Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

EAAAAe?A TH??e ?aaiiae/

OAeE 398:883

OIEUeEEI?ENOE*IA NIAAeUEIA A?AO?A ?OAe*AIE?A —

?AAIA A?EEEA E IAIANA IE?IIAI

10.01.07 — oieueeei?enoeea

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oieueeei?enoeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeoia?anueea E?ae?y O?aioe?aia,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana

Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oieue

eei?enoeee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai??

Ea/eai Aieiaeeie? Aoaiac?eiae/

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo

ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia?? ?i. I.O.?eeuenueeiai

IAI Oe?a?ie

Oaa/oe Oaoyia Ieeiea?aia

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.E.E?oinueei?, eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “__5__”___aeiaoiy________ 1999 ?. i __10____
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae
26.001.15 Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252030,
Ee?a-30, aoeueaa? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,14).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “__5__” ____aa?aniy_____ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
E.A.A?eoeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Iio?aaa a iaienaii? no/anii? (c oi/ee ci?o iaoiaeieia??) ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? oieueeei?enoeee ia aeeeeea? noii?ao. I?aoe? I.Iei?ia e
I.Noioeiaa iaienai? aeaaii e ia iiaeooue i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia iiaiioo,
aeine?aeaeaiiy O.Eieanne «?noi??y oe?a?inueei? aoiia?ao??» caeeoeeiny a
?oeiieniiio aa??aio? i ia aa?eoei a iaoeiaee ia?a. Oe? i?aoe? iiaee aooe
aeei?enoai?, ye cacia/aeiny oieueeei?enoaie, iai?ee?ioe? 50-o ?ie?a 20
noie?ooy, aea iei? aiie ia aeo?eiothoue e?eoeee uiaei iaoiaeieia??.
?icaeoie Oe?a?ie a oiiaao oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio aaeueioaaa ia‘?eoeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy o/aieie ?noi??ia?ao?? oieueeei?o. Aiia aea/aeanue aac
/?oeiai ieaio, ia eii?aeeiiaaii, /anoi ca oiiaeiaaiiyi ie?aieo
aeine?aeiee?a.

*anoeiai oey oaia ?icaeyaeaeanue a ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo ?iaioao
?.Aa?acianueeiai, A.Ee?aeaia, I.Aeay. Aea aiie aena?oeththoue ie?ai?
noi??iee a cae?aii? e inieneaii? onii? neiaaniino? ? ? ii/anoe
oaiaeaioe?eieie. No/ani? iin?aieee c ia?iaeiciaanoaa iathoue
iinoaeuea?/ii-?ao?iniaeoeaiee oa?aeoa? ? oeaothoue ia aeeaeoeci o
o?aeooaaii? ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? oieueeei?enoeee.

Iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy neioaoe/ieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
oieueeei?enoeee ona?aeiieththoue aaaaoi a/aieo. Iac??ea iio?aaa aeaeaiiy
aeaoaeueiiai a?ia?ae?ia?ao?/iiai neiaieea oe?a?inueeeo oieueeei?eno?a.
Oe?a?ia ua ia ia? ??oioiaii? neioaoe/ii? nooae??, a ye?e iine?aeiaii
aena?oethaaeanue ae ?noi??y a?o/eciyii? oieueeei?enoeee, ii/eiath/e a?ae
?? aeaea?ae ? caaa?ooth/e iei?oi?i ia??iaeii. Aei oiai ae, iaienaiiy
aaaaoioiiiiai iaoeiaiai ca??ieea oe?a?inueeiai oieueeei?o aenoioei
ia?aae aeaeaaoeyie aeiiae ?aa?c?? i?eioeei?a iaoeiaiai oii?yaeeoaaiiy,
yea ia?ii a eeane/ieo aeaeaiiyo (ca??ieee I.Iaeneiiae/a,
ss.Aieiaaoeueeiai, I.*oaeinueeiai, I.Eenaiea, ?.?oae/aiea oa ?i.).

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? oieueeei?enoeee 60-70-o ??.
19 no. aecia/ia i?noea iathoue a?aoe ?oae/aiee — ?aai A?eee (1845-1905)
? Iaian Ie?iee (1849-1920). Ia?oee a?aeiiee ye oii?yaeiee aeaio
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ca??iee?a — «Ia?iaeiua thaeii?onneea neacee» oa
«*oiaoeeea ia?iaeiua ianie», — ye?, ca aecia/aiiyi ?in?enueeiai
oieueeei?enoa I.Acaaeianueeiai, iathoue ananeia‘yinueea cia/aiiy.
?.?oae/aieo iaeaaeeoue ? /eiaeee ei?ion iaiioae?eiaaieo eacie, a oaeiae
?oeiienia eieaeoe?y i?naiue, caiiaeyiue, i?ene?a‘?a ? i?eeacie.
Oieueeei?i? caiene Iaiana Ie?iiai /anoeiai iioae?eiaai? a oaea caaaeaieo
ca??ieeao ?.?oae/aiea e (oaea ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a) o «Ia?iaeieo i?niyo
a caienao Iaiana Ie?iiai oa ?aaia A?eeea» (1977 ?.). Iaeiae iei?, eiee
oe?a?inueea iaoeiai-e?oa?aoo?ia a?iiaaenuee?noue aioo?oueny a?aecia/aoe
150-??//y c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy Iaiana Ie?iiai, iio??aia iiaia aeaaeai?/ia
ioe?iea an??? niaaeueie ienueiaiieea a o./. ? oieueeei?enoe/ii?.
Cia/iee ?ioa?an aeey no/anieo oieueeei?enoe/ieo i?iaeai iathoue eacee,
c?a?ai? ienueiaiieeii, ui caeeoeeenue o ?oeiienao, ? aeaye? i?naii?
iaoa??aee. Ii?aoethaaiiy cia/iiai ?oeiieniiai iaoa??aeo c oiiae?a
?inoeoooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia?? ?i.
I.O.?eeuenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.Oaa/aiea IAI
Oe?a?ie, Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i.A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai,
Iieoaanueeiai e?a?ciaa/iai iocath, Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
e?oa?aoo?ii-iaii??aeueiiai iocath Iaiana Ie?iiai aea? iiaeeea?noue
a?aeoai?eoe yne?aao noi??ieo ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? oieueeei?enoeee,
eoeueoo?e oa iaeaaeii ioe?ieoe aaeeeo e?euee?noue iaeia?aeiieo ?
??aee?nieo iaoa??ae?a.

Iaaeinoaoiy aea/ai?noue oieueeei?enoe/ii? niaaeueie a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a
coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue iaienaiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
oieueeei?enoeee, o ye?e iaeaaeia i?noea aoaea a?aeaaaeaii ?o
ae?yeueiino?.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee iioae?eiaai? e
?oeiieni? iaoa??aee, iia‘ycai? c aeeooyi ? oieueeei?enoe/iith
ae?yeuei?noth a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a, ui caa??aathoueny a ?oeiienieo oiiaeao
?inoeoooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia??
?i.I.O.?eeuenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i.O.Oaa/aiea IAI
Oe?a?ie, o Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?ie ?i.A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai,
Iieoaanueeiio e?a?ciaa/iio ioca?, Iieoaanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
e?oa?aoo?ii-iaii??aeueiiio ioca? Iaiana Ie?iiai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. I?iiiiiaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia?oith ni?iaith
eiiieaeniiai aiae?co oieueeei?enoe/ii? niaaeueie a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a ia
iniia? iaeia?aeiieo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?a?eoaoieo aeaeaiue, ui
coiiaeei aeieoiaioaeuei?noue aea/aiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — aeaoaeueii
i?iaiae?coaaoe e inieneeoe oieueeei?enoe/ii-aoiia?ao?/io ae?yeuei?noue
a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a o aaeoc? cae?aiiy, ioae?eoaaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?iiaaoaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?; aena?oeeoe i?eioeeie
caienoaaiiy, nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa eiiaiooaaiiy ieie oieueeei?ieo oaeno?a;
aecia/eoe aianie ?aaia A?eeea oa Iaiana Ie?iiai a oe?a?inueeo
oieueeei?enoeeo 60-70-o ??. 19 no., a oaeiae aieea, yeee iaea ?o
ae?yeuei?noue ia oieueeei?eno?a ianooiieo iieie?iue.

Aeoiaey/e c aecia/aii? a ?iaio? iaoe, aaoi? i?aaia ?ica’ycaoe
oae? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie cae?aoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ?aaia
A?eeea e Iaiana Ie?iiai a eiioaeno? oieueeei?enoe/ieo i?iaeai e?ioey 19
— ii/aoeo 20 noie?ooy c iaeyaeo ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? oieueeei?enoeee
oeueiai ia??iaeo, iicia/aiiai ?ioaineaiei cae?aiiyi
oieueeei?ii-aoiia?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo;

— ?icaeyiooe oieueeei?i? oa aoiia?ao?/i? iaaeaaiiy a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a ye
i?aaenoaaiee?a iiaiai iieie?iiy cae?a/?a-oieueeei?eno?a, yeei iaeaaeeoue
cia/ia ?ieue o ?icaeoeo iaoee i?i oe?a?inueeo ia?iaeio oai?/?noue;

— aeine?aeeoe ?oeiieni? iaoa??aee, ui neeaaeathoue iaoeiao niaaeueio
?.?oae/aiea, aecia/eoe eiai ?ieue ye aeaeaaoey ? i?iiaaaiaeenoa
oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? i?ni? oa eacee;

— nenoaiaoecoaaoe e i?iaiae?coaaoe oieueeei?i? oaenoe oa aecia/eoe ?o
oaenoieia?/io aa?o?noue c iiaeyaeo no/anieo iaoeiaeo aeiia;

— aecia/eoe ia‘?eoeaio aa?o?noue iioae?eiaaieo oai??a onii? neiaaniino?
?.?oae/aiea oa eiai ca??iee?a «*oiaoeeea ia?iaeiua ianie» ? «Ia?iaeiua
thaeii?onneea neacee», ye? noaee aaaiiei i?aea?oioyi iiaeaeueoeo
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o oe?e aaeoc?.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieie canaaeaie aeena?oaoe?? ? i?aoe? a?aeiieo
oieueeei?eno?a oa aoiieia?a: I.Iei?ia, I.Noioeiaa, I.A?ooaanueeiai,
O.Eieanne, A.Ee?aeaia, I.Iiiiaa, I.Neaa/aiea, I.Aeay, ?.Aa?acianueeiai,
I.ssoeaiea, I.Iacyea, I.Ooiaaee, A.Ea/eaia, N.Ieoaie/a, I.Iooeiee, — ye?
aea/aee ?noi??th oieueeei?enoeee. A iniiao aiae?co oieueeei?enoe/ii?
niaaeueie a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a iieeaaeaii i?eioeei ?noi?ecio oa
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O iaoeiaee ia?a aaiaeyoueny iia? oaeoe, cie?aia, aeaoaeueii
aiae?co?oueny ?oeiienia eieaeoe?y ?.?oae/aiea oa Iaiana Ie?iiai,
aecia/a?oueny ?o i?noea a eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
oieueeei?enoeee e?ioey 19 — ii/aoeo 20 noie?ooy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iaienaiiy i?aoeue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
oieueeei?enoeee, cie?aia, aeey a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai neiaieea, a oaeiae
ie?aii? iiiia?ao?? i?i oieueeei?enoe/io niaaeueio a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaea? oe?iiee iaoa??ae aeey e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a,
eaeneeia?ao?a, ?noi?ee?a a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e, o/eoae?a oe?e ?
aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ina?oe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oethaaeenue o
ioae?eaoe?yo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiue, a oaeiae aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? a ?inoeooo? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa no/anieo
oaoiieia?e (“Aeooiai?noue iieiaei? ethaeeie”, i.AEeoiie?, 1997?.),
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ia niaoe?aeueieo eo?nao, ui /eoaeenue o Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a
oa aeniiae?a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/athoueny iaoa e
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai aeaea?aeueia aaca oa iaoiaeieia?/i?
canaaee. Cie?aia, cacia/a?oueny, ui I.Iei?i, I.Noioeia, O.Eieanna o
nai?o iaeyaeao c ?noi??? aoiia?ao?? iaaeaee ?.?oae/aieo aaaeeeaa i?noea
na?aae oieueeei?eno?a e?ioey 19 — ii/aoeo 20 noie?ooy.

Iiceoeaiei iioaioe?aeii oieueeei?enoe/ii? ?iaioe e?ioey 19 — ii/aoeo 20
noie?ooy aoei ?nioaaiiy aaaaoueio ?inoeoooe?e ??ciiai oa?aeoa?o (o Ee?a?
— ?noi?e/ia oiaa?enoai Ianoi?a-e?oiienoey), ye? aeoeaii caeiaeenue
iaoeiaith e i?iiaaaiaeenonueeith aeaeaaie/ith ae?yeuei?noth ia c?acie
aeo?iaeo «*oaiea a Enoi?e/aneii iauanoaa Ianoi?a-eaoiienoea»; aeaaaea
nai? ie?aei? ?acoeueoaoe aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?y oieueeei?ii? ni?aae
(ia‘?aeioaaeeny ia eeoa aeaaeai?/i? e oi?aa?neoaonuee? i?ioan?iiaee, a e
i?ia?ioe?ei? ethaeoae? onii? ia?iaeii? neiaaniino?).

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Oieueeei?enoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a
(?aaia A?eeea e Iaiana Ie?iiai) o eie? aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?iaeai e?ioey
19 — ii/aoeo 20 noie?ooy» aena?oeththoueny a?ia?ao?/i? a?aeiiino?,
iia‘ycai? c oi?ioaaiiyi ?ioa?ano a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a aei cae?aiiy e
inieneaiiy ia?iaeiiiiaoe/ieo oai??a. Ia?oith (aei oiai ae i?eaeeoo?aith)
a?ia?ao??th ?.?oae/aiea ? a?ia?ao?y, iiaeaia I.Iei?iei ia iniia?
iaoa??ae?a, iaae?neaieo naiei ?.?oae/aieii.

I.Iei?i aaaaeaa, ui ?.?oae/aiei, aeey yeiai oa?aeoa?iei aoa oe?ieee
?iciao cae?aoeueei? ?iaioe oa ynia ?icoi?iiy iaoeiaeo caaaeaiue,
iaeaaeeoue aei iiaiai iieie?iiy oieueeei?eno?a, ui c‘yaeeeny a e?ioe?
50-o — ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a 19 noie?ooy (I.Iei?i «Iaei?onneay
yoiia?aoey ca iineaaeiea aeaaaeoeaoue iyoue eao», 1886 ?.).

Caiaeii ia iiaa iieie?iiy oieueeei?eno?a caa?ioa oaaao aeaaeai?e
I.A?ooaanueeee o i?aoe? «I‘yoaeanyoee?ooy «Enoi?e/aneeo ianai
iaei?onneiai ia?iaea» Aioiiiae/a ? Ae?aaiiaiiaa (1924 ??e),
oa?aeoa?ecoth/e ?ieue a/aieo ? cae?a/?a oai??a ia?iaeii? eoeueoo?e
??cieo iieie?iue o i?aeaioiaoe? caaaeaiiai ca??ieea: «Ii?o/ aaoa?ai?a
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeieoeoaa, ye Iaeneiiae/, Einoiia?ia, Eoe?o,
I.Ia?eiae/, I.A?eica?nueeee, aaaaoi ooo i?aaenoaaiee?a ? iieiaeoeo
aaia?aoe?e, ye I.Eenaiei, ?oaeainueeee, Iiaeoeueeee, *oaeinueeee,
?.?oae/aiei…» .

O caieneao iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?iai? O.Oaa/aiea (1905 ??e) o ?oa?eoe?
«Iae?ieueia?/i? cai?oee» I.A?ooaanueeee ae?oeo? iaaaeeeo noaooth i?ae
iacaith «Aieiaeeie? Eanaae/ — ?aai ?oae/aiei», aea ei?ioei iiaea?
a?ia?ao?th ?.?oae/aiea. Aeaui c aeeooy e ae?yeueiino? ?.?oae/aiea aoei
iioae?eiaaii a aeo?iae? «Oe?a?ia» (1907 ??e). Oe?eaa? iiae?iaeoe? i?i
noaiiaeaiiy na?oiaeyaeo ?.?oae/aiea caaaeo? ?.Ethoee o noaoo? «Aei
ieoaiiy i?i e?oa?aoo?ia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a (Iaiana
Ie?iiai e ?aaia A?eeea)» .

?.?oae/aiei aoa iia‘ycaiee ?c aeeooyi ia?iaeo ia?o ca ana niiaaaeaie
aeeoeinoaa — i?aaeee eiai iaeaaeaee aei i?noeaai? (ai?caei ?iaeo aoei a
Ie?ai?iae?) eicaoeueei? noa?oeie. Aaoueei eiai neoaeea /eiiaieeii o
Ie?ai?iae?, aea 1845 ?ieo ia?iaeeany ?.?oae/aiei. Oai ieioee eiai
aeeoy/? ?iee, oai a?i iiethaea ia?iaeio iiac?th. A/eany o
Ie?ai?iaenueeiio, a aeae? o Aaaeyoeueeiio iia?oiaiio o/eeeu?,
niiae?aath/enue anooieoe aei a?iiac??. Oa /a?ac iaoa??aeueio
ne?ooo a?i, /ioe?iaaeoeyoee?oi?e oeiiaoeue, ?aea ia neoaeao aei
Aaaeyoeueeiai eacia/aenoaa. Onio ia?iaeio oai?/?noue ii/eia? caienoaaoe
c 15 ?ie?a.

A?aeiiee aeine?aeiee oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e e oieueeei?o I.Neaa/aiei,
yeee ii?aoethaaa ?oeiienia c?a?aiiy ?.?oae/aiea o a?aeae?e? ?oeiien?a ?
??aee?nieo eiea A?ae?ioaee Aeaaeai?? iaoe N?N? (oaia? —
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a), o ?ica?aeoe? «?aai ?oae/aiei ye cae?a/ ? ioae?eaoi?
oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie» iaaiaeeoue oe?ieee aeoya ?c
niiaaae?a ?.?oae/aiea i?i eiai ia?o? caiene eacie – «a?i ?icoi?a onth
neeaaei?noue caienoaaiiy eacie, i?aeoiaeea aei oe??? ?iaioe c ii/oooyi
aaeeei? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, iaae ona i?aaioa aei oi/iino? caieno, a
a?aeoae — ui iniaeeai oe?eaai — aaiaeea o i?aeoeeo caieno iiaoi?ia
i?ineooiaoaaiiy ? eiio?ieueia aei?aaeaiiy, iaiaaaany c?icoi?oe
ineoieia?th iiia?aea/a».

1860 ?ieo ?.?oae/aiei ae?oeo? nai? oieueeei?i? caiene a «Iieoaanueeeo
aoaa?ineeo aaaeiiinoyo» ?? 15-16, i?ni? «I?i Iieoaanueeo aeoao», «I?i
Iae?y oa Iacaio», ye? cana?ae/othoue eiai no?eeee ?ioa?an aei ?noi?e/ii?
oaiaoeee. Oaea ia?o? ioae?eaoe?? ?. ?oae/aieii caien?a aeacaieo i?naiue
aeyaeee oaeiae aieiae?iiy iei iaoiaeeeith oieueeei?enoe/ii? cae?aoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Ie?ai? caiene noi?iaiaeaeo? i?ei?oea cae?a/a ?c
cacia/aiiyi, aea, eiee e a?ae eiai c?iaeaii caien.

O Iaoa?ao?c? aeoiaeeoue aeo?iae «Iniiaa» o 1861-1863 ?ieao, aea
?.?oae/aiei aena?oethaaa a?iiaaenueea e eoeueoo?ia aeeooy Iieoaanueei?
aoaa?i??, a oaeiae iaaeneeaa ooaee nai? oieueeei?i? caiene. O aeiaoi?
1862 ?. «Iniiaa» iaae?oeoaaea o ?oa?eoe? «C ia?iaeieo ono» eaaaiaeo
«I?i cicoeue, iini?otho ? aaaethe» c eiiaioa?ai.

A?aeiia o 20-o ?ieao 20 no. aeine?aeieoey-e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue
?.?oaeeinueea, i?iaiae?coaaaoe aaaaoee iaoa??ae aei aeeoo?ieno
?.?oae/aiea (iae?ieiae a «Oe?a?i?» oa a «?noi?e/iiio a?nieeo» ca 1905
??e, a?ia?ao?th, ui ?? iaienaa Iaian ?oae/aiei (Iaian Ie?iee),
aeieoiaioe ?iaeeie ?oae/aie?a, ?oeiiene oai??a oa aoiia?ao?/i? caiene,
ui caa??aaeeny oiae? a Aea?aeaaiiio Iieoaanueeiio ioca?), caa?oa? oaaao
ianaiia?aae ia iaoiaee oieueeei?enoe/ii? i?aoe? ?.?oae/aiea.
Aeine?aeieoey caoaaaeo? cie?aia, ui aeia?? o?aaeeoe?? aoiia?ao?/ii?
i?aoe?, yea iaei ?oae/aieiaa ??aeia i?noi Aaaey/, «eoeueoo?ia ai?caei»,
ca?aeee aeeoea oe?ea a?oia ?ia?oiee?a ia iea? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e e
aoiia?ao?? (Iaoeeinueeee, Ae?aaiiaiia, Iaea?aae/), aieeioee ? ia
?oae/aiea, yeee aaea 1860 ?ieo, 15 e?o iae ?iaeo, ii/aa ae?oeoaaoe nai?
aoiia?ao?/i? caiene a «Iieoaanueeeo aoaa?inueeeo a?aeiiinoyo», noaa
ei?aniiiaeaioii «Iniiae». Cacia/eaoe, ui c 60-70-o ?ie?a ieioeiai
noie?ooy i?i?iaeaii eieinaeueio i?aoeth uiaei cae?aiiy iaoa??aeo oa eiai
iaoeiaiai ia?iaeaiiy, ui aoiieia?/i? iiae?? 20-30-o ?ie?a 20 no.
aeaeaei aeia?aaeeee i?aoeth eieeoi?o aoiia?ao?a, ?.?oaeeinueea, i?ioa,
ieoa: «…a ?oae/aiea oa eiai oiaa?eo?a a?aaeathoue ian aea?
iaaecae/aeii oe?ii? ?ene: ianaiia?aae ni?aaae? iaeea oe?eaa?noue aei
eiaeiiai iaeae??ai?oiai yaeua a iiaoo? ia?iaei?i, aiie-ai iioothoue,
o?enothoue ona, ui aa/aoue ? /othoue. Oiae? ?o ae?oaeiy eieaeoeaia
i?aoey, iaeiinoaei?noue, c yeith ie?ai? aeine?aeieee ianooue na?e
c?a?aiee iaoa??ae aei ni?eueii? nea?aieoe? ia caaaeueio ni?aao…».

Ae?oaei i?noii, a yeiio ?.?oae/aiei c iiaeai?iith aia?a??th a?aeaeaany
aea/aiith ??aeii? ?noi???, e?oa?aoo?e, oieueeei?o, aoa Ee?a, aea
?.?oae/aiei i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani??a I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa ? A.Aioiiiae/a
aiooaaany aei anooio a oi?aa?neoao. A caiaeii c ?ioa?anii a?aea?aeo?
ye a?eueiee neooa/ eaeoe?? neiaaniiai a?aeae?eaiiy
?noi?eei-o?eieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. ?.?oae/aiei iaae?oeoaaa o Ee?a? nai?
iaea?eueo? i?aoe? «Ia?iaeiua thaeii?onneea neacee» (aei.? — 1869 ?,
aei.?? — 1870 ?.) oa «*oiaoeeea ia?iaeiua ianie» (1874 ?.) c i?enayoith
I.Ae?aaiiaiiao. I?i oeth inoaiith ca??eo I.A?ooaanueeee ienaa: «Na aoea
iaeia c iaeoe?ii?oeo ca??ie uiaei iaoiaee/iiai ia?iaeaiiy, ye? a oeo
/anao iaea ia o?eueee oe?a?inueea, a e neia‘yinueea aoiia?ao?y». Oea
aoei ia oie /an iaeiiai?oa c?a?aiiy i?naiue /oiaoeueeiai oeeeeo.
?noi??th iiyae oeueiai oi?eaeueiiai iiaaoi?nueeiai aeaeaiiy aeaoaeueii
i?iaiae?coaaea aeine?aeieoey I.Iea/eiaea-Naneia, ni?aaaaeeeai
a?aecia/eaoe aaaaoiieaiia?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy /oiaoeoaa oa eiai iiac?? ?
eiiia?aoea?nonuee? a?c?? aaoi?a, oii?yaeieea ca??ieea, eio?ee aenooiea
ooo ia eeoa ye aoiia?ao, oieueeei?eno, a e ye nioe?ieia, ?noi?ee,
aaeao?eno». Iiya? oeueiai ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai ca??ieea ?.?oae/aiea
ia?aaeoaaea iecea eiai ioae?eaoe?e i?i /oiae?a ? /oiaoeoai a oiai/ani?e
ia??iaeeoe?: «I /oiaeao e /oia/anoaa» («Eeaaeyiei», 1866, ? 112);
«Yoiia?aoe/aneea ?aaiou a caiaaeiii e?aa a 1866 aiaeo» («Eeaaeyiei»,
1867, ?? 61, 62, 65), «I /oiaeao e /oia/anoaa» («Eeaaeyiei», 1867, ?
127; «Eeaaeyiei», 1870, ?25); «*oiae a ia?iaeiuo ianiyo. Yoiia?aoe/aneee
i/a?e» («Aanoiee Aa?iiu», 1870, naioya?ue, ieoya?ue), ye? ia ao?aoeee
aoiia?ao?/ii-?noi?e/ii? aa?oino?. Iiyao ca??ieea a?oaee ia o?eueee a
Ee?a?, a e o Iaoa?ao?c?, Eiiaeii? e Ia?eae?, a oieueeei?enoe/ia i?aoey
?.?oae/aiea iaea aeinoaoith e?euee?noue ?aoeaicaio?a.

1873 ?ieo a Ee?a? aoei caniiaaii «THai-Caiaaeiue ioaeae ?onneiai
aaia?aoe/aneiai iauanoaa», aeoeaiei /eaiii yeiai aoa I.Ae?aaiiaiia,
ui i?aeo?eioaaa ?.?oae/aiea a ee?anueeee ia??iae eiai
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. *a?ac oeae a?aeae?e (naia /a?ac eiai nae?aoa?y
I.?oniaa) ?.?oae/aieo aoei ia?aaeaii aeey ?icaeyaeo oa aii?yaeeoaaiiy
eaceiaee iaoa??ae. I.Iei?i a?oaa i?aaiaiiy ?.?oae/aiea ii?eethaeieoe ua
i?aea ia ae?oeiaai? aa??aioe eacie, a oaeiae o?, ui aoee ?icii?ioai? a
??aee?nieo aeaeaiiyo, i?noeaa?e i?an?. Aei iiyae ca??ieea «Ia?iaeiua
thaeii?onneea neacee» ?.?oae/aiea aaoaioe/ieo ae?oeiaaieo oaeno?a aoei
iaaaaaoi, eacee /anoi ae?oeoaaeeny a e?oa?aoo?ieo ia?iaeao. Oa e oaenoe
oe?a?inueeeo eacie o iieuenueeeo ia?aeacao ia iiaee caaeiaieueieoe
oieueeei?eno?a, ine?eueee aoee oaiaeaioe?eieie ? iaee iie?oe/ia
caaa?aeaiiy. Uii?aaaea, o ca??ieeo ?.?oae/aiea ia aoei /?oei?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? eacie, ai a?i aaaaeaa oaeee iiae?e ooo/iei, ea?oth/enue
ia?iaeiei iiae?eii oeeo oai??a (eacee i?i ioao?a, ia/enoo neeo,
aiaaoe??a oiui).

Ia iiyao ca??ieea eacie ?.?oae/aiea aeaaai a?ae?aaaoaaea oiai/ania i?ana
— ?aoeaic?? ae?oeoaaeenue o oaeeo aacaoao, ye «Eeaaeyiei», «Eeaaneee
oaeaa?ao», «Eeaaneea aoaa?ineea aaaeiiinoe», «I?aaaea», a oaeiae o
iineianueeiio aeo?iae? «Aanoiee Aa?iiu». Caaaeyee I.Ae?aaiiaiiao ca??iee
?.?oae/aiea iaaoa iiioey?iino? ? ca ei?aeiiii. Ie?ai? eacee c? ca??ieea
c‘yaeythoueny ? a ia?aeeaae? o?aioeocueeith iiaith. Aei oe?a?inueeeo
eacie o caienao ? ioae?eaoeyo ?.?oae/aiea (ye ? aei ca??ie A.A??i/aiea,
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I.*oaeinueeiai) caa?oaany ? a?aeiiee o?inueeee
oieueeei?eno A.Aa?ia. O ?ica?aeoe? «Ianeieueei ia?aeeaeae oeineeo neacie
n ?onneeie e i?i/eie», ui aoea iioae?eiaaia a «AEeaie no?aia» (1898 ??e,
aei.1), iaaaaeaii /ioe?e oeie eacie, a aei ieo — oe?a?inuee? ia?aeae?.
?.Iie?aea, /anueeee e?oa?aoo?iciaaaoeue ? oieueeei?eno, ?aoeaicaio
i?aoeue ?.O?aiea, A.Aiaothea, oaeiae caa?ioa oaaao ia aeaeaiiy eacie
?.?oae/aiea, e o nooae??, aeaeai?e iei o Nio?? 1900 ?ieo, ia noi??ieao
41-43 aeacaii oae? oe?a?inuee? nthaeaoi? ia?aeae?: ?oae/aiei, aei.??, ?
5; ?oae/aiei, aei.? ? 18. Ine?eueee aeaoaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo «Ia?iaeiuo
thaeii?onneeo neacie» aeaa I.Neaa/aiei, ia aoaeaii coieiyoeny ia
oeueiio iaoa??ae? aeaoaeueii. Caa?i?ii oaaao ia ?ioa: ye ?iaioa
?.?oae/aiea ?ai?acaiooaaea aeinyaiaiiy oiai/aniiai eaceiciaanoaa.
A?aeiiee ?in?enueeee eaceiciaaaoeue I.I?e?oi?ia o i?aoe? «Neacea, aa
auoiaaiea e iineoaee» (aa?acaiue 1928 ?ieo) a?aecia/a?, ui ?noi??y
cae?aiiy eacee a ?in?? i?ieoea o?e aoaie: ia?oee –
«aeiaoaianue?anueeee», iaiaoeiaee, c ?ioa?anii aei eacee ye aei
iaoa??aeo aeey e?oa?aoo?ieo ia?a?iaie; ae?oaee – «aoaianue?anueeee»,
eiee eacea noaea i?aaeiaoii ieeueii? iaoeiai? oaaae, cae?aiiy ?
aeaeaiiy; o?ao?e ia??iae — iia?oi?e (20 no.), eiee cae?aoeueea ?iaioa
eaea oeyoii ooi/iaiiy oaoi?ee cae?aoeueei? ?iaioe, nenoaiaoe/iino? a
?iaio? ? ieaiii??iino? a iinoaiiaoe? cae?aoeueeeo caaaeaiue. Oaea
ia?o? aeionee ca??ieea I.Aoaianue?aa aeaee iiooiao aei iiyae
cia/ieo ca??iee?a a Oe?a?i?: aei 70-o ?ie?a c‘yaeeeny c?a?aiiy I.Eoe?oa,
E.Aoeoe?oeueeiai, ?.?oae/aiea, I.*oaeinueeiai, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
I.Eieueaa?aa, ?.Iaiaeo?e, A.A??i/aiea, A.Aiaothea. A?aeiii, ui
?.?oae/aiei iaae?neaa I.Aoaianue?ao 1-e aeione «Ia?iaeiuo thaeii?onneeo
neacie», i?ioath/e a oiai ii?aae. Ioaea, ca??iee eacie ?.?oae/aiea
c‘yaeany o oae caaiee «aoaianue?anueeee» ia??iae ? aoa aecia/aeueiith
a?oith a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? oieueeei?enoeee. Aei 1880 ?ieo
aeine?aeiee iaa?iiaaeaeo? aaee/aciee eaceiaee ?aia?ooa? — aeecueei 1800
caien?a ? neeaaea? ieai iaoeiaiai aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo
eacie. Aea o 80-o ?ieao ?.?oae/aiei caeeoa? iaoeia? e?oa?aoo?i? caiyooy
oa c aieiaith ii?eia? a /eiiaieoeueeo neoaeao, caeiath/enue o?iainiaeie
ieoaiiyie (a?i noaa /eaiii ?aaee i?i?no?a o?iain?a), ae?iaey? o?iainia?
caeiie. I?ioa o eeno? aei Iaiana Ie?iiai a?ae 3 ea?oiy 1903 ?ieo a?i
oeiaeo? c i?eaiaeo iacae?i/aii? ?iaioe iaae i?aeaioiaeith aaeeeiai
ca??ieea ia?iaeieo eacie. I?i e?oa?aoo?io ni?ai?aoeth a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a
iaienaii /eiaei. Cia/ii iaioa oaaae i?eae?eaii ?o oai?/?e ni?eoe? ia
iea? oieueeei?ii-aoiia?ao?/i?e; o 20-o ?ieao 20 noie?ooy i?i oea ienaea
?.?oaeeinueea, o 60-o – ?.Ai?aaa, o 70-o – I.Neaa/aiei, ?.Oeaioa,
I.Ceiii?y, N.Aiaeiaoeue. Oae, ?.?oaeeinueea cacia/eea, ui ?oae/aiea ye
ienueiaiieea cae?ea aaeeeith nai?th iinoaooth Ie?iee. I?iaeiaaeoth/e
aeoieo aeine?aeieoe?, iiaeia oaa?aeeoe, ui Iaiana Ie?iiai ye aoiia?aoa ?
oieueeei?enoa cae?ea nai?th iinoaooth ?.?oae/aiei. Oaaaeii aea/eaoe
?oeiien ?ica?aeee ?.?oae/aiea i?i /oiae?a, ui aoea ai?uaia a
«Eeaaeyieia» a 1866-67 ??. oa 70-o ??. 19 no., ?.?oaeeinueea caoaaaeeea,
ui «a?aonueea ni?eea» ca nai?ie caaaeaiiyie iaea ia o?eueee naio
e?oa?aoo?io i?aoeth, a e aoiia?ao?/io. O ?oeiien oeeaaeaii eeno Iaiana
Ie?iiai, a yeiio a?i iiaea? a?aoia? ?.?oae/aieo 7 /oiaoeueeeo i?naiue.

Aeine?aeieoey ?.Ai?aaa aeaea ei?ioeo, aeaeaei ia ae/a?iio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
oeo oieueeei?ieo ? aoiia?ao?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, ui ?o ciaeoea na?aae
?oeiien?a ienueiaiieea. Eaeaoueny i?i ?oeiienio ca??eo c ia?iaeieie
i?niyie, i?eeaceaie, aiaeaeioaie oa ?ioei oieueeei?iei iaoa??aeii,
aeaoiaaieie 1863 ? 1864 ?ieaie, yea ? c?aceii ia?oeo ni?eueieo caien?a
?aaia ?oae/aiea oa Iaiana Ie?iiai. ?.Ai?aaa caeeaea? caienoaa/ai iaaio
iaaeina?ae/ai?noue, ui iicia/eeany ia ianii?oecaoe?? c?a?aieo
iaoa??ae?a. Aea oa ae ianii?oecaoe?y na?ae/eoue ia oae i?i
iaaeina?ae/ai?noue caienoaa/?a, ye i?i ??aaiue oieueeei?enoeee 60-o
?ie?a 19 no. Aaeaea o ?oeiienieo ca??eao Iaiana Ie?iiai ciaoiaeeii
/eiaei aeienie c ae?oeiaaieo aeaea?ae, ia ye? a?i i???iooaaany o nai?e
?iaio?. Aeine?aeieee oai?/ino? Iaiana Ie?iiai-ienueiaiieea ia iieiaee
oaaaith eiai oieueeei?ii? oa aoiia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, oi/ caaaeoaaee
i?i oea i?eiaa?aeii (ia?ene ?.Ee?eethea, noaoo? A.Ioaeueae, iiiia?ao??
I.Ieaiaa?iaa oa I.Neaa/aiea). I?ioa aaoi? iaoeiai? a?ia?ao?? Iaiana
Ie?iiai A.*a?eanueeee aeacoaaa, ui aeayea ianoie?ii?noue iiia?aaei?o
aeine?aeiee?a ni?e/eieea aei cia/ii? ieooaieie a e?oa?aoo?? uiaei
ianoaaei aeeooy I.Ie?iiai. O ?icae?e? “A e?ath aeeoeinoaa” (1849-1860
??.) eieaeee A.*a?eanueeiai iiaeaii oe?eaa? iiae?iaeoe? c i?eaiaeo
oieueeei?enoe/iiai ioi/aiiy I.Ie?iiai (ia?oei ?c Aaaey/a oieueeei?
caienoaaa o/eoaeue I.Iaea?ianueeee, o/iai yeiai aoa Aia?in?e
Iaoeeinueeee. Caoiiethaaany oieueeei?ii ? th?eno Iao?i Ae?aaiiaiia,
aaoueei Ieoaeea Ae?aaiiaiiaa).

Nai? ia?o? caiene oieueeei?ieo oai??a Iaian Ie?iee ?icii/aa 1863 ?ieo ?
i?iaeiaaeoaaa oe? caiyooy aei 1872 ?ieo. O 70-o ?ieao a?i aeoeaii
ni?eeoaaany c I.Ae?aaiiaiiaei, yeee o oeae /an i?aoethaaa iaae
i?aeaioiaeith aei ae?oeo nai?o a?aeiieo ca??iee?a oieueeei?o. O 1970
?ieao I.Neaa/aiei aeyaea aeecueei 80 caien?a eacie, c?iaeaieo ?oeith
Iaiana Ie?iiai (a?aeae?e ?oeiien?a ? ??aee?nieo eiea A?ae?ioaee
Aeaaeai?? iaoe N?N? (oaia? — Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a). Ia?aae aeine?aeieeaie
iinoaee iia? caaaeaiiy: ioe?ieoe aianie ienueiaiieea a oe?a?inueea
eaceiciaanoai.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe «Iaoeiaa a?ia?ao?y ?.?oae/aiea — yne?aaiai
i?aaenoaaieea iiaiai iieie?iiy oieueeei?eno?a» aiae?co?oueny ?oeiienia
eieaeoe?y ?.?oae/aiea, eiai ae?oeiaai? i?aoe? oa ?o ioe?iea no/anieeaie
e iine?aeiaieeaie.

Aeaoaeueiee iien ?oeiienii? niaaeueie ?oae/aiea-aoiia?aoa cae?enieea a
20-? ?iee 20 no. ?.?oaeeinueea. On? iaoa??aee, ye? aiia iienoaaea, ua
1927 ?ieo caa??aaeeny a Aea?aeaaiiio Iieoaanueeiio ioca?. Caiaeii
a?eueoa /anoeia oeeo iaoa??ae?a iio?aieea aei ?oeiienieo c?a?aiue
Aeaaeai?? iaoe O?N? (oaia? — ?oeiieni? oiiaee ?inoeoooo
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia?? ?i. I.O.?eeuenueeiai
IAI Oe?a?ie — eieaeoe?y ?.?oae/aiea). ?o i?eaeaaea Aoiia?ao?/ia eii?n?y,
ui i?aoethaaea i?e AOAI o 1920-1931 ??. I?eaeaaia eieaeoe?y ?yni??
iaoa??aeaie, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iaiieaaeeao i?aoeth ?.?oae/aiea
iaae i?aeaioiaeith aei aeaeaiiy /oiaoeueeeo i?naiue. Oea ? /a?iaoee
anooiii? ?ica?aeee i?ae iacaith “*oiae”, aea a?i iieai?co? c
I.Einoiia?iaei, aeienee c ae?oeiaaieo aeaea?ae ca ieaiii: oi?a?aey
caii?iaeoe?a, Io?aanueeee Oeyo, *i?iee Oeyo, Aaeeeee Eoa. Ooo aea e
eeno, iaienaiee ?.?oae/aieii aei ?aaeaeoi?a «Aanoieea Aa?iiu» c i?eaiaeo
?ica?aeee «*oiaea». Niinoa?aaeaiiy, aeoiee ?.?oae/aiea-oieueeei?enoa
aiai?youe i?i oi?ioaaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aniaeoo aeine?aeaeaiiy /oiaoeueeeo
i?naiue, ui, ye aaaaea? aeine?aeiee, caeeoeeenue iai‘yoeith oiai
/oiaoeoaa, yea aoei ?icaeiaia eicaoeoaii. Aaaeeeaei aoei e caoaaaeaiiy
?.?oae/aiea c i?eaiaeo iaooeeueiiai aeio?eiaiiy /oiaeaie iaaieo cae/a?a
(«caeiio»).

Na?aae caien?a, c?iaeaieo ?. ?oae/aieii o na?aaeei? 60-o ??. 19 no. ?
oe?eaa? c?acee caiiaeyiue ? oae caai? «iaoee i?i aaeae?eueieoeoai».
Iniaeeai i?ea?iaeueieie ? oaenoe 10 caiiaeyiue: «E?na, e?na
eaaaaeeiee…» (iae e?eeeeaaoeue), «Uoea-?eaa a ii??, a i?nyoeue
iaaeai??» (iae coaiiai aieth), «?oaa nayoee TH??e ia aeiae…» (iae
a?eueia), «Aoa nia? ae?i…» (iae aeiai?a). Oaenoe noi?iaiaeaeothoue
i?ei?oee i?i i?noea caieno oa iniao ?ioi?iaoi?a: «iae aaae Eo/aeee,
ae?iee ioaiaiiai?, naei Ianoa?iaea, 8 aa?noia iae *ea?eia», «eicae
Coaaiei c Aa?ai??aee». Ia /an caieno oeeo oieueeei?ieo iaoa??ae?a ua ia
iiaa/eee na?o i? «O?oaeu» I.*oaeinueeiai, i? «Nai?iee iaei?inneeneeo
caeeeiaiee» I.?oeiaiea. Oi?eaeueieie ? oieueeei?ii-aoiia?ao?/i? caiene
?.?oae/aiea, ui noinothoueny ian?/ieoeoaa (?oeiieniee aa??aio i?ae
caaaeueiith iacaith «Iaoee i?i aaeae?eueieoeoai»). O ieo cao?eniaaii
aaeeeee aeina?ae ia?iaeiiai ian?/ieoeoaa — a?ae iiiaioo, eiee ainiiaea?
cae?a?oueny caaiaeeoe ian?eo, ? aeae?, ca nayoaie ia?iaeiiai eaeaiaea?y.

O 60-o ??. 19 no. ?.?oae/aiei caienoaaa c?acee «ni?iiieoeueeiai» (ca
eiai aeaniei aeneiaii) oieueeei?o ia oa?eoi??? Iieoaanueei? ?
*a?i?a?anueei? aoaa?i?e ( ?oeiieniee oiiae ?IOA ?i. I.O.?eeuenueeiai).
Oea — caaaaeee, i?ene?a‘y oa i?eeacee, i?ni? (cie?aia — aan?euei?), a
oaeiae aoaaeueueie. Cae?aiiy ? ioae?eoaaiiy oaeiai oieueeei?iiai
iaoa??aeo a 19 no., ca aeniiaeii Oa.Aiaea, oo?oaeithaaeeny
ni?ii‘yceea?noth aoiia?ao?a ? noai??noth ?in?enueei? oeaico?e. Ia 76
ea?oeao caienai? «ni?iiieoeuee?» i?ene?a‘y oa i?eeacee, o?eaee c
ni?ii?oeueeeo i?naiue, ui ?o ni?aaee ia aan?ee?, a oaeiae ia?iaei?
aeneiae a?ioe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, «ni?iiieoeuee?» caaaaeee aeacothoue ia
ne?aee a ieo oaee?/iiai eoeueoo ? ? oe?eaaei oa oe?iiei iaoa??aeii
aeey oieueeei?eno?a c iaeyaeo ia i?iaeaio aaiethoe?? oieueeei?ieo
iioea?a.

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue ioe?iea oieueeei?enoe/ii? niaaeueie
?.?oae/aiea, c?iaeaia O.Eieannith o eiai iaiioae?eiaai?e «?noi???
oe?a?inueei? aoiia?ao??». O.Eieanna ?iaeoue aeoeaio ia oeo noni?eueieo
? iaoeiaeo ianoaaeiao, ye? c?iaeee iiaeeeaith iiyao ca??iee?a
?.?oae/aiea. 40-? ?iee 19 no. aeine?aeiee aaaaeaa ia?aeiiiith aeiaith a
?in?enuee?e iaooe?, iniaeeai aoiia?ao?/i?e, ui iaaoaaea i?aai?caoe?eieo
oi?i, oa?eoiaoe aei i?ia?aiii? ae?yeueiino? iaoeiaeo ?inoeoooe?e. O
ae?oa?e aeia? oe?a?inueei? aoiia?ao??, ui i?eeoea ia ci?io ?iiaioe/i?e
(ia aeoieo O.Eieanne, aiia o?eaaea a?ae 1856 ?. aei 1895  ?.),
a?aeaoaathoueny cia/i? c?ooaiiy a aoiia?ao?/ii-oieueeei?ieo aeine?aeao,
?ica?aeeao, iia’ycaieo c ?iaiaie I.Iioaai?, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa e I.Noioeiaa.
Ca??ieee oaeeo aiooc?ano?a-aeine?aeiee?a, yeei aoa ?.?oae/aiei,
i?eneoaeeeeny aeey ?o nooi iaoeiaeo iaeyae?a. I?ioa yne?aa? aeaeaiiy
70-o ?ie?a 19 no. aeeeeeaee iiao oaeeth ?ai?an?e, c aaeeeith oeiaeith
aeey oe?a?inueei? iaoee i?eieieeany ae?yeuei?noue I?aaeaiiiai a?aeae?eo
?in?enueeiai aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa. C 1875 ?ieo ?.?oae/aiei a?eueoa
ia caeia?oueny oieueeei?ii oa aoiia?ao??th, noaaoe /eiiaieeii c
iniaeeaeo aei?o/aiue i?e aieeinueeiio aoaa?iaoi??. Aei nai?o inoaii?o
aei?a ?.?oae/aiei i??ya caaaaoeoe oe?a?inueeo oieueeei?enoeeo iaoeiaei
aeaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeeo eacie, yeeo c?a?aeiny a iueiai aeecei 1800
aa??aio?a (c eeaneo?eaoe??th ca nthaeaoaie, c eiiaioa?yie
?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiai, aoiia?ao?/iiai e aaia?ao?/iiai oa?aeoa??a).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? «Oieueeei?enoe/ia niaaeueia Iaiana
Ie?iiai» aea?oueny aiae?c oieueeei?ieo oa aoiia?ao?/ieo caien?a
ienueiaiieea, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo caa??aa?oueny o ?oeiienieo oiiaeao
?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie (o.5. –
iae.ca.214-216, 220, 222). Iaian Ie?iee aoa aeia?ei ciaaoeai ia?iaeii?
oai?/ino?, iniaeeai i?naiii?. Eiai aeoeaia caoe?eaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeei
oieueeei?ii i?eiaaea? ia 60-70 ?iee 19 no. Iaaaee/eee cioeo (18 a?e.),
aeaoiaaiee 1864 ?., i?noeoue oe?a?inuee? ia?iaei? iiia?aeaiiy,
aiaeaeioe, i?eeacee oa aeienee c aeo?iaeo «Iniiaa» ca 1861 ??e. Caiene
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?ioa?an ienueiaiieea aei ia?iaeii? ia?yaeiaino?,
cao?eniaaii? c on?ia iiaeeeaeie iiae?iaeoeyie. Aeey iaoa??ae?a Iaiana
Ie?iiai, ia a?aei?io a?ae oieueeei?ieo caien?a ?.?oae/aiea, oa?aeoa?i?
aeaoaeuei? aeac?aee ia ianoaaeie iiaoooaaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo c?ace?a
ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?. Ia?o? iioaoee cae?enithaaeeny a ?iaeeiiiio eie?
(iae a?aoa Eoee, a?ae iaoa??) — ??ci? niiniae «/a?oaaiiy» i?ae
caaaeueiith iacaith «*a?e», i?ea?iaeuei? eaceia? nthaeaoe cao?eniaaii
a?ae «?eueea c Aa?aa» («Ieeieae», ui ia? nthaeaoi? ia?aeae? aei
aiaie?anueeiai «A?y», oaeiae eacea i?i Ia?ea Aaaaoiai). Ia?iaeio
eaaaiaeo i?i iaae/?a, caienaio iae iaoa??, Iaian Ie?iee oi?noea o
?oeiieniee ca??iee i?ae caaaeueiith iacaith «Aia ethaeoue».

Ainaie 1863 ?. I.?oae/aiei aeeiioaaa iaia‘ycee iena?y o Aaaeyoeueeiio
iia?oiaiio noae?. O oeae /an a?i i?iaeiaaeo? cae?aoe oieueeei?i?
iaoa??aee: ?oeiienia ca??ea 1864 ?. cana?ae/o? eiai caoe?eaaeai?noue
ia?iaeieie i?niyie ?noi?e/ii? oaiaoeee (i?i Eioiaiai, Ia/ay, Iae?y),
eaeaiaea?iith ia?yaeiaith i?naii?noth, a oaeiae aeeoy/ei oieueeei?ii.

Oieueeei?i? caiene Iaian Ie?iee i?iaeiaaeo? a I?eeoeao, aea cao?eniaaii
/eiaei i?naiue aaeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o, ia?yae aiae?iiy eice, Iaeaiee, oi/a
iaeiinoaeia aeoiea i?i «aoi?eii?noue» aeeoy/iai oieueeei?o aoea
a?aeia?aaeaia o oieueeei?enoe/i?e iaooe? 19 no. Oe?eaa? e ni?euei?
aoiia?ao?/i? caiene Iaiana oa ?aaia ?oae/aie?a. Aeaoa oeeo oaeno?a ia
cacia/aia, a nai? aiie iathoue oae? caaieiaee: «Ie? aeooiaiue»,
«Oea?noai aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee» (? ooo ia?iaei? ia?aeace i?i eaaeai?a,
e?ioa, niao, cicoeth, ai?iaoey, iaae/a, ?aea, ia?iaei? iiia?aeaiiy i?i
iioiaeaeaiiy aa?ace, aeoaa, ineee, aa?a?ieo e e?iieae). Neeaaeaii
caieoaeueiee, ui noino?oueny «ieae/i?» i?oieia?? (aeaiiiieia??). O
ae?oa?e /anoei? «Aoiia?ao?/ieo caien?a» I.?oae/aiea cao?eniaaiee ia?yae
aan?eey (Ie?ai?iae), nayoeoaaiiy ?ieiaeo nayo; o ?icae?e? «Aania»
iiaeathoueny caiene aaaaoueio ?ai? oa oi?iaiae?a: «Ei?ieue», «Ai?ii»,
«Aaeee», «O aone», «O eaa/a», «O /i?oa oa a aiaa», a oaeiae e?eueea
caiiaeyiue a?ae coaiiai aieth.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny iaoa??ae iniaenoeo
iaoeiaeo eiioaeo?a Iaiana Ie?iiai e o/aniee?a ??? a?oaieia?/iiai c‘?caeo
(1874 ?.), ni?eeoaaiue c I.AEeoaoeueeei, I.?oniaei, I.*oaeinueeei,
I.Noa?eoeueeei oa ?ioeie a?aeiieie a/aieie-oieueeei?enoaie.

O na?ii? 1890 ?ieo I.?oae/aiei i?aeo?eio? aeaaa? ca’ycee c A.Ia?eaae/ai
? A.Ai?eaieii, a?aeiieie ethaeueie a oe?a?inuee?e oieueeei?enoeoe? oa
aoiia?ao??. Caa?aaeiny /eiaea eenooaaiiy Iaiana Ie?iiai oa A.Ai?eaiea. O
oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a) o oiiae?
I.A?ooaanueeiai caa??aa?oueny eeno, yeee aiai?eoue i?i o?ni? eiioaeoe
Iaiana Ie?iiai ? I.?oniaa, ui aoa aeoeaiei /eaiii Ee?anueei? a?iiaaee. O
eeno? eaeaoueny i?i ?oeiiene ?.?oae/aiea, ye? I.?onia i?iiiio?
iaae?neaoe aei Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa, caniiaaiiai a Ee?a?
1907 ?ieo c ?i?oe?aoeae I.A?ooaanueeiai e ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a.

?icaeyiooee aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i
oa, ui oieueeei?enoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a (?aaia A?eeea e
Iaiana Ie?iiai) ia?aeiio? a oiio, ui aiie ? i?aaenoaaieeaie iiai? aeiae
a i?aoe? iaae cae?aiiyi oa nenoaiaoecaoe??th oai??a onii? ia?iaeii?
neiaaniino?, ui iaea aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? oieueeei?enoeee. Ca??ieee ?.?oae/aiea «Ia?iaeiua
thaeii?onneea neacee» ? «*oiaoeeea ia?iaeiua ianie» ni?e/eieeeny aei
iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ia ui iaiaeii?aciai caa?oaee oaaao
iaoeiaoe? (O.Eieanna, I.A?ooaanueeee). Cai?iiiiiaaia ?.?oae/aieii iiaa
nenoaiaoecaoe?y ia?iaeieo i?naiue aeaea iiooiao aei iiyae ?ioeo ca??ie
ca oaeith ae nenoaiith (A.Aioiiiae/a, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa e I.*oaeinueeiai).
Aiia neoaeeea i?eeeaaeii ? aeey ianooiieo iieie?iue (I.Aeae aeei?enoaa
ia eeoa oaenoe, iioae?eiaai? ?.?oae/aieii, a e i?eioeei nenoaiaoecaoe??
oeeo i?naiue). ?.?oae/aiei ?ic?iaea aeaoaeueiee ieai iaoeiaiai aeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai eaceiaiai aiino, ia?aaeaa/eaoe ii??aiyeueiee, i?aaeiaoiee
? aaia?ao?/iee iieacieee («Ieai ecaeaiey thaeii?onneeo ia?iaeuo
neacie»).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai?

a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Oieueeei?enoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue Iaiana Ie?iiai//E?oa?aoo?a. Oieueeei?.
I?iaeaie iiaoeee. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue EO ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — E.,
1994. — ? 1. — N.74-82.

2. «Ni?iiieoeueeee» oieueeei? o caienao ?.ss.?oae/aiea// E?oa?aoo?a.
Oieueeei?. I?iaeaie iiaoeee. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue EO ?i.Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea. — E., 1997. — ? 3. — N.109 — 114.

3. Iaoeiaa a?ia?ao?y ?.ss..?oae/aiea a oieueeei?enoe/iiio i?inoi??
e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy // A?niee EO ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.
E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. Iiaiciaanoai. Oieueeei?enoeea. — E., 1998. — ? 7. —
N. 68 — 72.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eaaaae?a TH.?. Oieueeei?enoe/ia niaaeueia a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a — ?aaia
A?eeea e Iaiana Ie?iiai. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.07 — oieueeei?enoeea. Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Ee?a, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny aeena?oaoe?y, yea i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy oieueeei?ieo,
aoiia?ao?/ieo caien?a ? oieueeei?enoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? a?ao?a ?oae/aie?a
o eiioaeno? oe?a?inueei? oieueeei?enoeee ae?oai? iieiaeie 19 no.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui caiene ? oieueeei?i? ioae?eaoe?? iaoeiai iaae?ei?,
ioiieththoue on? aeai?e onii? ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?.

Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeaeaiiy ?.?oae/aiea – «Ia?iaeiua thaeii?onneea neacee»
(1869-1870) ? «*oiaoeeea ia?iaeiua ianie» (1874) — a?aecia/athoueny
iiaeciith, noa?aiii ii?aoeueiaaiei iaoeiaei aia?aoii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?oae/aiei ?.ss., ?oae/aiei I.ss., oieueeei?enoe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue, ?noi??y oieueeei?enoeee, oe?a?inueea oieueeei?enoeea.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eaaaaeaa TH.E. Oieueeei?enoe/aneia ianeaaeea a?aoueaa ?oae/aiei — Eaaia
Aeeuea e Iaiana Ie?iiai. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.07 — oieueeei?enoeea. Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. Eeaa, 1999.

Caueuaaony aeenna?oaoeey, niaea?aeauay enneaaeiaaiea oieueeei?iuo
caienae e oieueeei?enoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a?aoueaa ?oae/aiei a
eiioaenoa oe?aeineie oieueeei?enoeee aoi?ie iieiaeiu 19 aaea.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi caiene e oieueeei?enoe/aneea ioaeeeaoeee iao/ii
iaaeaaeiua, ioaaouaatho ana aeai?u onoiiai ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea – «Oieueeei?enoe/aneay aeayeueiinoue a?aoueaa
?oae/aiei (Eaaia Aeeuea e Iaiana Ie?iiai) a iieeoiiee
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?iaeai eiioea 19 — ia/aea 20 aaea» inaauathony oa
aeia?aoe/aneea naaaeaiey, eioi?ua naycaiu n oi?ie?iaaieai onoie/eaiai
eioa?ana a?aoueaa ?oae/aiei e nai?o e iniuneaieth ia?iaeiiiiyoe/aneeo
ni/eiaiee. Ia?aie (e oiio aea i?eaeeciaiiie) aeia?aoeae E.?oae/aiei
yaeyaony aeia?aoey, iaienaiiay I.Ieieiui ia iniiaa oao iaoa?eaeia,
eioi?ua auee i?eneaiu naiei E.?oae/aiei.

Iaian Ie?iue ia/ae aeaeaoue caiene oieueeei?iuo ni/eiaiee a 1863 aiaeo e
i?iaeieaeae yoe caiyoey aei 1872 aiaea. A 70-o aiaeao ii aeoeaii iauaeny
n I.Ae?aaiiaiiaui, eioi?ue a yoi a?aiy ?aaioae iaae iiaeaioiaeie e
ia/aoe nai?ieeia oieueeei?a.

Nai?ieee E.?oae/aiei «Ia?iaeiua thaeii?onneea neacee» (1869-1870) e
«*oiaoeeea ia?iaeiua ianie» (1874), ioee/athueany iiaaoi?noaii,
noa?aoaeueii ia?aaioaiu iao/iui aiia?aoii.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea ?aaiou «Iao/iay aeia?aoey E.ss.?oae/aiei — y?eiai
i?aaenoaaeoaey iiaiai iieieaiey oieueeei?enoia-yoiia?aoia» aiaeece?oaony
?oeiieniay eieeaeoeey E.?oae/aiei, aai ia/aoiua ?aaiou e eo ioeaiea
nia?aiaiieeaie e iineaaeiaaoaeyie.

A 60-o aiaeao 19 a. E.?oae/aiei caienuaae ia?acoeu «n?aiieoeeiai» (ii
aai nianoaaiiiio au?aaeaieth) oieueeei?a ia oa??eoi?ee Iieoaaneie e
*a?ieaianeie aoaa?iee (?oeiieniua oiiaeu EIOY ei. I.O.?ueueneiai). Yoi
— caaaaeee, iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee, ianie (iniaaiii — naaaeaaiua). Nai?
e ioaeeeaoeey oaeiai oieueeei?iiai iaoa?eaea a 19 aaea, ii iiaieth
O.Aiaea, ineiaeiyeanue nouaeeeainoueth yoiia?aoia e no?iainoueth ?onneie
oeaico?u. Ia 76 ea?oi/eao caienaiu «n?aiieoeeea» iineiaeoeu e iiaiai?ee,
ianie, eioi?ua iaee ia naaaeueaao, a oaeaea ia?iaeiua auneacuaaiey
y?ioe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. «N?aiieoeeea» caaaaeee oeacuaatho ia neaaeu a
ieo oaeee/aneiai eoeueoa e anoue eioa?aniui e oeaiiui iaoa?eaeii aeey
oieueeei?enoia ii i?iaeaia yaiethoeee oieueeei?iuo iioeaia.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea aeenna?oaoeee «Oieueeei?iia ianeaaeea Iaiana
Ie?iiai» aeaaony aiaeec oieueeei?ii-yoiia?aoe/aneeo caienae ienaoaey,
o?aiyueony a ?oeiieniuo oiiaeao Einoeoooa eeoa?aoo?u ei.O.A.Oaa/aiei IAI
Oe?aeiu (o.5. — aae. o?.214-216, 220, 222). Iaian Ie?iue aue oi?ioei
ciaoieii ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa, iniaaiii ianaiiiai. Iaeaieaa aeoeaiue
ia?eiae a aai caeioa?aniaaiiinoe oe?aeineei oieueeei?ii aeaoe?oaony
60-70 aiaeaie 19 aaea.

Oieueeei?iua caiene Iaian Ie?iue i?iaeieaeaao a I?eeoeao, aaea
caoeene?iaaii iaiaei ianai aaeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?a, i?eaeiaeueiue
?eooaeueiue iaoa?eae, ia?yae aiaeeoue eico, Iaeaieo, oioy aaeeiia iiaiea
i ’’aoi?inoaiaiiinoe» aeaoneiai oieueeei?a auei ii?aaeaeaii a
oieueeei?enoe/aneie iaoea 19 no. Eioa?aniua e niaianoiua
yoiia?aoe/aneea caiene Iaiana e Eaaia ?oae/aiei. Aeaou caiene ia
oeacaiu, a naie iie eiatho oaeea caaieiaee: «Ie? aeooiaiue», «Oea?noai
aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee» (anoue caeanue ia?iaeiua ia?aneacu i e?ioa, niaa,
eoeooea, ai?iauea, iaaeeia, ?aea, ia?iaeiua ?anneacu i i?ienoiaeaeaiee
aa?acu, aeoaa, ineiu, aa?oaooeaa e e?aieau). Ninoaaeai ii?iniee, eioi?ue
ioiineony e iecoae ieoieiaee (aeaiiiieiaee). Ai aoi?ie /anoe
«Yoiia?aoe/aneeo caienae» I.?oae/aiei caoeene?iaai ia?yae naaaeueau
(Ie?ai?iae), i?acaeiiaaiea eaeaiaea?iuo i?acaeieeia; a ?acaeaea «Aania»
anoue caiene iiiaeo ea? e oi?iaiaeia: «Ei?ieue», «Ai?ii», «Aaeee», «O
aone», «O eaa/a», «O /i?oa e o aiaa», a oaeaea ianeieueei caaiai?ia io
coaiie aiee.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony iaoa?eae i ee/iuo
iao/iuo eiioaeoao Iaiana Ie?iiai e o/anoieeia ??? a?oaieiae/aneiai
nuacaea (1874 a.), iauaiea n I.AEeoaoeeei, I.?oniaui, I.*oaeineei,
I.Noa?eoeeei e ae?oaeie ecaanoiuie o/aiuie-oieueeei?enoaie.

A aaaonoa 90-o aiaeia I.?oae/aiei iiaeaea?aeeaaao oaniua nayce n
A.Ia?eaae/ai e A.Ai?eaiei, ecaanoiuie ethaeueie a oe?aineie
oieueeei?enoeea e yoiia?aoee. Nio?aieeanue cia/eoaeueiay ia?aienea
I.Ie?iiai e A.Ai?eaiei.

?anniio?aiiue aeieoiaioaeueiue iaoa?eae iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiaeu i
oii, /oi oieueeei?enoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue a?aoueaa ?oae/aiei (Eaaia
Aeeuea e Iaiana Ie?iiai) oaaaeaeaao e a oii, /oi iie i?aaenoaaeytho
iiaoth yiioo a ?aaioa iaae nai?ii e nenoaiaoecaoeeae ni/eiaiee onoiie
ia?iaeiie neiaaniinoe, eioi?ay eiaea aieueoia cia/aiea aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey oe?aeineie oieueeei?enoeee. Nai?ieee E.?oae/aiei
«Ia?iaeiua thaeii?onneea neacee» e «*oiaoeeea ia?iaeiua ianie»
iineoaeeee no?iai iao/iui enneaaeiaaieyi, ia /oi iaiaeiie?aoii
ia?auaee aieiaiea o/aiua (O.Eieanna, I.A?ooaaneee). Iiaay
nenoaiaoecaoeey ia?iaeiuo ianai, i?aaeeiaeaiiay E.?oae/aiei, aeaea
oie/ie e iiyaeaieth ae?oaeo nai?ieeia ii oaeie aea nenoaia
(A.Aioiiiae/a, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa e I.*oaeineiai). Iia neoaeeea i?eia?ii e
aeey aoaeoueo iieieaiee (I.Aeae ia?auaeny ia oieueei e oaenoai,
iioaeeeiaaiiui E.?oae/aiei, ii e e i?eioeeiai nenoaiaoecaoeee yoeo
ianai). E.?oae/aiei ?ac?aaioae aeaoaeueiue ieai iao/iiai ecaeaiey
oe?aeineiai neaci/iiai yiina, i?aaeaeaey n?aaieoaeueiue, i?aaeiaoiue e
aaia?aoe/aneee iieacaoaee («Ieai ecaeaiey thaeii?onneeo ia?iaeuo
neacie»).

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?oae/aiei E.ss., ?oae/aiei I.ss., oieueeei?enoe/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, enoi?ey oieueeei?enoeee, oe?aeineay oieueeei?enoeea.

Yurij Ivanovych Lebedev

Brothers‘ Rudchenko (Ivan Bilyk and Panas Myrnyj)

legacy in folkloristics. – Manuscript.

The dissertation is submitted for a philological sciences candidate‘s
degree in speciality 10.01.07 — folkloristics.

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.

Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation contains analysis of brothers‘ Rudchenko folk
literature records and their activities as folklorists in the Ukrainian
folkloristics context of the second half of the 19th c.

Has been established the scientific trustworthiness of their records and
publications in folk literature which cover all of its genres.

Ivan Rudchenko‘s basic works, such as «Narodnyje Yuzhnorusskije Skazki»
(«The Folk Tales of Southern Russia», 1869-1870) and «Chumatskije
Narodnyje Pesni» («The Folk Songs of Chumaks», 1874), distinguish
themselves for their novelty and diligently worked out scientific
method.

Key words: Rudchenko I., Rudchenko P., folkloristics activities, history
of folkloristics, Ukrainian folklore.

A?ooaanueeee I. I‘yoeaeanyoee?ooy «Enoi?e/aneeo ianai iaei?onneiai
ia?iaea» Aioiiiae/a ? Ae?aaiiaiiaa // Oe?a?ia. — 1924 . — Ei. 4 — N.98.

Ethoee ?. Aei ieoaiiy i?i e?oa?aoo?ia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai a?.?oae/aie?a //
Iaiana Ie?iiai e ?aaia A?eeea // Oe?a?ia. — 1924. — Ei. 4 — N.43-53.

Neaa/aiei I. ?aai ?oae/aiei ye cae?a/ ? ioae?eaoi? oe?a?inueeeo
ia?iaeieo eacie // Neaa/aiei I. E?oa?aoo?iciaa/? oa oieueeei?enoe/i?
?ica?aeee. – E., 1974. – N. 339.

?oaeeinueea ?. Aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? aoiia?ao??. ?aai ?oae/aiei//
Aoiia?ao?/iee a?niee. – 1927.-Ei.4-N.127-128.

?oaeeinueea ?. Aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? aoiia?ao??. ?aai ?oae/aiei//
Aoiia?ao?/iee a?niee. – 1927.-Ei.4-N.134.

A?ooaanueeee I. Aieiaeeie? Eanaae/ — ?aai ?oae/aiei.Iae?ieueia?/i?
cai?oee. – CIOO. – Euea?a.,1905.-O-68.-N.7-8.

Iea/eiaea-Naneia I. “*oiaoeuee? ia?iaei? i?ni?” ?aaia ?oae/aiea //
Ia?iaeia oai?/?noue, aoiia?ao?y. — 1990. — ? 1. — N.3.

Ieeeoi?ia A. Neacea, aa auoiaaiea e iineoaee //?onneea ia?iaeiua
neacee. — I.,E., 1930. — N.21-22

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