IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO OE?A?IE

“EE?ANUeEEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE ?INOEOOO”

AeOAeEA Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 620.19:621.785:669.002.3

OI?IOAAIIss AI?I- OA AI?IO?IIII?NOEEO IIE?EOO?A

O?EAIOAOI?*IIAI I?ECIA*AIIss EACA?IITH IA?IAEITH

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.01 – Iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaoaeiciaanoaa oa oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
?iaeaia?ii-o?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoa Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoa
Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo” I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao
oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iena?aiei Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e iaoaeiciaanoaa oa

oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “EI?”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?eion Ieoaeei A(y/aneaaiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueii? o?ceee ? o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea, i?ioani?
IOOO “EI?”.

Eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, n.i.n Caoa?ia Na?a?e Ieoaeeiae/,
canooiiee caa?aeoaa/a a?aeae?eii aeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a ?inoeoooo
iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I. Iaoiia IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 21 aa?aniy 1999 ?. i ____ aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee E 26.002.12 o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo» ca aae?anith:

252056, i. Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 37, ei?ion ?9, aoae. 203.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo».

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «___» ___ ___ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee E 26.002.12

e.o.i., aeioeaio A.?. Oaaei?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae iaoei
oa onoaoeoaaiiy ? iaei??th c eeth/iaeo o no/aniiio iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?.
Aeinyaiaiiy aenieiai ??aiy ciinino?eeino? iiaeeeaa ca ?aooiie
aeei?enoaiiy ?nioth/eo aai noai?aiiy iiaeo ci?oeithth/eo oaoiieia?e.
Na?aae o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a iiaa?oiaaiai ci?oeiaiiy cia/ia i?noea
iin?aeathoue o?i?ei-oa?i?/ia ia?iaea (OOI) oa iaoiaee aacioa?i?/iiai
iaieeaiiy iie?eoo?a (AOII). Iaeiae, ye OOI, oae ? AOII ia caaaeaee
caaeia?eueiythoue aeiiae iiai? oaoi?ee, iia( ycai? ?c anac?inoath/eie
oaeaee?niiiaaaioaaeoaaeueieie oaeoi?aie. Oae, ai?eaeiei aeeooc?eiei
iie?eooyi, io?eiaiiei oeyoii o?aaeeoe?eii? OOI, i?eoaiaiia cia/ia
e?eoe?noue, /anoi iaaeniea oiaueia, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia
aeiaaia?/i?noue aeaoaeae iaoei a oiiaao aenieeo eiioaeoieo oene?a. E??i
oiai, o?aaeeoe?ei? niiniae iiaa?oiaaiai ci?oeiaiiy noae?
ia?aaeaa/athoue, ye i?aaeei, o?eaae? aenieioaiia?aoo?i? iaa??aaiiy, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei cieaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae na?oeaaeie noaeaaeo
aeaoaeae, ia?o ca ana oa?aeoa?enoee a(yceino? oa ieanoe/iino?. Oaea OOI
oaeiae oneeaaeith? io?eiaiiy ai?eaeieo iie?eoo?a ia ia?aeaa?th/eo
aonoai?oieo noaeyo oeio 12O18I9O aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ciinino?eeino? i?e
aenieoaoaoe?? a oiiaao oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
oaiia?aoo?.

Aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ? niinia?a ai?oaaiiy, c iaeyaeo ia
oaoiieia?/i?noue, iieaco?, ui iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ? eaca?ia
eaaoaaiiy. Ia?niaeoeaiei ? aeei?enoaiiy eaca?ii? ia?iaee aeey noai?aiiy
a?aae??ioieo ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a, a oaeiae aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ei?ic?eii?
no?eeino? i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a ia noaeyo oeyoii ?o iiaa?oiaaiai
eaaoaaiiy o?iiii. Oai?aoe/iee oa i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaeythoue
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a iiaa?oiaaiai eaaoaaiiy
eaca?iith oa?iioeeee?/iith ia?iaeith (OOeI). Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
eaca?ii? ia?iaee ia aoaeiao, i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy ? o?eaioaoi?/i?
aeanoeaino? iie?eoo?a, ui i?noyoue ai?, neeaaeathoue aaaeeeao oa
aeooaeueio iaoeiao ? i?eeeaaeio i?iaeaio. ?aae?caoe?y eaca?ieo
oaoiieia?e eaaoaaiiy, iieaaeaiiy oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiy a?aee?eaa?
ia?niaeoeao io?eiaiiy ae?ia?a c ?aoe?iiaeueiei ii?aeiaiiyi aeanoeainoae
ci?oeiaiiai iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o ? na?oeaaeie, ye? caaacia/othoue
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ano?no ?iaioe aeaoaeae ? nooo?aa nei?i/aiiy aia?aaoe/ieo oa
iaoa??aeueieo cao?ao i?e ?o aeaioiaeaii?.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
i?iaiaeeeanue o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiaeo ?ia?o eaoaae?e
iaoaeiciaanoaa ? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee IOOO “EI?”, ye? o?iainoaaeeny
I?i?noa?noaii Ina?oe Oe?a?ie ? I?iiaoi?iiii Oe?a?ie oa iai?aaeai? ia
?ic?iaeo iiaeo ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a ia noaeyo ca aeiiiiiaith
eiioeaio?iaaieo aeaea?ae aia?a??.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea ai?i- ? ai?io?iiii?noeeo
iie?eoo?a oa oaoiieia?e ?o oi?ioaaiiy eaca?iith ia?iaeith o ?aaeei?
eaaoaaiiy, iieaaeaiiy oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiy, i?ecia/aieo aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae aoce?a oa?oy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoei iinoaaeaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

— aiae?oe/ii aeine?aeeoe iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, ui aeieea? i?ae
/an oa?oy o eiiiiceoe?eiiio iaoa??ae? c? noiai/aoith ? eoeynoith oi?iaie
ae?aieaiue (ai?eae?a);

— aeine?aeeoe o?i?/iee oa oaciaee neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa o?ceei-iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? iie?eoo?a nenoai Fe-B i Fe-B-Cr, iaea?aeaieo eaca?iei
eaaoaaiiyi oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiyi;

— ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeeea?noue ea?oaaiiy o?eaioaoi?/ieie aeanoeainoyie
ai?ii?noeeo eaaiaaieo iie?eoo?a oeyoii ?o oa?iioeeeethaaiiy oa
noai?aiiyi a?aae??ioieo ii oiaueii? no?oeoo? eaca?iei iieaaeaiiyi;

— aecia/eoe i?oaeii-ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a ca
aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai aeonoiaeth?iiao?e/iiai eiiieaeno;

— anoaiiaeoe, c iaoith ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? ?aaeei?a aenieoaoaoe??,
caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy io?eiaieo iie?eoo?a ia
ia?aeaa?th/?e noae? 12O18I9O a oiiaao oa?oy eiacaiiyi a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? oa iaaaioaaeaiue;

— ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaieo iie?eoo?a ia aeaoaeyo
na??eieo o?eaiaoce?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe.

Aiae?oe/ii aeine?aeaeaii ia iiaeae? eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo ?c
noiai/aoith ? eoeynoith oi?iaie ae?aieaiue ai?eae?a
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, ui aeieea? i?e oa?o? o i?eiiaa?oiaaeo
oa?ao iaoa??aeo. Anoaiiaeaii aca?iica(ycie i?ae eiioeaio?aoe??th
iai?oaeaiue, ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iao?eoe? ?
ae?aieaiue ai?eae?a oa u?euei?noth ?icoaooaaiiy oeeo ae?aieaiue.

Aea/aii iniaeeaino? ai?oaaiiy ? ai?io?iioaaiiy iaoiaeaie eaca?iiai
eaaoaaiiy oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?o ii?aeiaiiy a iaeiiio
oaoiieia?/iiio i?ioean? aeicaiey? caaaeyee ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ianiiai?iieo
i?ioean?a nooo?ai i?aeaeuoaaoe oiaueio eaaiaaieo oa??a oa
oe?eani?yiiaaii ea?oaaoe ?o o?i?/iei ? no?oeoo?iei neeaaeii, a oaeiae
o?eaioaoi?/ieie aeanoeainoyie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue o?i?/iiai ? oaciaiai neeaaeo,
no?oeoo?e ? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eaaiaaieo iie?eoo?a, iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? ?o aieeao ia o?eaioaoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee a oiiaao oa?oy
eiacaiiyi a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ciai?oi?o ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane iie?auaiiy neoaeaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee eaaiaaieo
ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a oeyoii noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? a?aae??ioieo
iie?eoo?a. Iieacaii, ui oa?iioeeee?/ia ia?iaea nooo?ai aieeaa? ia
o?eaioaoi?/i? oa i?oaeii-ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? iie?eoo?a.

Ia iniia? iiaeaethaaiiy aieeao oiia aenieoaoaoe?? (ieoiiee oene,
oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy oa oaiia?aoo?a) ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a ia ?o
o?eaioaoi?/i? aeanoeaino? ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueieo
?aaeei?a aenieoaoaoe?? oaeeo iie?eoo?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy
eiiieaeno aiae?oe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o ?ic?iaeai? ia?aiao?e
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a eaca?iiai eaaoaaiiy, iieaaeaiiy ?
oa?iioeeeethaaiiy. I?e oeueiio iiaeia io?eioaaoe ai?ii?noe? iie?eooy ?c
caaeaiei oaciaei neeaaeii, no?oeoo?ith oa neoaeaiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

?ic?iaeaiee niin?a eaca?iiai ai?oaaiiy oa ai?io?iioaaiiy i?ieoia
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo ia AAO “AA?EII” oa OAOe-5 (i. Ee?a).
Oae, ia AAO “AA?EII” i?ieoee i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy oaeaeeiciiooaai?
aeaoae? aaeueaai?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ci?oeiai? eaca?iei ai?io?iioaaiiyi,
ui aenieoaoothoueny a ei?ic?eii-aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeuao a oiiaao oa?oy aac
ianoeea: aaee ianin?a AE6, 2O9,3E6 (noaeue 12O18I9O), a oaeiae aeaoae?,
ci?oeiaii? eaca?iei ai?oaaiiyi, ye? i?aoeththoue i?e i?aeaeuaiieo
oaiia?aoo?ao – iiae? aeey aa?y/i? ii??cee iaoaeo IOA-50, IOA-52 (noaeue
5OIA, O8) ? ?ieeee ? ?ieeeiiii?e a ia/ao oa?i?/ii? e?i?? EI-45-I1
(noaeue 12O18I9O).

Aei?iaoaaiiyie o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?i?i neoaeae
aeacaieo aeaoaeae ?c caoenieie iie?eooyie ca?eueoeany aei 5 ?ac?a
ii??aiyii c na??eieie aac iie?eoo?a, ui aeicaieeei cieceoe cao?aoe ia
aenieoaoaoe?th oeeo aoce?a.

Ia OAOe-5 i?iaaaeaii i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy aeine?aeii? ia?o?? aeaoaeae
ia?iaiaeyii? a?iaoo?e (ooiee, oeaa?e ?aaoeyoi?a ?-ai ai?eneo ieoee A ? A
aei OAII-314 “A”) eaca?iei ai?io?iioaaiiyi oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiyi.
Ii??aiyeueieie aei?iaoaaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaaia?/i?noue
ia?iaiaeyii? a?iaoo?e ?c caoenieie iie?eooyie a oii-aao
ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy ca?eueoeeanue a?eueo i?ae o 4 ?ace
ii??aiyii ?c na??eieie c? noae? 12O18I9O aai 40O c acioiaaiei oa?ii.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny oaeiae a o/aiaiio i?ioean?,
cie?aia o eo?n? “I?iiaiaa? iaoiaee ia?iaee”, “Iiaeaethaaiiy oa
iioei?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo nenoai oa i?ioean?a”, eo?niaeo oa aeeieiiieo
?iaioao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
io?eiai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi. Iinoaiiaea caaea/ oa iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeeiiai? ni?eueii c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii ?, /anoeiai, ?c ni?aaaoi?aie
ioae?eaoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? ie?ai? ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo oa ?anioae?eainueeeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: Ia?aay ananithciay oeiea-naieia?
“No?oeoo?iay e oeie/aneay iee?iiaiaeii?iaeiinoue a iaoa?eaeao” (Ee?a,
1990); ?anioaeeeaineay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay eiioa?aioeey “Nia?aiaiiua
iaoa?eaeu, iai?oaeiaaiea e oaoiieiaee oi?i/iaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey
aeaoaeae iaoei” (Aaea?onue, Iiaiiieioee, 1993); Ia?oi? i?aeia?iaeii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Eiino?oeoe?ei? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoa??aee” (Euea?a,
1993); Anaoe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee nai?ia? (Ee?a, 1994);
I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “Iaoaeiciaanoai ? ia?iaea iaoae?a”
(Aeiiaoeuee, 1996); O?aoueiio I?aeia?iaeiiio n?iiic?oi? oe?a?inueeeo
?iaeaia??a-iaoai?e?a (Euea?a, 1997); Ae?oa?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Eiino?oeoe?ei? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoa??aee” (Euea?a, 1997);
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?ic?iaeaiiy oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo ?ano?niiuaaeieo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy a
oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue” (Ee?a, 1997); I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iaeiia?o? i?ioeane ? iaoa??aee a ii?ioeia?e iaoaeo?a??”
(Ee?a, 1997); Iaii??aeueiee neiiic?oi aei 100 ??//y aeaae. A.I.
A?eaeiaaa “Iaoaeeu e nieaau: Oaciaua i?aa?aua-iey, no?oeoo?a, naienoaa”
(Ee?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o 18 ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao,
a oiio /ene? 1 iiiia?ao??, 5 noaoae o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 1 ioae?eaoe??
o ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa 11 oacao aeiiia?aeae.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ?c
170 iaeiaioaaiue oa aeiaeaoeo, i?noeoue 150 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, 7
oaaeeoeue ? 48 ?ethno?aoe?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooii?e /anoei? iieacaii noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, aeooaeuei?noue ?
aeioe?euei?noue ?icaeoeo oeueiai iai?yieo iaoee, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ?
caaaeaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe. Iaaaaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io
oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo a ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? aea?oueny iaeyae ? aiae?c ?ia?o, ui aena?oeththoue
no/aniee noai noai?aiiy caoenieo iie?eoo?a, ui i?noyoue ai?. I?iaaaeaii
aiae?c canoinoaaiiy a?aeiieo iaoiae?a iiaa?oiaai? ia?iaee (OOI, AOII,
iaieaaee oiui) aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae iaoei,
?icaeyiooi ?o ?acoeueoaoeai?noue, aeacaii ia ?oi? aieiai? ia?aaaae ?
iaaeie?ee. ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy canoinoaaiiy oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee oa ??
aieeao ia no?oeoo?o ? o?i?/iee oa oaciaee neeaae iie?eoo?a.

I?iaiae?ciaaii oaeee aoaeoeaiee iaoiae i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?
aeaoaeae iaoei ? ?ino?oiaioo ?c eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, ye eaca?ia
ia?iaea c iieaaeaiiyi iiaa?oi?, cie?aia eaaoaaiiy. Aieiaieie
?acoeueoaoaie canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeo iiaa?oiaai? ia?iaee ?:
eieaeuei?noue ? aaceiioaeoi?noue iaa??aaiiy, aeniea oaeaee?noue ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?ioeano, iiaeeea?noue aeenoaioe?eii? ia?iaee o
aaaeeiaeinooiieo i?noeyo. Aaaeeeaei ? oa, ui iniaeeaino? eaca?ii?
ia?iaee (aenie? oaeaeeino? iaa??aaiiy oa ioieiaeaeaiiy) aeicaieythoue
?aae?coaaoe ??ci? no?oeoo?i? noaie: a?ae aeaiae?eoii? no?oeoo?e aei
i?e?ie?enoae?/ii? ? iaa?oue aii?oii?. Oea aeicaiey? oe?eani?yiiaaii
ea?oaaoe o?eaioaoi?/ieie aeanoeainoyie iie?eoo?a, ui iaiinyoueny.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aieeao eaca?ii? ia?iaee ia aieiai? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa
o?eeoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?eaieia?/ieo ia?, aeaioiaeaieo c
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, cai?iiiiiaaii canoinoaaiiy ? iiaeaeueoo
?ic?iaeo oeueiai iaoiaeo iiaa?oiaai? ia?iaee a ?aaeei? eaaoaaiiy,
iieaaeaiiy oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae
aoce?a oa?oy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaia oaoiieia?y io?eiaiiy eaaiaaieo ca
aeiiiiiaith eaca?a iie?eoo?a ia noaeyo ? eaca?ia OOeI aeey
?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano iane/aiiy ai?ii ? oi?ioaaiiy oaeei /eiii
aeeaieeo oa??a c iaiao?aeiei o?i?/iei oa no?oeoo?iei noaiii, a oaeiae
i?aaenoaaeai? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e oa aeanoeainoae ai?i-
oa ai?io?iiii?noeeo iie?eoo?a.

Oaoiieia?y oi?ioaaiiy ai?ii?noeiai oa?o neeaaeaeany c i?aeaioiaee
iiaa?oi?, iaianaiiy oa?o iaiacee, iieaaeaiiy oeueiai oa?o (eaaoaaiiy)
oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiy i?iiaiai eaca?a. Eaca?iiio eaaoaaiith i?aeaeaaaee
noae? O8 ? 12O18I9O c iaiacie (oiaueiith 0,1-0,2 ii), ui i?noeee
aii?oiee ai?, aai noi?o aii?oiiai ai?o c ea?a?aeii ai?o ?c
ca(ycoth/ith ?a/iaeiith (eea?i. Eaca?io ia?iaeo ? oa?iioeeeethaaiiy a
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 1273 873 E cae?enithaaee ia aacia?a?aiiio NI2
-eaca?? “EAOON-31” c iiooaei?noth aei?ii?ithaaiiy 1,2 Eao, ae?aiao?ii
ieyie eaca?iiai i?iiaiy a?ae 2,5 aei 3,0 ii, oaeaee?noth ia?anoaaiiy
eaca?iiai i?iiaiy a?aeiinii c?acea a?ae 0,4 aei 2 i/oa.

Iaoaeia?ao?/i? ? i?e?iaeth?iiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaee ia
i?e?ineiiao I?I-8I, ”Neophot-2” i?e ca?eueoaiiyo 40 – 1000 ?ac?a oa
oaa?aeii??? IIO-3. Oaciaee neeaae oa??a aecia/aee ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iei
aiae?cii ia aeeo?aeoiiao?? Ae?II-2 o i?aeiiio E( ai?ii?ithaaii?.
Aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?e iai?oc? 30 eA, aiiaeiiio no?oi? 8iA.
Oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy iieiaeaiiy aeeo?aeoe?eieo i?e?a neeaaeaea 0,05
a?aae.

?iciiae?e o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a ii aeeaei? eaaiaaiiai oa?o aecia/aee
iaoiaeii iaea-niaeo?ineii?? ia onoaiiaoe? “Camebax Sx50” i?e
i?enei?thth/iio no?oi? — 10 eA, nee? no?oio — aei 100 iA, ae?aiao??
ciiaeo — 1 iei, /ooeeaino? — 0,04 % (ai?no aeaiaio?a o oa?? aecia/aee ii
caoaeaeoth/iio aeaeo?iiiei io/eii E( — aei?ii?ithaaiith cae?ca) oa ia
?ano?iaiio aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? Hitachi S-4100 c ianaaeeith aeey
i?e?i?aioaaii-niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co o??ie NORAN c Si(L?)-aeaoaeoi?ii.

O?aeoia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue oa?oy c?ace?a i?iaiaeeeeny ia
neaioth/iio ?ano?iaiio aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? (?AI) “Camskan 4DV”.

Ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue aoaeaoeaai? noae? O8 i?ney iaianaiiy ia ??
iiaa?oith ai?i- oa ai?io?iiii?noeiai iie?eooy aecia/aee a oiiaao
i?e?iaeii? aa?aoe?? i?e e?iiaoieo oaiia?aoo?ao a iaea?eueo ?iciioe?aieo
o i?iieneiaino? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao: aiaea, 3 %-iee aiaeiee ?ic/ei
NaCl, 30 %-iee aiaeiee ?ic/ei KOH oa aiaeiee ?ic/ei H2SO4. *an
ei?ic?eieo aei?iaoaaiue caeaaeaa a?ae aa?aneaiino? na?aaeiaeua oaeei
/eiii, uia aoee cia/i? ao?aoe iane c?ace?a aac aaeeeeo ci?i ?o oi?ie oa
?ici???a ? neeaaeaa a?ae 10 aei 400 aiae. Ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue c?ace?a
ioe?ithaaee ii noaio ?o iiaa?oi? oa ao?ao? iane.

Ciinino?ee?noue c?ace?a i?e oa?o? eiacaiiyi ia iia?o?? i?iaiaeeee ia
onoaiiaoe? oi?oeueiaiai oa?oy e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a, ui iaee ?ici??
(30(40(10 ii, i?e oaeaeeinoyo eiacaiiy a?ae 0,01 aei 15 i/n ? oeneo a?ae
0,5 aei 30 IIa o ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? a?ae e?iiaoieo aei 800 E, o oiio
/ene? ? ia onoaiiaoe? oa ii iaoiaeeoe?, yea aoea ?ic?iaeaia o
Ee?anueeiio i?aeia?iaeiiio oi?aa?neoao? oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??. A yeino?
eiio?o?ea aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiai ae ?ici??o e?eueoey ?c aea?ii?oeiiai
i?eaeaaiai nieaao AEN6-E

Ioe?iea i?oaeii-ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae eaaiaaieo eaca?ii oa??a ia
noaeyo i?iaiaeeeany ca aeiiiiiaith noai?aiiai ia eaoaae?? iaoaeiciaanoaa
oa oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee aeonoiaeth?iiao?e/iiai eiiieaeno, yeee
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio aeie?a ( aeth?iiao?e/iiai oa aeonoe/iiai. Ca
aeiiiiiaith eaiaeo aeeiai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy io?eioaaee ae?aa?aie
aaeaaethaaiiy o eii?aeeiaoao: iaaaioaaeaiiy P ? aeeaeia a?aeaeoeo h, a
ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?o aiae?co ?ic?aoiaoaaee iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? iaoa??aeo
oa ioe?ithaaee ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? iie?eoo?a.

Ca aeiiiiiaith aeonoe/iiai eaiaeo ioe?ithaaeanue e?eoe?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o. O?eueo?oth/e aeonoe/i? neaiaee ca
aeiiiiiaith i?eno?ith AO-15 oa aeae?eyth/e iaea?eueo ?aciiaini? /anoioi?
?ioa?aaee, io?eioaaee ia ae?ai? inoee-eia?aoa N 9-8 cia?aaeaiiy
aiie?ooaee aeonoe/iiai neaiaeo. Ca aeiiiiiaith IAII o?enoaaee
cia?aaeaiiy oaeiai neaiaeo aeonoe/ii? oaee? ? aeey eiaeii? oi/ee e?eai?
?a?no?oaaeenue cia/aiiy iai?oae U (ia) i?e a?aeiia?aeiiio ?e cia/aii?
/ano ( ( in) oa ?ic?aoiaoaaee ieiueie S1 oa S2. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieiuei
S1/S2 ia?aii ca oa?aeoa?enoeeo e?eoeino? iaoa??aeo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? c o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui oi?ia ? ?ici??e ca?ia
(ae?aieaiue) eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo aieeaathoue ia eiai iai?oaeaiee
noai, i?iaaaeaii aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio ai?eaeieo eiiiiceoe?e caeaaeii a?ae ia’?iiiai ai?noo
ci?oeithaaeueii? oace oa o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaiiaithaa/a ?
iao?eoe?.

A iniiao ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio, ui aeieea? i?e oa?o?, acyoi iaoiae A.A. Aai?ia. Iaoa??ae
eiiiiceoe?? iiaeaeueiaaiee aacia?a?aii-a?iiaaiei na?aaeiaeuai c?
no?oeoo?ith, ooai?aiith aei?yieaieie ? i???ioiaaieie ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii
iiaa?oi? oa?oy oeee?iae?e/ieie aieieiaie c iaeiaeiaeie ia?a??caie.
I?ino?? i?ae aieieiaie caiiaiaii niieo/iei na?aaeiaeuai-iao?eoeath,
i?oaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee yei? a?aei?ii? a?ae a?aeiia?aeieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aieieii. O yeino? iaoaeaai? iao?eoe? aenooiaea noaeue 12O18I9O, a
ci?oeithth/eie ae?aieaiiyie ai?eaee Fe2B aai FeB.

Ia eiiiiceoe?eiee iaoa??ae ae?thoue neee ii?iaeueiiai oeneo, ye?
aeeeeeathoue a iueiio noai iiacaeiaaeiueiai noeneo (( 1(, ? neee oa?oy,
ui aeeeeeathoue noai iiacaeiaaeiueiai cnoao (( 12( ? (( 13(. A
i?oaei?e iaeano? oe? noaie ?icae?eythoueny, ui aeicaiey? ae??ooaaoe aea?
naiino?ei? caaea/?.

Ae?ac aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??ioo eiioeaio?aoe?? cnoaieo iai?oaeaiue
ia? aeaeyae:

S= ;

(1)

aea Gf – iiaeoeue cnoao ae?aieaiue (oace FeB aai Fe2B);

Gm – iiaeoeue cnoao iao?eoe? (noaeue 12O18I9O);

( oa (– ia`?iiee ai?no a?aeiia?aeii iao?eoe? ? ae?aieaiue (oace FeB aai
Fe2B).

I?e ?ica( ycaii? caaea/? i?i ?icoyaoaaiiy-noene iaaca?iiae?th/eo
eiiiiiaio?a iai?oaeaiiy aoei iaea?aeaii ianooiia ??aiyiiy:

Q =

(m = 4-3(m; ( = Gm/ Gf ; (2)

E1 = (Ef + ( Em + (3/4 (3/4 (3/4 (3/4 (3/4 (3/4 (3/4 (3/4Ef – iiaeoeue
THiaa ae?aieaiue (oace FeB aai Fe2B); Em — iiaeoeue THiaa iao?eoe?
(noaeue 12O18I9O), (m, (f — eiao?oe??ioe Ioaniia a?aeiia?aeii iao?eoe?
oa ae?aieaiue.

?ic?aoiaai? ca oeeie ae?acaie ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ?nio?
oaeee ia( ?iiee ai?no aeeth/aiue (35%), i?e yeeo o?eno?oueny i?i?ioi
?ioaineaiinoae eieaeueieo aeioe/ieo iai?oaeaiue a iao?eoe?. Aeuei
cia/aiiyi iiaeoey i?oaeiino? Af oace FeB a?aeiia?aeaei a?eueo aenie?
cia/aiiy E1r ii??aiyii c oacith Fe2B. I?e oeueiio a ai?ii?noeeo
eiiiiceoe?yo, a yeeo iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaiiaithaa/a ? iao?eoe?
aeecuee?, iai?eeeaae aeey nenoaie 12O18I9O — Fe2B, eiioeaio?aoe?y
iai?oaeaiue cieaeo?oueny. Iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeey oiia oa?oy eiiiiceoe??, ui i?noyoue aeecueei 35%
(ia.) aenieiiiaeoeueieo ae?aieaiue.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e oa?o? iaoa??ae?a c? noiai/aoith
no?oeoo?ith ca?ai ia? i?noea ?? ci?ia. Ia iiaa?oi? a cii? oa?oy
ooai?ththoueny ae??ai? ??aiiini? ae?aieaiiy aiane?aeie iiae??aiaiiy
aeaiae?eo?a, a oaeiae aeeth/aiiy, ui eaaeaoue ai?eciioaeueii. A?eueo
aeeaeii? oa?e caeeoathoueny noiai/aoeie, ye o aeo?aeiiio noai?. Iaaooue,
oea coiiaeaii oei, ui ooai?th?oueny a?aae??ioia ii oiauei? iie?eooy, yea
aea? ciiao ?aae?coaaoe oiiao ciai?oiueiai oa?oy – i?aaeei iiceoeaiiai
a?aae??ioa aeanoeainoae ?.A. E?aaaeuenueeiai. C iaeyaeo ia oea aeieeea
iaiao?aei?noue ioe?iee oaeiai ?iaeo no?oeoo?, uia iaaeae?
oe?eani?yiiaaii ?o noai?thaaoe.

Oiio ?c canoinoaaiiyi aiae?oe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a ?icaeyiooi aieea oi?ie oa
ai?noo ae?aieaiue ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo i?e
oa?o? eiacaiiyi. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o c aeeth/aiiyie, i???ioiaaieie ii?iaeueii aei
iiaa?oi?, caaacia/othoue cia/ii aeu? iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeo
ii??aiyii ?c noa?e/ieie. I?e oeueiio oi?ia aeeth/aiue a?eueo aieeaa? ia
ii?iaeuei? iiaeoe? Ai ? A1, i?ae ia iiaeoe? cnoao G0 oa G12 ? oeae
aieea c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi ??cieoe? i?ae oa?aeoa?enoeeaie eiiiiiaio?a
iao?eoe? ? ae?aieaiue.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo iaiacee, ia?aiao??a eaaoaaiiy oa oa?iioeeee?/ii?
ia?iaee ca aeiiiiiaith eaca?iiai i?iiaiy ia o?i?/iee ? oaciaee neeaae,
no?oeoo?o oa o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ai?i- oa ai?io?iiii?noeeo
iie?eoo?a. Aeine?aeaeaii iiaeeea?noue ea?oaaiiy o?eaioaoi?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie ai?ii?noeeo eaaiaaieo iie?eoo?a oeyoii ?o
oa?iioeeeethaaiiy oa noai?aiiyi a?aae??ioieo ii oiauei? no?oeoo?
eaca?iei iieaaeaiiyi.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee c( ynoaaoe, ui a ?acoeueoao?
eaca?iiai eaaoaaiiy ia iiaa?oi? c?ace?a ooai?ththoueny ciie eaaoaaiiy
oa oa?i?/iiai aieeao, i?ae yeeie ciaoiaeeoueny iniiaiee iaoae. Eaaiaai?
oa?e iaee o nai?io neeaae? no?oeoo?o aaoaeoe/iiai oeio nenoaie Fe-B-C.

Ia aeeo?aeoia?aiao iieaaeaiiai oa?o ia noae? O8 aeyaeythoueny ?aoeaene
oaeeo oac: ( -Fe, FeO, Fe23(N,A)6, Fe3(N,A), Fe3C, FeB. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
i?e eaaoaaii? aii?oiei ai?ii iniiaiith ci?oeithaaeueiith oacith ?
iiiiai?eae FeB, a oie /an ye i?e eaaoaaii? o noi?o? A+A4N
ci?oeithaaeueia oaca neeaaea?oueny a iaeiaeia?e e?eueeino? c FeB ? Fe2B.

?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiee aiae?c eaaiaaieo oa??a ia noae? O8 iieacaa, ui
na?aaei?e ai?no iniiaieo aeaiaio?a o ieo noaiiaeoue (% ca ianith): A —
1,198; N — 1,5; Fe — 96,73. Oa?aeoa? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?o oa
aoaeaoeth o cae?c? o iai?yieo a?ae iiaa?oi? aaeea iao?eoe? ia noae? O8
na?ae/eoue i?i ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo aoaeaoeth (~1,5 %) ? ai?o (~2,2 %) a
i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? ? ?o iinooiiaa cieaeaiiy a aeeaeio, i?e oeueiio ai?
? o?eueee a cii? eaaoaaiiy, aea a?aeaoaaeiny iiaia ?icieaaeaiiy noae?.
Ia i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo aoaeaoeth o eaaiaai?e cii? nooo?ai aieeaathoue
ianiiai?ii? i?ioeane, a oiio /ene?, iiaeeeai, ianiia?aiin.

Aiae?c e?iaoeee oi?ioaaiiy eaaiaaieo oa??a iieaco?, ui oiaueia
ai?eaeiiai oa?o ia noae? 12O18I9O o 2-3 ?ace ieae/a, i?ae ia noae? O8.
No?oeoo?a oaeiai iie?eooy neeaaea?oueny c aonoai?oo oa ai?eae?a FeB,
Fe2B, Cr2B, a ia?ao?aeii? ciie – c oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio ai?o a aonoai?o? ?
ea?a?aeo o?iia Cr23N6. Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui ai?no oace FeB iacia/iee
ii??aiyii ?c e?euee?noth ai?eae?a Fe2B.

I?e?iaeth?iiao?e/i? aeai? ?iciiae?eo i?e?ioaa?aeino? ii aeeaei? iie?eooy
oa ciie oa?i?/iiai aieeao aeey noaeae O8 oa 12O18I9O, ye i?ney
eaaoaaiiy, oae ? i?ney aeiaeaoeiai? OOeI, i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en.1.
Iaeneiaeueia i?e?ioaa?ae?noue ia iiaa?oi? ni?aiaaea? c iaea?eueoith
eiioeaio?aoe??th ai?o oa aoaeaoeth. I?e oeueiio i?e?ioaa?ae?noue
eaaiaaieo oa??a ia noae? O8 a?eueoa, i?ae ia noae? 12O18I9O ? noaiiaeoue
a?aeiia?aeii 11 oa 6,5 AIa. Oea coiiaeaii, iiaeeeai, ??cieoeath oaciaiai
oa no?oeoo?iiai neeaaeo iie?eoo?a.

?ioaineo?eoaaoe i?ioean eaca?iiai eaaoaaiiy, oiaoi ca?eueoeoe oiaueio
eaaiaaiiai oa?o, iiaeia aeae?eueeiia oeyoaie. Ia oiaueio eaaiaaii? ciie
aieeaa? ii?yae c ?aaeeiaie eaca?ii? ia?iaee, oaeiae o?i?/iee neeaae
iaiacee

(A aai noi?o A+A4N) (?en.2) oa aeiaeaoeiai i?iaaaeaia eaca?ia OOeI
(?en.3). Oae, aeei?enoaiiy iaiacee c aii?oiiai ai?o oa A4N i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ca?eueoaiiy oiaueie oa?o ii??aiyii c eaaoaaiiyi o?eueee aii?oiei
ai?ii a 1,3 — 1,5 ?ace. I?e oeueiio ia noae? O8 oeae aoaeo a?eueoee,
i?ae ia noae? 12O18I9O.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e aieea OOeI ia no?oeoo?o, oaciaee ? o?i?/iee neeaae
iieaaeaiiai oa?o, anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi e?aoiino? oa?iioeeee?a
ca?eueoo?oueny oiaueia eaaiaaiiai oa?o ? ci?ith?oueny ai?no o?i?/ieo
aeaiaio?a. Iai?eeeaae, iiney ia?oiai oa?iioeeeeo ia iiaa?oii c?acea c?
noae? O8 ca?a?no?iaaii caieueoaiiy eieueeinoi aoaeaoeth (aei 2.5% ii
iani) c iaeii/aniei iaaeiiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?o (?en.3). Aiaeii/an ci
caieueoaiiyi eieueeinoi oa?iioeeeeia oiaueia eaaiaaiiai oa?o c?inoa?.
I?e oeueiio eieueeinoue aoaeaoeth a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?i iaaea?, a ai?o –
c?inoa?. I?e caieueoaiii e?aoiinoi oa?iioeeeethaaiiy ai?no aoaeaoeth a
iie?eooi iacia/ii iaaea?, a ai?o caieueoo?oueny. Oea iiaeia iia(c ycaoe
?c cia/iei ianiiai?iiei i?ioeanii, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e eaca?i?e
ia?iaoe?. I?e ianooiiiio oa?iioeeeethaaiii oa?aeoa? ia?a?iciiaeieo
aoaeaoeth oa ai?a ciiith?oueny.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?e oa?iioeeeethaaiii iie?ioaa?aeinoue eaaiaaiiai
oa?o o?ioe caieueoo?oueny, a ?? ?iciiaeie ii aeeaeii oa?o iineoue aieueo
?iaiiii?iee oa ieaaiee oa?aeoa?. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe ciiiith oaciaiai
neeaaeo oa aeenia?niinoth no?oeoo?e eaaiaaieo oa?ia. Oae, i?e
aeiaeaoeiaiio oa?iioeeeethaaii? cieea? oaca Fe23(C,B)6 oa c( yaey?oueny
ai?eae Fe2B. Iaoaeia?aoi/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy c?aceia iieacaei, ui i?ney
eaca?ii? OOeI aie/anoinoue oa?o ai?eaeia iaioa, a iiaeoa? ia?
ae?iaiica?ienoo no?oeoo?o. I?e oeueiio iaea?eueo aenie? oa?aeoa?enoeee
ia? iieaaeaia iie?eooy ia noae? O8 i?ney /ioe?ee?aoii? OOeI.

?enoiie 2 — Aieea OOeI oa neeaaeo ai?ii?noei? iaiacee ia oiaueio
eaaiaaiiai oa?o.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui i?e eaca?iiio eaaoaaiii oa ianooii?e OOeI
niinoa?iaa?oueny eiieo?aioeiy aeaio i?ioeania – iaeiie/aiiy iai?oaeaiue
(aieiaiei /eiii oa?i?/ieo ? iai?oaeaiue, iia`ycaieo c oaciaei iaeeaiii)
oa ?o ?aeaenaoei?, a iie?eooyo iiaeeeaa ooai?aiiy o?iuei. I?ioa, i?e
eaaoaaiii noaei 12O18I9O ooai?aieo o?iuei ia aoei aeyaeaii ia a?aei?io
a?ae eaaiaaieo ai?ii?noeeo cii ia noae? O8. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueoo
noeeuei?noue aoaeaoeaai? noae? O8 aei o??ueiiooai?aiiy. I?iaaaeaiiy
i?ney eaaoaaiiy oa OOeI a?aeioneo i?e oaiia?aoo?? 700-1000 E ni?eyei
onoiaiith i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy oaeeo o??uei.

I?aeaeuaiiy aeanoeainoae ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a, o oiio /ene?
o?eaioaoi?/ieo, iiaeia oaeiae aeinyaiooe noai?aiiyi iie?eoo?a c
a?aae??ioieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ye ii ?o oiauei?, oae ? acaeiaae
iiaa?oi? oa?oy. Oae, iniiao aeey aeinoia??ii? ioe?iee ii?iaeueii? ?iaioe
ia?e oa?oy i?e ciiooaaii? aea? i?aaeei iiceoeaiiai a?aae??ioa iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae, ca?aeii yeiio aeey caaacia/aiiy ciai?oiueiai oa?oy ii??
cnoao ( a cii? eiioaeoo oaa?aeeo o?e iiaeiai aooe iaioei, i?ae ia
aeaye?e aeeaei? z, oiaoi iiaeiia aeio?eioaaoeny oiiaa ((/(z((.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii, oeyoii iiaea?eiiai iieaaeaiiy iiaa?oi? iie?eooy
i?iiaiai eaca?a aoei io?eiaii ai?ii?noea iie?eooy c eiia?iiaaiith
aoaeiaith – ia iiaa?oi? ae?aieaiiy eoeynoi? oi?ie, a o aeeaei? iie?eooy
c? noiai/aoeie aeaiae?eoaie. A ?acoeueoao? o?eaioaoi?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue
anoaiiaeaii i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? iiaea?eii iieaaeaieo iie?eoo?a
ii??aiyii c eaaiaaieie i?eaeecii o 1,5-1,7 ?ace i?e e?iiaoieo
oaiia?aoo?ao ? a?eueo i?ae o o?e ?ace i?e i?aeaeuaieo (aei 770 E), ui
iia`ycaii c iniaeeainoyie ?o no?oeoo?, ye? caaacia/othoue ii oiauei?
iie?eooy iiceoeaiee a?aae??io aeanoeainoae. I?e oeueiio iiaa?oiaaee oa?
?c i?oaeii-ieanoe/iith ae??aiica?ienoith no?oeoo?ith ni?ey?
naiii?aai?caoe?? aoi?eiieo no?oeoo?, a ?icoaoiaai? ieae/a oa?e
noiai/aoi? no?oeoo?e ci?oeithth/eo oac aoaeoeaii aeaiio??othoue ciai?oi?
ii?iaeuei? oa cnoai? iaaaioaaeaiiy. Noai?ththoueny ni?eyoeea? oiiae
ciai?oiueiai oa?oy, i?e yeeo ii?? cnoao a cii? eiioaeoo iiaa?oiiue oa?oy
iaioee, i?ae ia aeaye?e aeeaei?, ? ciin eieae?co?oueny a oiieiio oa??,
ia caoiiethth/e ianooiieo aeeaeiieo oa??a iaoa??aeo, ui a oe?eiio
ni?aiaaea? c aiae?oe/ieie ?ic?aooieaie iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
iie?eoo?a i?e oa?o?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? oa ciinino?eeino?
aoaeaoeaai? ?ino?oiaioaeueii? noae? O8 iiaea aooe aoaeoeaia ??
eiia?iiaaia eaaoaaiiy o?iiii oa ai?ii. Iiaa?oiaaa eaaiaaia ciia
i?aaenoaaeyea niaith ??aiii??ii ?icieaaeaiee oa?, yeee ia? oiaueio aei
250 iei. I?e?ioaa?ae?noue eaaiaaii? ai?ii oa o?iiii ciie ciaoiaeeeany o
iaaeao a?ae 10 aei 8,5 AIa. I?iaaaeaiee i?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiee
aiae?c o?aaeaii? iiaa?oiaai? eaaiaaii? ciie ia oeueiio iie?eoo?
aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe, ui ai?no ai?o oa o?iio noaiiaea aeecueei 18 % aaa.
(o?iio) ? 7,5 — 8 % aaa. (ai?o).

Aei?iaiaoaaiiy ia ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue iieacaee, ui iaeiaioa ei?ic?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny c on?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao ia
c?aceao c ai?io?iiii?noeei iie?eooyi. Aaaiaa oaeaee?noue ei?ic?? aeey
ai?io?iiii?noeiai iie?eooy neeaaeaea o aiae? 0,0238 ea/i2n•10-7, o 3 %
?ic/ei? NaCl – 0,0279 ea/i2n•10-7, o 30 % aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? KOH – 0,0156
ea/i2n•10-7 oa o aeaoeeii?iaeueiiio aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? H2SO4 – 0,8302
ea/i2n•10-7. Ii??aiyii c iie?ioaiith noaeeth O8 ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue
oaei? ae noae? c o?iiiai?ii?noeei iie?eooyi, io?eiaiei ca aeiiiiiaith
eaca?a, i?aeaeueeanue iaeaea o 10 – 20 ?ac?a. sse iieacaa
?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiee oa iaoaeia?ao?/iee aiae?ce, eaca?ia ia?iaea c
iieaaeaiiyi iiaa?oi? ni?eyea ?ic/eiaiith o?iio oa ai?o ? a?eueo
??aiii??iiio ?iciiae?eo o?iio o oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei?, ui a oe?eiio i?ecaaei
aei i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? i?ioe i?aee?enoae?oii? ei?ic??, oae ye
a?aeiii, ui caaaeueiei i?eioeeiii i?aeaeuaiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?
nieaaa ? oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy iaeii??aeiino? oaciaiai neeaaeo.

O i( yoiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ioe?iee i?oaeii-ieanoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a ca aeiiiiiaith aeonoiaeth?iiao?e/iiai
eiiieaeno ? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe o?eaioaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?ic?iaeaieo iie?eoo?a a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a
(iaaaioaaeaiy, oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy oa oaiia?aoo?a na?aaeiaeua) c iaoith
aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo oiia ?o aenieoaoaoe??.

Aeey ii??aiyiiy i?oaeii-ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae iie?eoo?a
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ??ci? oeie ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a – a?ae aeeooc?eieo
aei io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith eaca?iiai eaaoaaiiy oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe ioe?iee i?e?ie?eoeino? ai?eaeieo eaaiaaieo oa aeeooc?eieo
iie?eoo?a iieacaee, ui iaea?eueoa e?eoe?noue a?aei?/a?oueny o
aeeooc?eiiio ai?eaeiiio iie?eoo? (oaca Fe2B) ia noae? O10 – aac?ici??iee
eiao?oe??io S1/S2 aei??aith? 0,240. Aoaeo aeayeiai i?aeaeuaiiy
i?e?ie?eoeino? ai?eaeiiai aeeooc?eiiai iie?eooy ia noae? O10 ii??aiyii c
oaeiai aea oeio iie?eooyi ia noae? O8 iiaeeeai iiynith?oueny a?eueo
caeaaeaeaiith a?aieoeath “ai?eaeiee oa? — iao?eoey” ia noae? O10, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy iai?oaeaiue ia i?e ? a?aeiia?aeii o
ai?eaeiiio oa?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy a??ia?aeiino? neiethaaiiy eiai. Eaca?ia
iieaaeaiiy aeeooc?eiiai ai?eaeiiai oa?o ia noae? O8 i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy iieacieea e?eoeino? aei cia/aiiy 0,226. Oea iiaea aooe
iiyniaii ci?iith no?oeoo?iiai noaio ai?eaeiiai oa?o, a naia
ia?aoai?aiiyi oa?o ai?eae?a cae?ca i?ae /an ieaaeaiiy ia
ae??aiiaeenia?nio no?oeoo?o c ai?eaeiith aaoaeoeeith. I?ney eaca?iiai
eaaoaaiiy e?eoe?noue ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a ii??aiyii c aeeooc?eieie
iie?eooyie iaioa, ui coiiaeaii o ia?oo /a?ao iaioith e?euee?noth
ai?eae?a oa iayai?noth a?eueoi? e?eueeino? ( -Fe(C). Oa?iioeeee?/ia
ia?iaea ai?ii?noeeo eaaiaaieo iie?eoo?a ni?ey? ia o?eueee i?aeaeuaiith
oiaueie eaaiaaiiai oa?o, iacia/iiio i?aeaeuaiith i?e?ioaa?aeino?, aea e
oaeiae ciaioaiith ?ici???a ca?ai, ciyooth aioo??oi?o iai?oaeaiue ?, ye
?acoeueoao, ciaioaiith i?e?ie?eoeino? c 0,213 aei 0,2. Oaeei /eiii,
eaca?ia OOeI ni?ey? ciaioaiith e?eoeino? ai?eaeieo iie?eoo?a ia noaeyo ?
ye aeniiaie – i?aeaeuaiith i?aoeacaeaoiino? aeaoaeae iaoei, ui iathoue
oaea iie?eooy.

A?aeiii, ui ciinino?ee?noue iie?eoo?a iiaeia c aeineoue aenieith
a??ia?aei?noth ioe?ieoe ii ni?aa?aeiioaiith I( /A, yea a?aoiao?
i?oaeii-ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? iie?eoo?a ? caeaaeeoue oaeiae a?ae nooiaiy
iaeii??aeiino? no?oeoo?e oa ??aiy i?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o cii?
eieaeueiiai eiioaeoo. Ciinino?ee?noue aoaea a?eueoith o aeiaaeeo, eiee
oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ciaioo?oueny. Oaeei /eiii, c? ca?eueoaiiyi cia/aiue
iiaeoey i?oaeiino? A ia? c?inoaoe ciinino?ee?noue iaoa??aeo.

Oae ye na?aae ai?eaeieo iie?eoo?a, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith
eiioeaio?iaaieo aeaea?ae aia?a??, a?eueoa i?oaei?noue o eaaiaaiiio
iie?eoo? i?ney aeiaeaoeiai? /ioe?ee?aoii? OOeI iie?eoo?a (A=261 AIa)
ii??aiyii c o?eueee eaaiaaieie ai?ii?noeeie iie?eooyie (A=255 IIa), oi,
a??ia?aeii, iaea?eueoa ciinino?ee?noue aoaea naia o iie?eoo? i?ney
aeiaeaoeiai? OOeI.

Aaaeeeaith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ? oaeiae aeeaeia i?iieeiaiiy ?iaeaioi?a ( h
o ai?ii?noea iie?eooy i?e iino?eiiio iaaaioaaeaii? ia i?ioyc?
aecia/aiiai /ano. Oey aaee/eia oa?aeoa?eco? i?ioean ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoa??aeo i?ae /an aeo?eiee ?iaeaioi?a i?ae
iaaaioaaeaiiyi, a oaeiae aeicaiey? iiina?aaeeiaaii ioe?ithaaoe
ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo iie?eooy.

?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiue aeeaeie i?iieeiaiiy ?iaeaioi?a aeey ai?eaeieo
iie?eoo?a ia noae? O8 iieacaee, ui iaeiaioa cia/aiiy (D h a?aei?/a?oueny
aeey aeeooc?eieo ai?eaeieo iie?eoo?a (0,12 iei), a iaea?eueoa – aeey
eaaiaaiiai ai?ii?noeiai iie?eooy (0,26 iei). Aeiaeaoeiaa /ioe?ee?aoia
oa?iioeeee?/ia ia?iaea iacia/ii cieaeo? oeae iieaciee. I?iaaaeaiiy
iieaaeaiiy aeeooc?eiiai ai?eaeiiai iie?eooy i?aeaeuo? ( h aei 0,15 iei.
Oaeei /eiii, c aeayeeie i?eiouaiiyie, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aeey
ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith eaca?ii? ia?iaee,
aeaoi?iaoe?eia ci?oeiaiiy i?iyaey? naaa a?eueoa i?e canoinoaaii?
aeiaeaoeiai? /ioe?ee?aoii? OOeI. C?inoaiiy ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo
iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o ni?aiaaea? o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ?c c?inoaiiyi
i?e?ioaa?aeino? ai?eaeiiai iie?eooy.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca iaoiaeii iai?a?eaiiai aaeaaethaaiiy
?iaeaioi?a (iaoiae e?iaoe/ii? i?e?ioaa?aeino?) ii ioe?ioe? aeanoeainoae
ai?eaeieo iie?eoo?a iieacaee aenieo eiai aoaeoeai?noue oa
aeioe?euei?noue iaaeae? ?icaeaaoe iaoiae aeonoi-aeth?iiao?e/iiai aiae?co
ye o aiae?oe/iiio, oae ? o aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ieai?.

Ine?eueee oa?oy aeeeeea? o iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao aeaiaio?a oa?oy ?icaeoie
oe?ei? aaie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo, oaciaeo, aeeooc?eieo oa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, ye? oae neeaaeii aca?iiae?thoue i?ae niaith, ui e?euee?niee
iien oeeo yaeu iaeaea iaiiaeeeai i?iaanoe, a aeey aea/aiiy oaeeo nenoai
oeyoii ianeaiiai aenia?eiaioo iaiao?aeia aaeeea e?euee?noue aeine?ae?a,
oi o ?iaio? aoee aeei?enoai? iaoiaee ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo. ?o
canoinoaaiiy o i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a oa i?e ia?iaoe?
io?eiaieo aeaieo aeicaieeei nooo?ai nei?ioeoe /an aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e
aenie?e aeinoia??iino? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

C aeei?enoaiiyi neiao?e/ieo iaeiiiiceoe?eieo ?ioioaaaeueieo ieai?a
ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo Aiena oa Aaieaia aoei aeineoue aeieeaaeii aea/aii
aieea ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a ia oa?oy oa ciin ai?ii?noeiai oa?o, io?eiaiiai
c aeiiiiiaith eaca?iiai eaaoaaiiy c iaiacee ia noae? 12O18I9O.

C on?o oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia i?ioean aenieoaoaoe??, aoei
aea?aii: O1 – oaiia?aoo?a O, E; O2 – ieoiiee oene ?ieo, IIa; O3 –
oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy, V, i/n.

Aaeaeaaoi? iiaeae? ?ic?aooieo aaee/eie ciino oa eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy o
caeaaeiino? a?ae oeeo o?ueio oaeoi??a i?aaenoaaeaii o ae?acao (3) oa
(4):

; (3)

. (4)

Ei?enooth/enue oeeie iiaeaeyie iiaeia i?iaiicoaaoe cia/aiiy
ei?oioei?ioa oa?oy oa ciino ai?iiinoeiai iie?eooy ia noaei a
caeaaeiinoi aiae oaiia?aoo?e, ieoiiiai oeneo oa oaeaeeinoi eiacaiiy
(?en.4, 5).

I?e oi?oeaaiio oa?o? eiacaiiyi ia iia?o?? oaeaee?noue aca?iiiai
eiioaeooaaiiy c?ace?a ? ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii, ui aecia/a? ?o
i?aoeacaeaoi?noue. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy ?ioaineai?noue
ciiooaaiiy ? eiao?oe??io oa?oy ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a ciaioo?oueny. I?e
a?aeiinii iaeeo oaeaeeinoyo eiacaiiy (0,1 – 0,5 i/n), ye? ia
aeeeeeathoue aenieeo oaiia?aoo? ia iiaa?oiyo oa?oy, niinoa??aa?oueny
e?eoea ?oeioaaiiy ? aee?eooaaiiy aaeeeeo /anoeiie ai?eaeiiai oa?o, ui
iaoiiaeth? a?aeiinii aenie? cia/aiiy ciino. A iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?
iniiaiee aieea ia oa?oy ai?ii?noeeo iiaa?oiiue aeyaeythoue i?ioeane
ieeneaiiy.

?ioaineai?noue ieeneaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio a cii?
oa?oy. I?e iaeeo oaeaeeinoyo eiacaiiy ii?yae c ae?eyieaie, iie?eoeie
ieneaeaie, iiaeia niinoa??aaoe ae?eyiee ai?ii?noeeo oa??a, ui
?oeiothoueny e?eoei. I?iaeoeoe ciino neeaaeathoueny c oiieiai ii?ioeo
ieneae?a ? ae??aieo /anoeiie ai?eae?a. Ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?eueo ?ioaineaiiai ieeneaiiy, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
cieaeaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy oa ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy. I?e
oaiia?aoo?? aeua ca 800 E ii/eia?oueny ?ioaineaia ieeneaiiy iie?eooy c
ooai?aiiyi ieneae?a cae?ca ? ai?iiai aia?ae?eaeo A2I3, yeee i?e oeueiio
ciaoiaeeoueny a ??aeeiio noai? ? aeeiio? ?ieue ianoeea. I?e eiiiaoiie
oaiia?aoo?i oa i?e caieueoaiii ieoiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aiaeaoaa?oueny
aeaoi?iaoeiy ci ciioeiaiiyi iiaa?oiiue, ui o?ooueny, oaa?aeinoue
c?inoa? oa ciioeiaii /anoee aee?eoothoueny.

?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? i?e ?icaeyae? oeeo iiaeaeae, aeicaieythoue aea?aoe
iaeaieueo ?aoe?iiaeueii niiaaiaeiioaiiy aeacaieo ia?aiao?ia aeey
eaaiaaiiai ai?eaeiiai oa?o c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy eiai a ?aaeueieo oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe??. Iiaoaeiaaii caeaaeiinoi oaeiae aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe,
ui eaaiaaii ai?ii?noei oa?e a oe?ieiio aeeaiaciii oiia oa?oy
caa?iaathoue aenieo ciininoieeinoue caaaeyee noaaieueiinoi aeanoeainoae
(?en. 4, 5).

?enoiie 4 — Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy ai?ii?noeiai iie?eooy ia
noae? 12O18I9O a?ae ieoiiiai oeneo oa oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy i?e
oaiia?aoo??: 1 — 293 E, 2 — 533 E, 3 — 773 E.

?enoiie 5 — Caeaaei?noue ciino ai?ii?noeiai iie?eooy ia noae? 12O18I9O
a?ae oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy oa oaiia?aoo?e i?e ieoiiiio oeneo: 1 – 3 IIa, 2
– 2 IIa, 3 – 1 IIa.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE AeENA?OAOe??

1. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a
i?aeaeuaiiy cii-nino?eeino? aeaoaeae aoce?a oa?oy iaianaiiyi ai?ii?noeeo
iie?eoo?a, ?ic?iaeaii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii oaoiieia?/iee
i?aeo?ae uiaei noai?aiiy iie?eoo?a c i?aeaeuaiieie o?eaioaoi?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia aiae?oe/iiio aeine?aeaeaii?
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio iaoa??aeo i?e iaaaioaaeaii? eiai oa?oyi
oa aeyaeaieo caeiiii??iinoyo oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e, oaciaiai ? o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo, o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iie?eoo?a, io?eiaieo eaca?iith
ia?iaeith a ?aaeei? eaaoaaiiy, iieaaeaiiy oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiy.

2. Aiae?oe/ii aeine?aeaeaii iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, ui aeieea?
i?ae /an oa?oy o i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo c
ae?aieaiiyie ai?eae?a cae?ca. Anoaiiaeaii aca?iica’ ycie i?ae
eiioeaio?aoe??th iai?oaeaiue, ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
eiiiiceoo ? ia(c ?iiiai ai?noo ? oi?ie ae?aieaiue. Aeyaeaii, ui
ae?aieaiiy noiai/aoi? oi?ie caaacia/othoue a?eueo aenie? iaoai?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeo, i?ae noa?e/i?.

3. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y iaianaiiy iie?eoo?a ia iniia? ai?o iaoiaeaie
eaca?iiai eaaoaaiiy oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiy ia noaeyo O8 oa 12O18I9O.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?o ii?aeiaiiy a iaeiiio oaoiieia?/iiio i?ioean?
aeicaiey? caaaeyee ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a nooo?ai
i?aeaeuoaaoe oiaueio eaaiaaieo oa??a ? oe?eani?yiiaaii ea?oaaoe ?o
o?i?/iei oa no?oeoo?iei neeaaeii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
e?aoiino? oa?iioeeee?a oiaueia eaaiaaiiai oa?o c?inoa? ? a?aeaoaa?oueny
ia?a?iciiae?e ai?noo ai?o oa aoaeaoeth o iiaa?oiaaiio oa??.
Aeine?aeaeaii ia?a?iciiae?e aeaiaio?a i?e eaca?i?e OOeI.

4. Aeine?aeaeaii o?i?/iee neeaae, no?oeoo?o oa o?ceei-iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? eaaiaaieo ai?ii oa o?iiii iie?eoo?a ia noae? O8, ye?
ii?yae c a?aeiinii aenieith oaa?ae?noth iathoue i?aeaeuaiee ai?no o?iio
aeey caaacia/aiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?. Oae? iie?eooy ii ciinino?eeino?
ia iinooiathoueny aeeooc?eiei ai?eaeiei iie?eooyi, a ii ei?ic?ei?e
no?eeino? ia?aaaaeathoue ?o.

5. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean iiaea?eiiai iieaaeaiiy ai?ii?noeeo
eaaiaaieo iie?eoo?a eaca?ii, yeee caaacia/o? ii oiauei? iie?eooy
iiceoeaiee a?aae??io aeanoeainoae. I?e oeueiio iiaa?oiaaee oa? ?c
i?oaeii-ieanoe/iith ae??aiica?ienoith no?oeoo?ith ni?ey?
naiii?aai?caoe?? aoi?eiieo no?oeoo? i?e oa?o?, a ?icoaoiaai? ieae/a oa?e
noiai/aoi? no?oeoo?e ci?oeithth/eo ae?aieaiue aoaeoeaii aeaiio??othoue
ciai?oi? ii?iaeuei? oa cnoai? iaaaioaaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
ciinino?ee?noue a?aae??ioii-iieaaeaieo ii oiauei? ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a
? aeuith ii??aiyii c eaaiaaieie iie?eooyie.

6. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee e?eoeino? ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a,
io?eiaieo eaca?iei eaaoaaiiyi oa oa?iioeeeethaaiiyi, oa ioe?iai? ?o
i?oaeii-ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai
aeonoiaeth?iiao?e/iiai eiiieaeno. Aecia/aii, ui /ioe?ee?aoia
oa?iioeeee?/ia ia?iaea eaca?ii ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith i?oaeii-ieanoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a.

7. Iaea?aeaii iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, ye? aaeaeaaoii iienothoue aieea
ieoiiiai oeneo, oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy oa oaiia?aoo?e ia ciinino?ee?noue
oa eiao?oe??io oa?oy ai?ii?noeeo iie?eoo?a ia noae? 12O18I9O. Oea
aeicaieeei ?aoe?iiae?coaaoe ?aaeeie aenieoaoaoe?? io?eiaieo iie?eoo?a a
oiiaao oa?oy eiacaiiyi a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? oa iaaaioaaeaiue
oa cai?iiiioaaoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o canoinoaaiiy.

8. Aeine?aeii-i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy aeaoaeae c iie?eooyie,
iaea?aeaieie c aeei?enoaiiyi oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ?ic?iaeaieo ia
aac? eaca?ii? ia?iaee, aeicaieeee i?aeaeueoe ?o ?iai/ee ?ano?n a?eueo
i?ae o 1,5…5 ?ace.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

1. No?oeoo?iooai?aiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy o?eaioaoi?/ieo aeanoeainoae
aaoaeoe/ieo iie?eoo?a / I.A. E?iae?a/oe, TH.A. Eoieoeueeee, I.?.
Aeoaeea oa ?io. — E.: Aeua oeiea, 1997,- 120 n.

2. Oeaeiye A.A., Aeoaeea A.E., Oeaeiye I.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea iee?io?oieinoe
ea?aeaeiuo iie?uoee n eniieueciaaieai iaoiaea «eeiaoe/aneie
iee?ioaa?aeinoe» // Ecaanoey aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. *a?iay
iaoaeeo?aey. — 1996. — N 9. — N.83.

3. No?oeoo?a oa o?eaioaoi?/i? aeanoeaino? aeene?aoii iieaaeaieo eaca?ii
ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a /I.A. E?iae?a/oe, I.?. Aeoaeea, A.I. Iena?aiei oa
?io.// Iaoaeiciaanoai oa ia?iaea iaoae?a. — 1997. — N 1. — N. 25-29.

4. Oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e oa o?eaioaoi?/ieo aeanoeainoae aaoaeoe/ieo
nieaa?a eaaoaaiiyi ?o iaoaeaai? iniiae /I.A. E?iae?a/oe, I.?. Aeoaeea,
A.I. Iena?aiei, I.A. Ae?iiaa. //Iaoaeiciaanoai oa ia?iaea iaoae?a. —
1997. — N 3-4. — N.10-16.

5. E?iae?a/oe I.A., Iena?aiei A.I., Aeoaeea I.?. Aeonoiaeth?iiao?e/ia
ioe?iea o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ai?eaeieo iie?eoo?a
//Iaoaeiciaanoai oa ia?iaea iaoae?a. — 1998. — N 1-2. — N.
86-90.

6. E?iae?a/oe I.A., *a?iaaa N.I., Aeoaeea I.?. Aieea no?oeoo?e ia
caeiiii??iino? eaa?oaoe?eiiai ciino aaoaeoe/ieo iie?eoue //O?c.-o?i.
iao. iaoa?. -1998. — N 2. — N. 69-74.

7. Iaoiae aeonoe/aneie yiennee eae ia?niaeoeaiue iaoiae eiio?iey naienoa
iaoaeeia e i?aa?auaiee a ieo /Iena?aiei A.I, Aeoaeea A.E., Y.I.
A?thoaiaea e ae?.// Na. Iao/i. e iaoiae. o?oaeia EIE.- Eeaa: Ciaiea,
1994, — N.21-22.

8. Iena?aiei A.I, Eino?aeeoeeee I.E., Aeoaeea A.E. Iaoiaeeea ioeaiee
iee?io?oieinoe aeeoooceiiiuo iie?uoee // Oac.aeiee. ? Ananithci.
Oe.-nai. «No?oeoo?iay e oeie/aneay iee?iiaiaeii?iaeiinoue a iaoa?eaeao»,
-Eeaa, EII AI ONN?. — 1990. — N.235-236.

9. Iena?aiei A.I, Eino?aeeoeueeee I.E., Aeoaeea I.?. Ioe?iea e?eoeino?
aeeooc?eieo caoenieo iie?eoo?a aeonoiaeth?iiao?e/iei iaoiaeii //
Oac.aeiiia. I Iiaeia?iaeii? IOE «Eiino?oeoeieii oa ooieoeiiiaeueii
iaoa?iaee».- «Euea?a. iie?oaoi?ea», OI? AI Oe?a?ie. — 1993. —
N.117-118.

10. Eeiae?a/oe I.A., Eo/ea I.A., Aeoaeea A.E.
Iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iie?uoee,
iaa?oaeaiiuo neeaie o?aiey // Oac. aeiee. iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee
“Iiaaeoea i?ioeannu e iaoa?eaeu a ii?ioeiaie iaoaeeo?aee. — Eeaa:
Iaaeaeoia?. annioe. aeaae. iaoe, EII IAIO ei. O?aioeaae/a. —
1994. — N.50.

11. E?iae?a/oe I.A., Aeoaeea I.?., Iena?aiei A.I. Caeiiii??iino?
oi?ioaaiiy caoenieo iie?eoue oa?iioeeeethaaiiyi a i?ioean? eaca?iiai
eaaoaaiiy ai?ii // Oace aeii. IOE «Iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e ia?aaioea
iaoaeeia». — Aeiiaoeuee: OA?IN IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1996. — N.71.

12. E?iae?a/oe I.A., Aeoaeea I.?., Nooaiei TH.A.
Iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai oa o?eaieia?/ia ioe?iea aaoaeoe/ieo
iie?eoo?a // Oac. aeii. 3-ai i?aeia?. neii. oe?. ?iae.-iao. o Eueaia?».
-Euea?a: AeO «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea». — 1997. — N.216-217.

13. Iena?aiei A.I., E?iae?a/oe I.A., Aeoaeea I.?. Ioe?iea aieeao
oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee eiioeaio?iaaieie aeaea?aeaie aia?a?? ia
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ai?eaeieo iie?eoo?a // Oac. aeii. ia
iaii??aeueiiio neiiic. aeaae. A.I. A?eaeiaaa «Iaoaeu e nieaau: oaciaua
i?aa?auaiey, no?oeoo?a, naienoaa». — Ee?a: ?IO ?i. Eo?aethiiaa IAI
Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — N.105.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo ae.o.i., i?ioani?o eaoaae?e iaoaeiciaanoaa
oa oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee IOOO “EI?” I.A. E?iae?a/oeo ca iaoeia?
eiinoeueoaoe??, aeiiiiiao oa ii?aaee, iaaeai? i?e aeeiiai?
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

A iaaiai?aii? ie?aieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?eeiaee o/anoue
ae.o.i. E.O. Aieiaei, e.o.i. I.I. Aeii?e oa e.o.-i.i. TH.ss. Aeooae.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeoaeea I.?. Oi?ioaaiiy ai?i- oa ai?io?iiii?noeeo iie?eoo?a
o?eaioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy eaca?iith ia?iaeith. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?aooe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.16.01 – iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea
iaoae?a. – Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii ai?i- ? ai?io?iiii?noe? iie?eooy oa oaoiieia??
?o oi?ioaaiiy eaca?iith ia?iaeith o ?aaeei? eaaoaaiiy oa
oa?iioeeeethaaiiy, i?ecia/aieo aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ciini- oa ei?ic?eii?
no?eeino? aeaoaeae aoce?a oa?oy.

Ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeno aiae?oe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
?ia?o ?ic?iaeai? ia?aiao?e oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a eaca?iiai eaaoaaiiy,
iieaaeaiiy ? oa?iioeeeethaaiiy. I?e oeueiio iiaeia io?eioaaoe ai?ii?noe?
iie?eooy ?c caaeaiei oaciaei neeaaeii, no?oeoo?ith oa neoaeaiaeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

?ic?iaeai? ai?ii?noe? iie?eooy iiaeia canoinoaaoe i?e aeaioiaeaiiy
aeaoaeae, ye? ii?aeiothoue aenie? ciinino?ee?noue i?e i?aeaeuaieo
oaiia?aoo?ao ? ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue, ui a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo
aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe oa?i?i aenieoaoaoe?? aeaoaeae a ?aaeueieo oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe?? o 1,5-5 ?ace.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noaeue, ciinino?ee?noue, ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue,
eiao?oe??io oa?oy, i?oaeii-ieanoe/i? aeanoeaino?,
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, aeonoe/ia ai?n?y, eaca?ia eaaoaaiiy,
oa?iioeeee?/ia ia?iaea.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeoaeea A.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea ai?i- e ai?io?iiniaea?aeaueo iie?uoee
o?eaioaoie-/aneiai iacia/aiey eaca?iie ia?aaioeie. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.01 — iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea
iaoaeeia.- Iaoeeiiaeueiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu “Eeaaneee
iieeoaoie/aneee einoeooo”, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu ai?i- e ai?io?iiniaea?aeauea iie?uoey e
oaoiieiaee eo oi?ie?iaaiey eaca?iie ia?aaioeie a ?aaeeia eaae?iaaiey e
oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey iiauoaiey eciini- e
ei??iceiiiie noieeinoe aeaoaeae oceia o?aiey.

Ia iniiaaiee eniieueciaaiey eiiieaena aiaeeoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaiu ia?aiao?u oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia eaca?iiai
eaae?iaaiey e oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey, eioi?ua iicaieytho iieo/aoue
ai?niaea?aeauea iie?uoey n caaeaiui oaciaui e oeie/aneei ninoaaii,
no?oeoo?ie e neoaeaaiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiaey iaianaiey iie?uoee ia iniiaa ai?a iaoiaeaie
eaca?iiai eaae?iaaiey e oa?iioeeeee?iaaiey ia noaeyo O8 e 12O18I9O.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eo niaiauaiea a iaeiii oaoiieiae/aneii i?ioeanna
iicaieyao aeaaiaea?y eioaineoeeaoeee ianniiaiaiiuo i?ioeannia
nouanoaaiii iiauoaoue oieueio eaae?iaaiiuo neiaa e oeaeaiai?aaeaii
oi?aaeyoue eo oeie/aneei e no?oeoo?iui ninoaaii. Iieacaii, /oi i?e
oaaee/aiee e?aoiinoe oa?iioeeeeia oieueia eaae?iaaiiiai neiy aic?anoaao
e i?ienoiaeeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeaiey ai?a e oaea?iaea a
iiaa?oiinoiii neia.

?ac?aaioaii iaoiaeeeo ioeaiee o?oieinoe ai?niaea?aeaueo iie?uoee,
iieo/aiuo eaca?iie ia?aaioeie, eco/aiu eo oi?oai-ieanoe/aneea naienoaa n
eniieueciaaieai ?ac?aaioaiiai aeonoiaeth?iiao?e/aneiai eiiieaena.
Iieo/aiu iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee, aaeaeaaoii iienuaathuea aeeyiea aiaoieo
oaeoi?ia (iaa?ocea, nei?inoue neieueaeaiey, oaiia?aoo?a) ia
eciininoieeinoue e eiyooeoeeaio o?aiey iie?uoee, /oi iicaieeei
?ac?aaioaoue i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eo eniieueciaaieth.

I?iiuoeaiiua eniuoaiey ia ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee iiaeoaa?aeeee yoaeoeaiinoue
?ac?aaioaiuo oaoiieiaee eaca?iiai oi?i/iaiey aeaoaeae oceia o?aiey,
aeieaiaa/iinoue eioi?uo iiauneeanue a 1,5 — 5 ?ac.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noaeue, eciininoieeinoue, ei??iceiiiay noieeinoue,
eiyooeoeeaio o?aiey, oi?oai-ieanoe/aneea naienoaa,
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea, aeonoe/aneay yienney, eaca?iia
eaae?iaaiea, oa?iioeeeee/aneay ia?aaioea.

SUMMARY

Dudka A. I. The Tribotechnical Purpose Boron and Boronchromium
containing Coverings Forming by Laser Treatment. – The Manuscript.

The Thesis on engineering sciences candidate degree competition on Metal
Science and Metals Thermal Treatment, speciality 05.16.01 – Metal
Science and Metals Thermal Treatment. — National technical university of
Ukraine «Kyiv Politechnical Institute (KPI)», Kyiv, 1999.

The Boron and Boroncromium containing coverings intended for
wear-resistance and corrosion stability of friction knots details were
developed alongside with laser forming technologies in alloying and
thermal cycling regimes.

The technological parameters of laser alloying, melting and
thermocycling were developed using analytical and experimental complex.
It is possible to obtain Boron containing coverings with certain phase
content, structure and service properties.

The Boron containing coverings developed can be used for increased
wear-resistance at high temperatures and corrosion stability combining
details manufacturing. It gives the possibility to 1,5 – 5,0 times
exploitation terms increasing in real conditions.

Keywords: the steel, wear resistance, corrosion stability, friction,
plastic properties, stressed-deformed conditions, acoustic emission,
laser alloying, thermocycling processing.

1 — Gf/Gm

1 + Gf/Gm

4Gm((f — (m)

2 — ( + (m( + (h (((f – 1)

1

A1

8Gm(h ((f — (m)2

2 — ( + ((f – 1) Gm/ Gf ;

?ecoiie 1 – Aieea oa?iiia?iaee ia i?e?ioaa?ae?noue ii aeeaei? eaaiaaiiai
oa?o ia noae? O8 oa 12O18I9O

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