010004000000f0010200 0c000000320a8c03fa03030000006c6e28006c00c000800009000000320a8c0343080100 00002f00660009000000320a8c03eb09010000002900800010000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f0010100 0a000000320a8c03a505020000006168ec00e60009000000320a8c030309010000006800 e6000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000 bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00102000300 00000000000000ffffff00000000. (8) Oeae aeiaaeie a?aeiia?aea? ia?aoeio e?i?e 1 ? 3 ia ?en. 2, oiaoi neooaoe?? eiee iaeanoue ?aeaaeueiino? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio iaiaaeaia eeoa c aieo aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?e eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo, a iaaea ?aeaaeueiino? a iaeano? iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?aaia aei ioey. Oaeei /eiii, iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui o ?aaeueieo ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/eiao ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oee iiaea aeeeeeaoe a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ?aeaaeueiino? aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? iniiaii? aeii?oee c oiiiaeie aeii?oeaie oa aeaoaeoaie. I?e iaaieo oiiaao ?ioa?aae eiioeaio?aoe?e, o yeiio oaa?aeee ?ic/ei ? aeecueeei aei ?aeaaeueiiai, iiaea aooe a?aenooi?e, oiaoi i?e aoaeue-yeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo aeii?oee a?i aoaea neeueii a?aeoeeyoeny a?ae ?aeaaeueiiai noaio. Oeae aeniiaie iieaco?, ui iaiao?aeiith oiiaith io?eiaiiy caaeaieo o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a oa iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e ? a?aeiia?aei?noue neeaaeo oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio iaeano? ?aeaaeueiino? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. ?icaeyiooo aeua iiaeaeue oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio ie aeei?enoaee aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino? aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a o neaaeieaaiaaieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao. Aeey oeo aeii?oie, ye? ooai?ththoue o caai?iiai?e cii? e?aii?th aeeaie? aeiii?i? ??ai? c aia?a??th Ed, iaoooth/e aca?iiae??th aeii?oeiaeo ?ii?a i?ae niaith ? aeaoi?iaoe?eiith aca?iiae??th, a oaeiae eoeii?anueeith aca?iiae??th i?ae ?iiaie oa aeaeo?iiaie, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui ? aeaa oeie noai?a - a?euei? ?iie oa ?iie, ca'ycai? ?c aeaeo?iiaie (iaeo?aeuei? aoiie). O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeey eiao?oe??ioa aeoeaiino? aeii?oee io?eiaiee ae?ac picscalex1000100090000038d0100000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e005a00f1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb7ffffff600f0000970500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000b00109000000fa02000008000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 0304a2090500000013020304390f09000000fa0200001000000000000000220004000000 2d010100050000001402fc017502050000001302fc01590f17000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd0400 00002d01020009000000320a80024000010000006600800009000000320a870402050100 00004e00130109000000320a6003c209010000004500ec0009000000320a60033e0d0100 00004500ec000a000000320a9105a30b020000006b54c000ec0017000000fb02e0fe0000 000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd 040000002d01030004000000f001020009000000320ae704430601000000630081000900 0000320ac003db0a010000004600940009000000320ac003570e01000000640090001000 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 020004000000f001030009000000320a80023b01010000003d00d30009000000320a8704 c803010000002b00d30009000000320a6003050c010000002d00d30009000000320a6901 8208010000006800e60009000000320a87049502010000006800e60017000000fb0280fe 0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200 ccdd040000002d01030004000000f00102000c000000320a870438070300000065787000 ac00c000c0000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0210000700 00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f001 030003000000000000000000000000ffffff00ffffff, (9) aea - /enei aoce?a ??aoee a iaeeieoe? ia'?io, Nc - aoaeoeaia aonoeia noai?a o cii? i?ia?aeiino?, EF - ??aaiue Oa?i? aeaniiai iai?ai?ia?aeieea. ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ?aeaaeueiino? nooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae ?icoaooaaiiy aeiii?iiai ??aiy aeii?oee oa aeey i?aeoe/ii aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?aae?a oaiia?aoo? ? eiioeaio?aoe?e eiao?oe??io aeoeaiino? iiaea nooo?ai a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae iaeeieoe? eeoa o aeii?oie c aenieeie aia?a?yie ?ii?caoe?? aeiii?iiai ??aiy. Iaie aoei ?icaeyiooi aieea aca?iiae?? "aeii?oea i?iieeiaiiy - aeii?oea i?iieeiaiiy" oa "aeii?oea i?iieeiaiiy - aeii?oea cai?uaiiy" ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?th, aieea aca?iiae?? ?ii?ciaaieo aeii?oie, a oaeiae aca?iiae?e aa?iai?e - aa?iai?e oa aa?iai?e - eenaiue ia oa?iiaeeiai?/i? aeanoeaino? neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a e?aii?th. Iiaeaethaaiiy o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?th c aeei?enoaiiyi iayaieo o e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?aeao oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo uiaei aia?a?e aoiia i?iieeiaiiy a ??cieo eii?aeeiaoe?eieo noa?ao aeii?oee i?iieeiaiiy aai cai?uaiiy ? nooiaiyo ?o ?aeaenaoe?? aeicaiey? caaeia?eueii iienaoe aieea aca?iiae?? aeii?oie ia oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue aioo??oiueiai oa?oy oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?ia?e - eenaiue, eiao?oe??ioe oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? aeoeaiino? oa aeeooc?? aeii?oie i?iieeiaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy aeanoeainoae oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a Si ? Si oa ?o ii??aiyiiy c iayaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie
aeaieie aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aia?a?y aca?iiae?? ia?e
aa?iai?e-aa?iai?e o e?aii?? ia ia?aaeuo? 0,05 aA. I?e e?iiaoi?e oa
a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao oaea aca?iiae?y i?aeoe/ii ia aoaea aieeaaoe
ia ??aiiaaaei? aeanoeaino? e?enoae?a c eiioeaio?aoe??th aa?iai?th iaio
1*1020 ni-3. Ioe?iea aia?a?? ca’yceo ia?e Ge-O o e?aii?? aea? cia/aiiy
ca 0,15 — 0,20 yA. Iae? cia/aiiy aia?a?e ca’yceo aeicaieythoue
aaaaeaoe, ui aieea aa?iai?th ia oa?iiaeeiai?/i? aeanoeaino? Si oa
Si oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a a iaeano? oaiia?aoo?, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue
iniiaiei oaoiieia?/iei i?ioeanai i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee, ia ? ?noioiei ipe
eiioeaio?aoe?yo aa?iai?th iaio ca 1020 ni-3, a ci?ie aeanoeainoae, ui
niinoa??aaeeny o ie?aieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?iaioao, coiiaeai?
e?iaoe/ieie /eiieeaie aai ?ioeie i?e/eiaie.

Oaiia?aoo?a aeenioe?aoe?? aeii?oeiaeo aoiinoa? ia aeeneieaoe?yo oa
?ioeo no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeoao ? iaei??th c i?aeoe/ii aaaeeeaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee e?enoaeo. Aiia aecia/a? iaeanoue, a ye?e iiaeooue
niinoa??aaoeny ??ce? ci?ie aeanoeainoae, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae ?ooeeaino?
aeaoaeo?a aai eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oee, ui aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo
aoiinoa?e. Eeane/iee ae?ac aeey oaiia?aoo?e aeenioe?aoe?? aeii?oeiai?
aoiinoa?e io?eiaiee ca i?eiouaiiyi, ui aoiie, ye? aoiaeyoue aei ??
neeaaeo, iathoue iaeiaeiao aia?a?th, a e?euee?noue aoii?a aeii?oee
cia/ii ia?aaeuo? /enei on?o iiaeeeaeo iiceoe?e aeey ieo a aoiinoa??. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo oaiia?aoo?a aeenioe?aoe?? caeaaeeoue o?eueee a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oee oa aia?a?? ?? ca’yceo c aeaoaeoii. O ?aaeueieo
neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoaeao, ye na?ae/aoue a?aeii? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeai?, inoaii? i?eiouaiiy iiaea ia aeeiioaaoeny. Aeey ioe?iee
oaiia?aoo?e aeenioe?aoe?? aoiinoa?e o neaaeieaaiaaiiio e?enoae? aoei
i?eeiyoi o ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii?, ui aoaeoeaia aca?iiae?y aeii?oee c
aeaoaeoii niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa o ia?o?e eii?aeeiaoe?ei?e noa??
aeaoaeoo, a aia?a?y aca?iiae?? aei??aith? iaeneiaeueii? aia?a?? eiai
ca’yceo c aeii?oeiaei aoiiii. Ciaeaeaii ?iciiae?e aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ca
iiceoe?yie aeaio oei?a, iaei? c yeeo ?icoaoiaai? iiaeeco aeaoaeoo, a
?io? a?aeaeaeai? a?ae iueiai. Iioaioe?ei? aia?a?? aoii?a a oeeo
iiceoe?yo iiaeia i?eeiyoe ??aieie, a?aeiia?aeii, -Eca oa 0. Aeey
aiae?oe/ii? ioe?iee oaiia?aoo?e aeenioe?aoe?? a iaeano? n d iaiao?aeii
aeiiiaeoeny aaaaeaoe aoiinoa?o iane/aiith, yeui e?euee?noue n2 aoii?a
aeii?oee, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a i?e, d > n2 d ( < 1), ai ??ai?noue n2 = d aeinyaa?oueny eeoa i?e 0 E. Oey oiiaa aeeiio?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao picscalex100010009000003c40100000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c022006200e1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffc0ffffffe00d0000e00500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000d00109000000fa02000008000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 ea039108050000001302ea03b00d09000000fa0200001000000000000000220004000000 2d010100050000001402fc010e06050000001302fc01d00d17000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd0400 00002d01020009000000320a80023400010000005400eb0009000000320a8002ae020100 00005400eb0009000000320a6001cd08010000004500eb0009000000320a6e042e060100 00006b00c00009000000320a7605b108010000006e00c00017000000fb02c0fe00000000 00009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd0400 00002d01030004000000f00102000a000000320ac001d70902000000e7e27e0096000900 0000320ad605c00c010000006400a00010000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002 0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001030009000000320a8002 790101000000a300d30009000000320a8002c804010000003d00d30009000000320a7605 c109010000002d00d30017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc000200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01030004000000f0010200 09000000320ad401a203010000002a00a00017000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000 00cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d010200 04000000f00103000a000000320a6e042a07020000006c6e6b00c00010000000fb0280fe 0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01030004000000 f00102000a000000320a58033b0a020000006168f100e8000a000000320a7605df0a0200 00006168f100e8000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000 070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000 f0010300030000000000000000000000000000ffffff. (10) C (10) aeoiaeeoue, ui oaiia?aoo?a aeenioe?aoe?? nooo?ai ciaioo?oueny i?e iaaeeaeaii? /enea i?noeue aeey aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a a aoiinoa?? aei caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a. Oi?ioaaiiy iane/aii? aoiinoa?e iiaeeeaa, yeui /enei aeinooiieo aeey aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a i?noeue a aoiinoa?? ia ia?aaeuo? caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aoii?a aeii?oee. sseui oey oiiaa ia aeeiio?oueny, iai?eeeaae o neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoaeao, ui aeaoi?ioaaeeny, aoiinoa?a caeeoa?oueny iaiane/aiith, iaeiae, e?euee?noue aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a, ye? ia ciaoiaeyoueny a i?e, i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao aoaea iaeith. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aoiinoa?a ia aoaea nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia aeanoeaino? aeaoaeo?a, aea aoaea aecia/aoe oa?iiaeeiai?/i? aeanoeaino? oa ?ooeea?noue aoii?a aeii?oee. Aeey n < d i?e nd = n ( < 1) "oaiia?aoo?a aeenioe?aoe??" ("oaiia?aoo?a ae?iaeaeaiiy"), ieae/a yei? e?euee?noue aoii?a aeii?oee, ui ca'ycai? a aoiinoa?? aeaoaeoo, ia?aaeuo? aaee/eio n aoaea aei??aithaaoe picscalex100010009000003cc0100000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c024006600c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbeffffff200c0000fe0500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00109000000fa02000008000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 f703f005050000001302f703000c09000000fa0200001000000000000000220004000000 2d010100050000001402030253030500000013020302200c17000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd0400 00002d01020009000000320a80023600010000005400eb0009000000320a620196060100 0000c500eb0009000000320a74047303010000006b00c00017000000fb02c0fe00000000 00009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd0400 00002d01030004000000f001020009000000320ae00205010100000063008e000a000000 320ac201a10702000000e7e27e00960009000000320ae4050c0b010000006400a0001000 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 020004000000f001030009000000320a80021d02010000003d00d30009000000320a8405 5c07010000002d00d30017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc000200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01030004000000f0010200 0a000000320a74047704020000006c6e6b00c00009000000320a8405fd05010000002800 800009000000320a84058e09010000002900800010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001 000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f00103000a000000 320a64031308020000006168f100e80009000000320a84058208010000006100f1000900 0000320a8405160a010000006800e80017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc 0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0103000400 0000f001020009000000320a84056806010000003100c0000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f001030003000000000000000000000000000000 0000, (11) oiaoi aeey caaeaiiai aiia caeaaeeoue a?ae /anoee iiceoe?e, ?icoaoiaaieo iiaeeco aeaoaeo?a, oiaoi a?ae e?eueeino? aeaoaeo?a. Oey oaiia?aoo?a oaeiae nooo?ai ciaioo?oueny i?e iaaeeaeaii? /enea i?noeue aeey aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a a aoiinoa?? aei caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai aeiaaeeo iiaeooue niinoa??aaoenue oaeiae cia/i? a?aeoeeaiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio a?ae ?aeaaeueiino? aiane?aeie ia?aoiaeo aoii?a eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo aei aeii?oeiaeo aoiinoa? ia aeaoaeoao. Oaeei /eiii, iaea?aeai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui oaiia?aoo?e aeenioe?aoe?? aeii?oeiaeo aoiinoa? ia aeaoaeoao nooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy /enea aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ? /enea i?noeue aeey ieo iiaeeco aeaoaeo?a. Oea iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e iaea?aeaiiy oa oa?i?/ieo ia?iaie neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a ? oiieeo oa??a iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe oaeiae iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?, ieae/a a?ae yeeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo aai an? eiai aoiie ca'ycai? c aoiiaie oiiiai? /e aeiaeaoeiai? eaaoth/i? aeii?oee (oi/eiaeie aeaoaeoaie), aai an? oi/eia? aeaoaeoe (aoiie oiiiai? /e aeiaeaoeiai? eaaoth/i? aeii?oee) ca'ycai? a eiiieaene c aoiiaie iniiaiiai eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo. Aeeeaaeaiee aeua iaoiae ?ic?aooieo ?iciiae?eo aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a ca iiceoe?yie ??ciiai oeio a ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/eiao aoa aeei?enoaiee aeey ?ic?aooieo ?iciiae?eo aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a i?ae neaaeieaaiaaiei ? aaoa?oth/ei oa?aie oaa?aeio?eueieo no?oeoo? ? aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? aaoa?oaaiiy aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a c neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a oaeeo no?oeoo?. Iaeneiaeueia ?ii?noue aaoa?a i?eeiaeany ??ai?e /eneo aoce?a ??aoee a eiai aoaeoeaiiio ia'?i?. Aoaeoeaiee ia'?i aecia/aany aeey ieaia?iiai aaoa?a ye aeiaooie eiai ieiu? ia aoaeoeaio oiaueio, ??aio aeeaei? aeeooc?eiiai oa?opicscalex10001000900000307010000040017000000000005000000090200000000 0400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000 050000000b0200000000050000000c028002e0031200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000 10000000c0ffffffb0ffffffa0030000300200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479 70650000600009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d01000005000000 1402a10148000500000013028501790009000000fa020000200000000000000022000400 00002d0101000500000014028d0179000500000013023002c000040000002d0100000500 000014023002c80005000000130258002601050000001402580026010500000013025800 8c0317000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020009000000320ac0014401010000004400 130109000000320ac00100030100000074006c0017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001 000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01 030004000000f001020009000000320a2002750201000000e3005d000a00000026060f00 0a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020222 53797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f0010300030000000000000000000000 00000000 (Da - eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? aeii?oee o aaoa??) aai ia oiaueio aaoa?oth/iai oa?o, yeui inoaiiy aeyaeyeany iaioith ca aaee/eio picscalex100010009000003070100000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c028002e0031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb0ffffffa0030000300200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 a10148000500000013028501790009000000fa0200002000000000000000220004000000 2d0101000500000014028d0179000500000013023002c000040000002d01000005000000 14023002c800050000001302580026010500000014025800260105000000130258008c03 17000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020009000000320ac00144010100000044001301 09000000320ac00100030100000074006c0017000000fb0220ff00000000000090010000 00cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d010300 04000000f001020009000000320a2002750201000000e3005d000a00000026060f000a00 ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379 7374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f00103000300000000000000000000000000 0000. Ca i?eiouaiiyi, ui eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? aeii?oee o neaaeieaaiaaiiio oa?? cia/ii ia?aaeuo? eiao?oe??io ?? aeeooc?? o aaoa??, ?iciiae?e aeii?oee i?ae neaaeieaaiaaiei oa?ii oa aaoa?ii aoa i?eeiyoei aeecueeei aei ??aiiaaaeiiai, ui aecia/a?oueny ?iciiae?eii Oa?i?. ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy iieacothoue, ui ?nio? iioeiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a aaoa?oaaiiy: i?e a?aeoeeaii? a?ae ia? a noi?iio a?eueoeo aai iaioeo oaiia?aoo? aoaeoeai?noue aaoa?oaaiiy cieaeo?oueny, ui iia'ycaia a?aeiia?aeii c iaiaaaiiyi aeii?oee aei ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao ? iaeith aoaeoeaiith oiaueiith aaoa?a i?e iecueeeo. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? "?ieue oiiiaeo aeii?oie o oi?ioaaii? ia?ao?aeii? iaeano? neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e" ?icaeyioo? caeiiii??iino? aieeao oiiiaeo aeii?oie ia oi?ioaaiiy ia?ao?aeii? iaeano? neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e. Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie aeieeiaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?eii? oa no?oeoo?ii iaaeineiiaei? ia?ao?aeieo iaeanoae ? aeeooc?eiee ia?a?iciiae?e eaaoth/eo aeii?oie ? ?ica?aei?noue ia??iae?a e?enoae?/ieo ??aoie oa??a. ?iciianthaeaeaieie i?eeeaaeaie oaeeo eiiiiceoe?e ? iai?ai?ia?aeieeia? eiiiiceoe?? p-n, n+-n, p+-p oeio, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aeaioiaeaii? a?eueoino? oaa?aeio?eueieo i?eeaae?a, a oaeiae iaoaeaa? eiiiiceoe??, ye? iaea?aeothoue oi?ioaaiiyi ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo oeyoii ai?oaaiiy, oeaiaioaoe??, iaoae?caoe?? oa ?ioeo i?ioean?a oa?o c i?aeaeuaiith oaa?ae?noth, ciinino?ee?noth, ei?ic?eiith no?ee?noth aai ?ioeie aeanoeainoyie. Aiane?aeie aeeooc?eiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo aeii?oie a?ey iaae? iiae?eo oi?io?oueny ia?ao?aeia iaeanoue, ui iiaea aieeaaoe ia aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe?e oa iaea?aeoaaieo ia ?oi?e iniia? i?eeaae?a. Iniaeea?noth neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e ? iiaeeea?noue nooo?aiai aieeao oiiiaeo aeii?oie ia oi?ioaaiiy ia?ao?aeii? iaeano?. Aeaa iniiaieo aoaeoe iieyaathoue a iiaeeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy o neaaeieaaiaaiiio oa?? i?ioa?eo, a yeiio iniiaiith aeii?oeith aoaea oiiiaa aeii?oea, ui aeeooiaeo? c ia'?io noi?aeiiai neeueiieaaiaaiiai oa?o aai ?c iaae? iiae?eo oa??a, a oaeiae a iiaeeeaino? ?noioiiai aieeao oiiiaeo aeii?oie ia i?io?eue niioai?aiue e?enoae?/ii? ??aoee a ia?ao?aei?e iaeano?. Iaie aoee aenia?eiaioaeueii oa oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeai? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioa?e?a c ia?aaaaith oiiiai? aeii?oee o ia?ao?aei?e iaeano? e?aii??aeo ? aa?iai??aeo eiiiiceoe?e, ye? iaea?aeai? ca iaoiaeaie ai?oaen?eiiai inaaeaeaiiy oa oa?iieiii?an?eiiai c'?aeiaiiy. sseui eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? oiiiai? aeii?oee, ui i?noeoueny a neeueiieaaiaai?e i?aeeeaaeoe? Do, a?eueoee a?ae eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc?? eaaoth/i? aeii?oee De, oi ?nio? e?eoe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y oiiiai? aeii?oee picscalex100010009000003c20000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e00240031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff000300009c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000800017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01000009000000320ae001400001000000 4e00140117000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010004000000f00100000a000000320a 40027a010200000030f4a000cf0009000000320a34017001010000002a00a0000a000000 26060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc 0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000187b 48000000000000ffffff00000000 oaea, ui i?e picscalex100010009000003c10000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400340031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb7ffffff00030000f70200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000900017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01000009000000320a20024a0001000000 4e00140117000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010004000000f001000009000000320a 9d022a0201000000f400cf0009000000320a9d028c01010000003000a0000a0000002606 0f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102 022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f00101000300000000000000187b 48000000000000ffffff00000000 >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 iiaeeco iaae? iiae?eo ooai?eoueny iaeanoue,
o ye?e eiioeaio?aoe?y oiiiai? aeii?oee aeua a?ae noia?ii? eiioeaio?aoe??
eaaoth/eo aeii?oie i?aeeeaaeee oa ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o, oiaoi oiiiaa
aeii?oea o oe?e iaeano? ? iniiaiith. Aiae?c aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo
/eiiee?a ia ci?io e?eoe/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?e oiiiaeo aeii?oie /enaeueieie
iaoiaeaie aeicaieea iai aeyaeoe oae? iniiai? caeiiii??iino?:

— e?eoe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y oiiiai? aeii?oee ?inoa ?c c?inoaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/i? aeii?oee o neaaeieaaiaaiiio oa?? ca caeiiii:
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 (12)

aea A ? B — eiao?oe??ioe ii?yaeeo iaeeieoe?, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae
aeii?oie, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny, oa aeai?o oiia i?ioeano;

— e?eoe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y ?inoa ?c ciaioaiiyi a?aeiioaiiy Do/De, yea
aecia/a?oueny ia?aiao?aie aeeooc?? aeii?oie ? oaiia?aoo?ith; iaioith
i??ith aiia ca?eueoo?oueny oaeiae ?c c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/i?
aeii?oee o i?aeeeaaeoe?;

— e?eoe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y oiiiai? aeii?oee ia caeaaeeoue o oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? a?ae o?eaaeino? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy eiiiiceoe?? aai ??
aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? ia?iaee;

— iaeanoue, o ye?e oiiiaa aeii?oea i?aeeeaaeee ? iniiaiith,
?icoe?th?oueny oa ci?uo?oueny a?ae iaae? iiae?eo a aeeaeio ai?oaen?eiiai
oa?o ?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e oa o?eaaeino? i?ioeano (?en. 3).

O aeiaaeeo, eiee aeaea?aeii oiiiai? aeii?oee ? iiaa?oiy i?aeeeaaeee aeey
ai?oaen?eiiai inaaeaeaiiy aai iiaa?oiy iaei??? c ieanoei i?e
oa?iieiii?an?eiiio c’?aeiaii?, oaeiae ?nio? e?eoe/ia iiaa?oiaaa
eiioeaio?aoe?y oiiiai? aeii?oee, i?e ia?aaeuaii? yei? ooai?eoueny
i?ioa?ie, o yeiio oiiiaa aeii?oea aoaea iniiaiith. Iaeiae,
caeiiii??iino? ooai?aiiy i?ioa?eo a oeueiio aeiaaeeo iathoue ?yae
iniaeeainoae. Ii-ia?oa, iaeneiaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y aeii?oee o i?ioa?eo
i?e ca?eueoaii? o?eaaeino? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy aai aenieioaiia?aoo?i?e
ia?iaoe? eiiiiceoe?? aoaea ciaiooaaoeny, a ?? oiaueia — nii/aoeo ?inoe,
a i?ney oeueiai ciaiooaaoeny. Ii-ae?oaa, e?eoe/ia iiaa?oiaaa
eiioeaio?aoe?y ia? ae?aaeaio caeaaei?noue a?ae o?eaaeino? i?ioeano.
Ii-o?ao?, oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe??
aeyaey?oueny o oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?eueo neeueiith.

I?iaaaeaia iaie aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioa?e?a c i?ia?aei?noth ae??eiaiai oeio o n+-n oa n-n
e?aii??aeo ? p+-p aa?iai??aeo ai?oaen?eieo eiiiiceoe?yo iieacaei, ui
i?e inaaeaeaii? neaaeieaaiaaiiai oa?o e?aii?th ia neeueiieaaiaai?e
i?aeeeaaeoe? ca iaoiaeaie aiaeiaaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy o?eoei?neeaio oa
aeeoei?neeaio a?eueo ?iia??iei ? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioa?eo ca ?aooiie aeeooc??
oiiiaeo aeoeaioi??a c ia’?io i?aeeeaaeee, a i?e eiai inaaeaeaii? ia
neaaeieaaiaaieo i?aeeeaaeeao — ca ?aooiie aeeooc?? oiiiai? aeii?oee c
i?eiiaa?oiaaiai caa?oaeiaiiai oa?o. Ne?ae /aeaoe, ui ?iia??i?noue
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioa?eo ca inoaii?i iaoai?ciii aoaea i?aeaeuoaaoenue oaeiae
i?e iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo i?ioeanao oi?ioaaiiy neaaeieaaiaaiiai oa?o oa
i?e ciaioaii? oiaueie oa?o.

Aiane?aeie aeniei? eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith a i?aeeeaaeeao e?aii??aeo
eiiiiceoe?e, a?i iiaea ?noioii aieeaaoe ia iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ia??iae?a
e?enoae?/ieo ??aoie i?aeeeaaeee oa oa?o. A?aoiaoth/e eiai aenieee
eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? a e?aii?? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ai?oaen?eiiai
inaaeaeaiiy, iiaeia i/?eoaaoe, ui i?io?eue niioai?aiue ??aoee o
ia?ao?aei?e iaeano? aoaea cia/iith i??ith aecia/aoeny ?iciiae?eii
eenith. Iaie i?iaaaeaia iiaeaethaaiiy i?io?e?a ?iciiae?eo eenith oa
i?io?e?a niioai?aiue ??aoee o eiiiiceoe?yo Si/Si

oa
Si/Si. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui ci?ia ia’?io e?enoaeo i?e
aeiaeaii? eenith aei??aith? aeiaooeo e?eueeino? aoii?a eenith ia ?oi?e
aoiiiee ia’?i, ie io?eiaee aeey a?aeiinii? ci?ie ia??iaeo ??aoee i?e
aaaaeaii? eenith ni?aa?aeiioaiiy:

a/a=Ni (ri/rSi) 3/NSi=Ni , (13)

aea Ni, NSi — e?euee?noue aoii?a eenith oa e?aii?th a iaeeieoe? ia’?io,
a ri, rSi — ?oi? aoiii? ?aae?one. Io?eiai? cia/aiiy ia?aiao?o aeey
eenith o e?aii??, a oaeiae aeey aeii?oie i?iieeiaiiy o i?ia??
ia?aaoaathoue o aeia??e a?aeiia?aeiino? c iayaieie a e?oa?aoo??
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie.

Eiioeaio?aoe?y aa?iai?th a ai?oaen?eiiio oa?? iae?aeany oaeith, uia
ia??iaee e?enoae?/ieo ??aoie i?aeeeaaeee oa oa?o aoee ??aieie. Aeaeii,
ui iiaeeco iaae? iiae?eo aiane?aeie aeeooc?eiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo eenith
c’yaey?oueny iaeanoue ia iiiioiii?e ci?ie ia??iaeo. Aiane?aeie aeeooc??
i?ea?aie/ia iaeanoue ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o caaaa/o?oueny eeniai, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy a i?e ia??iaeo ??aoee. Iaaiaee, i?ea?aie/ia
iaeanoue i?aeeeaaeee ca?aeith?oueny eeniai ? ia??iae ??aoee a i?e
ciaioo?oueny. Oea iiaea nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? o ia?ao?aei?e iaeano? eiiiiceoe??. Iiaeia i/?eoaaoe,
ui i?io?eue niioai?aiue ??aoee, yeee oi?io?oueny i?e oeueiio, aeyaeoueny
ni?eyoeeaei aeey caoiieaiiy o i?ea?aie/i?e iaeano? aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a,
i?e/iio a iaeano? ?icoyao ??aoee aoaeooue cae?aoeny aoiie cai?uaiiy, ui
iathoue a?eueoee, i?ae o e?aii?th, aoiiiee ?aae?on, oa aeaiaioe
i?iieeiaiiy, a a iaeano? ?? noeneo — aoiie cai?uaiiy c iaeeie aoiiieie
?aae?onaie. Oaea i?eiouaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iayaieie o e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?aeao aeaieie i?i aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? aa?iai?th ia /an aeeooy
ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a ca?yaeo a neaaeieaaiaaieo oa?ao e?aii??aeo
eiiiiceoe?e.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? «Iniaeeaino? i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy oa
aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a oa neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a
aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e» iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae i?ioean?a iaea?aeaiiy oa o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a e?aii?th oa neaaeieaaiaaieo
oa??a e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e, iaea?aeaieo ca iaoiaeaie aiaeiaaiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy o?eoei?neeaio oa aeeoei?neeaio, no?eeino? neaaeieaaiaaieo
ai?oaen?eieo oa??a ? ieanoei e?aii?th aei aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo
oa ?ioeo ciai?oi?o ae?e, a oaeiae aieeao oiia iaea?aeaiiy oa oa?i?/ii?
ia?iaee ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia?
i?ia?th.

Inaaeaeaiiy neaaeieaaiaaieo aaoiai?oaen?eieo oa??a e?aii?th ia? ?yae
iniaeeainoae oa i?aae’yaey? aeiaeaoeia? aeiiae aei aeei?enoiaoaaieo
iaoa??ae?a oa iaeaaeiaiiy. I?e ?ioeo iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao ieoiiee
aeaeo?e/iee ii?? oa?o, yeee inaaeaeo?oueny a oiiiaeo (aac aaaaeaiiy
eaaoth/i? aeii?oee) i?ioeanao, caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio ?aaeoi?a oa oiaueie
oa?o. Cia/aiiy ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o oa??a, ui inaaeaeothoueny ia
i?aeeeaaeeao c ??cieie oeiii oa eiioeaio?aoe??th eaaoth/i? aeii?oee,
aeyaeythoueny ??cieie (?en. 4). O ie?aieo aeiaaeeao i?e aenieeo (a?eueoa
ca 5 eIi*ni aeey p-n eiiiiceoe?e) cia/aiiyo ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o
iaie niinoa??aaeiny c?inoaiiy ai?oaen?eieo oa??a c ??ciei oeiii
i?ia?aeiino? i?e inaaeaeai? ?o a iaeiiio i?ioean? ia ?icoaoiaaieo ii?o/
iaeia c iaeiith ieanoeiao EAN-0,01 ? EAeA-10. Inaaeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny
ia i?aeeeaaeeio?eia/?, ae?eoiio oianoei (10…15 iei) oa?ii iaeaaiaaiiai
e?aii?th, yeee o i?ioean? inaaeaeaiiy ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o ia?aoiaeea ia
cai?ioiee a?e i?aeeeaaeee, ui iiaeiii aoei i?eai?/oaaoe aeia?iaoaaiiy
aeii?oee ?c iueiai.

A?aei?ii?noue ieoiieo iii??a neaaeieaaiaaieo ai?oaen?eieo oa??a
niinoa??aa?oueny iaa?oue o oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee ia i?aeeeaaeeio?eia/?
anoaiiaethaaee ii iaei?e i?aeeeaaeoe? EAN-0,01 ? EAeA-10, ?icoaoiaoth/e
?o a iaeiiio ai?eciioaeueiiio ?yae?, ui aeeeth/aei aieea aeii?oie, ye?
aeia?iaoaaeenue ?c cai?ioiiai aieo i?aeeeaaeie. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui
i?aeaeuaiiy cia/aiiy oiiiaiai ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o ?c c?inoaiiyi
oiaueie oa?o, ui niinoa??aa?oueny, oa a?aei?ii?noue ieoiieo aeaeo?e/ieo
iii??a oa??a, ui inaaeaeothoueny ia i?aeeeaaeeao ??ciiai oeio iia’ycai?
c iniaeeainoyie i?ioeano aaoieaaoaaiiy. Ia iaoo aeoieo, ii?yae ?c
cae/aeieie iaoai?ciaie — aeeooc??th aeii?oee ?c neeueiieaaiaaiiai oa?o
oa ?? aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?c cai?ioiiai aieo i?aeeeaaeee, i?e inaaeaeaii?
neaaeieaaiaaiiai oa?o iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe oaeiae aeia?iaoaaiiy
aeii?oee c aieo oa?o, eio?ee inaaeaeo?oueny, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
caaaa/oaaiiy i?eiiaa?oiaai? iaeano? aaciai? oace.

Ua iaei??th iniaeea?noth i?ioeano aaoieaaoaaiiy i?e c?inoaii?
neaaeieaaiaaieo ai?oaen?eieo oa??a e?aii?th ? nenoaiaoe/ia ciaioaiiy
ieoiiiai iii?o oa?o a iai?yieo ?ooo aaciaiai iioieo a ?aaeoi?? (?en. 5).
Oea aeeeeeaia ia?aiinii aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a, ye? aeia?iaothoueny c
i?aeeeaaeie. Iaie aoei i?iaaaeaia c?noaaeaiiy aieeao a?aeiaeo o iioioe?
aeniei/enoiai aiaeith (oi/ea ?ine < 200 E)) ia ieoiiee aeaeo?e/iee ii?? neaaeieaaiaaieo ieanoei ACA e?aii?th oa ai?oaen?eieo oa??a, iaea?aeaieo ca iaoiaeii aiaeiaaiai a?aeiiaeaiiy o?eoei?neeaio. Oa?iiia?iaea aeeeeea? ??cea ciaioaiiy cia/aiiy ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o ia anueiio i?ioyc? ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o, ca aeiyoeii i?eiiaa?oiaai? iaeano? oiaueiith aeecueei 5 iei (?en. 6, 7). ?c ca?eueoaiiyi o?eaaeino? a?aeiaeo cia/aiiy ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o ai?oaen?eieo oa??a noaa?e?co?oueny ia ??ai? 20...30 Ii*ni, iacaeaaeii a?ae eiai aeo?aeii? aaee/eie. Niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae nooo?aa ciaioaiiy /ano aeeooy iainiiaieo iin??a ca?yaeo a?ae 15 - 20 ien aei < 1 ien. Iaie aoea aeine?aeaeaia e?iaoeea ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? ianeiiiainiaaieo aeiii??a i?e aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio a?aeiae? neaaeieaaiaaieo ieanoei oa ai?oaen?eieo oa??a e?aii?th. Eiioeaio?aoe?th ianeiiiainiaaieo aeiii??a ?ic?aoiaoaaee, aeei?enoiaoth/e aei??yi? cia/aiiy ieoiiiai iii?o oa a?aeii? c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae aeai? i?i ?ooeeaino? aeaeo?ii?a. E?iaoeea ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? ianeiiiainiaaieo aeiii??a (?en. 8) caaeia?eueii iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi = N* - N(t) - No = N*exp (- t/?), (14) aea N* - eiioeaio?aoe?y iane/aiiy; No - eiioeaio?aoe?y ianeiiiainiaaieo aeiii??a o neaaeieaaiaaiiio oa?? aei a?aeiaeo; N(t) - eiioeaio?aoe?y i?ney a?aeiaeo o?eaae?noth t, ? - /an ?aeaenaoe??. Ia?aiao?e ??aiyiiy (14) aeey ieanoei neeaee: N* = 1,5*1014 ni-3; ? = 2*104 c, a aeey ai?oaen?eieo oa??a - N* = 6*1014 ni-3; ? = 3*103 c. Iaea?aeai? aeai? ocaiaeaeothoueny c iayaieie o e?oa?aoo?? aeaieie i?i ooai?aiiy aeeaiei??aiaaeo aeiii?ieo oeaio??a aiane?aeie oi?ioaaiiy eiiieaen?a aeii?oie c aeanieie oi/eiaeie aeaoaeoaie i?ae /an aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny cia/aiiyie ia?aiao??a ??aiyiiy (14), a?eueo eaaeei ooai?aiiyi oeaio??a o ai?oaen?eieo oa?ao, ye? i?noyoue o aeo?aeiiio noai? aeeneieaoe??, eenaiue, ui aeeooiaeo? c i?aeeeaaeee i?ae /an a?aeiaeo, oa ?io? aeaoaeoe, a oaeiae iinooiiaei c?inoaiiyi cia/aiiy ieoiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iii?o i?ae /an aeo?eiee i?e e?iiaoii? oaiia?aoo?? i?ney a?aeiaeo. Inoaii? iiaea aooe iia'ycaia c ?iciaaeii eiiieaen?a, ui ooai?eeeny i?e a?aeiae?. Ia iiaa?oi? ai?oaen?eieo oa??a i?ney a?aeiaeo niinoa??aaeeny oa?aeoa?i? aeaoaeoe, ye?, ia iaoo aeoieo, ooai?eeeny caaaeyee aeia?iaoaaiith eenith. Iaie aoee aeine?aeaeai? aeaye? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy e?i?e eiacaiiy o neaaeieaaiaaieo aaoiai?oaen?eieo oa?ao e?aii?th. Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui a c?aceao c iaeith (iaio ca 100 ni-2) aonoeiith aeeneieaoe?e noia?ia aeiaaeeia e?i?e eiacaiiy nooo?ai i?aeaeuo?oueny. Oea iiaea aooe iia'ycaia ?c ciaioaiiyi aieeao aca?iiae?? aeeneieaoe?e ia eiacaiiy. ?nio? cai?ioia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae ?iia??i?noth ooai?aiiy e?i?e eiacaiiy oa ?iia??i?noth ooai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o (iaai?aee c?inoaiiy, aenei, ieeneaiiy iiaa?oi?, ?ico?aaeaiiy cai?ioii? noi?iie eiiiiceoe?e). Ia iaoo aeoieo, oea iiaea aooe iia'ycaia c oei, ui i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ii ??ciiio aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy aeaoaeo?a. ?iia??i?noue oi?ioaaiiy e?i?e eiacaiiy ?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e i?aeaeuo?oueny /a?ac ciaioaiiy iaae? oaeo/ino? e?aii?th. O oie aea /an, i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ni?ey? ia?aaaaeaiith i?ioeano a iaeanoue /enoi aeeooc?eiiai eiio?ieth, ui aaaea aei cieaeaiiy ?ie? iiaa?oiaaeo i?ioean?a o oi?ioaaii? ii?oieia?? oa no?oeoo?ii? aeineiiaeino? oa?o, oa, a?aeiia?aeii, aei cieaeaiiy ?iia??iino? ooai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo aeaoaeo?a. Iaie aoea anoaiiaeaia a?aenooi?noue iaeiicia/ii? a?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae iayai?noth iae?ineii?/ieo no?aeoe?a cnoao ia iiaa?oi? ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o oa e?i?e eiacaiiy, ui aeyaeythoueny ca iaoiaeaie iaoaeia?ao??. *anoi niinoa??aathoueny e?i?? eiacaiiy, aeey yeeo aenioa no?aeoey iaioa ca iaaeo /ooeeaino? ?ioa?oa?iiao?a E?iieea, ui neeaaea? aeecueei 0,03 iei. Cia/aiiy aeaiaioa?iiai cnoao i?e aeoiae? ia iiaa?oith iaei??? aeeneieaoe?? D = bn/n, aea n = a [111]. Aeeiiai? iaie ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui aeey e?i?? eiacaiiy, ooai?aii? iioeeeie e?aeiaeie aeeneieaoe?yie, cia/aiiy aeaiaioa?iiai cnoao aei??aith? ioeaa?, aeey e?i?? eiacaiiy, ooai?aii? iioeeeie ?aeioiaeie aeeneieaoe?yie, aiii aei??aith? picscalex100010009000003f10000000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02200200051200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb0ffffffc0040000d00100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000300009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 6601ed020500000013024a011e0309000000fa0200002000000000000000220004000000 2d01010005000000140252011e03050000001302d0016503040000002d01000005000000 1402d0016d030500000013025800cb030500000014025800cb030500000013025800b204 17000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020009000000320ac0014000010000003200c000 09000000320ac001e903010000003600c00009000000320ac0010701010000006200c000 09000000320ac0011802010000002f006b000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000 000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc0400 00002d01030004000000f0010200030000000000d100000000000000000000000000, a aeey o?noaeanyoea?aaeonieo aeeneieaoe?e cia/aiiy aeaiaioa?iiai cnoao aei??aith? ioeth aai picscalex100010009000003f10000000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02200200051200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb0ffffffc0040000d00100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000300009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 6601ed020500000013024a011e0309000000fa0200002000000000000000220004000000 2d01010005000000140252011e03050000001302d0016503040000002d01000005000000 1402d0016d030500000013025800cb030500000014025800cb030500000013025800b204 17000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020009000000320ac0014000010000003200c000 09000000320ac001e903010000003600c00009000000320ac0010701010000006200c000 09000000320ac0011802010000002f006b000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000 000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc0400 00002d01030004000000f0010200030000000000d10000ffffff0000000000000000 a caeaaeiino? a?ae i???ioaoe?? aaeoi?a Ath?aa?na. Aenioa no?aeoey cnoao aeyaey?oueny nooo?ai a?eueoith ca cia/aiiy, yea iaea?aeothoue ye aeiaooie cia/aiiy aeaiaioa?iiai cnoao ia /enei aeeneieaoe?e, ui i?ieoee /a?ac oi/eo, o ye?e aeeiiothoueny aei??e. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe i?eiouaiiyi, ui i?e inaaeaeaii? ai?oaen?eiiai oa?o ii?yae c aaia?aoe??th aeeneieaoe?e i?io?ea? ia?aeaeueiee i?ioean, yeee i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?o ai?a?eyoe?? ? ia?aaaaea? iaae aaia?aoe??th aeeneieaoe?e oa oi?ioaaiiyi aeeneieaoe?eieo aeeiie?a. Iaoaeia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy nioa eiacaiiy aeicaieeei aeyaeoe oae? iniaeeaino?. Aeey i?inoeo e?i?e eiacaiiy, ye? niinoa??aathoueny o aeaeyae? eaioethaeea aeeneieaoe?eieo yiie, a?aecia/a?oueny nooo?aa ca?eueoaiiy a?aenoai? i?ae non?aei?ie aeeneieaoe?yie a i??o a?aeoiaeo a?ae aeaea?aea O?aiea - ??aea. Ana?aaeei? nioae a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao niinoa??aa?oueny oii?yaeeiaaia ?icoaooaaiiy aeeneieaoe?eieo yiie o?aaeaiiy, ye? ooai?ththoue ?yaee, ia?aeaeuei? iai?yieo [112]. Oaea ?icoaooaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e oa?aeoa?ii aeey iaeieooiaeo iaae ca?ai o e?aii??, ui oi?iothoueny a i?ioean? iie?aii?caoe??. Iaie aoa oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiee aieea oee?eii?th oa i?eaeth ia i?ioean ooai?aiiy iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo oa?iiaeiii??a o neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoaeao e?aii?th. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo aeii?oee ia?ao?aeieo iaoae?a i?ecaiaeyoue aei iii?oiiai ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? ooai?aiiy oa?iiaeiii??a. Oea iiaea aooe iia'ycaia c oei, ui aoiie ia?ao?aeiiai iaoaeo ? oeaio?aie ca?iaeaeaiiy oa?iiaeiii??a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oiia iaea?aeaiiy ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? nieaa?a ia iniia? i?ia?th iieacaei, ui i?ae /an ?o a?aeiae?a i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aeua ca 2000 E o aaeooi? oa ?ia?oieo aoiinoa?ao ooai?ththoueny iaoanoaa?euei? aeaoaeoe. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai ?icoe?aiiy ? oneeaaeiaiiy ?aeaenaoe?eiiai iaeneioio aioo??oiueiai oa?oy oa ci?uaiiy eiai a iaeanoue aenieeo oaiia?aoo? ca ?aooiie iiyae aeiaeaoeiaeo ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?e?a. O i?eiiaa?oiaa?e iaeano? oi?io?oueny ii?oaao?noue, i?e/eiith yei?, ia iaoo aeoieo, ? noae?iaoe?y i?ia?th i?e a?aeiae?. Iaea?aeai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe ianooii? iniiai? aeniiaee. 1. O neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoaeao oa neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa?ao aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e iiaeooue niinoa??aaoeny aiiiae?? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae, o oiio /ene?: - a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae aeanoeainoae ?aeaaeueieo ?icaaaeaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?e iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo, ye? iaoiiaeai? aca?iiae??th aoii?a eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo ?c oiiiaeie aeii?oeaie oa aeaoaeoaie; - aieea aonoeie no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a ia oaiia?aoo?o aeenioe?aoe?? aeii?oeiaeo aoiinoa? ia oeeo aeaoaeoao; - nooo?aee aieea ia?a?iciiae?eo aeii?oie i?ae iiceoe?yie ??ciiai oeio, a oaeiae i?ae ?ii?ciaaiei oa iaeo?aeueiei noaiaie ia eiao?oe??io ?oiuei? oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? aeoeaiino?. 2. I?enooi? ia iiaa?oi? neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e /e a ia'?i? noi?aeieo oa??a oiiia? aeii?oee iiaeooue aeyaeyoe nooo?aee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ia?ao?aeii? iaeano? neaaeieaaiaaiiai oa?o, o oiio /ene?: - i?ae /an oi?ioaaiiy eiiiiceoe?? oa ?? aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo ia?iaie aeeeeeaoe oi?ioaaiiy i?ioa?e?a, a yeeo oiiiaa aeii?oea ? iniiaiith ? aecia/a? o?ce/i? aeanoeaino?, yeui eiioeaio?aoe?y oiiiai? aeii?oee ia?aaeuo? e?eoe/ia cia/aiiy, yea aecia/a?oueny oiiaaie i?ioeano oa ia?aiao?aie eiiiiceoe??; oa?aeoa? caeaaeiinoae e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae oeeo oiia ? ia?aiao??a nooo?ai ?ic??ciy?oueny aeey ia'?iieo oa iiaa?oiaaeo oiiiaeo aeii?oie; - aeeooc?y oiiiaiai eenith c i?aeeeaaeee iiaea nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia i?io?eue niioai?aiue ??aoee o ia?ao?aei?e iaeano? e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e ?, oaeei /eiii, ia oi?ioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e iaa?aeiia?aeiino? oa naa?aaaoe?th aeii?oie a ?? ia?ao?aei?e iaeano?. 3. ?nio? iioeiaeueiee ?ioa?aae oaiia?aoo? aaoa?oaaiiy oaeaeeiaeeooiaeoth/eo aeii?oie c neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a oaa?aeio?eueieo no?oeoo?, a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae yeiai cieaeothoue aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaii? oiaueie aaoa?oth/iai oa?o i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao oa ca ?aooiie iaiaaaiiy aeii?oeiaeo aoii?a aei a?eueo ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo i?ae neaaeieaaiaaiei oa?ii ? aaoa?ii i?e aenieeo. 4. A?aeiae neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e oa oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?iieeiaiiy ia iniia? i?ia?th i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, aeecueeeo aei oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy, c ianooiiei oaeaeeei ioieiaeaeaiiyi i?ecaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy ii?oaaoino? oa iaoanoaa?eueieo oeaio??a ??cii? i?e?iaee, ye? nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? e?enoaeo. 5. ?nio? ?yae iniaeeainoae a caeiiii??iinoyo oi?ioaaiiy oa aeanoeainoyo neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e, o oiio /ene?: - iiaeeea?noue aaoieaaoaaiiy neaaeieaaiaaieo ai?oaen?eieo oa??a e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e ca ?aooiie aeia?iaoaaiiy aeii?oee c i?aeeeaaeee c aieo oa?o, ui inaaeaeo?oueny, oi?ioaaiiy a aacia?e oac? o iiaa?oi? i?aeeeaaeee oa?o, caaaa/aiiai aeii?oeith, oa aaoaeia? aoii?a oe??? aeii?oee a ai?oaen?eiee oa?; - iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy i?ioa?e?a ?c i?ia?aei?noth i?ioeeaaeiiai oeio o neaaeieaaiaaieo oa?ao e?aii??aeo oa aa?iai??aeo n+-n ? p+-p eiiiiceoe?e, ye? iaea?aeothoueny ca iaoiaeaie ai?oaen?eiiai inaaeaeaiiy oa oa?iieiii?an?eiiai c'?aeiaiiy; - oi?ioaaiiy o neaaeieaaiaaieo oa?ao e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e i?ae /an aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo (a?eueo ca 1000 iN) oa?i?/ieo ia?iaie aeiii?ieo oeaio??a, e?iaoeea iaeiie/aiiy yeeo nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae e?iaoeee iaeiie/aiiy aeiii?ieo oeaio??a i?ae /an a?aeiaeo ieanoei c neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a e?aii?th. 6. I?ae /an inaaeaeaiiy neaaeieaaiaaieo aaoiai?oaen?eieo oa??a e?aii?th ii?yae c i?ioeanaie aaia?aoe?? oa eiacaiiy aeeneieaoe?e, a?aeaoaathoueny i?ioeane ai?a?eyoe??, ui iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe aei aeieeiaiiy oii?yaeeiaaiiai ?icoaooaaiiy aeeneieaoe?e o nioc? eiacaiiy. Iiaeeea?noue aeyaeaiiy e?i?e eiacaiiy ca ?nioth/eie iaoiaeaie, a oaeiae ?o aieea ia i?ioeane aeaioiaeaiiy oa aeanoeaino? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a caeaaeaoue a?ae oeio oa i???ioaoe?? aeeneieaoe?e, ye? ooai?ththoue e?i?th eiacaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaii? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aea/aii? oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo, aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ? iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae, no?oeoo?ii? aeineiiaeino? oa i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a oa iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e, a oaeiae i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e. ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? i?e aea/aii? caaaeueieo aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a, iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?ieiai eeano ?icaaaeaieo ?ic/ei?a, o oiio /ene? ??aeei oa aac?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo ?iaioao: 1. Aao?ooei A.A. Iieo/aiea e naienoaa neaaieaae?iaaiiuo neiaa e?aiieaauo no?oeoo? (iiiia?ao?y).- Caii??aeaey: Aeaeaaaoeue, 1997.- 270 n.; 2. Iiaeeia A.A., Iaaeia TH.A., Aao?ooei A.A. Aioo?aiiaa o?aiea nieaaia ieiaee- acio // Ecaanoey aocia. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey, 1982.- N 7.- N. 113 - 116; 3. Iiaeeia A.A., Iaaeia TH.A., Aao?ooei A.A. Aioo?aiiaa o?aiea nieaaia ieiaee- acio e ieiaee- aaoiee- acio // Ecaanoey aocia. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey, 1982.- N 11.- N.154 - 155; 4. Aao?ooei A.A., Iiaeeia A.A., Iaaeia TH.A. Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u caeaeee ia oaiia?aoo?ioth caaeneiinoue aioo?aiiaai o?aiey nieaaia ieiaee - acio // Iaoaeeioeceea, 1985.- O. 7, N 3.- N. 109 - 110; 5. Aao?ooei A.A., Iaaeia TH.A. Aeeyiea i?eianae caiauaiey ia aaee/eio iiaeoey ii?iaeueiie oi?oainoe ieiaey // Ecaanoey aocia. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey, 1985.- N 11.- N. 142; 6. Aao?ooei A.A., Iaaeia TH.A. Noaoenoe/aneee aiaeec oaiia?aoo?iie caaeneiinoe eiyooeoeeaioia aeeooocee eenei?iaea a ieiaee // Ecaanoey aocia. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey, 1986.- N 1.- N. 155; 7. Iiaeeia A.A., Aao?ooei A.A., Iaaeia TH.A. Acaeiiaeaenoaea acioa ni nieaaaie ieiaey i?e aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao // Ecaanoey AI NNN?. Iaoaeeu, 1986.- N 5.- N. 206 - 207; 8. Aeeooocey eenei?iaea a ieiaee / A.A. Aao?ooei, A.A. Iiaeeia, TH.A. Iaaeia, I.A. ?ineyeiaa // Ecaanoey AI NNN?. Iaoaeeu, 1986.- N 5.- N. 71 - 74; 9. Aao?ooei A.A. Ooe?aiea niiaeianeeo ieeia, naycaiiia n ia?aciaaieai iaaeaoiiiuo eiiieaenia // Iaoaeeioeceea, 1988.- O. 10, N 5.- N. 106 - 108; 10. Aao?ooei A.A., Iiaeeia A.A., Iaaeia TH.A. Enneaaeiaaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey e aeeooocee i?eianae a nieaaao ia iniiaa ieiaey iaoiaeii aioo?aiiaai o?aiey // A ei. "Aioo?aiiaa o?aiea a enneaaeiaaieyo iaoaeeia e iai?aaie/aneeo iaoa?eaeia". - I.: Iaoea, 1989.- N. 146 - 150; 11. Aao?ooei A.A., Iiaeeia A.A. Aeeyiea i?eianiuo aoiiia ia aeeoooceth eenei?iaea e acioa a ieiaee // Ecaanoey AI NNN?. Iaoaeeu, 1989.- N 3.- N. 173 - 175; 12. Aao?ooei A.A., Aaeeei I.I., Oiea?aa A.I. Iieo/aiea e?aiieaauo yieoaeneaeueiuo no?oeoo? iaoiaeii oa?ie/aneiai ?aceiaeaiey o?eoei?neeaia e aeeoei?neeaia // Oeaaoiua iaoaeeu, 1990.- N 2.- N. 63 - 66; 13. Aeaoaeoiia?aciaaiea i?e ?inoa e?aiieaauo iiiaineieiuo yieoaeneaeueiuo eiiiiceoeee / Aaeeei I.I., Aieiaei I.I., ?iaeeia A.E., Oiea?aa A.I., Aao?ooei A.A. // Oeaaoiua iaoaeeu, 1990.- N 12.- N. 74 - 76; 14. Ia?aciaaiea i?ineiae n i?iaiaeeiinoueth aeu?i/iiai oeia a e?aiieaauo yieoaeneaeueiuo n+-n no?oeoo?ao / Aao?ooei A.A., Aaeeei I.I., Oiea?aa A.I., Neai?oeia E.I., ?iaeeia A.E. // Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea. Na?. Iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua i?eai?u, 1991. - Aui. 1 (210).- N. 10 - 14; 15. Aao?ooei A.A., Aaeeei I.I., Oiea?aa A.I. Aeeyiea oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee ia naienoaa e?aiieaauo yieoaeneaeueiuo no?oeoo? // Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea. Na?. Iaoa?eaeu, 1991.- Aui. 6.- N. 5 - 7; 16. Iieo/aiea aunieiiiiuo aaoiyieoaeneaeueiuo neiaa e?aiiey iaoiaeii aiaei?iaeiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey o?eoei?neeaia / A.A. Aao?ooei, I.I. Aaeeei, A.I. Oiea?aa, A.E. Aaeoiaiei // Oeaaoiua iaoaeeu, 1992.- N 6.- N. 44 - 45; 17. Iieo/aiea e?aiieaauo ia?auaiiuo yieoaeneaeueiuo no?oeoo? n iaeiaeeneieaoeeiiiui ?aai/ei neiai / I.I. Aaeeei, I.I. Aieiaei, A.I. Oiea?aa, A.A. Aao?ooei // Oeaaoiua iaoaeeu, 1992.- N 7.- N. 48 - 49; 18. Aeaoaeoiia?aciaaiea a i?ioeanna iieo/aiey iiauo e?aiieaauo eiiiiceoeee / Aao?ooei A.A., Aacueaaa E.A., Aoeaaa E.TH., Aieiaei I.I., Oiea?aa A.I., Oeaaieiaa I.TH. // Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea. Na?. Iaoa?eaeu, 1992.- Aui. 2 - 3.- N. 61 - 63; 19. Aeeyiea oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee ia no?oeoo?o e naienoaa aunieiiiiuo yieoaeneaeueiuo neiaa e?aiiey / Aao?ooei A.A., Aaeeei I.I., Oiea?aa A.I., Naaiei I.A., Oeuaaiie Ae.A. // Oeaaoiua iaoaeeu, 1995.- N 4.- N. 60 - 62; 20. Iieo/aiea aunieiiiiuo yieoaeneaeueiuo neiaa e?aiiey n iaeie ieioiinoueth no?oeoo?iuo aeaoaeoia / A.A. Aao?ooei, A.E. Aaeoiaiei, I.I. Aaeeei, A.I. Oiea?aa // Oeaaoiua iaoaeeu, 1995.- N 5.- N. 44 - 46; 21. Aao?ooei A.A. Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea naienoaa iaeaeaaeueiuo ?acaaaeaiiuo ?anoai?ia // Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia CAO. Iaoaiaoeea, Oeceea. - Caii?iaeuea: 1995.- N. 97 - 100; 22. Aao?ooei A.A. ?ieue oiiiauo i?eianae iiaeeiaeee a oi?ie?iaaiee ia?aoiaeiie iaeanoe iaeieaae?iaaiiuo yieoaeneaeueiuo neiaa e?aiiey e aa?iaiey // Iai?aaie/aneea iaoa?eaeu, 1996.- O. 32, N 6.- N. 650 - 652; 23. Aao?ooei A.A. Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea naienoaa i?eianae a oaa?aeuo ?anoai?ao nenoaiu Si // Iai?aaie/aneea iaoa?eaeu, 1996.- O. 32,
N 8.- N. 913 — 915;

24. Aao?ooei A.A., Ai?aaiue A.I., Oeuaaiie Ae.A. Aeeyiea
i?eiiaa?oiinoiiai neiy iiaeeiaeee ia oi?ie?iaaiea ia?aoiaeiie iaeanoe
iaeieaae?iaaiiuo yieoaeneaeueiuo neiaa e?aiiey // Iai?aaie/aneea
iaoa?eaeu, 1997.- O. 33, N 10.- N. 1171 — 1173;

25. Aao?ooei A.A., Ieueoiaie A.A. Eeiee neieueaeaiey a
neaaieaae?iaaiiuo aaoiyieoaeneaeueiuo neiyo e?aiiey // Iai?aaie/aneea
iaoa?eaeu, 1997.- O. 33, N 11.- N. 1291 — 1293;

26. Aao?ooei A.A. Aeeyiea oaioe/aneeo aeaoi?iaoeee ?aoaoee ia
oa?iiaeeiaie/aneea naienoaa ?acaaaeaiiuo oaa?aeuo ?anoai?ia //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Na?. I?e?iaeie/? oa oaoi?/i? iaoee,
1997.- N 21.- N. 43 — 48;

27. Aao?ooei A.A. Aeeyiea ieioiinoe aeaoaeoia ia oaiia?aoo?o
eiiaeainaoeee i?eianiie aoiinoa?u // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.
Na?. I?e?iaeie/? oa oaoi?/i? iaoee, 1997.- N 21.- N. 14 — 20;

28. Aao?ooei A.A., ssion A.A. Noaoenoeei-oa?iiaeeiaie/aneee aiaeec
yooaeoeaiinoe aaooa?e?iaaiey auno?iaeeoooiaee?othueo i?eianae a
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo no?oeoo?ao // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Na?.
Oaoi?/i? iaoee, 1997.- N 25.- N. 11 — 15;

29. Aao?ooei A.A., Iyoeai?aoe ?.A., ssion A.A. Iiaeaee?iaaiea
oi?ie?iaaiey i?ineiae n i?iaiaeeiinoueth aeu?i/iiai oeia a e?aiieaauo
N+-N no?oeoo?ao // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Na?. Oaoi?/i?
iaoee, 1997.- N 25.- N. 16 — 21;

30. Aao?ooei A.A., E?eai?o/ei A.I., ssion A.A. Aeeyiea aiaoieo
aicaeaenoaee ia yeaeo?ioece/aneea naienoaa neaaieaae?iaaiiuo
iiiie?enoaeeia e iiiie?enoaeee/aneeo neiaa e?aiiey // I?eaei?i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee. Na?. Oaoi?/i? iaoee, 1997.- N 25.- N. 5 — 10;

31. Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aoiaeiie iaeanoe
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo no?oeoo? / A.A. Aao?ooei, A.A. Ieueoiaie, ?.A.
Iyoeai?aoe, A.A. ssion // Ecaanoey aocia. Yeaeo?iieea, 1997.- N 6.- N.
44 — 48;

32. Aao?ooei A.A., Iyoeai?aoe ?.A. Iino?iaiea e aiaeec EE niaeo?ia i?e
io?aaeaiee io e?aiieaauo yieoaeneaeueiuo no?oeoo? // Ecaanoey aocia.
Iaoa?eaeu yeaeo?iiiie oaoieee, 1998.- N 2.- N. 34 — 36.

33. Iaeii?iaeiinoue oieueiu yieoaeneaeueiuo neiaa e?aiiey, iieo/aaiuo
i?e aiaei?iaeiii ainnoaiiaeaiee o?eoei?neeaia / A.A. Aao?ooei, A.E.
Aaeoiaiei, A.I. Oiea?aa, A.A. Ieueoiaie // Oeaaoiua iaoaeeu, 1998.- N
1.- N. 56 — 57;

34. Aaoa?oaaiiy oaeaeeiaeeooiaeoth/eo aeii?oie o e?aii??aeo nieaaao /
Aao?ooei A.?., ?aiao?ia I.I., E?eai?o/ei A.I., ssion I.A., ssoeaiei I.I.
// A?niee Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 1998.- N 1.- N. 87 —
88;

35. Aao?ooei A.?., Ieueoiaee A.I. Niioai?aiiy ??aoee o ia?ao?aei?e
iaeano? e?aii??aeo no?oeoo?, iaoiiaeai? ia?a?iciiae?eii oiiiaeo aeii?oie
// A?niee Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 1998.- N 1.- N. 89 —
90;

36. Aao?ooei A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea oaa?aeuo ?anoai?ia aiaae?aiey a IOeE
iaoaeeao iaoiaeii aioo?aiiaai o?aiey // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey a
iaoaeeiaaaeaiee». Onoeiia, 1985.- N. 55 — 56;

37. Aao?ooei A.A. Oa?iiaeeiaieea i?eiane, ?ani?aaeaeaiiie iaaeaeo
oceaie e iaaeaeioceeyie aeiaciiiaeiaiie ?aoaoee // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
XIV Ananithciiai niaauaiey ii oai?ee iieoi?iaiaeieeia. Aeiiaoee:
AeiiOOE AI ONN?, 1989.- N. 161;

38. Ia?aciaaiea iieee?enoaeee/aneeo aeeth/aiee i?e yieoaenee e?aiiey /
A.I. Oiea?aa, I.I. Aaeeei, A.A. Aao?ooei, E.A. Aacueaaa // Oacenu
aeieeaaeia iaeanoiie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee «Eiiiiiaiou e iaoa?eaeu
yeaeo?iiiie oaoieee». Caii?iaeuea: CEE, 1990.- N. 25 — 26;

39. ?aioaaiinopoeoopiia enneaaeiaaiea iieee?enoaeee/aneeo neiaa
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?eai?ia e eioaa?aeueiuo noai / Aao?ooei A.A.,
Aiaoi N.A., Naaei A.A., Oiea?aa A.I., ?iaeeia A.E. // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
VI Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee «Aiaeeoe/aneea iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey
iaoa?eaeia e ecaeaeee yeaeo?iiiie oaoieee». Eeoeiaa: Iacii, 1991.- N.
33;

40. Bakhrushin V.E. Redistribution Effect on the Specific Heat
of Solutes in Solid Solutions // 14th European Crystallographic Meeting
Abstracts.- Enschede, Ohe Netherlands, 1992.- P. 410;

41. Iieo/aiea e naienoaa iiiie?enoaeeia e?aiiey, eaae?iaaiiiai
aa?iaieai / A.A. Aao?ooei, A.A. Eonoia, O.A. E?eoneay, A.E. Oeey? //
Oacenu aeieeaaeia III Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai naieia?a «Iaoa?eaeu aeey
oa?iiyeaeo?e/aneeo i?aia?aciaaoaeae»- Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a: OOE ?AI, 1993.-
N. 55;

42. Aao?ooei A.A. Aeeyiea oiiiauo i?eianae ia yooaeoeaiinoue
e?aiieaauo aeaoaeoi?ia // Oacenu aeieeaaeia 6 iaaeio?aneaaiai naieia?a
«?aaeeaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a yeaeo?iieea». I., 1994.- N. 77 — 78;

43. Aao?ooei A.A. I?iaeaiu iieo/aiey yieoaeneaeueiuo no?oeoo? aeey
e?aiieaauo oioii?eaiieeia // Oacenu aeieeaaeia VI Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
eiioa?aioeee «Aieieiiii-iioe/aneea eeiee nayce e nenoaiu ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee. Caii?iaeuea, 1995.- N. 46.

Aao?ooei A.?. Oi?ioaaiiy aeii?oeiai-aeaoaeoii? i?aenenoaie oa o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a ? iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a
aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.07 — o?ceea oaa?aeiai
o?ea.- Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao oiiiaeo aeii?oie ?
no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a ia oi?ioaaiiy oa o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ?icaaaeaieo
oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a. Io?eiai? iia? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? o noeoiiino?
?ica’ycothoue i?iaeaio aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a oa iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a
aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e, ui i?noyoue oiiia? aeii?oee oa no?oeoo?i?
aeaoaeoe. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy aiiiae?e o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae. ?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? oa eiii’thoa?i? i?ia?aie aeey
?ic?aooie?a ?o o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae. Aeine?aeaeai? i?ioeane iaea?aeaiiy
oa aeanoeaino? neaaeieaaiaaieo oa??a e?aii??aeo eiiiiceoe?e,
neaaeieaaiaaieo e?enoae?a e?aii?th, nieaa?a i?ia?th. ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy
neaaeieaaiaaieo iiiie?enoae?a ? iiiie?enoae?/ieo oa??a aaaaoioa?iaeo
eiiiiceoe?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: neaaeieaaiaai? iiiie?enoaee, ?icaaaeai? oaa?ae?
?ic/eie, aaaaoioa?ia? eiiiiceoe??, aeii?oee, no?oeoo?i? aeaoaeoe,
ai?oaen?y, e?aii?e, i?ia?e.

Aao?ooei A.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea i?eianii-aeaoaeoiie iiaenenoaiu e oece/aneea
naienoaa neaaieaae?iaaiiuo iiiie?enoaeeia e iiiie?enoaeee/aneeo neiaa
iiiaineieiuo eiiiiceoeee.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 — oeceea
oaa?aeiai oaea.- Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,
1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeeyiey oiiiauo i?eianae e
no?oeoo?iuo aeaoaeoia ia caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey i?eianii-aeaoaeoiie
iiaenenoaiu e oece/aneea naienoaa ?aaeueiuo ?acaaaeaiiuo oaa?aeuo
?anoai?ia iaoa?eaeia ?aciuo oeiia. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou, a
niaieoiiinoe ?aoatho aaaeioth iao/ioth i?iaeaio a iaeanoe oeceee
oaa?aeiai oaea — eco/aiea caeiiiia?iinoae oi?ie?iaaiey oece/aneeo
naienoa neaaieaae?iaaiiuo iiiie?enoaeeia e iiiie?enoaeee/aneeo neiaa
iiiaineieiuo eiiiiceoeee, niaea?aeaueo oiiiaua i?eiane e no?oeoo?iua
aeaoaeou. A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeai ?yae iiaeaeae aeey ?an/aoa
?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eianae ii iiceoeeyi ?acee/iiai oeia e naienoa
neaaieaae?iaaiiuo e?enoaeeia; auiieiaiu niioaaonoaothuea ?an/aou aeey
iiaeaeueiuo nenoai e ?aaeueiuo oaa?aeuo ?anoai?ia ia iniiaa e?aiiey e
ieiaey; iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey ioeeiiaiee io eaeaaeueiinoe
a ?acaaaeaiiuo oaa?aeuo ?anoai?ao i?e oiaiueoaiee eiioeaio?aoeee
eaae?othuaai yeaiaioa, a oaeaea nouanoaiaaiea ioeeiiaiee io
eaeaaeueiinoe, iaoneiaeaiiuo aiciiaeiinoueth ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eianiuo
aoiiia iaaeaeo iiceoeeyie (ninoiyieyie) ?acee/iiai oeia; iieacaia
aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaaiiiai oiaiueoaiey oaiia?aoo?u aeennioeeaoeee
i?eianiuo aoiinoa? ia aeeneieaoeeyo e ae?oaeo no?oeoo?iuo aeaoaeoao i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo niioiioaieyo eiioeaio?aoeee i?eiane e ieioiinoe aeaoaeoia;
iieacaii, /oi ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eianiuo aoiiia iaaeaeo iiceoeeyie
(ninoiyieyie) ?acee/iiai oeia nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiyaeaieai iaeneioia ia
oaiia?aoo?iie caaeneiinoe oaeaeueiie oaieiaieinoe i?eiane; iieacaii
nouanoaiaaiea iioeiaeueiiai eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? aeey i?iaaaeaiey
i?ioeannia ieaia?iiai aaooa?e?iaaiey auno?iaeeoooiaee?othueo i?eianae ec
neaaieaae?iaaiiuo neiaa oaa?aeioaeueiuo no?oeoo?. Iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue
e enneaaeiaaiu caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey a neaaieaae?iaaiiuo neiyo
iiiaineieiuo eiiiiceoeee i?ineiae, a eioi?uo iniiaiie i?eianueth
yaeyaony oiiiaay i?eianue, aeeoooiaee?othuay ec iauaia eee
i?eiiaa?oiinoiiai caa?yciaiiiai neiy iiaeeiaeee. Iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue
nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oiiiauo i?eianae iaaeaeo neiyie
e?aiieaauo eiiiiceoeee ia i?ioeee eneaaeaiee ?aoaoee, naa?aaaoeeth
i?eianae e oi?ie?iaaiea aeeneieaoeee ianiioaaonoaey a ia?aoiaeiie
iaeanoe oaeeo eiiiiceoeee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ?aaeueiuo
neaaieaae?iaaiiuo iiiie?enoaeeao e?aiiey e neaaieaae?iaaiiuo
iiiie?enoaeee/aneeo neiyo e?aiieaauo eiiiiceoeee i?e eiioeaio?aoeeyo
eaae?othuaai yeaiaioa iaiaa 1013 — 1014 ni-3 iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny ?yae
aiiiaeueiuo yaeaiee, a oii /enea: ianoaaeeueiinoue yeaeo?ioece/aneeo
ia?aiao?ia i?e aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo ia?aaioeao, naycaiiay n oi?ie?iaaieai
iaoanoaaeeueiuo aeoaieio?iaiaauo aeiii?iuo oeaio?ia; aeiiieieoaeueiia
eaae?iaaiea neaaieaae?iaaiiiai yieoaeneaeueiiai neiy i?eianueth,
enia?ythuaeny n ?aai/ae noi?iiu iiaeeiaeee; oi?ie?iaaiea i?ineiae n
i?iaiaeeiinoueth i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai oeia eee ?anoe?aiea
eiioeaio?aoeeiiiie ia?aoiaeiie iaeanoe aneaaenoaea aeeooocee oiiiauo
aeiii?iuo e aeoeaioi?iuo i?eianae ec neeueiieaae?iaaiiiai neiy eee n
caa?yciaiiiai i?eiiaa?oiinoiiai neiy iiaeeiaeee. ?ac?aaioaiu iiaeaee e
eiiiuethoa?iua i?ia?aiiu aeey ?an/aoia oece/aneeo naienoa
neaaieaae?iaaiiuo e?enoaeeia. Iieo/aiu iiaua aeaiiua i aeeyiee oneiaee
inaaeaeaiey ia no?oeoo?iia niaa?oainoai e oece/aneea naienoaa
neaaieaae?iaaiiuo yieoaeneaeueiuo neiaa e?aiieaauo eiiiiceoeee;
ii?aaeaeaiu i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey iaiaeii?iaeiinoe oieueiu oaeeo neiaa,
oi?ie?oaiuo iaoiaeii aiaei?iaeiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey o?eoei?neeaia a
?aaeoi?ao aa?oeeaeueiiai oeia. Onoaiiaeaiu ia?aie/aiey nouanoaothueo
iaoiaeia eiio?iey oaeaeueiiai yeaeo?inii?ioeaeaiey e iaee/ey eeiee
neieueaeaiey a neaaieaae?iaaiiuo neiyo e?aiieaauo eiiiiceoeee.
?acoeueoaou iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e eco/aiee i?ioeannia
oi?ie?iaaiey e naienoa neaaieaae?iaaiiuo iiiie?enoaeeia e
iiiie?enoaeee/aneeo neiaa iiiaineieiuo eiiiiceoeee, a oaeaea i?e
?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee eo ecaioiaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: neaaieaae?iaaiiua iiiie?enoaeeu, ?acaaaeaiiua oaa?aeua
?anoai?u, iiiaineieiua eiiiiceoeee, i?eiane, no?oeoo?iua aeaoaeou,
yieoaeney, e?aiiee, ieiaee.

Bakhrushin V.E. Solute-Defect Subsystem Formation and Physical
Properties of Low-Doped Monocrystals and Monocrystalline Layers of
Multilayered Compositions.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by a specialty 01.04.07 — Solid State
Physics.- Kharkiv State University, Kharkiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to investigation of background impurities
and defects effect on the formation and physical properties of dilute
solid solutions. New results, which solve in total the problem — study
of low-doped monocrystals and monocrystalline layers of multilayered
compositions, containing background impurities and structural defects,
physical properties formation appropriateness, were obtained. It is
shown the possibility of physical properties anomalies. Models and
computer programs for it’s physical property calculations were worked
out. Processes of formation and properties of silicon compositions
low-doped layers, low-doped silicon crystals and niobium alloys were
investigated. The results may be used in the manufacturing technologies
of low-doped monocrystals and monocrystalline layers of multilayered
compositions working out.

Key words: low-doped monocrystals, dilute solid solutions, multilayered
compositions, solutes, structural defects, epitaxy, silicon, niobium.

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