3

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

*I?IA Iaoae?y Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 947(477):338.24

OI?IOAAIIss AAeI?I?NO?AOEAII-EIIAIAeII? NENOAIE OI?AAE?IIss
I?IIENEIA?NOTH OE?A?IE (E?IAOeUe 1917 – II*AOIE 30-O ?IE?A)

07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonuee?e eaoaae?? ?noi???

Oe?a?ie Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

OAIOeTH?A AANEEUe ?AAIIAE*, caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueea eaoaae?a ?noi???

Oe?a?ie Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AIOOAEI A?EAAe?E ?NAEIAE*,

eaoaae?a iie?oieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?ieini?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo – “OA?” ?i. I.?. AEoeianueeiai

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

AeOOIIAEUeIEEIA AIEIAeEIE? IEOAEEIAE*,

eaoaae?a ?noi??? ?in?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny: 29 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.64.051.10 o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? (310077, i. Oa?e?a, ie. Naiaiaee, 4, aoaeeoi??y 4-65)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 29 eenoiiaaea1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ?.I.Ioaa/

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ae??oaiiy iioi/ieo oa ia?niaeoeaieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai a Oe?a?i? ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c
?aaeeeaeueieie ia?aoai?aiiyie, a oiae? yeeo ia ci?io
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei?e nenoai? c aeanoeaeie ?e iiiiiie?ciii oa
aac?i?oe?aoeai?noth, aeo?aoi?noth oa aacainiiaea?i?noth, ciaaaaith aei
?ioa?an?a niiaeeaa/?a, iiaeiia ooaa?aeeoeny ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea, yea
nie?a?oueny ia ??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie aeaniino?, eiieo?aioe?th naiino?eieo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, ?icaeiooo nenoaio o?iain?a oa iiooaei? noeioee
iniaenoi? oa eieaeoeaii? caoe?eaaeaiino?. Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie 28 /a?aiy
1996 ?., ia o?eueee io?oe?eii cae??ieea aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao –
aieiaio caii?oeo iiiaeaiiy oa iiceoeaieo ci?i o aeeoo? noni?euenoaa, a e
ni?eyea iiaeeaeaiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o e?a?i? ia
canaaeao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Ine?eueee ae?iaieoeoai iaoa??aeueieo aeaa ? ni?eueia oe?eani?yiiaaia
ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae, oi aiii caaaeaee aeiaaa? iaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. A
?aaeyinueeo aiioo iniiaiei iaoiaeii oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith, cie?aia ?
i?iieneia?noth aoa aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiee. Aiane?aeie oeueiai o
e?a?i? neeaeany oeiiaa aea?aeaaii-ath?ie?aoe/ia nenoaia c on?ia ??
oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie oa iaaaoeaieie iane?aeeaie.

O 1991 ?., ye ? a 1917 ?., Oe?a?ia ciiao iieieeany ia ceai? aeaio aiio,
ui aeiaaaa a?ae an?o a?iiaaeyi aea?aeaae aeiei??iii ci?ieoe noeeue
aeeooy, a oiio /ene? ? iaoiaee ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy
aeiiii?eith. ?i aeiaaeiny i?enoiniaoaaoeny aei i?eioeeiiai iiaeo oiia
?nioaaiiy a aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?yo. Oae naii, ye ? nueiaiaei?, oiae?
aieiaio oaaao aoei i?eae?eaii ciai?oiueiio ioi?ieaiith aeaaee, ia iath/e
i?e oeueiio oe?eani?yiiaaii? oa caaaeaii? aeiiii?/ii? oa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee.

Ia?ao?ae aei iiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy, cie?aia ? a i?iieneiaino? eaea
aeoaea iia?eueii, o e?a?i? iiaeeaeth?oueny aeiiii?/ia e?eca. Oea aeoaea
iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia noaiiaeu? aaaaoueio ethaeae. Ana a?eueoa
e?euee?noue a?iiaaeyi aaaea? iiaa?iaiiy ieioeeo /an?a. A oaeee iiai?io
iaieio/a i?eca?a ae aei noaiiaeaiiy o aea?aeaa? oioae?oa?ii? aeeeoaoo?e.

Oaeei /eiii o iei?oi?e Oe?a?i? neeaeany aeeeaia: aai, ia caaaeath/e ia
an? o?oaeiiu? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, i?inoaaoeny aei aenieiaoaeoeaii?
nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aai niieoneaoenue ia aanea
eiioi?no?a oa ?o ni?eueiee?a, ye aaea aoei o 1917 ?., iiaa?iooeny aei
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie. Oea aoei a iaiii?aaiith o?aaaae??th
aeey Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Uia ciaeoe i?aaeeueiee aeo?ae ?c oaeiai
noaiiaeua iio??aii, cie?aia, ?ic?a?aoeny o iaaeaaiueiio ieioeiio,
iieacaoe ?noi??th ?aaeyinueei? aiioe, yeith aiia aoea iani?aaae?.

A?aeiii, ui io?oe?eia ?noi??ia?ao?y a ?aaeyinuee? /ane o a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a oaeueneo?eoaaea ?aaeueiee ia?aa?a ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. Oiio
iei?, eiee a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? neeaeeny iiaeeeaino? aeey iaoeiaoe?a
i?aaaeeai a?aeoai?eoe ?noi?e/iee i?ioean, nooe?eueiiio ia?aaeyaeo
i?aeeyay? ia o?eueee cae/ia iine?aeiai?noue aooe?i-oi iacaia?a/ieo
oaeo?a, a e naia eiioeaiooaeueia iniiaa ?noi??? Oe?a?ie a ?aaeyinueeo
aeiao.

Oae, iaoe?iiae?caoe?y i?iieneiaino? e ooaa?aeaeaiiy “ieaiiai?
nioe?ae?noe/ii?” nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aoee aena?oeai? a /eneaiieo i?aoeyo
?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a oa aeiiii?no?a, oa ioe?ithaaeeny ye aaee/acia
aeinyaiaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Oaia? ie cia?ii iane?aeee oeeo
“aeinyaiaiue”. Ioaea, aeieeea aeooaeueia i?iaeaia ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoe aei
aea/aiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a e?a?i?, oiaoi oiai, ui a ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? iaceaaee “ieaiiaith nioe?ae?noe/iith” nenoaiith
oi?aae?iiy. Iio??aii, iicaoaoenue cae/ieo noa?aioei?a, ?aeaieia?/ieo
eiiia?o?eieo ee?oa, aea/eoe i?e/eie ca?iaeaeaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, cie?aia ? a
i?iieneiaino?. sse eacaa a?aeiiee i?iaoeueeee o?einio E.ssnia?n, oa, ui
aoei, iiaeia aeoeoia/eoe ii-iiaiio. Oa, ui caeaaaeinue aaea ?ica’ycaiei,
ciiao iinoa? ye ieoaiiy ssnia?n E. Niune e iacia/aiea enoi?ee. – I.,
1991..

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii oi?ioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?ie.
Ae?yeuei?noue oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ? ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaioa. Ie aaeeaa?ii oa?i?i
“aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia” nenoaia oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth oiio, ui
oey iacaa oi/i?oa a?aeiia?aea? noo? oi?aae?iiy i?ae oa?i?i “ieaiiaa”.
Ieaiiaa aeiiii?ea – oea ?aeaae, aei yeiai i?aaioee a?eueoiaeee. Aea
ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee a /enoiio aeaeyae? aiie ia ni?iiiaeeny noai?eoe. Ieai
o ieo caaaeaee aeaoi?ioaaany i?ae aieeaii ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o
ianoaaei, aai ci?ithaaany, “ei?aeooaaany” aieueiaeie aiethioa?enonueeeie
??oaiiyie eiiia?o?eiiai ea??aieoeoaa Oa?i?i “aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia
nenoaia” aia?oa oa?a o iaoeiaee oaeeoie A.O.Iiiia o 1987 ?. o ?aoeaic??
ia ia?oo ioae?eaoe?th a N?N? eieae I.Aaea “Iiaa i?ecia/aiiy” (aeea.:
“Iaoea e aeeciue”. – 1987. – ? 4. – N. 54 – 65.). Iacaaoe oeth nenoaio
oi?aae?iiy “oioae?oa?ii-ath?ie?aoe/iith” A.O.Iiiia a oie /an ia ci?a c
iaeyaeo ia oeaico?i? ia?aoeiaee, oi/a yaia iaoi/i?noue aaaaeaiiai a
iaoeiaee ia?a oa?i?io aiaaea? a iei. Aaeaea ia ?nio? oi?aae?iiy, aea a
ia aoei eiiaiaee. Ine?eueee oa?i?i “aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia”
i?oeii oa?eoia a ?noi??ia?ao?th ye neiii?i “oioae?oa?ii-ath?ie?aoe/ia
nenoaia”, aai ye ?? iaceaaee o ?aaeyinuee?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??
“ieaiiaa, nioe?ae?noe/ia”, oiio ie ? aeei?enoiao?ii eiai, uia oieeiooe
oa?i?iieia?/ii? ieooaieie..

?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiai? i?ia?aie
caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueei? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia ?noi??y Oe?a?ie OO
no.”

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy – a?oaeaiue 1917 – ii/aoie 30-o ?ie?a,
oiaoi a?ae /ano ca?iaeaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy aei ?? inoaoi/iiai ooaa?aeaeaiiy a ea?oaaii? i?iieneia?noth
e?a?ie.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy – ON?? o iaaeao 20-o – 30-o ?ie?a OO
no.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – iieacaoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a Oe?a?i?.
Cie?aia, iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy:

· aeine?aeeoe ca?iaeaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth (a?oaeaiue 1917 – aa?acaiue 1921 ?.);

· i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a ?anioae?oe? a ia??iae cae?eniaiiy
iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee (1921 – 1927 ??.);

· ?ice?eoe i?ioean ?ai?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a Oe?a?i? a
?iee nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? (e?iaoeue 20-o – ii/aoie 30-o ??.).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui oea ia?oa
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeiio aac i?oieiaai ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao??
?ice?eaa?oueny i?ioean iaa’ycoaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
ea?oaaiiy i?iieneia?noth, cie?aia:

· aeaiaioe aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth
aoee aecia/ai? a i?aoeyo iniiaiiieiaeiee?a ia?enecio-eai?i?cio, naia
nenoaia ioi?ieeany a oiae? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue i?ney
AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe??, a ?? inoaoi/ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?eiaaea? ia
e?iaoeue 20-o – ii/aoie 30-o ?ie?a;

· aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?ie
aoea /anoeiith ?aeeii? ainiiaea?nueei? nenoaie ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae,
ia iaea naiino?eiino? e i?aai?caoe?eii i?aeei?yeany ?aeeiiio oeaio?o –
Aeu?e ?aae? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa c in?eeii o Iinea?;

· ?icii/aeiny oi?ioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
i?iieneia?noth iai?ee?ioe? 1917 ?. c onoaiiaeaiiy ?ia?oie/iai eiio?ieth
ia oaa?eeao ? caaiaeao, yeee a?eueoiaeee o?aeooaaee, ye ia?ao?aeiee aoai
aei iaoe?iiae?caoe?? i?aei?e?inoa, a iani?aaae? aei iaea?aeaaeaiiy ?
a?aenoiaiiy aaciina?aaei?o ae?iaiee?a iaoa??aeueieo aeaa a?ae aeaniino?
ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa;

· ni?iae ?ia?oieoeoaa ia?aoai?eoe a?ae?a?ai? o i?aei?e?ioe?a oaa?eee oa
caaiaee o eieaeoeaio aeani?noue o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a aeeeeeaee ii?? c
aieo a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ea??aieoeoaa, ae?? ?ia?oie/eo i?aae?iue
?icaeyaeaeeny ye “aia?oi-neiaeeeae?ci” ? aoee i?eaeooai?
ianeeueieoeueeeie iaoiaeaie, ine?eueee noia?a/eee iai??ai a?eueoiaee?a
anoaiiaeoe o e?a?i? ane?ae ca iie?oe/iith ? aeiiii?/io aeeeoaoo?o;

· aiae?c i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth iieacaa, ui oeaio?ae?caoe?y
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aoea iaoe?eaia ia noai?aiiy ia?eieiai?, aacoiaa?ii?
aeiiii?ee, i?ecaaea aei c?inoaiiy ath?ie?aoecio ? cieaeaiiy iioeaaoe??
i?aoe?, “aea?aeaai? iio?aae” caeeoaeeny i??i?eoaoieie, ie?aia ethaeeia c
?? iianyeaeaiieie oo?aioaie aoea iica oaaaith, i?ioni?eee ao?aoeee
iniiaio ooieoe?th – caoeuaoe ?ioa?ane nai?o /eai?a ? aoee ia?aoai?ai?
a?eueoiaeeaie o neeaaeiao /anoeio aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy;

· o ia??iae iaio a?eueoiaeoeueeee ?aaeei iaiaaaany i?enoinoaaoe nenoaio
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth aei iio?aa ?eieo, aea aeoo aeaae?cio caeeoaany
a ?? a?naiae?, i?aei?e?inoaa, iacaaaeath/e ia aini?ic?aooiie, aoee
iicaaaeai? ainiiaea?nueei? naiino?eiino?, aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiee
aiia?ao oi?ioaaany ca ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ieie ? eeaniaeie i?eioeeiaie,
aeiei??iii? ?ai?aai?caoe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth ia a?aeaoeiny;

· o ?iee nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
i?eioeeie oeaio?ae?cio, eiiaiaeii-ath?ie?aoe/iiai ao?o/aiiy a i?ioean
ae?iaieoeoaa cia/ii iineeeeeny, i?e oeueiio oi?noaaiiy oaii?a
?iaeono??ae?caoe?? iaoiiaeee i?enei?aiiy ?ai?aai?caoe?? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy; aoee onoiai? an? oi?ie ? iai?yie ?iaioe i?iieneiaino?, ye?
aoee i?enoiniaai? aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee;

· nenoaia oi?aae?iiy, ui ooai?eeany, caaacia/oaaea ia aeiiii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue, a, ia?aaeon?i, i?aai?caoe?eio ?aei?noue nithcii?, a a
na?aaeei? ia? ? oe?a?inueei? i?iieneiaino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e /eoaii? caaaeueieo eo?n?a c ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, niaoeeo?n?a c i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? ?noi??? ?aaeyinueei? aiioe,
i?e iaienaii? eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o, i?aeaioiaoe? ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeue c ?noi??? iaoi? e?a?ie. Aeina?ae aea/aiiy oi?ioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?ie
aeicaieeoue ?noi?eeai, aeiiii?noai, an?i, ooi oe?eaaeoueny oeeie
i?iaeaiaie, a?eueo ia’?eoeaii oyaeoe iaaaciaeo iiaa?iaiiy e?a?ie aei
noa?eo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy. Aeeiiaia ?iaioa iiia?aaeaea?: iacaae ai?iooy
iaia?, oai aacaeo?aeue. A oiio, a no/anieo, iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao, a?aoiaoth/e aeina?ae ieioeiai, Oe?a?i?
iio??aii i?iaeiaaeoaaoe eo?n ia noai?aiiy nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii?
aeiiii?ee, ?ioiai aeoiaeo i?inoi ia ?nio?.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoiaee/ieo nai?ia?ao ? can?aeaiiyo
caaaeueiioi?aa?neoaonueei? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aeiiia?aeaeeny ia ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, o?aaaiue 1993
?.), ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii
iioae?eiaaii 7 noaoae, oace aeaio aenooi?a ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, 1
noaooth caaeaiiiiaaii.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia oa?aeoa?ii ? ci?noii, iaoith ?
caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiia neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 214
noi??iie, c ieo nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e (448
iaeiaioaaiue) – 41 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/a?oueny ca’ycie c
iaoeiaith i?ia?aiith eaoaae?e, aea aeeiioaaeany aeena?oaoe?y,
aeacothoueny i?aaeiao, ia’?eo, iaoa, caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai?
o?iiieia?/i? e oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee ?iaioe, iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? oa ?? ai?iaaoe?y; ?ice?eaa?oueny no?oeoo?a
aeeiiaii? ?iaioe

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca” i?enay/aiee aiae?co
iayaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa aeaea?ae ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?noi??th aea/aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a iao?e e?a?i? iio??aii ?icae?eeoe ia e?eueea
aoai?a, eiaeiee c yeeo ye?nii a?ae??ciy?oueny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai.

Ia?oee aoai ?icii/aany ua a ?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ? i?iaeiaaeoaaany
aei ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a. O oeae /an a?aeaoaaany i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ? i?i iueiai ienaee nai?
oai?oe? nenoaie – ia?o?ei? oa ?aaeyinuee? ea??aieee, i?aoe?aieee
ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?a, aeiiii?noe, aea i?ioan?eieo ?noi?ee?a na?aae
ieo ia aoei. Oey ianoaaeia ?noioii aieeioea ia noeeue ? iaia?o aeeeaaeo
iaoa??aeo, a i?aoeyo caeaa?eueoa a?aenooi? ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?e ii i?iaeai?, iaaeinoaoiuei aiae?cothoueny aeaea?aea, cie?aia
ia??aeei a?aenooi? iineeaiiy, ui cieaeo? oe?ii?noue ?ia?o. Ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue c ieo ia? ae?acii ioae?oeenoe/iee oa?aeoa?, iaienai? ia
ceiaiaeaii? ieoaiiy, a oiio ?o aeniiaee /anoi iiaa?oia? e ia
i?aeoaa?aeeeeny i?ci?oei ?icaeoeii iiae?e. A oie aea /an oe? ?iaioe
/anoi i?noyoue oi?eaeuei? na?ae/aiiy i/aaeaeoe?a, aeathoue c?icoi?oe
aeine?aeieeai o?ae ? eia?eo i?ioeano, iaioae?oao oai?oe?a
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie. Oeiiaee c?acie oaei? e?oa?aoo?e –
ni?eueia i?aoey TH.Ea??ia oa E.E??oeiaia Ea?ei TH., E?eoeiai E. I/a?e
oicyenoaaiiie aeecie e i?aaiecaoeey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa Niaaoneie
?innee. 1 iiya?y 1917 – 1 ethey 1920 a. – I., 1920., aea aeeeaaea?oueny
ei?ioea ?noi??y aeieeiaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
ainiiaea?noaii ? ?ice?eaa?oueny ?? no?oeoo?a oa iaoai?ci ae??. Aeaeii,
ui aaoi?e ia?aaoaaee o iieii? “ai?iii-eiioi?noe/ieo” oyaeaiue i?i
ia?ao?ae aei eiioi?noe/ii? oi?iaoe??, a oiio noai?aio a 1918 – 1920 ??.
nenoaio oi?aae?iiy ia?iaeiei ainiiaea?noaii aaaaeaee ?aeeii i?aaeeueiith
? iiaeeeaith. ssne?aao oa?aeoa?enoeeo oi?aae?iiy ia?iaeiei
ainiiaea?noaii ?aaeyinueei? e?a?ie ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, ye
oi aa/eeiny a?eueoiaeeai o 1920 ?., iiaeaa o nai?e eiec? I.?.Aooa??i
Aooa?ei I.E. Yeiiiieea ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea // I?iaeaiu oai?ee e
i?aeoeee nioeeaeecia. – I., 1989. – N. 94 – 176.. O aea?aeaaiiio
ea??aieoeoa?, “eiioeaio?iaaiiio ianeee?” a?i aaa/aa, ia?aaeon?i, can?a
aoae?aieoeoaa aeiiii?ee iaeaooiueiai noni?euenoaa. Oa, ui A.?.Eai?i o
1920 ?. aeio?eioaaany iiae?aieo iiaeyae?a, aeaeii c eiai ?aoeaic?? ia
i?aoeth Aooa??ia, aea “aiaeaeue na?oiaiai i?ieaoa??aoo” a?aei?/aa
“i?ae?ani? yeino? oe??? i?ae?anii? eieae” Oai naii. – N. 9..

Ia?ao?ae aei iaio ? a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy ia?iaeiei
ainiiaea?noaii aeeeeeaee iiyao a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? 20-o ?ie?a
??cieo oi/ie ci?o ia ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee, cie?aia ? i?iieneiaino?. Iaei?
aaoi?e aenooiaee ca ii?aeiaiiy ieaio ? ?eieo Aeoaiaaeueae A. Niaaoneay
yeiiiieea. – I., E., 1927; TH?ianeee A. Aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea Niaaoneie
aeanoe. – I., 1928; A?ooeeon A.Ae. Nioeeaeenoe/aneia oicyenoai:
Oai?aoe/aneea iunee ii iiaiaeo ?onneiai iiuoa. // Aii?inu yeiiiieee. –
1990. — ? 8. – N. 131 – 151; ? 9. – N. 153 – 158; ? 10. – N. 90 — 103.,
?io? aoee ia?aeiiai?, ui ieai ? ?eiie – aca?iiaeeeth/ath/? iiiyooy a
ainiiaea?nueeiio aeeoo? E?eoeiai E. Iiaay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea e
ieaiiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea. – I., 1923; Ea?ei TH. Eoiae, iooe, auaiaeu
iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. – I., 1923; I?aia?aaeaineee A. Io iyia e
nioeeaeecio: Acaeyae a aoaeouaa ?innee e Aa?iiu. – I., 1922 oa ?io?. .
Aaoi?ii i?iaeo?a ?ai?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a Oe?a?i? aoa
I.Oii?i Oiiei I. Iaoea i oicyenoaa ia Oe?aeia ca 10 eao. // Oicyenoai
Oe?aeiu. – 1927. – ? 11 – 12. – N. 37 – 43 oa ?io? eiai noaoo?.. Aea
aena?oeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy iaiaaeoaaeiny
o?eueee c’ynoaaiiyi i?e/ei ath?ie?aoecio, a eiioeaiooaeuei? i?iaeaie ??
noaiiaeaiiy, aoaie ?icaeoeo ia aeine?aeaeoaaeeny. Ni?iaa I.Aieiao?aa
Aieiao?a I. Aei i?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee. // A?eueoiaee Oe?a?ie.
– 1929. — ? 2. – N. 46 – 72; ? 3. – N. 42 – 63. aeaoe iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaio i?ia?aio ?ai?aai?caoe?? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy oa ?aaoethaaiiy
nithcii? aeiiii?ee, aecia/aiiy i?aa oa iiaiiaaaeaiue o?yaeo ON??, i?noey
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a aeiiii?oe? N?N? oiui aeeeeeaea iauaaeio e?eoeeo c
aieo a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ea??aieoeoaa ? oeueeoaaiiy aaoi?a a io?oe?ei?e
i?an?. Oioae?oa?ia nenoaia, ui ana neeuei?oa noeneoaaea
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ia aeeooy a e?a?i?, ia caeeoaea i?noey aeey
?icia?ooy aeoiie oa ioe?iie, iaa?oue o iaaeao ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei?
?aeaieia??. Noai?aia aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy, yea
io?oe?eii iaceaaeany “ieaiiaith, nioe?ae?noe/iith”, iieieeeny iica
e?eoeeith. A oaeeo oiiaao a?o/eciyi? a/ai? ia iiaee aeaoe ia’?eoeaii?
ioe?iee i?iaeai?. Ooi oea iaiaaaany c?iaeoe aoa ?ai?aniaaiee o 30-o
?ieao.

Ae?oaee aoai o aea/aii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ?noi??? ?aaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa i?eiaaea? ia na?aaeeio 30-o – na?aaeeio 50-o ?ie?a.
Aoaeiiii aaaaeaany “Ei?ioeee eo?n ?noi??? AEI(a)”. A iueiio cacia/aeiny,
ui “ai?iiee eiioi?ci” aoa aeeeeeaiee a?iiaaeyinueeith a?eiith oa
?iicaiiith a?enueeiaith ?ioa?aaioe??th, ui iiaa aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea –
ae/a?iaea nai? iiaeeeaino?, ui ieaiiaee nioe?ae?noe/iee oa?aeoa?
ae?iaieoeoaa ia? aacoiiai? ia?aaaae iaae noeo??th ?eieo oiui. Naia a
oaeeo ?aeaieia?/ieo ?aieao iaienai? ?iaioe, aea i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ? ieoaiiy oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth, – C.Eieoeia,
A.Aaie?ii?, oa ?i. Eieoei C. I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a
NNN?. – I., 1938; Aaieeia Y.A. Ia?aoiae Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa e iiaie
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea (1921 — 1922). – I., 1954; Aeicao?a E. Oi?aaeaiea
oicyenoaii a ia?aua aiaeu i?ieaoa?neie aeeeoaoo?u. -–I., 1933 oa ?io?..
Aeiiii?/ia iaoea cina?aaeeeanue ia eiie?aoieo ainiiaea?nueeeo ieoaiiyo,
?noi?eee ?acii c ?ioeie noni?euenoaiciaaoeyie caeiaeeny i?iiaaaiaeith
aeinyaiaiue nioe?ae?noe/iiai eaaeo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy
i?iieneia?noth c na?aaeeie 30-o aei na?aaeei? 50-o ?ie?a aoei a?ae??aaia
a?ae ?aae?e, ye? iaee i?noea, i?ioea?oaa aeiaiaoeci,
oeeoaoii-?ethno?aoeaiee aeeeaae iaoa??aeo, a i?aoeyo ia?aaaaeaee
oaiaeaioe?eii i?ae?a?ai? oaeoe, aoeniai? a io?oe?eio eiioeaioe?th
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa.

Ianooiiee aoai a ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? ?noi??ia?ao?? ?icii/aany i?ney
1956 ?. ? i?iaeiaaeoaaany aei e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a. I?ney OO c’?caeo EI?N
aeaui iineaaioa ?aeaieia?/iee eiio?ieue iaae ?noi?e/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie, oi/ aoaeue ye? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae e?i??, aecia/aii?
ia?o?eieie iinoaiiaaie, iaaaeii ia?a?eaaeeny, a aaoi?e ea?aeeny. O oe?
?iee ?noi??th oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a ?aaeyinuee?e aea?aeaa? aea/aee
A.A.Aaiaaeeeoia, A.A.A?iiaeuenii, A.A.Ai?iae?i, I.Ae.Ai?aiaaoee,
?.I.?iciaoianueeee oa ?i. Aaiaaeeeoia A.A. I?aaiecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe a NNN?. – E., 1957. – O. 1; 1961. – O. 2; Aeiiaeuenii
A.A. Aaeeeee Ieoya?ue e noaiiaeaiea niaaoneie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii (iiya?ue 1917 – 1920 aa.). – I., 1977; Ai?iaeei
A.A. Oi?aaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a ia?aua aiaeu Niaaoneie aeanoe (1917
– 1920 aa.). – I., 1981; Ai?aiaaoee I.Ae. ?icaeoie ? aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i oi?aae?iiy nioe?ae?noe/iith i?iieneia?noth. – E.,
1975; ?iciaoianueeee ?.I. Oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. –
E., 1970 oa ?io?..

Ia?aaeon?i, iio??aii aeae?eeoe ooiaeaiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy
A.A.Aaiaaeeeoiaa. O eiec? c ?noi?eei-i?aaiai? oi/ee ci?o
aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth, aeeth/ath/e
?noi??th ?ia?oie/iai eiio?ieth ? iaoe?iiae?caoe??. O ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? oea iaeia ?c iaee?aueo ?ia?o ii iao?e i?iaeai?. Aea aaoi?
aeei?enoiaoaaa iaoa??ae caeaa?eueoa ii ??ON?, ui ae noino?oueny Oe?a?ie,
oi A.A.Aaiaaeeeoia aeei?enoaa eeoa ie?ai? oaeoe ?ethno?aoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o.

Aei iaoi? oaie aaciina?aaeiuei a?aeiinyoueny ieoaiiy anoaiiaeaiiy
?ia?oie/iai eiio?ieth iaae ae?iaieoeoaii oa iaoe?iiae?caoe??
i?iieneiaino?, ye? ae?noaee aena?oeaiiy a i?aoeyo ?.O.*i?iiiaca,
I.I.Aoaecaiea, oa ?i. *i?iiiac ?.O. Ia?o? nioe?ae?noe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie (eenoiiaae 1917 – ea?oaiue 1918 ??.). – Oa?e?a,
1967; Aoaecaiei I.I. Nioe?ae?noe/ia iaoe?iiae?caoe?y i?iieneiaino? a
Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? (1917 – 1920 ??.). – E., 1965 oa ?io?.. O oeeo ?iaioao
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ia?ao?ae i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie aei ?oe aea?aeaae,
i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy ia?iaeiei ainiiaea?noaii oiui. I?enay/aii aaaaoi
i?aoeue aea/aiith i?iaeai nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?iaeono??ae?caoe??, cie?aia a
Oe?a?i?, aea iaaia i?noea a?aeaiaeeoueny e ieoaiiyi ea?oaaiiy oaa?eeaie
oa caaiaeaie Aeea., iai?eeeaae: Eaeue/oe A.N. Nioeeaeenoe/aneay
eiaeono?eaeecaoeey NNN? e aa inaauaiea a niaaoneie enoi?eia?aoee. – I.,
1975..

Aeoaea aeoeaii c e?ioey 50-o aei na?aaeeie 80-o ?ie?a aeine?aeaeoaaeany
?noi??y ?ia?oie/iai eeano Oe?a?ie (i?aoe? A.?.Aiooaeia, A.I.Aeiaaiiiea,
A.?.Eiao?oey, I.I.?a?ioa, ?.I.Neey?aiea oa ?ioeo) Aiooaei A.?. ?ia?oieee
Oe?a?ie a ai?iouea? ca noai?aiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace nioe?ae?cio
(1928 – 1932 ??.). – Oa?e?a, 1968; Aeiaaiiie A.I. ?ia?oie/ee eean
Oe?a?ie a ?iee nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? (1926 – 1929 ??.). –
Oa?e?a, 1971; Eiao?aoeue A.?. Oi?ioaaiiy eaae??a ?aaeyinueeiai
?ia?oie/iai eeano Oe?a?ie (1921 – 1932 ??.). – Oa?e?a, 1974; ?aaio A.I.
?aai/ee eeann Niaaoneie Oe?aeiu ia caaa?oathuai yoaia a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu (1920 a.). – E., 1984; Neey?aiei ?.I. ?ia?oie/ee eean Oe?a?ie a
?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie (1918 – 1920 ??.). – E., 1966 oa ?io?.. O
oeeo ?iaioao ?ice?eaa?oueny aianie ?ia?oiee?a o aeiei??ii?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a ?anioae?oe?, cie?aia ?o o/ano? a
oi?aae?ii? ?iaeono??aeueiei eiiieaenii.

I?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a ?iee “ai?iiiai eiioi?cio” ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo oeueiio ia??iaeo (?iaioe
TH.?.Oa?auaiea, A.A.A?iiaeueniia oa ?i.) Oa?auaiei TH.E. Aaeeeee
Ieoya?ue e noaiiaeaiea nioeeaeenoe/aneie yeiiiieee ia Oe?aeia: I/a?e
enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee (1917 — 1920). – E., 1986; Aeiiaeuenii
A.A. “Aiaiiue eiiioieci”: iieeoeea, i?aeoeea, eaeaieiaey. – I., 1973 oa
?io?., iaio (i?aoe? TH.A.Iieyeiaa oa ?i.) Yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea
Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa a ia?aoiaeiie ia?eiae io eaieoaeecia e
nioeeaeecio. – I., 1986., oa a caaaeueieo i?aoeyo c ?noi??? O?N?,
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?iieneiaino?, ?ia?oie/iai eeano ?noi??y
Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. – E., 1977. – O. 5; 1978. – O. 6; ?noi??y ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. – E., 1983. – O. 1; ?noi??y ?ia?oie/iai
eeano Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. – E., 1967. – O. 2 oa ?io?..

Aiae?c ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? ae?oai? iieiaeie 50-o – 80-o ??.
aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe oaeo iiyae aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeine?aeaeaiue c
ieoaiue iaoe?iiae?caoe?? i?iieneiaino?, “ai?iiiai eiioi?cio”, iaio,
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??, ?iaeono??ae?caoe??, oi?ioaaiiy
?ia?oie/iai eeano, eiai nioe?aeueii? oa o?oaeiai? aeoeaiino?. ?noi?eee
aeyaeee ? nenoaiaoecoaaee aaeeeo e?euee?noue aeaea?ae, aena?oeeee ia ?o
aac? iaeiaeine?aeaeai? ia oie /an i?iaeaie. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue i?aoeue i?noeea ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ?ieue
?ia?oie/iai eeano a oi?aae?ii? i?iieneia?noth, oi/a iani?aaae?
oi?aae?inuee? aaaeae? cina?aaeaeoaaeeny a ?oeao ia?o?eii-ainiiaea?nueei?
aa?o?aee. Iniiaieie iieacieeaie oa oi?iaie o/ano? o?oaeyueo a oi?aae?ii?
i?iieneia?noth ?noi?eee aaaaeaee ae?iaie/? ia?aaee, aenoaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a
ia ea??ai? iinaaee, ?icai?oaiiy nioe?ae?noe/iiai ciaaaiiy, o?oaeiaee
aiooc?aci oiui. Aea oaeoe/ii iica oaaaith caeeoaeany naia
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy, iniiai? aoaie ??
noaiiaeaiiy, iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, oi?ie ? iaoiaee, eaae?e, a
oiio /ene? ? iaoe?iiaeuei?, ae?enia ?ieue ia?o?eieo ? aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?aa oa iiaiiaaaeaiue ?anioae?eainueeeo ?
nithcieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy.

Iiaee aoai o ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? ?noi??ia?ao?? ?icii/aany c e?ioey 80-o
?ie?a i?ae aieeaii ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?
e?a?ie, a i?ney na?iiy 1991 ?ieo – o ca’yceo c e?aoii oioae?oa?ii?
nenoaie, a?aeiiae a?ae ooii?/iiai ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeiai a/aiiy,
?iciaaeii N?N? ? i?iaieioaiiyi iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Aeinooi aei ?ai?oa
canae?a/aieo a?o?aieo aeaea?ae ? caai?iiaii? e?oa?aoo?e, a?aenooi?noue
oeaico?e, e?ea?aeaoe?y eiiia?o?eiiai ?aeaieia?/iiai eiio?ieth noai?eee
oiiae aeey i?aeaioiaee ye?nii iiaiai ??aiy aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc?
noni?eueieo, cie?aia ? ?noi?e/ieo, iaoe. Iacaaiaaaeiaai? eiiia?o?eiith
?aeaieia??th a/ai? ae?noaee iiaeeea?noue ia?aaeyiooe nai? aa/aiiy
aaaaoueio yaeu ? i?ioean?a e nei?enoaeeny iath Aeea.: ?a?io I., Eenaiei
I. Iaeyae aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAIO ca inoaii? 10-??//y.
// ?noi?e/i? cioeoe. – E., 1997. – N. 49.. A oe? ?iee aoa aaaaeaiee a
ia?a ? nai oa?i?i “aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia” Aeea.: ?aoeaic?th
A.O.Iiiiaa ia ?iiai A.Aaea “Iiaa i?ecia/aiiy”. // Iaoea e aeeciue. – I.,
1987. — ? 4. – N. 54 – 65.. A?i i?oeii oa?eoia o iaoeiaee aaeeoie ye
neiii?i “oioae?oa?ia nenoaia”, “ath?ie?aoe/ii-aea?aeaaia”, “eiiaiaeia”.
Oaiiiai aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie noaa i?aaeiaoii ieeueii?
oaaae iaoeiaoe?a. I.Oeeiei ia?oei o eaaaeuei?e ?aaeyinuee?e i?an? iacaaa
aeieo?eiaeuei? aeaea?aea oe??? nenoaie – niaaeueia Ia?ena – Aiaaeuena –
Eai?ia – Noae?ia Oeeiei A. Enoiee noaeeiecia. // Iaoea e aeeciue. – I.,
1988. — ? 11. – N. 45 – 55; ? 12. – N. 40 — 47; 1989. — ? 1. – N. 46 –
56; ? 2. – N. 53 – 61.. Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a – oea i??ai?aea, a iniia? yei? ciaoiaeyoueny o?oaeyu?, ye?
ae?iaeythoue iaoa??aeuei? aeaaa, a ia aa?oo – iniae, ye? aecia/athoue,
ooi oa ui iiaeiai ?iaeoe, eiio ? eoaee iinoaaeyoe i?iaeoeoe?th, aea
a?aoe iaiao?aei? iaoa??aee, eiooe, iaeaaeiaiiy oiui. Ae?yeuei?noue oaeeo
ooieoe?iia??a ? noai?aieo ieie i?aai?a ? neeaaea? nooue
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy e ieaioaaiiy.

Aea a?eueo?noue ?ia?o e?ioey 80-o – 1991 ?. iaienai? a eeth/?
“ai?aa/ianueei? ia?aaoaeiae”, “iiiaeaiiy nioe?ae?cio”, “iiaa?iaiiy aei
Eai?ia” oiui. A ieo a?aenooiy /?oea aeoiea, ui noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ia
oi?iaoe?y, noai?aia a N?N?, ia i?aeeyaaea ia?aaoaeia?, ui ?? iio??aii
aoei aeaiiiooaaoe, ye ? noaeiny o na?ii? 1991 ?. Aeea., iai?eeeaae: Aoo
I.I. I?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth: ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae ? o?iee.
(Ia iaoa??aeao ia?oi?aai?caoe?? Oe?a?ie. 1921 – 1942 ??.). – E., 1990. –
N. 11 – 12..

O oeueiio ieai? ianooiii ia onoaeai? noa?aioeie, ?oeioaaiiyi,
caeaaaeinue ae, iani?inoiaieo aen?ii, ui an?eyei cae??iethaaeeny o
noni?euei?e na?aeiiino? eiiia?o?eieie ?aeaieiaaie, iicia/ai? i?aoe?
N.A.Eoeue/eoeueeiai Aeea.: Eoeue/eoeueeee N.A. Eiioi?ci a Oe?a?i?: ia?oa
aeanyoe??//y (1919 – 1928 ??.). – E., 1996 oa ?io?.. Aaoi? a?oioiaii
aeieaco? iaiao?aei?noue ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?aaeyinueei? ?noi???. I?e oeueiio
nooe?eueiiio ia?aaeyaeo i?aeeyaa? ia o?eueee cae/ia iine?aeiai?noue
i?aeoi iacaia?a/ieo oaeo?a a ?o i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yceao, aea e
naia eiioeaiooaeueia iniiaa ?aaeyinueei? ?noi???. Cie?aia, ia aeoieo
N.A.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, oaeiai ia?aaeyaeo iio?aao? e ?noi??y ?aaeyinueei?
Oe?a?ie ia?oiai aeanyoee?ooy ?? ?nioaaiiy, oiaoi naia oiae?, eiee
oi?ioaaeany aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia.

Eiiieaeniee aiae?c aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ioyaii 20-o – ia?oi? iieiaeie
30-o ??. noaa oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ?noi?e/ieo oa ?noi?eei-aeiiii?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i? a 90-o ?ieao (i?aoe? N.A.Eoeue/eoeueeiai,
A.I.Aeaieeaiea, O.A.Eanueyiiaa, A.A?ei/ooeueeiai oa ?ioeo) Aeaieeaiei
A.I., Eanueyiia O.A., Eoeue/eoeueeee N.A. Noae?i?ci ia Oe?a?i?: 20 –
30-o? ?iee. – E., 1991; A?ei/ooeueeee A. I?iieneia? o?anoe Oe?a?ie a
20-o? ?iee. – E., 1997..

Oea o?eueee ia?o? ?iaioe ii iao?e i?iaeaiaoeoe?, iaienai? a iacaeaaei?e
Oe?a?i?. Caoa?auaieo a?eueoiaeoeueeeie i?oieiaaiaie i?iaeai a ?noi???
Oe?a?ie iaaeoi aaaaoi. Iaeia c ieo – i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?ie.
Aiia, ye oe?e?nia iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia oa ?noi?eei-aeiiii?/ia i?iaeaia, ua
ia noaea i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oeei ? coiiaeaii iao
aea?? oaie.

Aeaea?aea ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? aaaao? ? ??ciiiai?oi?. Ia?aaeon?i, oea
i?aoe? oai?oe?a eiioi?noe/ii? aeieo?eie, aea aiie ienaee i?i
iaiao?aei?noue cai?ie oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo (?eieiaeo) a?aeiinei aaca?ioiaei
eiioi?noe/iei ae?iaieoeoaii ? ?iciiae?eii, oeaio?ae?caoe?? an?o cania?a
ae?iaieoeoaa a ?oeao aea?aeaae, ieaiiaiai oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith. Oe?
iieiaeaiiy eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaieia?? i?ney AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe??
a?eueoiaeee aaciina?aaeiuei iaiaaaeeny i?iaanoe o aeeooy. Aeoiee
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?iaeiei ainiiaea?noaii,
cie?aia ? i?iieneia?noth, iio??aii ooeaoe o i?aoeyo eeanee?a
ia?enecio-eai?i?cio.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oe?iei aeei?enoai? aenooie, noaoo?, a?ioo?e
ea??aieo ae?y/?a eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? oa ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae
(E.A.Noae?ia, I.?.Aooa??ia, I.?.?eeiaa, A.ss.*oaa?y, A.?.Iao?ianueeiai
oa ?ioeo) o yeeo aeeeaaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee a?eueoiaee?a.

Aeaea?aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ia?o??
a?eueoiaee?a oa ?? cae?eniaiiy ? noaiia?ao?/i? ca?oe c’?cae?a ?
eiioa?aioe?e, ?aciethoe?? oa ??oaiiy c’?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e ? ieaioi?a
OeE. ?o aeiiiaiththoue ca?oe aoaa?inueeeo oa ie?oaeieo ia?o?eieo
eii?oao?a, noaiia?aie ia?oeiioa?aioe?e, ieaioi?a ie?oaeeii?a oa aoaeii?a
EI(a)O. *anoeio oeeo aeieoiaio?a iaae?oeiaaii, aea ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue caa??aa?oueny a a?o?aao. Cie?aia aeey ?iaioe iaae oaiith
aoee aeei?enoai? ia?o?ei? iaoa??aee, ui caa??aathoueny a Oeaio?aeueiiio
aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI
Oe?a?ie), Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee
Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie), ?in?enueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aeiiii?/iiio a?o?a?
a Iinea?, i?noeaaeo iaeaea?aea?o?aao.

Aaaeeeaa aeaea?aei aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie – caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe,
aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee aeueo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee, noaiia?ao?/i?
ca?oe c’?cae?a ?aae ??ciiai ??aiy, nan?e AOeAE ? AOOeAE oa iaoa??aee aei
ieo, ca??ieee ocaeiiaiue oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue o?yaeo, ca?oe o?yaeo oa
ie?aieo eii?na??ao?a, ui iaae?oeiaai? ie?aieie aeaeaiiyie.

Aaeeeee ? ??ciiiai?oiee iaoa??ae i?i oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?noeoueny o ia??iaee/i?e
i?an? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, ui oaae aoa i?iaiae?ciaaiee aaoi?ii
aeena?oaoe??.

Aiae?c aeaea?aeueii? aace ii oai? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui aiia
oe?eeii aeinoia??ia ? aeinoaoiy aeey ?ice?eooy oaie, aea aeieoiaioe ?
iaoa??aee aeiaaathoue niaoeeo?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?? aea/aiiy. Ii-ia?oa,
a aeieoiaioao, ye? caeeoeee ii nia? i?aaie aeaaee ia aeei?enoiaoaaany
oa?i?i “aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiee” noeeue ea??aieoeoaa, aai
“ath?ie?aoe/ia nenoaia” oiui. A oiaeo aoee oa?i?ie “aea?aeaaia
i?iieneia?noue”, “ieaiiai-nioe?ae?noe/ia nenoaia” ? o. i. ?eieia?
a?aeiineie caeaa?eueoa iaceaaeeny “eai?oae?noe/ieie”, aai
“ao?aeoacieie”. O aeaea?aeao ia ciaeoe oi/ii? iacae ae?enieo
i?ia?aeiee?a ? ea?iaie/?a aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy. Ne??cue aeine?aeieee iaoeeathoueny ia aaceeeo aeao?i?oe?th –
“ia?o?y”, “aeeeoaoo?a i?ieaoa??aoo” oiui. Oe? iniaeeaino? ?aaeyinueei?
“iiaiiiae” iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e aioo??oi?e e?eoeoe? aeaea?ae,
iniaeeai ?aaeyinueei? i?ane, ui ia?aaoaaea i?ae ?aeaieia?/iei iaaeyaeii
? oeaico?ith.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ca?iaeaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth (a?oaeaiue 1917 – aa?acaiue 1921 ??.)” aeeeaae
iaoa??aeo aaoi? ?icii/aea c aiae?co iiaeyae?a eeanee?a
ia?enecio-eai?i?cio ia i?iaeaio i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ia?iaeiei
ainiiaea?noaii, cie?aia ? i?iieneiaino? i?ney ia?aiiae nioe?ae?noe/ii?
?aaiethoe??. Aeeeaaeai? ieie aeoiee i?i aeni?ii??aoe?th aeaniee?a
cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa, iaoe?iiae?caoe?th i?iieneiaino?, oiaoi ia?aaea/o
?? a ?oee aea?aeaae, a oaeoe/ii aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ainiiaea?nueeiio
ia?niiaeo, ae?iaieoeoai ? ?iciiae?e i?iaeoeoe?? ca ?aeeiei ieaiii,
cieuaiiy oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei, aaaaeaiiy caaaeueii?, a oaeoe/ii
i?eioniai?, o?oaeiai? iiaeiiino? c i?aaii aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a
ia?aeeaeaoe ?iai/o neeo c iaei??? aaeoc? a ?ioo, o?oaeia? iia?e?caoe?? ?
o?oaeia? a?i?? caeeaee ooiaeaiaio aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth. An? oe? ieoaiiy ia eiie?aoiiio oe?a?inueeiio
iaoa??ae? ? ?icaeyaeathoueny a ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe??. ?iaeyoueny
aeniiaee, ui c e?ioey 1917 ii aa?acaiue 1921 ??. a?eueoiaeee noai?eee
iiaeaeue aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth.
Aeiiii?/i? aaaeae? oi?aae?iiy aoee a?aeeeioo?,
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiee ?iciiae?e cai?iea naii?aaoeyoeaiee ?eieiaee
iaoai?ci.

Noai?aia a ?iee “ai?iiiai eiioi?cio” nenoaia oi?aae?iiy iaea?aeaaeaii?
i?iieneiaino? aoea caeaoia eeoa iia?e?coaaoe o?oaeia? ? iaoa??aeuei?
?ano?ne aeey iio?aa iai?iie. C aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o, c oi/ee ci?o
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa noni?euenoaa iaiao?aeieie i?iieneiaeie oiaa?aie aiia
aeyaeea naith iiaio iacaeaoi?noue. Iaaecae/aeii a?ii?caeeee aia?ao o
aeaeyae? A?IA – O?IA (I?iiath?i) – oi?aae?iue – aeaae?a – eouiaeo
a?aeae?eaiue oiui – a?aecia/aany ath?ie?aoeciii, oyaaieiith,
aieiaioyinoaii ? aacainiiaea?i?noth. Neiai “aeaae?ci” noaei neiii?iii
iai?iaeyaeiiai ath?ie?aoecio ? aaniethoii? iaaoaeoeaiino? a oi?aae?ii?
aeiiii?eith.

?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y nieno? iaae?iiy ianya?a i?iieneiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? iai?ee?ioe? 1920 – ia ii/aoeo 1921 ??., noi?ioe 1913 ?., ia
a?eio ? ni?e/eiaio iath ?ic?ooo. Aea oea iaeiia?/iee iiaeyae ia
i?iaeaio. Aacnenoaiia ? anaioiiethth/a iaoe?iiae?caoe?y i?iieneiaino?
iaoiaeii “/a?aiiiaaa?ae?enueei? aoaee ia eai?oae”, e?ea?aeaoe?y
?eieiaiai iaoai?cio naii?aaoeyoe?? aeiiii?ee, ath?ie?aoe/i? iaoiaee
oi?aae?iiy oaae aoee i?e/eiaie, ui aaee aeiiii?eo e?a?ie aei i???ae.
A?eueoiaeee ia oio?ee ?icoi?oe iaiao?aei?noue caa?aaeaiiy eai?oaeo aeey
ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?ee. A oiio, aeni?ii??thaaaoe
eai?oae, aiie i?ae??aaee ? ae?iaieoeoai. Aeeaiea e?eca a e?a?i? ye
iane?aeie iiieeeiai? iie?oeee a?eueoiaee?a, i?iyaii yei? noaee
naeyinuee? iianoaiiy, no?aeee ?ia?oiee?a, cioneee a?eueoiaee?a
a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae “ai?iiiai eiioi?cio” ? ia?aeoe aei iaio. O oeeo oiiaao
caciaea ci?i ? nenoaia oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth, noai?aia a ?iee
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a ia??iae
iaio (1921 – 1927 ??.)” iieacaii, ye a oe? ?iee a?eueoiaeee ni?iaoaaee
aeei?enoaoe aeaiaioe ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, cie?aia aini?ic?aooieo aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth; cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo
oi?i oi?aae?iiy – o?ano?a oa neiaeeeao?a. I?e oeueiio, aea?aeaaa
cina?aaeaeoaaea aieiai? aaaeae? ?aaoethaaiiy i?iieneia?noth o nai?o
?oeao: ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oe?i ia i?iieneia? ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
oiaa?e, ii?ioaaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, iiaeaoeiao iie?oeeo, ieaioaaiiy,
eiio?ieue ca ?eieii, oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeaoo oiui.

I?aai?caoe?eio noaio oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth noaiiaeee: A?IA – o?ano –
i?aei?e?inoai. Aaeocaai-oa?eoi??aeueiee i?eioeei i?aeii?yaeeiaaiino?
?anioae?eainueei? i?iieneiaino? nithciiio oeaio?o iicia/aany ia i?aaao
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i?, aiie oaeoe/ii aoee aeaaaeai? c-i?ae
eiio?ieth o?yaeo ON??.

Aini?ic?aooieiaee iaoai?ci, cai?iaaaeaeaiee o 1921 ?., iaa iie?oe/i? e
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nuee? oaeoeei-no?aoaa?/i? caaaeaiiy: cana?ae/eoe
eiyeuei?noue ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? aiaeii/an
aeei?enoaoe ?? aeey noai?aiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? oa o?iainiai? aace
nioe?ae?noe/ii? i?iieneiaino?. Aea a?eueoiaeoeueea iiaeaeue ieaiiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy ononi?eueiaiiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee eiioe?eooaaea c
aeaiaioaie ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. A?aeaoeiny niioai?aiiy i?eioeeio
aini?ic?aooieo, yeee ia?aoai?eee ia aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e i?iaeoeoe??,
iicaaaeaoe i?aei?e?inoaa i?aaa naiino?eii? ?aae?caoe?? i?eaooeo.
Noni?eueia aeani?noue ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa ? iaeiiia?o?eia iie?oe/ia
nenoaia ii?iaeaeoaaee a?aeiia?aeio noaio ? no?oeoo?o oi?aae?iiy
i?iieneia?noth. Oiio i?ioyaii iaio i?iaeiaaeoaaeiny oi?ioaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth,
iacaaaeath/e ia aeiiouaiiy aeaiaio?a ?eieo.

O oi?ioaaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth iiaeia oiiaii aeae?eeoe
aeaa aecia/aeueieo ca ?ioaineai?noth i?aai?caoe?eii? ?iaioe ia??iaee:
ia?oee o?eaaa c ae?oai? iieiaeie 1921 ?. aei na?aaeeie 1923 ?. Eiai
oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie aoee: ii/aoie o?anooaaiiy, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aini?ic?aooieo, c?inoaiiy ?ie? eiia?oe?eieo i?aeaaeei ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoa; ae?oaee ?icii/aany c aeaeaiiy aeae?aoo i?i o?anoe (1923
?.) ? i?iaeiaaeoaaany aei ii/aoeo 1928?., oiaoi aei ii/aoeo cai?oaiiy
iaio. Aeey iueiai noaei iieaciaei ciaioaiiy ?ie? ? cia/aiiy ?eieiaeo
/eiiee?a oa iineeaiiy ieaiiai-?aaoethth/eo iaoiae?a aea?aeaae a
oi?aae?ii? i?iieneia?noth.

?iaeoueny aeniiaie: i?ioyaii 20-o ?ie?a aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia
nenoaia a i?iieneiaino? iinooiiai aaeineiiaethaaeany, aea, a iniiaiiio,
naia ?? noaia ? no?oeoo?a caeeoaeany aac nooo?aeo ci?i. O ca’yceo c oeei
ne?ae aiai?eoe i?i /anoeia? ci?ie ooieoe?iiaeueieo canaae, a ia i?i
aeiei??iio ?ai?aai?caoe?th /e ?aoi?io naii? aea?aeaaii? i?iieneiaino?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “?ai?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a ?iee
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??” iiaa ?aea i?i caaa?oaeueiee aoai
oi?ioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth
ON?? iai?ee?ioe? 20-o – ia ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a. Eo?n ia
?iaeono??ae?caoe?th oa nioe?ae?noe/io ?aeiino?oeoe?th oaeoe/ii icia/aa
cai?oaiiy iaio, a a?aeoae a?aeaoeiny onoiaiiy oi?i ? iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaino?, i?enoiniaaieo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Iniiaia oaaaa
aea?aeaaii-ieaiiaeo onoaiia, ui caeiaeeny i?aeaioiaeith ?aoi?ie
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth, cina?aaeaeoaaeany ia?aaaaeii ia
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo oaeoi?ao iaeneiaeueiiai aeeo/aiiy
i?iaeoeoe??, aac iaeaaeiiai a?aooaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a ?aeiino?oeoe??. Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy
i?ia?ai ? i?eioeei?a ?ai?aai?caoe?? i?iieneiaino?, aaoi?aie yeeo aoee
a?aeii? iaoeiaoe?, ia aeciaaaeiny iie?oe/iei ea??aieoeoaii e?a?ie, a
a?aeoae aoei a?aeeeiooa.

?ai?aai?caoe?th nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth iiaeia oiiaii
iiae?eeoe ia aeaa ia??iaee: i?aeaioiaea i?aai?caoe?eii-ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a
oa ??oaiue (1928 – 1929 ??.) oa aaciina?aaeiueiai cae?eniaiiy ?aoi?ie
(1930 – 1931 ??.). I?aai?caoe?eia noaia oi?aae?iiy caa?aaeany, aea
a?aeaoaaeeny nooo?a? ooieoe?iiaeuei? c?ooaiiy ie?aieo ae?eyiie naii?
nenoaie. O?anoe ao?aoeee ooieoe?? caooo ? iinoa/aiiy, ia?aoai?eaoenue
oaeoe/ii ia i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/iee ina?aaeie A?IA, a neiaeeeaoe aoee
e?ea?aeiaai?. Iniiaiith eaieith noaee aaeocaa? i?iieneia? ia’?aeiaiiy.

Aea/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo iciae oa no?oeoo?ieo ?en oi?aae?iiy
i?iieneia?noth ?aeiino?oeoeaiiai ia??iaeo aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe oaeo
cia/iiai iineeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy. Aiia
caaacia/oaaea, ia?aaeon?i, ia aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue, a, a ia?oo
/a?ao, i?aai?caoe?eio ?aei?noue nithcii? i?iieneiaino?.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeai? i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?ey aeaea?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?iaeiei
ainiiaea?noaii noiyee iniiaiiieiaeieee ia?enecio-eai?i?cio. N i?eoiaeii
a?eueoiaee?a aei aeaaee ?o iiaeyaee ii/aee ianeeueieoeueeei oeyoii
ai?iaaaeaeoaaoeny o aeeooy.

Ca?iaeaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
i?iieneia?noth ?icii/aeiny a Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? 1917 ?. ? caaa?oeeiny
noaiiaeaiiy oe??? nenoaie ia ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a. Ni?iae ?ia?oiee?a
ia?aoai?eoe i?aei?e?inoaa ia aeani?noue ?ia?oie/eo eieaeoea?a o oiae?
cae?eniaiiy ?ia?oie/iai eiio?ieth aoee neeii?oeue i?eaeooai?
?aaeyinueeith aeaaeith.

Iaoe?iiae?ciaaiith i?iieneia?noth noaa ea?oaaoe ???a?o?/ii iiaoaeiaaiee
oi?aae?inueeee aia?ao, aea i?eeiaee ??oaiiy ooieoe?iia?e, aeaeae? a?ae
?ioa?an?a ?ia?oiee?a.

O ?iee “ai?iiiai eiioi?cio” oeae aia?ao o aeaeyae? A?IA – O?IA
(I?iiath?i) – aeaae?a – oeaio??a – o?ano?a – eou?a – caaiaeioi?aae?iue
aoa iaoe?eaiee ia noai?aiiy iica?eieiai?, aacoiaa?ii? aeiiii?ee. Aeoaea
oaeaeei oaea nenoaia oi?aae?iiy aeyaeea naith iaaoaeoeai?noue.
I?iieneia?noue eaaeaa ni?aaeyeanue ?c caaacia/aiiyi i?i?iaeueieo iio?aa
iai?iie e?a?ie. I?aaiaiiy a?eueoiaee?a o 1918 – 1920 ??. iaeaaiaeeoe
ae?iaieoeoai ? ?iciiae?e ca aeiiiiiaith aea?aeaaii-ath?ie?aoe/ieo
iaoiae?a ? ia eiioi?noe/ieo canaaeao i?iaaeeeiny.

C ia?aoiaeii aei iaio a?eueoiaeee aoee ciooai? aianoe ci?ie ? a nenoaio
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth (noai?aiiy o?ano?a, neiaeeeao?a ia i?eioeeiao
aini?ic?aooieo), cae?eniaia ni?iaa aeei?enoaoe ?eieia? aaaeae? i?e
ci?oeiaii? aea?aeaaii? aeaniino? ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa (“eiiaiaei?
aenioe”). Aea aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei? i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy
aeiiii?eith, iacaaaeath/e ia iai, iaiaaeoaaee i?aei?e?ieea?noue, a c
na?aaeeie 20-o ?ie?a ana iii?oi?oa nei?i/oaaee noa?o oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo
a?aeiinei.

A oiae? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
a?eueoiaeoeueea ea??aieoeoai a?aeeeioei aeaiaioe ?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee ? caaa?oeei i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth. Iniiaiith eaieith oi?aae?iiy noaee
aaeocaa? i?iieneia? ia’?aeiaiiy. Oaea nenoaia oi?aae?iiy caaacia/oaaea
ia oae aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue, ye i?aai?caoe?eio ?aei?noue i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee.

Ca aeanyoee?ooy ?nioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia aeyaeea
naith iiaio aeiiii?/io iaaoaeoeai?noue, a?aeeeioea iaoo e?a?io ia iaeia
?c inoaii?o i?noeue o ?a?ii? ca ??aiai aeeooy. ?aeeiei aeoiaeii ?c
aeooiai eooa ? iiaa?iaiiy aei ?eieiaeo canaae ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?ee,
yeei ae aie?niei ia aoa oeae oeyo aeey oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aoaeue ye?
ni?iae caeiina?aoaaoe a no/ani?e Oe?a?i? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeio
nenoaio oi?aae?iiy ? ?aaeoe?eieie ? oaeeie, ui i?e??eathoue iao
aaaaoino?aaeaeaeueiee ia?iae ia ua a?eueoo ceeaeaii?noue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

Aiaeec oi?i ainoaea?noaaiiiai eaieoaeecia ia Oe?aeia a 20-a aiaeu. //
Na. iao/. ?aaio anie?aioia Oa?e. ain. oi-oa: Aoiaieoa?iua iaoee. –
Oa?ueeia, 1992. – N. 183 – 187.

I?iaeaiu oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth Oe?aeiu a ia?eiae
iyia. // Aano. Oa?uee. oi-oa. – Oa?ueeia, 1993. – ? 375. – N. 119 – 126.
(Ni?aaao.: Oaioeth?a A.?.).

Aineaieoaeeci ia Oe?aeia a 20-a aiaeu: iiene, i?ioeai?a/ey, i?e/eiu
e?ecena. // Aano. Oa?uee. oi-oa. – Oa?ueeia, 1993. – ? 375. – N. 141 –
147.

?ai?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ooaa?aeaeaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie. // A?ni. Oa?e. oi-oo. – Oa?e?a,
1994. – ? 381. – N. 64 – 71.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieaio ? ?eieo a oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? a?eueoiaeoeueei?
ia?o?? a oiiaao iaio. // A?ni. Oa?e. oi-oo. – Oa?e?a, 1996. – ? 387. –
N. 222 – 229. (Ni?aaao.: Oaioeth?a A.?.).

I?i iaoiaeieia?th a?o/eciyii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee. // Ca. i?aoeue Oa?e.
aea?ae. aeaaeai?? oaoiie. oa i?a. oa?/oaaiiy. – Oa?e?a, 1998. – *. 2. –
N. 292 – 294. (Ni?aaao.: I?iinyi A.N.).

Oeaio?ae?nonuee? oaiaeaioe?? a oi?aae?ii? i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?ie a 20-o?
?iee: aeniiaee, aeina?ae, o?iee. // Ca. iaoe. i?. Oa?e. aea?ae. iaae.
oi-oo ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee: ?noi?e/i? iaoee. – Oa?e?a, 1998. — ? 1. – N.
134 – 141. (Ni?aaao.: I?iinyi A.N.).

AIIOAOe??

*i?ia Iaoae?y Aieiaeeie??aia. Oi?ioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?ie (e?iaoeue 1917 – ii/aoie 30-o
?ie?a). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao. Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oith eiiieaeniith ?iaioith o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao??
ii i?iaeai? oi?ioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
i?iieneia?noth Oe?a?ie a?ae ?? ca?iaeaeaiiy iai?ee?ioe? 1917 ?. ? aei
inoaoi/iiai ooaa?aeaeaiiy ia ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a. Cie?aia, iniiai?
ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/athoue: ca?iaeaeaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth
iai?ee?ioe? 1917 – ia ii/aoeo 1921 ??., ae?yeuei?noue nenoaie a ?iee
“ai?iiiai eiioi?cio”; iniaeeaino? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a ia??iae iaio
(1921 – 1927 ??.); ?ai?aai?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth a eiioaeno?
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? (e?iaoeue 20-o – ii/aoie 30-o ?ie?a).
?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui oey nenoaia aoea cai?iaaaeaeaia a?eueoiaeeaie
ianeeueieoeueeei oeyoii, anoia?a/ aeiiii?/iei caeiiai ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaino?, a oiio iieacaea aaniethoio iaaoaeoeai?noue. ?aaeueiith
aeueoa?iaoeaith aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei?e nenoai? iiaea aooe eeoa
?eieiaa aeiiii?ea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy,
i?iieneia?noue, “ai?iiee eiioi?ci”, iai, nioe?ae?noe/ia ?aeiino?oeoe?y,
?eiie, a?eueoiaeee.

*??iay Iaoaeey Aeaaeeie?iaia. Oi?ie?iaaiea aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth Oe?aeiu (eiiaoe 1917 – ia/aei 30-o
aiaeia). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao. Oa?ueeia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony ia?aie eiiieaeniie ?aaioie a ioa/anoaaiiie
enoi?eia?aoee ii i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth Oe?aeiu io a? ca?iaeaeaiey a eiioea
1917 a. e aei ieii/aoaeueiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey a ia/aea 30-o aiaeia. A
/anoiinoe, iniiaiua aii?inu enneaaeiaaiey aeeth/atho: ca?iaeaeaiea
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a
eiioea 1917 – a ia/aea 1921 aa., aeayoaeueiinoue nenoaiu a aiaeu
“aiaiiiai eiiioiecia”; iniaaiiinoe a? ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a ia?eiae iyia
(1921 – 1927 aa.); ?ai?aaiecaoeeth oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a
eiioaenoa nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aeiino?oeoeee (eiiaoe 20-o – ia/aei 30-o
aiaeia). Aeaeaaony auaiae, /oi yoa nenoaia auea aiaae?aia aieueoaaeeaie
ianeeuenoaaiiui iooai, aii?aee yeiiiie/aneei caeiiai ?acaeoey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a iiyoiio iieacaea aaniethoioth iayooaeoeaiinoue.
?aaeueiie aeueoa?iaoeaie aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaia iiaea auoue
oieueei ?uii/iay yeiiiieea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey,
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, “aiaiiue eiiioieci”, iyi, nioeeaeenoe/aneay
?aeiino?oeoeey, ?uiie, aieueoaaeee.

Chernaya Natalia Vladimirovna. Forming of administrative and command
system of management of industry of Ukraine (end of 1917 – beginning of
the ‘30s). – Manuscript.

Thesis for a Degree of the Candidate of Historic Sciences on the
speciality 07.00.01 – History of Ukraine. Kharkov State University.
Kharkov, 1998.

The Thesis is the first complex work in native historiography on the
problem of forming administrative and command system of management of
industry of Ukraine from its origin at the end of 1917 to its final
consolidation at the beginning of the ‘30s. In particular basis issues
of research include: origin of administrative and command system of
management of industry of Ukraine at the end of 1917 – beginning of
1921, functioning of the system during the years of “military
communism”; specific features of its functioning during NEP (new
economic policy) (1921 – 1927); reorganization of management of industry
in the context of socialist restructuring (end of the ‘20s – beginning
of the ‘30s). There is conclusion that the system was introduced by
force by Bolsheviks against economic laws of industry development and
therefore proved to be absolutely ineffective. Only market economy can
be the real alternative to administrative and command system.

Key words: administrative and command system of management, industry,
“military communism”, NEP, socialist restructuring, market, Bolsheviks.

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