3

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?C?IEIA?? ?INEEI ? AAIAOEEE

EO?’ssOA Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/

OAeE
581.14 : 541.144 : 631.559

OIC?IEIAI – A?IO?I?*I? IAOAI?CIE Ae?? ?AOA?AeAIO?A ? AOEEAII?IAeOOeAIO?A
IA ?INEEIE ssA?AeIEO EOEUeOO?

03.00.12 – o?c?ieia?y ?ineei

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aoey?a Ai?en
?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo o?c?ieia??
?ineei ? aaiaoeee

IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

ssai?nueea A?eoi??y
Eacei???aia,

?inoeooo o?c?ieia??
?ineei ? aaiaoeee

IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?

Ion??iei Ieeiea
Ieeieaeiae/,

Ee?anueeee
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?

Aoeao Aiaoie?e
Aiae??eiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee
aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oaa??enueeee
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 18 “ eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i
10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.212.01 ii
caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe i?e
?inoeooo? o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith :
252022, i. Ee?a – 22, aoe. Aaneeuee?anueea, 31 / 17.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 12 “ aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
O?ooaiia A.A.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. I?ciaiiy iaoai?ci?a ae?? ?aoa?aeaio?a ?
aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia? nooo?aa oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy
caeiiii??iinoae ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei, iaeiae a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? a?aeiiino? i?i iaoai?cie ?ioaa?aoe?? ?inoiai?
ooieoe?? ?ineeie c ?ioeie ooieoe?yie i?e ?aoa?aeaioieo aoaeoao.

Ciaioaiiy “caieoo “ ia anei?eyoe ao?aaoth/eie oeaio?aie i?ae ae??th
??noaaeueioth/eo i?aia?ao?a noai?th? oi?eaeueio iiaeeea?noue aeey
aiae?co aeiii?ii — aeoeaioi?ieo ca’yce?a a ?ineei?, i?ciaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ?ioaa?aoe?? i?ioean?a ?inoo ? oioineioaco, ?ioeo
ooieoe?e ?ineeie, ?ie? ai?iiiaeueiiai oaeoi?o a ?aaoeyoe?? oe?e?niino?
?ineeiiiai i?aai?cio.

Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo aieeao
?aoa?aeaio?a ia oioineioaoe/i? i?ioeane, iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
noinothoueny ci?i o no?oeoo?? ? ooieoe?iioaaii? eeoa ie?aieo ??ai?a
i?aai?caoe?? oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo, ui ia iiaea aooe aeciaii
aeinoaoiueith iaoeiaith aacith aeey ?icoi?iiy iaoai?ci?a ?aaoeyoe??
aeiii?ii – aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei a ?ineei? i?e ooo/iiio aaeueioaaii?
?inoo. E??i oiai, ia?ao?ae ia iiaee ??aaiue aeiii?ii – aeoeaioi?ieo
a?aeiinei i?ae aieeaii ??ciiiai?oieo ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iaie ?ioaineaiino? aeeoaiiy ?ineei, a nai oeae
o?c?ieia?/iee i?ioean ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iiooaeiee iaoaaie?oiee
aeoeaioi? aoaeaoeth a ?ineei? [ Aieiaei e ae?., 1998 ], iaeiae aieea
?aoa?aeaio?a ia i?ioeane aeeoaiiy ?ineei caeeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii
iaaea/aiei. A ca’ceo c oeei, i?e aiae?c? iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy
aeiii?ii – aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei a ?ineeiao i?e ?aoa?aeaioieo aoaeoao
?nio? iano?eeeaa iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy oioineioaoe/ii?
ooieoe?? ?ineeie i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a ??cii? o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee c
o?aooaaiiyi ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ioean?a oioineioaco ? aeeoaiiy.

?iciianthaeaeaiei i?eeiiii aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?
ia?iaea ?ineei aeciaaiieie ai?iiiaie c ianooiiei aiae?cii oaeaeeeo ?
iia?eueieo cai?ioi?o ?aaeoe?e, ci?i a iaoaaie?ci? oa ai?iiiaeueiiio
noaoon? ?ineei. Iaeiae ia no/aniiio aoai? oaeee i?aeo?ae ne?ae aeciaoe
iaaeinoaoi?i, ine?eueee ci?ie o ni?aa?aeiioaii? ??cieo a?oi ai?iii?a
iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe aei ci?i ii?oieia?/ieo ? o?c?ieia?/ieo i?ia?ai
[Iineaeaaa, Ea?aaaeei,1990; Iieaaie A.A., Iieaaie A.A, 1992].
Canoinoaaiiy ?aoa?aeaio?a, i?aia?ao?a aioea?aa?ae?iiai? ae??, aeicaiey?
i?ae?eoe aei aea/aiiy i?iaeaie “a?ae i?ioeeaaeiiai” — anoaiiaeoe
aca?iica’ycee a ai?iiiaeueiiio eiiieaen? ?ineei i?e aeieoaaii? neioaco
a?aa?ae?i?a, ?ieue ie?aieo o?oiai?iii?a oa ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiue o ii?oi —
? a?noiaaiac?, oi?ioaaii? aeiii?ii? ? ao?aaoth/i? iiooaeiino? i?aai?a. A
e?oa?aoo?? ?niothoue eeoa iiiaeeiie? ?iaioe, a yeeo aiae?cothoueny ci?ie
a ai?iiiaeueiiio eiiieaen? i?e ia?iaoe? ?ineei ??noaaeueioth/eie
i?aia?aoaie, i?e/iio aeniiaee, ui aieeaathoue c oeeo ?ia?o, ia
ni?aiaaeathoue [Izuki, 1988; Law David, 1989; Sebanek, Klikova, Klarik,
1991].

Ii?icino?ee?noue ?ineei cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?ii
i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?inoiaeo i?ioean?a o aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae, aeeaeiith
aec??aaiiyi iaaii?a, oaiiaie aoiaeaeaiiy ?ineei o niie?e ? iniaeeainoyie
eiai ia?aa?ao. Iaeiae a e?oa?aoo?? iaaecae/aeii iaei ?ia?o, a yeeo
aena?oeththoueny ieoaiiy aieeao ?aoa?aeaio?a i?e canoinoaaii? ?o ia
?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo ia ai?iiiaeueio ?aaoeyoe?th ia??iaeo
in?iuei-ceiiaiai niieith, aaeaioeai? aeanoeaino? ?ineei a ia??iae
cei?ae?, ui aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue iiaeeaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a oeueiio
iai?yieo.

Ia?niaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy ?aoa?aeaio?a a ieiae?aieoeoa? aeiaaaeaii
/enaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, iaeiae oaoiieia?? aeei?enoaiiy i?aia?ao?a
oe??? a?oie ?ic?iaeyeeny, a iniiaiiio, ia e?noi/eiaeo ? ca?iyoeiaeo
eoeueoo?ao. Aeey ya?aeieo eoeueoo? i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? aeinoaoiuei
a?aoiaioiaai? ?ic?iaee ii canoinoaaiith neioaoe/ieo ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo
?ia?a?oi?iiai oeio.

Aeey a?eueoino? ya?aeieo eoeueoo? i?ioeane ?ioaineaiiai ?inoo iaaii?a,
oi?ioaaiiy oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo, a?noi- ? ii?oiaaiaco
a?aeaoaathoueny iaeii/anii c oaeaeeei oi?ioaaiiyi ? aeic??aaiiyi
i?iaeoeoe??, ui noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i a?a??i?/i? ii?ie canoinoaaiiy
oaoiieia?e, ?ic?iaeo oaeeo ?aaeaiaio?a aeei?enoaiiy ?aoa?aeaio?a, ui
aeeeth/aee a ?o iaeiie/aiiy a i?iaeoeoe??. A ca’yceo c oeei cia/iee
i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an yaey? niaith aea/aiiy ?aoa?aeaioii? aeoeaiino?
aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a, ine?eueee ??noaaeueioth/a ae?y oeeo i?aia?ao?a
?aae?co?oueny /a?ac aoeeai — iaoeaiee i?iaeoeo iai?io ?ineeie.

A ca’yceo c iaaeinoaoi?i aea/aiiyi i?ioean?a, ui eaaeaoue a iniia?
aeic??aaiiy ya?ae, ii noo? – ia??iaeo noa??iiy, ia?niaeoeaiei ?
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?c?ieia?/ii? ?ie? aoeeaio a ?aaoeyoe?? oeeo i?ioean?a.
Oiio iaeiei c iai?yie?a iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue noaei aea/aiiy iiaeeeainoae
i?enei?aiiy aeic??aaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ?
iniaeeainoae aeaiie?ia??caoe?? ee?oeiieo no?iie oeaiei ya?ae a ca’yceo c
?o ?ici’yeoaiiyi.

Aiane?aeie iaiaeii/aniiai aeic??aaiiy ya?ae ia ca?? a?iaeath i?eiaaea?
aei 70% ?o/ii? i?aoe?, a ia??iae cai?o ?icoyao?oueny ia 35-40 aei?a, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeiiii?/ieo ao?ao. A ca’yceo c oeei, aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ianaaeaeaiue ? nei?i/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo ao?ao iaiao?aeii
ae??ooaaoe caaea/? i?enei?i/aiiy aeic??aaiiy ya?ae ? ca?eueoaiiy ?o
i?eaeaoiino? aeey iaoai?ciaaiiai cai?o, iaiaaeoaaoe iaaaaeaiee
aaaaoaoeaiee ??no, ?aaoethaaoe /enei i?iaeoeoeaieo i?aai?a ? oaiie ?o
?icaeoeo, i?aeaeuoaaoe no?ee?noue aei iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a
na?aaeiaeua. Iaeiae ?ic?iaea i?iieneiaeo oaoiieia?e canoinoaaiiy
?aoa?aeaio?a aeey ae??oaiiy oeeo caaea/ no?eio?oueny a?aenooi?noth
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy ??cieo a?oi
?aoa?aeaio?a, eiiieaen?a ?aoa?aeaio-aoeeaii?iaeooeaio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?aieao oaiaoeee a?aeae?eo o?c?ieia?? ? aeieia??
oioineioaco ?inoeoooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie “Aea/aiiy
?aaoeyoe?? oioineioaco, aeeoaiiy, oioiaeeoaiiy oa ?iciiae?eo anei?eyo?a
a aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?i?e nenoai? ?ineei o ca’yceo c i?iaeoeoeai?noth oa
no?ee?noth aaiioei?a n.-a. eoeueoo? aei ae?? no?an?a”, 2.28.6/229,
oaiaoeee i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo A?iieoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai
“Ioi?iia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? caei?ia’y ethaeeie”, aeiaiai??a
i?i iaoeiaa ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c ?inoeoooii i?aai?/ii? o?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie
(1987 ?.), Iiae?euenueeith ciiaeueiith aeine?aeiith noaioe??th
naae?aieoeoaa (1989?.), ainiaeiaiai??a c Aieiaieiaeaeii?iiii O?N? (1984
?.) ? ?aaeainiii “A?iie//eia“ A?iieoeueei? iae. (1981, 1983 ? 1992
??.).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei aea/aiiy
iaoai?ci?a ?ioaa?aoe?? i?ioean?a ?inoo, oioineioaco ? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
?ineei i?e ae?? ?aoa?aeaio?a, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea niinia?a iioei?caoe??
i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano ca aeiiiiiaith ?aoa?aeaio?a ?
aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a.

A ca’yceo c oeei iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe iioiaaiaoe/i? ci?ie a a?noi- ? ii?oiaaiac? ?ineei ya?aeieo
eoeueoo? a ca’yceo ?c ci?iith aeoeaiino? ia?enoai, c’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino?
o?io?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ii?oiaaiaco i?ae aieeaii ??noaaeueioth/eo
i?aia?ao?a.

2. Aeine?aeeoe no?oeoo?i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie ia ??cieo ??aiyo
i?aai?caoe?? oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo ?ineei i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a
i?ioyaii iioiaaiaco aeey ioe?iee aeeaeie ei?aaoaaiiy a nenoai?
cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo ??no — oioineioaoe/iee aia?ao.

3. Aeyaeoe e?euee?ni? ci?ie a ai?iiiaeueiiio eiiieaen? ?ineei i?e
aaeueioaaii? ?inoo ??cieie ca iaoai?ciii ae?? ?aoa?aeaioaie aeey
aecia/aiiy ?ie? ie?aieo a?oi o?oiai?iii?a oa ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiue a
?aaoeyoe?? ii?oiaaiaco ? ?ioaa?aoe?? i?ioean?a ?inoo ? oioineioaco.

4. Aeine?aeeoe ca’ycee i?ae iniaeeainoyie ii?oiaaiaco, ci?iaie
oioineioaoe/ii? aeoeaiino? ? ai?iiiaeueiiai noaoono ?ineei i?ae aieeaii
?aoa?aeaio?a a ia??iae ?inoo ? i?ioiaeaeaiiyi ?ineeiith ia??iaeo
in?iuei-ceiiaiai niieith, no?ee?noth aei iani?eyoeeaeo oaiia?aoo?ieo
oiia na?aaeiaeua.

5. C’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? ea?iiaaiaco a oiiaao iaiaaeaiiy aaaaoaoeaiiai
?inoo iaaii?a ?aoa?aeaioaie ? anoaiiaeoe ?ieue aoeeaio, ye ai?iiio
noa??iiy, i?e aeaiie?ia??caoe?? ee?oeiieo iaieiiie aeic??aath/iai
ieiaeo.

6. I?iaanoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy ??cieo a?oi
?aoa?aeaio?a ? ?ic?iaeoe o?c?ieia?/ii iaa?oioiaai? iniiae oaoiieia??
canoinoaaiiy ?aoa?aeaio?a ia ya?aeieo eoeueoo?ao c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo a?a??i?/ieo ii?iaoea?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. C’yniaaii, ui ??noaaeueioth/a
ae?y ?aoa?aeaio?a ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac ci?ie aeiii?ii – aeoeaioi?ieo
a?aeiinei a ?ineei?, ye? aecia/athoueny ia?aaoaeiaith ai?iiiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno eenoea ? ao?aaoth/eo oeaio??a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioeane ?inoo eenoea ? oi?ioaaiiy eiai iacino?oeoo?e
i?e ci?i? aeiii?ii — aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a
eiio?ieththoueny eiiieaenii o?oiai?iii?a: ciaioo?oueny aeoeai?noue
neioaciaaieo naiei eenoeii a?aa?ae?i?a ? ai?no noeioeyoi?a ee?oeiieo
iiae?e?a — caaoeio, ciai?oiueiai ii a?aeiioaiith aei eenoea o?oiai?iiio.
Iaeii/anii a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeiie/aiiy a oeaieiao eenoea aanoeeciai?
eeneioe (AAE). C’yniaaii, ui oei?oie?ioei?eae ? iaeeiaoo?acie,
?aoa?aeaioiee iaoai?ci ae?? yeeo ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac aeieoaaiiy
oa?iaioaoeaiiai neioaco a?aa?ae?i?a, cia/ii neeuei?oa ca?eueoothoue
ai?no aanoeeciai? eeneioe a oeaieiao eenoea, i?ae aoeeaii?iaeooeaio
aeaeno?ae [Eo?ueyoa e ae?., 1995].

Aeyaeaii, ui aeenoaioe?eia ?aaoeyoe?y oioineioaco i?e ?aoa?aeaioieo
aoaeoao eiio?ieth?oueny ai?iiiaeueiith nenoaiith /a?ac ci?io “caieoo”
ao?aaoth/eo oeaio??a ia anei?eyoe. I?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a a iaaiiao
ciaioo?oueny aeoeai?noue a?aa?ae?i?a, cia/ii ciaioo?oueny ai?no a?eueii?
?iaeie?eioeoiai? eeneioe (?IE) ? nooo?ai i?aeaeuo?oueny ai?no
aioiaii?noo oeeo o?oiai?iii?a — AAE, ui aeeeeea? a?eueo iii??eiaaiee
“caieo” ia anei?eyoe o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai [ Eo?ueyoa, Aa?anoaoeeee,
Iaa?aoeeee, 1991].

C’yniaaii, ui ia?iaea ?ineei ?aoa?aeaioaie ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo
aeeeeea? cia/i? ci?ie ia an?o ??aiyo i?aai?caoe?? oioineioaoe/iiai
aia?aoo — oei?iieanoa, ee?oeie, iacino?oeoo?e eenoea ? oe?ei? ?ineeie
[ Eo?ueyoa e ae?., 1989 ]. Ia ??ai? oe?ei? ?ineeie
eii?aeeiaoe?y i?ioean?a ?inoo ? oioineioaco i?e ?aoa?aeaioieo aoaeoao
cae?enith?oueny oeyoii ciaioaiiy eenoiai? iiaa?oi? i?e nei?i/aii?
“caieoo” ia anei?eyoe aeoeaioi?ii — iaaiiii, ui ?icaeaa?oueny.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ae?y ?aoa?aeaio?a ia iaiaaeo?oueny aieeaii o?eueee ia
noaai?eaeuei? ia?enoaie iaaiia ? iaea?aeai? iia? aeai? i?i oa?aeoa?
aeoeaiino? noaaeiaeo ? eenoiaeo ia?enoai, iniaeeaino? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
oeaiei i?e ooo/iiio aaeueioaaii? ?inoo i?aia?aoaie oe??? a?oie [
Eo?’yoa, 1998; Eo?ueyoa, 1998].

Aia?oa aea/ai? ?aoa?aeaioi? aeanoeaino? aoeeaii?iaeooeaioo aeaeno?aeo ?
iniaeeaino? eiai o?c?ieia?/ii? ae?? ia ya?aei? eoeueoo?e [ Eo?ueyoa,
Aeaaeaeoe, Eiaia, 1991].

Aeyaeaii, ui ia?iaea ?ineei ?aoa?aeaioaie ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?i o i?ioiaeaeaii? in?iiuei-ceiiaiai niieith,
aeeeeea? a?eueo ?aii? aoiaeaeaiiy a niie?e ? nei?i/aiiy ia??iaeo
aeiooaiiai niieith. Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue i?ae i?ioiaeaeaiiyi
?ineeiith ??cieo oac niieith ? ci?iaie ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno,
iiaiooai?aiiyi a a?oiueeao ?IE ? ai?iieeneio [Eo?ueyoa, Niao?, 1994;
Eo?ueyoa, Aoeyaa, 1998].

C iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy ?ie? aoeeaio o i?enei?aii? aeic??aaiiy ieiaeo
i?iaiae?ciaaii oa?aeoa? aeaiie?ia?ecaoe?? iie?naoa?eae?a ee?oeiieo
iaieiiie aeic??aath/eo ya?ae i?ae aieeaii aeciaaiiiai aoeeaio ?
c’yniaaii iine?aeiai?noue i?ioean?a [Eo?ueyoa, 1991]. Anoaiiaeaii
ca’ycee i?ae iaeiie/aiiyi ? ia?a?iciiae?eii acioenoeo niieoe, ?ioeo
aeaiaio?a aeeaeaiiy ? iniaeeainoyie oi?ioaaiiy o?iaeath aeine?aeieo
ya?aeieo eoeueoo? i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a [Eo?ueyoa, ?aiaithe, Niao?,
1987; 1988].

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo
aeaeno?ae ia ianaaeaeaiiyo iaeeie aeey aaeueioaaiiy ?inoo aaaaoaoeaieo
iaaii?a, i?aeaeuaiiy ii?ino?eeino? ? ca?eueoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
ianaaeaeaiue. Ia i?aenoaa? iiaeaiiy ?ic?iaee ia ?icoe?aiiy noa?e
canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo ??oaiiyi OOO? Ieaioio Aea?aeeii?n?? ii
?a?no?aoe?? cania?a caoenoo ?ineei i?e Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a N?N? a?ae
18.07.91?. i?aia?ao aeeth/aiee aei nieneo aeicaieaieo aeey canoinoaaiiy
o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.

I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueio ioe?ieo aieeao ?yaeo i?aia?ao?a –
aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a: eaiiicaio I ? neioaciaaieo a ?IO IAI Oe?a?ie
aeaeno?aeo, ? 3984 ? ?4093 ia ?inoia? i?ioeane, ?icaeoie ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue iaeeie. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieeee
aeyaeoe aenieo aoaeoeai?noue ae?? a?o/eciyieo i?aia?ao?a. ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ii canoinoaaiith ?aoa?aeaio?a i?ieoee ae?iaie/? aei?iaoaaiiy ? iieacaee
aenieo aoaeoeai?noue ia ianaaeaeaiiyo iaeeie ?aaeainio “ A?eueoiaee”
(A?iie//eia”) ? Iiae?euenueei? ciiaeueii? noaioe?? naae?aieoeoaa
A?iieoeueei? iae., aoee ia?aaeai? aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
Aieiai?iaeaeii?iio O?N?.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiae i?enei?aiiy aeic??aaiiy ya?ae iaeeie, yeee caoeuaiee
iaoaioii ? 23419 A, 1998 ?., a oaeiae iaoiae iaea?aeaiiy i?aia?ao?a
ai?aea?i?no oeyoii /anoeiai? iaoea?aoe?? oeaiei eenoea .

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy oa iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ca eaeoe?eiei eo?nii “O?c?ieia?y ?ineei”, i?ae /an
i?iaaaeaiiy iieueiaeo i?aeoee, eaai?aoi?ieo ?ia?o, aeeiiaiiy eo?niaeo oa
aeeieiiieo ?ia?o nooaeaioaie i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.
Eioethaeinueeiai, aa?iiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo A?iieoeueeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo, a oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? iaoeiai —
aeine?aeieo ?ia?o aeeeaaea/aie oa ani??aioaie oeeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a. A iaaeao oaiaoeee, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny, i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
aaoi?a aeeiiaii aea? eaiaeeaeaonuee? aeena?oaoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? iniaenoi ?ic?iaeya eiioeaioe?th
?iaioe, aecia/aa iaoo, caaaeaiiy ? ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiue, neeaaeaa
iaoeia? i?ia?aie, ieaioaaa aenia?eiaio ? aecia/aa iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee,
i?iaiaeea aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aiooaaa iaoa??aee aei ae?oeo.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee, i?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, iaea?aeai?
aaoi?ii iniaenoi, aai ?acii c ani??aioaie ? ni?a?ia?oieeaie oai, ui
aeeiioaaeeny i?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee ?iaioe iaaiai?ai? ia
eiioa?aioe?? “Oeceieiai-aeioeie/aneea iniiau i?eiaiaiey ?aaoeyoi?ia
?inoa a Neae?e” (??eoonuee, 1985 ?.), eiioa?aioe?? “Oai?aoe/aneay e
i?eeeaaeiay ea?iieiaey” (Eeoei?a, 1989 ?.), ?iai/?e ia?aae? “?aaoeyoi?u
?inoa e ?acaeoey ?anoaiee” (Iineaa, 1991 ?.), ?? c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai
oiaa?enoaa o?c?ieia?a ?ineei (Ee?a, 1993 ?.), 11 Eiia?an?
?a?iiaenueeiai oiaa?enoaa o?c?ieia?a ?ineei (Aa?ia, 1998 ?.), a oaeiae
ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei — aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai (1983-1997 ?.?.), iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao ?inoeoooo
a?ieia?? Aeui? oeiee iaaeaaia?/ii? (Eaeueoea, Iieueua, 1988 ?.) ?
?inoeoooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie (1997-1999 ?.?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 27 i?aoeue, c ieo
22 noaoo? o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, iieno oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a, ia’?eo?a oa iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, i’yoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?icae?e?a, ocaaaeueiaiiy,
aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 529 aeaea?ae, oa aeiaeaoe?a,
ui i?noyoue eii?? aeo?a ae?iaie/eo aei?iaoaaiue ?aoa?aeaio?a ia
ianaaeaeaiiyo iaeeie, aeia?aeee i?i aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue
cai?iiiiiaaieo oaoiieia?e, ??oaiiy OOO? Ieaioio Aea?aeeii?n?? ii
?a?no?aoe?? cania?a caoenoo ?ineei i?e Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a N?N? a?ae
18.07. 91?. i?i aeeth/aiiy aeaeno?aeo aei nieneo i?aia?ao?a, aeicaieaieo
aeey ae?iaie/iai canoinoaaiiy, aeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a
aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean oa iaoeiai –
aeine?aeio ?iaioo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 300 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue
30 oaaeeoeue oa 42 ?enoiee.

Ia’?eoe ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ?ineeie
iaeeie ni?o?a Iiainoue Eocuei?ia ? Iiaieeoa?anueea, /i?iiie?aeia
ai?iaeia, noieoe? ni?oo Ee?anueea ?aiiy oa aa?ono ni?oo O?i?e ae?iaie/eo
ianaaeaeaiue ya?aeieo eoeueoo? Iiae?euenueei? ciiaeueii? noaioe??
naae?aieoeoaa ? ?aaeainio “A?iie//eia “ A?iieoeueei? iaeano?.

?inoiai i?ioeane ioeiithaaee ii ia?inoaiith ieiui eenoiai iiaa?oii,
ia?inoaiith ne?i oa nooi iane i?aaiia, eiiieiiio i?e?inoo i aiaeiiniie
oaeaeeinoi ?inoo i?aaiia [A?iaeceineee A.I., A?iaeceineee Ae.I.,1973].
Oiaueio i eiiieii ?icii?e ie?aieo eiiieaenia oeaiei aecia/aee ia
iiia?a/ieo c?icao oeaio?aeueii /anoeie i?aeaocey na?aaeiueiai y?ono
iaaiia ia oieniaaiiio iaoa?iaei. Neeaae oienoth/i noiioi — ?iaii /anoeie
aoeeiaiai nie?oo, aeioea?eio i aiaee c aeiaeaaaiiyi 1% oi?iaeiio
[?ya/oi, 1967]. Iiia?aaeiiie aeineiaeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui oaea noiio
ia aeeeeea ciii ?icii?ia iniiaieo oeaiei noaaea iaeeie. Aeey ioeiiee
nooiaith caea?aa’yiiiiy iaoaii/ieo oa i?iaiaeieo oeaiei noaaea
aeei?enoiaoaaee oei?iaethoeeiiao ?aaeoeith (0,5%-iee oei?iaethoeei + 20%
nieyia eeneioa). Aeey ?ineei iaeeie oaea ?aaeoeiy aieueo niaoeeoi/ia,
iiae ia?iaiaaiaoia ?aaeoeiy Iaee [Aa?aeeineay, 1964 ].

Iacino?oeoo?iai oa?aeoa?enoeee eenoa aea/aeeny ca iaoiaeii A.O.
Iie?iiiniaa i ?.A. Ai?caieiai (1978). A yeinoi iaoea?oth/iai aaaioo aeey
eenoeia iaeeie aoei ia?aii 5%-iee ?ic/ei ioeoiai eeneioe a 2 N
nieyiie

eeneioi. Oiaueio eeioei aa?oiueiai oa ieaeiueiai aiiaea?iino aeii?yee ia
iiia?a/ieo c?icao eenoa. Ineieueee aianeiaeie iieeieeioeiiinoi i neeueii
aaeaaci eeioei eenoeia iaeeie iaoaii/ii aiaeie?aieoe aiiaea?iin
iaaecae/aeii aaaeei, aeey aeinyaiaiiy oei iaoe aeei?enoiaoaaee ianooiio,
?ic?iaeaio aaoi?ii, iaoiaeeeo [ Eo?’yoa, 1999 ].

Aeni/ee eenoeia caeeoaee ia ii/ c 50-e?aoiei ia’iii iaoea?oth/i ?iaeeie
— 10%-iei ?ic/eiii o?iiiai eeneioe, a?aioei aiino eieae iaoaii/ii
ia?iaeyee ca aeiiiiiaith iaaiioii i?oaeee. *a?ac 10-15 oaeeei a
iaoea?aoao ciaoiaeeeeny aeinoaoiuei aaeeei o?aaiaioe aiiaea?iino,
i?eaeaoii aei ii?oiiao?i. Aeey ioeiiee ieiui eeioei aiiaea?iino, iiae
iie?ineiiii ca aeiiiiiaith ieoey?iiai iie?iiao?o IIA-1-15 iiae?aoiaoaaee
eieueeinoue eeioei a oeaieii ia iaeeieoeth ieiui iiey ci?o c ianooiiei
?ic?aooaaiiyi ieiui iiina?aaeeiai eeioeie oa ia’io.

Ia iniiai ii?oiiao?e/ieo iieacieeia ?ic?aoiaoaaee ieoiio ieiuo eenoa ye
aiaeiioaiiy ieiui eenoiai iiaa?oii iaaiio (S) aei nooi iane (We), a
oaeiae aiaeiinio iano eenoeia iaaiio, ye aiaeiioaiiy nooi iane eenoeia
(We) aei nooi iane anueiai iaaiio (Wi).

Ieiuo eenoa aecia/aee aaaiaei iaoiaeii [Ieioania e ae?.,1979].

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo oei?ioieo “a” i “a”, noie oei?ioieia, ea?ioeiiaeia,
aeoeaiinoi oei?ioieace i?iaiaeeee o naiaeiio iaoa?iaei
niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ia noaeo?ioioiiao?i O-18. Ooieoeiiiaeueii
aeoeaii i?aia?aoe icieueiaaieo oei?iieanoia iaea?aeoaaee iaoiaeii
aeeoa?aioeiaeueiiai oeaio?eooaoaaiiy. Na?aaeiaeua aeey aeae?eaiiy
oei?iieano?a i?noeei 0,35 I NaCl a 0,05 I o??n-HCl — aooa??, a oaeiae
IAA c iie. ianith 3000 — 6 iae-1. Aecia/aiiy oioiaiaeiiaethth/i
aeoeaiinoi oei?iieanoia i?iaiaeeee c aeei?enoaiiyi ooo/ii
aeaeo?iiiiaeoeaioi?ii nenoaie, iia’ycaii? c aiaeiiaeaiiyi oa??ioeiai?aeo
eaeith. Aeoeaiinoue iaoeeeei/iiai oioioinoi?eethaaiiy aecia/eee ca
iiaeeiaiiyi iai?aaii/iiai oinoi?o [ Aaa?eeaiei, Eaaeuaeia, Oaiaeiaeia,
1975]. ?aaeoeae: AAeO-“Reanal” (Oai?ueia), IAA — “EA?AE” (O?I); ?io?
?aaeoeae a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iioaineaiinoue oioineioaco i oaiiiaiai aeeoaiiy ?ineei iaeeie aea/aee o
1997 ?. a oiiaao aaaaoaoeieiiai aeineiaeo. Aeey oeueiai iieiaei ?ineeie
iaeeie c aeiaaeeiith iaaecaiii /anoeie 7 – 8 ni ia?anaaeaeoaaee c
aiaee?eoiai a?oioo o iinoaeeie Aaaia?a iinoeinoth 8 ea a?oioo 60%-ii
aieiainoi. *a?ac aeaa oeaeii iiney oei?iiaiiy i ii/aoeo ?inoo ?ineeie
iai?eneoaaee ?ic/eiaie ?aoa?aeaioia — 0,3%-iei aeaeno?aeii i 0,05%-iei
iaeeiaoo?acieii. Eiio?ieueii ?ineeie iai?eneoaaee aiaeii?iaiaeiith
aiaeith. Aaciiaiii oeieeo ?ineei aea/aee o eiio?ieth?ieo oiiaao.
Inaioethaaiiy i?iaiaeeee eaiiaie ?icaea?thaaiiy /a?ac aiaeyiee oieueo?.
Aonoeia i?iiaiaaiai iioieo o eaia?i neeaaeaea 250 Ao/i2 OA?, oaiia?aoo?a
25 N. Eiioeaio?aoeith CO2 a oa/i aoiinoa?iiai iiaio?y, yea i?ioiaeeei
/a?ac eaia?o c oaeaeeinoth 8 e/oa., aeii?thaaee iioeei-aeonoe/iei
aaciaiaeicaoi?ii AEAI-5I, aeeth/aiei ca aeeoa?aioeiaeueiith noaiith.
Aiieiai/ia i aiaeioe/ia iiaoi?iinoue aeineiae?a o?ueioe?aoia.

I?iae eenoeia aeey aeaeo?iiii iie?ineiii aiaeae?aee /a?ac /ioe?e aeii
iiney ia?oiai iai?eneoaaiiy iaaiiia caiiuaiiy iaeeie oei?oieiioei?eaeii.
Ia oeae /an ia eenoeao c’yaeyeeny oei?ioe/ii ieyie. *anoeiee oeaieie c
o?aaeaii ciie eenoea oienoaaee 4%-iei aeooa?iaei aeueaeaaiaeii ia
oinoaoiiio aooa?i pH 7,4 c ianooiiith aeioienaoeith a 1%-iiio
/ioe?ueioieeno iniiy ia oiio ae aooa?i. C?ice i?aia?aoia eiio?anooaaee
oeeo?aoii naeioeth i o?aiieaoeaoaoii. Aea/aiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?e i
oioia?aooaaiiy caeienithaaee ia aeaeo?iiiiio iie?ineiii YAI-100 EI.

Eieueeinia aecia/aiiy aieueii iiaeieieioeoiai eeneioe (IIE), aieueii i
ca’ycaii aanoeeciai eeneioe (AAE) oa oeeoieiiiiia (caaoeio oa
caaoei?eaiceaeo) i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii aenieiaoaeoeaii ?iaeeiii
o?iiaoia?aoi (AA?O) ia o?iiaoia?aoi “Pye Unicam 4000” (Aiaeiy).
Aeno?aeoeith, i/euaiiy oa ?icaeieaiiy oioiai?iiiia i?iaiaeeee ca
?aeiiaiaeaoeiyie Iinoeoooo aioaiiee IAI Oe?aie (1988).

Oiiae AA?O aeey IIE: noaeueii eieiiee caiiaiaii na?aaioii “Partisil
100DS” c ?icii?ii /anoeiie 5 iei, ?icii?ii 240o46 ii, aiaeioe/ia
aeiaaeeia oaeei aeaoaeooaaiiy 282 ii, oaiia?aoo?a eieiiee 30N,
oaeaeeinoue ?ooo oace 1 ie/oa, neeaae noiioi aeey aeththaaiiy: 65% —
oinoaoiee aooa? pH — 5,6 oa 35% iaoaiie. Oene — 18,5 aa?.

Oiiae AA?O aeey AAE: noaeueii eieiiee caiiaiaii ni?aaioii “Partisil
100DS” c ?icii?ii /anoeiie 5 iei, ?icii?ii 240o46 ii, aiaeioe/ia oaeey
aeaoaeooaaiiy 254 ii, oaiia?aoo?a eieiiee 40N, oaeaeeinoue ?ooiii oace
10 ie/oa. Aeththaaiiy i?iaiaeeee 40%-iei iaoaiieii, oene 75 aa?.

Oiiae AA?O aeey oeeoieiiiiia: noaeueii eieiiee ?icii?ii 350o16 ii,
caiiaiaii ni?aaioii “Servachrom SI100”, c ?icii?aie /anoeiie 18,5 iei,
aiaeioe/ia aeiaaeeia oaeei aeaoaeooaaiiy 269 ii, oaiia?aoo?a eieiiee
25N, oaeaeeinoue ?ooiii oace 0,5 ie/oa, aethaio — 20%-iee iaoaiie.

A?aa?ae?ie aeno?aaoaaee c ?ineeiiiai iaoa??aeo 80%-iei aoaiieii c
ianooiiei ia?a?iciiae?eii a aoeeaoeaoao (a?euei? oi?ie) oa i-aooaiie
(ca’ycai? oi?ie). O?iiaoia?ao?th cae?enithaaee ia iaia?? Wathman 3M a
nenoai? ?cii?iiaiie: ai?ae: aiaea (10:1:1) c ianooiiei aecia/aiiyi
aeoeaiino? ie?aieo o?aeoe?e ca nooiaiai iiaeiaaeaiiy a?iieioee?a naeaoo
(Lactuca sativa L.) ni?oo Aa?e?inueeee. Eae?a?oaaiiy i?iaiaeeee ii
a?aa?aeia?e eeneio?. Caeeoeiai eieueeinoi aeaeno?aeo a yaiaeao
aecia/aeeny a aeeiaiioei iaoiaeii aaciai o?iiaoia?aoi iiney eoaeiiai
aiae?ieico [E?aeoeaa?a, ?iiaiianeay, Iaaoeeiy, 1983 ].

Oiiae o?iiaoia?aooaaiiy: ?icii?e eieiiee 2400o3 ii, caiiaiaii
o?iiini?aii 108, aac iinie — acio, oene ia aoiaei 1,8 aoi, aeaoaeoi? —
iieoi’yiiiiiicaoeieiee. Aeo?aoa aiaeith 50 ie/oa, oaiia?aoo?a
aeia?iaoaa/a oa eieiiee 40N, aeaoaeoi?a — 150N, /an oo?eioaaiiy aoeeaio
84 nae.

Eieueeinia aecia/aiiy aiiiieeneio a iaaiiao, eenoeao, a?oiueeao i
yaiaeao iaeeie i?iaiaeeee ia aiiiieeneioiiio aiaeicaoi?i AAA-881 iiney
iiaiiai eeneioiiai aiae?ieico iaoa?iaeo a 6N nieyiie eeneioi. Aecia/aany
aiino ye aieueieo, oae i ca’ycaieo aiiiieeneio. Nii/aoeo aecia/aany
noia?iee aiino aiiiieeneio iiney iiaiiai eeneioiiai aiae?ieico, a iioii
iaaaaeeo iaoa?iaeo aeno?aaoaaee 70%-iei aoeeiaei nie?oii aeey aeaeaeaiiy
aiiiieeneio, caeeoie iiaeaeaaaee aiae?ieico c ianooiiei aecia/aiiyi
ai?noo ca’ycaieo aiiiieeneio [E?euaiei, 1983].

Ai?no eae?th oa iao??th aecia/aee iieoi’yii-oioiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ia
i?eeaae? IAAE-2 [?acoiia, 1982], eaeueoe?th oa iaai?th —
eiiieaeniiao?e/iei iaoiaeii [*a?iaaeia e ae?., 1978], cae?ca —
?iaeai?aeiei [Oeeeiiiae/, Aai?iaa, Naainoueyiiaa, 1975], oinoi?o —
oioiiao?e/ii ii ooai?aiith “aeiaoiai” eiiieaeno c aaiaaeao — iie?aaeaoii
aiii?th [?acoiia, 1982 ], caaaeueiee a?eeiaee oa iaa?eeiaee acio —
eiei?eiao?e/iei iaoiaeii [A?eiaiei, 1967].

Ai?no AeIE aecia/aee ca ?aaeoe??th c aeeoai?eai?iii, ?IE — c i?oeeiii
i?ney aeno?aeoe?? iaoa??aea ia oieiae? 0,2N HClO4 ? ianooiiei eiai
a?ae?ie?cii 0,5N HClO4 [Naaa?ei N.A. e ae?., 1989].

Aeey aecia/aiiy ii?icinoieeinoi iaaiie iaeeie i?iii?iaeoaaee a
eeiiioa?iieaia?i EOE-3000 ia i?ioyci ceiiaei aeai/i. *an i?iii?iaeoaaiiy
— 18 aiaeei, a?aaeiio cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e 5N/aiae. Aiaeoaaaiiy
i?ioiaeeei ia i?ioyci aeiae i?e 2N. Ainoieiai/ia ioeiiea iioeiaeaeaiue
?icieo oeaiei i?iaiaeeeany ii 5-aaeueiie oeaei [Nieiaueaaa, 1967].

Aecia/aiiy aeeaeie niieith ceioth/eo iaaiiia i?iaiaeeee oeyoii o
i?i?iuoaaiiy a eaai?aoi?i i?e oaiia?aoo?i 20N aei iiyae “caeaiiai
eiiono” a?oiueie [Oaiiaiuey, 1983].

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo e?ai?io ? oeaeetheice cae?enithaaee aaaiaeie iaoiaeaie
i?ney eeneioiiai a?ae?ie?co iaoa??aeo [Oa?eia, Eoeaeia, Nieiaueaaa,
1976]. Ai?no e?ioiaeth ? oeoe??a aecia/aee ca O.I.Ii/eieii [1976].

O?aeoeiiioaaiiy c?aceia iaeoeio i?iaiaeeee ia naoaaeaeni G-75. Aenioa
eieiiee 65 ni, ia’i — 530 ni3. Iieaeoey?io iano aecia/aee
aineiciiao?e/iei iaoiaeii, ?ic/eiiee — aeenoeeueiaaia aiaea. Na?aaeith
iieaeoey?io iano oa iieaeoey?ii iane ie?aieo o?aeoeie ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca
?iaiyiiyi Ooaoaeiiaa?a [Oo?, 1981]. Na?aaeith nooiiiue iieiia?ecaoei
c?aceia oeaeetheice aecia/aee a?neic?iao?e/iei iaoiaeii a ?ic/eiao
caeiciaeiiiiao?iaiai eiiieaeno [Iaieaineay, Uaaieaa, Aeei, 1965].

Aeey ioe?iee yeino? ya?ae i?iaiaeeee ?o aiae?c ia caaaeueio eeneioi?noue
oeyoii iioaioe?iiao?e/iiai o?o?oaaiiy [E?euaiei, 1983], aecia/aiiy noie
oeoe??a i?iaiaeeee ii Aa?o?aio [E?euaiei, 1983], anei?a?iiao eeneioo
aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith aaenaoe?aiioa???oo eae?th [Ueia?aa, 1978 ].

Aecia/aiiy caeeoeiaeo eieueeinoae oei?oieiioei?eaeo a yaiaeao i?iaiaeeee
iaoiaeii oiieioa?iai o?iiioia?aoi c ianooiiith iaeaioeoieaoeith
aiaeiaaiieo oieiiia i NNN 11%-iith oinoi?iiiieiaaeaiiaith eeneioith i
1%-iei oei?enoei ieiaii [Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii ii?aaeaeaieth
iee?ieiee/anoa ianoeoeeaeia a i?iaeoeoao ieoaiey, ei?iao e aiaoiae
n?aaea, 1980 ]. Iaaaaeea ya?ae — 100 a, e?ioeaaee ia’?i aethaoo — 0,5
ie, a ieyio aiineee 0,005 ie. I?iae ya?ae aeey aiae?co a?aeae?aee ia
ii/aoeo ianiaiai cae?aiiy.

Iaea?aeai? iaoa??aee ia?iaeai? noaoenoe/ii [Ianeia, 1978; Aeiniaoia,
1985].

Aaoi? ue?i aaey/iee aeieoi?o a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o E.?.Ionaoaiei
ca iaaeaio iiaeeea?noue aeey aea/aiiy ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?ineei a
eaai?aoi??yo a?aeae?eo o?oiai?iiiieia?? ?inoeoooo aioai?ee ?i.
I.A.Oieiaeiiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

1. Ii?oi-o?c?ieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ooieoe?? ?inoo ?ineei ya?aeieo
eoeueoo? i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a

Aeoeai?noue ?inoiai? ooieoe?? ? ?ioaa?aeueiei i?iyaii aieeao
?aoa?aeaio?a ia o?c?ieia?/i? i?ioeane ?ineeie. Aaaaoi??/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui oei?oie?ioei?eae, iaeeiaoo?acie,
aoeeaii?iaeooeaioe (eaiiicai, aeaeno?ae, 2- OAOE) i?e canoinoaaii? ?o o
thaai?eueio oaco ?icaeoeo aeeeeeathoue ciaioaiiy ?ici???a ? iane
aaaaoaoeaieo i?aai?a ?ineei ya?aeieo eoeueoo? ia i?ioyc? anueiai
ia??iaeo ?inoo. I?e aea/aii? aieeao 0,6-2,4%-ieo ?ic/ei?a NNN
anoaiiaeaii, ui caeaaei?noue aoaeo-aeica a?eueo /?oei i?iyaey?oueny o
?ineei c aenieeie oaiiaie ?inoo (iaeeia), i?ae o ?ineei c a?eueo
iia?eueiei ?inoii (/i?iiie?aeia ai?iaeia). C’yniaaii, ui ?aoa?aeaioiee
aoaeo i?ae aieeaii canoiniaaieo i?aia?ao?a iineeth?oueny o ?iee c
iaaeinoaoiueith e?euee?noth iiaae?a. Canoinoaaiiy ?aoa?aeaio?a ??cii?
o?i?/ii? aoaeiae ia ianaaeaeaiiyo iaeeie ni?o?a Iiaieeoa?anueea ?
Iiainoue Eocuei?ia i?ecaiaeeei aei ci?i a?o?oaeoii?ee ianaaeaeaiue
aiane?aeie aaeueioaaiiy ?inoo aaaaoaoeaieo iaaii?a a ia??iae ea?ooaaiiy
? oi?ioaaiiy ya?ae. I?e oeueiio iie?iooaaany na?oeiaee ?aaeei iaaii?a
ieiaeiiinieo (?en.1), a?aee?eoa ?icoaooaaiiy ea?oie iieaaooaaei ?iaioo
aaeae?e-iieethaa/?a, ca?eueooaaeany i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue oe???
eoeueoo?e.

?aoa?aeaioe ?ia?aothoue aeoeai?noue noaai?eaeueieo ia?enoai, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue ca ??no ? oi?ioaaiiy noaaea [I?onaeiaa, *eaeiaa, 1990].
?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i nooo?aee aieea
?aoa?aeaio?a ia ?io? oeie oa??ieo oeaiei. I?ae aieeaii 0,05%-iiai
iaeeiaoo?acieo ? 0,3%-iiai aeaeno?aeo a?aeaoaaeiny cia/ia ?ia?aoaaiiy
aeoeaiino? eaia?th aiane?aeie /iai aaeueioaaany aoi?eiiee ??no noaaea
iaeeie, ciaiooaaeeny ?ici??e iniiaieo eiai oeaiei. A?noiiao?e/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui o

?en.1. Ia?iaeaiee 1,2%-iei NNN ?yae (i?aai?o/) ? iaia?iaeaiee
(e?ai?o/) ?yaee iaeeie ni?oo Iiainoue Eocuei?ia.

?ineei iaeeie aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a e?euee?noue ee?oei e?a??oi?io a
?aae?aeuei?e iiioeyoe?? eneeaie ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo (10.06.96)
noaiiaeea a eiio?ie?, i?ae aieeaii aeaeno?aeo ? iaeeiaoo?acieo 47,6
picscalex102010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000003,1,
39,8picscalex10201000900000388000000020012000000000005000000090200000000
0400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000
050000000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000
10000000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479
70650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c
0002040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000002,1 ?
29,0picscalex10201000900000388000000020012000000000005000000090200000000
0400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000
050000000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000
10000000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479
70650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c
0002040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000002,6 iei, a o
cae?i/eaoeo ??no ?ineei (30.09.96) –
59,8picscalex10201000900000388000000020012000000000005000000090200000000
0400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000
050000000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000
10000000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479
70650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c
0002040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000002,13,
56,6picscalex10201000900000388000000020012000000000005000000090200000000
0400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000
050000000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000
10000000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479
70650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c
0002040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000002,8 ? 31,4
picscalex102010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 2,3 iei
a?aeiia?aeii. A?aeaoaaeiny iineeaia a?aeeeaaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo oeaiei,
ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? noaeei eneeaie, a?eueo ?aii? oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaea?ie.
Aiaeia?/i? ci?ie aiaoii?/ii? no?oeoo?e i?ae aieeaii 0,6-2,4%-ieo
?ic/ei?a NNN a?aeaoaaeeny o /i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie. Aiaoii?/i? ci?ie a
iaaiiao ia?iaeaieo ?aoa?aeaioaie ?ineei noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny iineeaiei
a?aeeeaaeaiiyi oeaetheice ? e?ai?io. A?noio?i?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
anoaiiaeaii, ui aaea ia ?aii?o aoaiao aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei iaeeie
(10.06.96) nooi?iue e?ai?o?eaoe?? aea?aaeie ii i’yoeaaeuei?e oeae?
noaiiaea o aa??aio? c 0,05%-iei iaeeiaoo?acieii- 4 aaee, c 0,3%-iei
aeaeno?aeii – 3 aaee ? o eiio?ie? –2 aaee. Iaeii/anii c oiia?eueiaiiyi
iiaiooai?aiiy ee?oei a?aeaoaaeiny ciaioaiiy ?aae?aeueieo ?ici???a
aieieii e?a??oi?io aea?aaeie oa eoa’yieo aieieii ei?e iaaiia.

Ciaioaiiy aeoeaiino? eaia?th, a?eueo ?aiiy e?ai?o?eaoe?y i?ia?aeieo ?
iaoai?/ieo oeaiei, oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo iiooaeiiai ei?eiaiai oa?o
ia?eaea?ie na?ae/eoue i?i i?enei?aiiy i?ioean?a aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
iniiaieo oeaiei iaaiia oa eiai aec??aaiiy i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iacaeaaeii a?ae oeio canoiniaaiiai ?aoa?aeaioo o ?ineei
aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a a?aeaoaaeeny iaeiaeia? ci?ie ia?aiao??a ?inoo ?
ii?oiaaiaco-ciaiooaaeany iana eenoe?a ? ieiua eenoiai? iiaa?oi? iaaiia,
iaeiae ia i?ioyc? anueiai ??/iiai oeeeeo ?icaeoeo ?ineei iaeeie
a?aeiinia iana eenoe?a iaaiia a aeine?aeieo aa??aioao aoea a?eueo
aenieith. Oaeei /eiii, caaacia/ai?noue ia?inoath/iai iaaiia eenoiaei
aia?aoii i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a ca?eueooaaeany.

Aiae?c iacino?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? eenoe?a iaeeie iieacaa, ui i?ae
aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a ia a?aeaoaaeiny aeinoia??iiai ciaioaiiy ?ici???a
ee?oei iniiaieo oeaiei eenoea — ai?aea?i?no, noiai/anoiai oa aoa/anoiai
iacio?eo. C?noaaeaiiy oeeo aeaieo ?c anoaiiaeaiei ciaioaiiyi iane ?
?ici???a eenoe?a na?ae/eoue i?i ciaioaiiy aeoeaiino? ia?a?iaeueieo
ia?enoai i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a.

Oaeei /eiii, ae?y ?aoa?aeaio?a ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac
?ia?aoaaiiy eaoa?aeueieo ia?enoai noaaea ? ia?a?iaeueieo ia?enoai
eenoea, iane?aeeii /iai ? oiia?eueiaiiy aoi?eiiiai ?inoo iaaiia,
ciaioaiiyi ?ii???a ? iane aaaaoaoeaieo i?aai?a.

2.Ai?iiiaeueia ?aaoeyoe?y o?oiii?oiaaiaco i?ae aieeaii ??cieo ca
iaoai?ciii ae?? ?aoa?aeaio?a

??no?ia?aoth/a ae?y ?aoa?aeaio?a aecia/a?oueny, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o
o?i?/ii? no?oeoo?e, aeieoaaiiyi neioaco aai ciaioaiiyi aeoeaiino? aaea
neioaciaaieo a?aa?ae?i?a [Aoaeaei, Ia?na?, 1986]. Aeai??/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiyie, i?iaaaeaieie a oiiaao iieueiaiai ? aaaaoaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeo, anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae aieeaii 0,3%-iiai aeaeno?aeo,
0,05%-iiai iaeeiaoo?acieo, 1,2%-iiai NNN a?aeaoaaeiny cia/ia ciaioaiiy
aeoeaiino? a?eueieo a?aa?ae?i?a a iaaiiao iaeeie a ia??iae aaaaoaoeaiiai
?inoo, a oie /an, ye aaaaeaiiy aeciaaiii? a?aa?aeiai? eeneioe
i?aeaeuoaaei ?o aeoeai?noue a oeaieiao noaaea. Ciaioaiiy aeoeaiino?
a?aa?ae?i?a ia aoei iia’ycaia c ?iaeoeaoaaiiyi a?eueieo a?aa?ae?i?a
oeyoii ?o ia?aaaaeaiiy a eiiuethaiaai? oi?ie, ine?eueee i?ae aieeaii
aeaeno?aeo ? iaeeiaoo?acieo aeoeai?noue ca’ycaieo oi?i ai?iii?a aoea
ieae/ith, i?ae o eiio?ie?.

Aeyaeaii, ui ?inoiaa ?aaeoe?y ia ?aoa?aeaioe iia’ycaia ia o?eueee c
aioea?aa?ae?iiaei oa?aeoa?ii ae?? i?aia?ao?a, aea e c aeeaieith
ia?aaoaeiaith anueiai ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?ineeie (Oaaeeoey 1).

I?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a cia/ii ciaiooaaany ai?no a?eueii? ?IE a
oeaieiao iaaiia. Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeai? ? a oiiaao
aaaaoaoe?eiiai aeine?aeo. Oaeei /eiii, ai?no ? aeoeai?noue iniiaieo
ai?iii?a, ui ?aaoeththoue ??no iaaiia – aoenei?a ? a?aa?ae?i?a
[Aea?oeeia, 1985], ciaiooaaeeny, /ei ? iiynith?oueny ciaioaiiy
aeoeaiino? noaaeiaeo ia?enoai. Ia aoei ciaeaeaii

Oaaeeoey 1.

Aieea ?aoa?aeaio?a ia ai?no o?oiai?iii?a a iaaiiao iaeeie ni?oo
Iiaieeoa?anueea ia 7-io aeiao i?ney iai?eneoaaiiy (1990?.), ia/a ne?i?
?a/iaeie.

IieacieeEiio?ieue

(aiaea)0,3%-iee

aeaeno?ae1,2%-iee

NNN0,05%-

iee

iaeeiaoo-

?acieNoia?iee ai?no AAE

167527625202889A?eueia AAE

1350wmetafile8? ??…????????????
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A????&??yyyy?????Ay/y@· ???&? ?MathType?? ????u
th??????250wmetafile8? ??…????????????
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A????&??yyyy?????Ay/y@· ???&? ?MathType?? ????u
th??????75wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ay/y@· ???&? ?MathType?? ????u
th??????63wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ay/y@· ???&? ?MathType?? ????u
th??????35wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ay/y@· ???&? ?MathType?? ????u
th??????ne?aeene?aee*250wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ay/y@· ???&? ?MathType?? ????u th??????

/?oei? caeaaeiino? i?ae ?ioaineai?noth ?inoo iaaiia i?ae aieeaii
?aoa?aeaio?a ? ai?noii oeeoie?i?i?a- oiia?eueiaiiy oaii?a ?inoo iaaii?a
iaeeie a aeine?ae? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo oeeoie?i?i?a.
Niinoa??aaeeny a?aei?iiino? ii aa??aioao aeine?aeo o aeii?ioaaii? oi?i
oeeoie?i?i?a: o aa??aio? c iaeeiaoo?acieii ciaeaeai? ne?aeia? e?eueeino?
caaoeio ? aenieee ai?no o?ainii?oii? oi?ie – ?eaiceaecaaoeio, a o
aa??aioao c aeano?aeii ? NNN aeii?ioaaa caaoei. Oaeei /eiii, ai?no
oeeoie?i?i?a ia iiaea iaeiicia/ii oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe i?ie?oa?aoeaio
aeoeai?noue ia?enoai ? ao?aaoth/o aeoeai?noue oeaiei i?aaio. I/aaeaeii,
caeaoi?noue oeaiei aei ao?aeoe?? aecia/a?oueny ia ai?noii oiai /e ?ioiai
ai?iiio, a neeaaeiith aca?iiae??th eiiiiiaio?a ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

Caeaaei?noue ?inoiaeo i?ioean?a a?ae ai?noo AAE i?ae aieeaii
?aoa?aeaio?a iaea aeinoaoiuei neeaaeiee oa?aeoa?. Noia?iee ai?no an?o
oi?i AAE i?ae aieeaii iaeeiaoo?acieo ca?eueooaaany a 1,72 ?ace, i?ae
aieeaii aeaeno?aeo –a 1,65 ?ace, iaeiae NNN aeeeeeaa cia/ia ciaioaiiy (a
3,3 ?ace) ai?noo ai?iiio a oeaieiao noaaea iaeeie (Oaaeeoey 1). Ne?ae
iaeiae a?aecia/eoe, ui ciaioaiiy ai?noo AAE a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny cia/iei ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo ai?iiio o eenoeao
(Oaaeeoey 2). sseui aeoiaeeoe ?c no/anieo oyaeaiue i?i oa,

Oaaeeoey 2.

Aieea ?aoa?aeaio?a ia ai?no o?oiai?iii?a a eenoeao iaeeie ni?oo
Iiaieeoa?anueea ia 7-io aeiao i?ney iai?eneoaaiiy (1990?.), ia/a ne?i?
?a/iaeie.

IieacieeEiio?ieue

(aiaea)0,3%-iee

aeaeno?ae1,2%-iee

NNN0,05%-

iee

iaeeiaoo-

?acieNoia?iee ai?no AAE

55473332201611A?eueia AAE

275wmetafile8? ??…????????????
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A????&??yyyy?????Ay/y@· ???&? ?MathType?? ????u
th??????150wmetafile8? ??…????????????
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A????&??yyyy?????Ay/y@· ???&? ?MathType?? ????u
th??????ne?aeene?aee*125wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ay/y@· ???&? ?MathType?? ????u th??????

ui iniiaiei i?noeai neioaco oeueiai ai?iiio ? eenoie ? caeaoiino? AAE
aei o?ainii?oo ii oeiai? [Eaoaee, Eio, Aeaniaa, Eeneei, 1989], oi
??cieoey ai?noo aanoeeciai? eeneioe a noaae? ? eenoeao ?ineei ??cieo
aa??aio?a aeine?aeo iiaea aooe iiyniaia ??ciith oaeaee?noth a?aeoieo
ai?iiio a?ae eenoe?a aei noaaea i?ae aieeaii canoiniaaieo i?aia?ao?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae ae??th ?aoa?aeaio?a a?aeaoaaeiny ciaioaiiy
aeoeaiino? a?eueieo a?aa?ae?i?a a oeaieiao eenoea iaeeie. Ia aeyaeaii
caeaaeiino? i?ae ??noaaeueioth/ith ae??th aeaeno?aeo ? iaeeiaoo?acieo ?
ai?noii eiiuethaiaaieo oi?i a?aa?ae?i?a: i?e ciaioaii? iane eenoy ?
ieiu? eenoiai? iiaa?oi? iaaiia a iaio aa??aioao aeine?aeo iaeeiaoo?acie
aeeeeeaa ca?eueoaiiy aeoeaiino?, a aeaeno?ae-ciaioaiiy aeoeaiino?
ca’ycaieo oi?i ai?iii?a.

A eenoeao aeine?aeieo ?ineei a?aeaoaaeiny ciaioaiiy ai?noo caaoeio o
ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai, i?e/iio iaea?eueo nooo?ai ai?no oeeoie?i?i?a
ciaiooaaany i?ae ae??th aeaeno?aeo (Oaaeeoey 2). Iaeii/anii o aa??aioao
c iaeeiaoo?acieii ? NNN a?aei?/aeany iiyaa o?ainii?oii? oi?ie –
caaoei?eaiceaeo. Ia ciaeaeaii /?oei? caeaaeiino? i?ae ai?noii ?IE ?
aaeueioaaiiyi ?inoo eenoe?a ?aoa?aeaioaie. I/aaeaeii, ne?ae iiaiaeeoeny
c aeneiaeaiith a e?oa?aoo?? aeoieith, ui ?IE nooo?ai ia aieeaa? ia ??no
ee?oei iacio?eo [Oi?eia, Oeeein, 1984].

Ia?enoaiaoe/ia aeoeai?noue ee?oei cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny
a?aeiioaiiyi oeeoie?i?ie/?IE [Iieaaie A.A., Iieaaie A.A.,1992]. sseui
ii??aiyoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae noiith oeeoie?i?i?a ? ai?noii a?eueii?
?IE a eenoeao a ia??iae ?o ?inoo, oi niinoa??aa?oueny iaeia ? oa ae
caeiiii??i?noue- i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
ciaiooaaeiny.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iieueiaiai ? aaaaoaoe?eiiai aeine?ae?a na?ae/aoue
i?i cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo aanoeeciai? eeneioe a ia?inoath/eo eenoeao
i?ae aieeaii ??cieo a?oi ?aoa?aeaio?a.Oaeei /eiii, ?ia?aoaaiiy
aeoeaiino? ia?a?iaeueieo ia?enoai i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a ??cii?
o?i?/ii? aoaeiae aecia/aeiny ciaioaiiyi aeoeaiino? neioaciaaieo naiei
eenoeii a?aa?ae?i?a ? ai?noo ciai?oi?o ii a?aeiioaiith aei eenoea
noeioeyoi??a ee?oeiieo iiae?e?a – oeeoie?i?i?a i?e cia/iiio ca?eueoaii?
ai?noo a eenoeao ?o aioiaii?noo- aanoeeciai? eeneioe.

3. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo,
o?io?/ia caaacia/aiiy ii?oiaaiaco ?ineei i?e ae?? ?aoa?aeaio?a

I?iaaaeai? ia aeaio ni?oao iaeeie aaaaoi??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaii?a ?inoo iaaiia, ye iniiaiiai aeoeaioi?a, ? eenoe?a,
ye aeiii?a anei?eyo?a, na?ae/aoue i?i iaeiaeia? ci?ie oa?aeoa?o
aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei oe?ei? ?ineeie i?ae aieeaii ??cieo a?oi
?aoa?aeaio?a. Canoiniaaiee iaie iieaciee “iana nooi? ?a/iaeie
eenoe?a/iana nooi? ?a/iaeie noaaea” aoa ia i?ioyc? anueiai ia??iaeo
?inoo o ?ineei aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a aeuei, i?ae o eiio?ie? ? o aa??aio?
?c canoinoaaiiyi a?aa?aeiai? eeneioe (200ia/e). Oaeei /eiii, ia ??ai?
oe?ei? ?ineeie a?aeiinia caaacia/aiiy ia?inoath/iai iaaiia
anei?eyoe?eiei aia?aoii ca?eueooaaeiny, ui noai?thaaei ia?aaeoiiae aeey
iaeiie/aiiy iaaeeeoe?a anei?eyo?a o oiiaeao ??cieo ??ai?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aaoaeiaa ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno eenoea i?e ae??
?aoa?aeaio?a i?ecaiaeeea aei ci?i o oei?iieanoiaaiac?: i?ae aieeaii
0,3%-iiai aeaeno?aeo, 0,3%-iiai eaiiicaio ? 0,05%-iiai iaeeiaoo?acieo
a?aeaoaaeiny ciaioaiiy caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ieanoeae a ee?oeiao
iacio?eo ? ca?eueooaaany ia’?i ee?oeie, ui i?eiaaea? ia iaeei
oei?iieano. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i cia/i? iaoaaie?/i?, ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ?
aia?aaoe/i? ci?ie aca?iica’yce?a ieanoiio ? oeeoiieacie.

Canoinoaaiiy 0,3%-ieo ?ic/ei?a aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ? 0,05%-iiai
iaeeiaoo?acieo aeeeeeaei ??noaaeueioth/ee aoaeo aac iciae
o?oioiene/iino?. ?aoa?aeaioia ae?y 1,2-2,4%-ieo ?ic/ei?a NNN
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeany iiyaith cia/ieo oei?ic?a ia eenoeao iaeeie,
/i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie ? noieoeue. Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii. ui i?e oeueiio ?oeio?oueny /anoeia
oei?iieano?a, ?o eaiaey?ia no?oeoo?a, c’yaeythoueny ini?io?euei?
aeiaoee.

Aea/aiiy i?aiaioiiai eiiieaeno ?ineei iaeeie, /i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie
aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe, ui ia ?nio? oi?o?eiaaiiai iaoai?cio ae??
?aoa?aeaio?a ia oei?io?eiooai?aiiy. I?ae aieeaii oei?oie?ioei?eaeo ?
aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a a?aeaoaaeiny ciaioaiiy ai?noo oei?io?e?a, a ia?oo
/a?ao oei?io?eo “b” ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo ?ineei c ianooiiei
ae??aithaaiiyi ai?noo i?aiaio?a ii aa??aioao aeine?aeo i?ioyaii
aaaaoaoe??. Ciaioaiiy ai?noo oei?io?e?a o ?ineei aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a
a?aeaoaaeiny aiane?aeie i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? oei?io?eace, iaeneioi
yei? i?eiaaeaa ia ia?oee /an i?ney ia?iaee ?ineei i?aia?aoaie. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ? NNN ia?iaea 0,05%-iee
iaeeiaoo?acieii i?ecaiaeeea aei ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo oei?io?e?a a oeaieiao
eenoea iaeeie. Oae, 10.06.96?. ai?no noie oei?io?e?a noaiiaea a eenoeao
aeine?aeiiai aa??aioo 2,3
picscalex102010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000000,05 ?
2,1picscalex102010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000
400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000
50000000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001
0000000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797
0650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0
002040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00f
fffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797
374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000000,07 i/a ne?i?
?a/iaeie, a 30.09.96?.- a?aeiia?aeii
2,2picscalex102010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000
400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000
50000000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001
0000000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797
0650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0
002040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00f
fffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797
374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000000,06 ?
2,0picscalex102010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000
400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000
50000000b0200000000050000000c02800160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001
0000000c0ffffffe6ffffff20010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797
0650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0
002040000002d01000008000000320a40013a0001000000b1000a00000026060f000a00f
fffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797
374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000000,06 ia/a ne?i?
?a/iaeie i?ioe eiio?ieth.

O?e??/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae aieeaii canoiniaaieo
?aoa?aeaio?a a?aei?/aeiny ca?eueoaiiy iieaciee?a aeoeaiino? ?aaeoe??
O?eea ? iaoeeee?/iiai oioioinoi?eethaaiiy c ianooiiei ae??aithaaiiyi,
aai iaa?oue ciaioaiiyi cia/aiue o ii??aiyii? aei eiio?ieth i?ioyaii
iioiaaiaco. Ine?eueee iaie a?aei?/aii ciaioaiiy ai?noo i?aiaio?a a
eenoeao, a iieacieee oioio?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e ii?iothoueny ia iaeeieoeth
ai?noo oei?io?eo, iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue, nei??oa, ia i?i
iineeaiiy oioio?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? ieanoeae, a i?i o/anoue a oeeo
i?ioeanao in vitro a?eueoi? i?ae o eiio?ie? e?eueeino? oei?iieano?a.

C’yniaaii, ui ciaioaiiy ?inoiai? aeoeaiino? iaaii?a iaeeie ia ?aii?o
aoaiao ?icaeoeo i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ciaioaiiyi
?ioaineaiino? oioineioaco ? ca?eueoaiiyi aeeoaeueieo aeo?ao (R/Pg,
Oaaeeoey 3). Oaeei /eiii, iaeiei c oaeoi??a, ui iaiaaeothoue aeiii?io
ooieoe?th oioineioaco i?e ?aoa?aeaioieo aoaeoao ? ca?eueoaiiy
aeeoaeueieo aeo?ao, aiane?aeie /iai ciaioo?oueny /anoea anei?eyo?a, ye?
iai?aaeythoueny ia iio?aae ai?aaiaco.

A iniia? ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? oioineioaco i?e ae?? ?aoa?aeaio?a
ciaoiaeeeiny ci?uaiiy ai?iiiaeueiiai aaeaino a a?e iaeiie/aiiy AAE, yea
? ?ia?a?oi?ii oioineioaoe/ieo i?ioean?a [Noa?eeiaa, 1983; Iaeaaa,
E?aiaeaeaaa, Iie?iiinia, 1992], iaeiie/aiiy a eenoeo i?iaeoeo?a
anei?eyo?a aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy ao?aaoth/i? aeoeaiino? ia?inoath/iai
noaaea. I?ae aieeaii 1,2%-iiai NNN a eenoeao iaeeie ? /i?iiie?aeii?
ai?iaeie a?aeaoaaeiny ciaioaiiy ai?noo oeoe??a i?e iaeii/aniiio
iaeiie/aii? e?ioiaeth. Iaeiie/aiiy i?iaeoeo?a oioineioaco a oei?iieanoao
? aaaeeeaei iaoai?ciii ?ia?aoaaiiy oioineioaco (feed back- iaoai?ci) i?e
ci?iao oa?aeoa?o aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei [Naiaiaiei, 1988].

Oaaeeoey 3.

Aieea ?aoa?aeaio?a ia ?inoia? i?ioeane, oioineioac ? oaiiiaa aeeoaiiy
?ineei iaeeie ni?oo Iiaieeoa?anueea ia 10-e i?ney ia?iaee aeaiue.

Aa??aioe aeine?aeoAenioa ?ineeie

(ni)?ioaineai?noue oaiiiaiai aeeoaiiy

(picscalex1000100090000038d000000020015000000000005000000090200000000040
0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050
000000b0200000000050000000c02a00180011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100
00000c0ffffffc6ffffff40010000660100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706
50000200015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e6
57720526f6d616e00007c040000002d01000008000000320a600146000100000052000a0
0000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000
000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000000
0)Aeaeeiee oioinei-oacA?in-oioineioac
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?ieue15,30,9210,
20,6521,50,1731,70,410,320,3%-iee
aeaeno?ae*9,10,6410,00,39*11,00,15*21,00,170,480,05%-iee
iaeeiaoo?acie*9,50,619,00,44*15,70,68*24,70,510,36I?ei?oea : * —
??cieoey aeinoia??ia i?e ?=0,05.

I?ae aieeaii oei?oie?ioei?eaeo a?aeaoaaeeny ci?ie o iaaeoiaeaeaii? ?
ia?a?iciiae?e? aeaiaio?a i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy i?ae i?aaiaie ?ineeie.
Ia?iaea ?ineei iaeeie, /i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie, noieoeue, aa?ono
0,6-2,4%-ieie ?ic/eiaie NNN i?ecaiaeeea aei ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo
caaaeueiiai oa a?eeiaiai acioo a iaaiiao ? eenoeao oeeo eoeueoo?.
Anoaiiaeaii ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo noie ai?iieeneio o aaaaoaoeaieo i?aaiao
?ineei iaeeie ? /i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a. Ci?ia
iai?oaeaiino? aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei aiane?aeie iiyae
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeoeaioi?ieo ?iiinoae (aeic??aath/eo ya?ae) cia/iith i??ith
aieeaaea ia ai?no ? ia?a?iciiae?e niieoe acioo a i?aaiao ?ineei. I?e
ca?eueoaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy eou?a iaeeie i?ae aieeaii NNN o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? aaaaoaoe?? iineethaaany a?aeoie a?eueieo ai?iieeneio c
aaaaoaoeaieo i?aai?a o ia?inoath/? yaiaee. Aiane?aeie yaeua
ae??aiiie?aeiino?, yea ni?e/eiyeiny oei?oie?ioei?eaeii o ?ineei
/i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie, a?aeaoaaeiny ca?eueoaiiy o ii??aiyii? aei
eiio?ieth ai?noo a?eueieo ai?iieeneio o aaaaoaoeaieo i?aaiao oe???
eoeueoo?e. A ia?oo /a?ao ania?aa?iiai? ? aeooai?iiai? eeneio, aeai?io,
eaeoeeio, e?c?io, a?a?i?io. Iaeii/anii a?aeaoaaeiny ciaioaiiy ai?noo
oeeo ai?iieeneio a yaiaeao ia?iaeaieo ?aoa?aeaioii ?ineei.

Anoaiiaeaii ciaioaiiy ai?noo eae?th ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy E+/Na++ a eenoeao
/i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie ia i?ioyc? anueiai ia??iaeo aaaaoaoe?? aiane?aeie
ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo eaeueoe?th a oeaieiao. Oe? aeai? aeia?a
ocaiaeaeothoueny c anoaiiaeaiei iineeaiiyi iiaiooai?aiiy a?iiie?ia??a
ee?oeiieo no?iie, ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee oianoino?iieo aiaoii?/ieo
aeaiaio?a a oeaieiao ?ineei i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a, ine?eueee
aeoeaioi?ia ?ii?noue ee?oeiieo no?iie aeey eao?ii?a c?inoa? ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ca?yaeo eao?iio [?oaeaeiaa, Ea?aeen, Neaei?oeia,1988].

4. Aieea ?aoa?aeaio?a ia aeeaeio in?iiuei-ceiiaiai niieith,
ai?iiiaeueiee noaoon ? ii?icino?ee?noue ?ineei iaeeie.

Ia?iaea ?ineei iaeeie ?aoa?aeaioaie ia ?aii?o aoaiao
?icaeoeo i?ecaiaeeea aei ci?i o i?ioiaeaeaii? ieie ia??iaeo niieith,
i?e/iio oeae aieea i?iyaeyany ii- ??ciiio ia oii? ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ieo
oiia. Oae, iaoiaeii a?ieia?/iiai oanooaaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui o ia??iae
i?aai?/iiai niieith (eenoiiaae) cia/ieo a?aei?iiinoae o aeeaei? niieith
ia niinoa??aaeiny, ca aeeeth/aiiyi aa??aioo c ia?iaeith ?ineei 0,3%-iei
aeaeno?aeii 1987?., a yeiio oaeaee?noue aeoiaeo c? niieith aoea aeuith.
O? ae iaaiie, ui a?aeae?aeeny ia i?i?iuoaaiiy i?ci?oa (a?oaeaiue) ca
oeiiaeo oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia cei?ae? 1987/88?. a?ae??ciyeeny a on?o
aeine?aeieo aa??aioao a?eueo iecueeei ??aiai niieith o ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieai: oaeaee?noue i?i?inoaiiy a?oiueie oeeo iaaii?a a oiiaao
eaai?aoi??? aoea aeuith (?en.2).

Aieea ?aoa?aeaio?a ia noai niieith cia/iith i??ith
?aaoethaaany oaiia?aoo?ith-ca oiia iaoeiiai oieiaeii? cei?ae? 1986/87?.
nooo?ai? ??cieoe? o aeeaei? niieith ii aa??aioao aeine?aeo ia
niinoa??aaeiny.

A?eueo ?aii?e ia?ao?ae ?ineei, ia?iaeaieo iaaani?
?aoa?aeaioaie, aei ia??iaeo aeiooaiiai niieith, noi?iaiaeaeoaaany
ca?eueoaiiyi ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?IE/AeIE. I?ae aieeaii 1,2%-iiai NNN,
0,3%-iiai aeaeno?aeo ? 0,05%-iiai iaeeiaoo?acieo oeae iieaciee noaiiaea
15.01.91 ?. a?aeiia?aeii 7,53, 7,85 ? 7,79 i?ioe 6,07 a eiio?ie?.
Aiaeia?/ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?aei?/aeiny ? o ianooiiiio, 1992?.: 7,19
(1,2%-iee NNN), 6,85 (0,3%-iee aeaen?ae), 6,80 (0,05%-iee iaeeiaoo?acie)
i?ioe 5,66 o eiio?ie?.

A ia??iae i?aai?/iiai niieith, o aeiaoi?, ia a?aei?/aeiny
iaaii? caeiiii??iino? o noia?iiio ai?no? ai?iieeneio a caeaaeiino? a?ae
canoinoaaiiy ?aoa?aeaio?a. A ia??iae aeiooaiiai niieith (n?/aiue) a
ceioth/eo a?oiueeao iaeeie ni?oo Iiaieeoa?anueea aeinoia??ii
ca?eueooaaany ai?no noie ai?iieeneio ca ?aooiie o?aeoe?? a?eueieo
ai?iieeneio, o ia?oo /a?ao aeooai?iiai?, aeai?io, aae?io, ?cieaeoeeio ?
eaeoeeio. Oaeei /eiii, a?eueo ?aii? aoiaeaeaiiy o oaco aeiooaiiai
niieith ?ineei iaeeie, ia?iaeaieo o thaai?eueiee ia??iae ?aoa?aeaioaie,
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iineeaiii iiaiooai?aiiy ?IE ? ai?iieeneio a
a?oiueeao.

Ia ciaeaeaii /?oei? caeaaeiino? i?ae ai?noii a?eueii? ?IE a
a?oiueeao ? aeeaeiith niieith ?ineei iaeeie. A ia??iae aeiooaiiai
niieith ai?no oeeoie?i?i?a a a?oiueeao ?ineei, ia?iaeaieo aaniith
aeaeno?aeii, aoa cia/ii iaioei, i?ae o eiio?ie?, iaeiae a a?oiueeao
aeine?aeieo ?ineei oeueiai aa??aioo ai?iii aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee
niaoeeo?/iith oi?iith-?ciiaioai?eaaeaiiceiii.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?enei?aiee ia?ao?ae ?ineei iaeeie aeine?aeieo
aa??aio?a aei ia??iaeo aeiooaiiai niieith a ia?oo /a?ao aecia/aany
ai?noii ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ??cieo oi?i AAE ? a?aa?ae?i?a. A?eueo
?aii?e aeo?ae ?c noaio

?en. 2. Aieea ?aoa?aeaio?a ia aeeaeio niieith ceioth/eo iaaii?a
iaeeie:

A – iaaiie i?i?iuoaaee c 21.11.86?., A – oa ae c 26.12.86?. (ni?o
Iiainoue Eocuei?ia);A-

oa ae c 27.11.87?.,A – oa ae c 26.12.87?., (ni?o Iiaiee?anueea); 1
–eiio?ieue, 2 – 1,2%-iee oei?oie?ioei?eae, c – 0,3%-iee eaiiicai, 4 —
0,3%-iee aeaeno?ae. A?aeiinia iioeaea

S % noaiiaeoue aeecueei 5%.

i?aai?/iiai niieith oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ciaioaiiyi /anoee a?eueii? AAE.
Oae, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?eueia AAE/ca’ycaia AAE noaiiaeei a ia??iae
i?aai?/iiai niieith (aeiaoaiue 1991 ?.) a eiio?ie? 13,7, o aa??aio? c
0,3%-iei aeaeno?aeii-7,8, o aa??aio? c 0,05%-iei iaeeiaoo?acieii-6,3. A
ia??iae aeiooaiiai niieith (n?/aiue 1992?.) oe? iieacieee noaiiaeee: a
eiio?ie? — 8,3, o aa??aio? c 0,3%-iei aeaeno?aeii 6,9 a o aa??aio? c
0,05%-iei iaeeiaoo?acieii- 7,7. A ia??iae aeiooaiiai niieith cei?ae?
1997/1998?. ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?eueii? ? ca’ycaii? oi?i AAE aoei: a
eiio?ie?-9,2, a o aa??aio? c canoinoaaiiyi aeaeno?aeo-3,3.

C?noaaeaiiy aeoeaiinoae a?aa?ae?i?a ii aa??aioao aeine?aeo a
ia??iaee i?aai?/iiai ? aeiooaiiai niieith na?ae/eoue i?i iineeaiiy
aeoeaiino? a?aa?ae?i?a, ? a ia?oo /a?ao a?eueieo, a a?oiueeao ?ineei
iaeeie aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a. I?e/iio, a?eueo iecueeee ??aaiue
aeoeaiino? a?aa?ae?i?a a ia??iae aeiooaiiai niieith a?aei?/aany a oeo
aa??aioao aeine?aeo, ye? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny ? a?eueo iecueeei ai?noii
AAE.

Nei?i/aiiy e?i?eieo ?ici???a i?aeaoce?a i?ae aieeaii
?aoa?aeaio?a ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ciaioaiiy ia’?io, a yeiio eieae?cothoueny
?aca?ai? niieoee, ia noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny ciaioaiiyi ii?icino?eeino?
?ineei. ?acoeueoaoe i?yiiai i?iii?iaeoaaiiy iaaii?a a ia??iaee cei?aaeue
1986/87 ?. ? 1987/88?. na?ae/aoue i?i iaio? iioeiaeaeaiiy iaaii?a ?ineei
aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a, a yeeo canoiniaoaaeany ia?iaea
oei?oie?ioei?eaeii, aeaeno?aeii ? eaiiicaiii. Aeai? i?i ii?icino?ee?noue
ianaaeaeaiue o ia??iae cei?ae? 1986/87?. yaeythoue iniaeeaee ?ioa?an,
ine?eueee cei?aey ?ineei i?ioiaeeea ca oiia iaoeiiaeo aeey A?iieoeueei?
iae. ii?ic?a, ye? aeinyaaee 33,5 N. A?noieia?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye?
aoee i?iaaaeai? aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney neeueieo ii?ic?a, anoaiiaeaii, ui
a aeine?aeieo aa??aioao iioeiaeaeaiiy iniiaieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei aoee
iaioeie, i?ae o eiio?ie?.

Iaaiie aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny a?eueo
iecueeeie iieacieeaie a?aeiioaiiy oeoe?e/e?ioiaeue, ui ? iieacieeii
a?eueo ?aiiueiai ? iiaiiai ?o aec??aaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?eueo aenieee
??aaiue ii?icino?eeino? ?ineei iaeeie oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ciaioaiiyi
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?IE/AAE, ui aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe oeae iieaciee ye
o?c?ieia?/ii cia/ouee aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy nooiaith aaeaioaoe??
?ineeiiiai i?aai?cio aei cei?ae?.

Oaeei /eiii, ci?ia aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei
?ineeie, ca?eueoaiiy i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a iieacieea “iana nooi?
?a/iaeie eenoe?a/iana nooi? ?a/iaeie noaaea” ia i?ioyc? anueiai ia??iaeo
aaaaoaoe?? ? iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo neeaaeiaeo, ye? caaacia/othoue a?eueo
iiaia aec??aaiiy iaaii?a, iaeiie/aiiy ?aca?aieo niieoe ? oni?oio
cei?aeth.

5.Iniaeeaino? i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano ya?aeieo eoeueoo? i?ae aieeaii
?aoa?aeaio?a ? aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a

Canoinoaaiiy oei?oie?ioei?eaeo ia ianaaeaeaiiyo iaeeie,
/i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie ? noieoeue ii ??ciiio aieeaaei ia o?iaeaei?noue ?
ye?noue i?iaeoeoe?? aeacaieo eoeueoo?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?iaea ianaaeaeaiue /i?iiie?aeii?
ai?iaeie ? noieoeue 0,6-2,4%-ieie ?ic/eiaie NNN ia ?aii?o aoaiao
?icaeoeo (aei oea?o?iiy) i?ecaiaeeea aei yaeua ae??aiiie?aeiino? ?
iia??oaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? o ??e ia?iaee, a o /i?iiie?aeii?
ai?iaeie- ? ia ianooiiee i?ney ia?iaee ??e. ssaeua ae??aiiie?aeiino?
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ciaioaiiyi ai?noo oeoe??a, anei?a?iiai? eeneioe,
c?inoaiiyi caaaeueii? eeneioiino?.

Ca?eueoaiiy a?iaeaeiino? eoeueoo?e iaeeie i?ae aieeaii 1,2
%-iiai ?ic/eio NNN aeinyaaeiny ca ?aooiie ci?ie a?o?oaeoii?ee
ianaaeaeaiue, oiia?eueiaiiy oaii?a ?inoo iaaii?a cai?uaiiy ? ii?ino?, ui
i?ecaiaeeei aei iie?ioaiiy oiia ?nioaaiiy iaaii?a ieiaeiiinieo. I?e
oeueiio ia ci?ithaaeany iana ya?ae, caaaeueia eeneioi?noue, iaeiae
c?inoaa ai?no oeoe??a a yaiaeao. I?e aeai?acia?e ia?iaoe? ianaaeaeaiue
1,2%-iei NNN aaniith ii aenio? iaaii?a 15-20ni ? 40-45ni caeeoe?a
i?aia?aoo a i?iaeoeoe?? ia ciaeaeaii. Ia o?iiaoia?aiao i?iyaeyeeny
aiaeiaaii? oie?ie ?c cia/aiiyi Rf 0,44 ? aoea a?aenooiueith niaoeeo?/ia
?aaeoe?y c 11%-iith oinoi?ii-iie?aaeaiiaith eeneioith ? 1%-iei oei?enoei
ieiaii a cii? eieae?caoe?? oei?oie?ioei?eaeo.

A ca’yceo c oe?ieei ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi i?aia?aoo o
?ineeiieoeoai ? caia?a/aiiyie I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y N?N? (1989
?.) i?ioe ?icoe?aiiy canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo ia iiaeo eoeueoo?ao, ca
?ic?iaeaiith aeey NNN noaiith iaie aoei aei?iaoaaii aeey ?aaoeyoe??
?inoo iaeeie ?yae aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a — eaiiicai, aeaeno?ae, 2-OAOE.
Ia?niaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
o?c?ieia?/ia ae?y i?aia?ao?a ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac aoeeai-iaoeaiee
i?iaeoeo iaoaaie?cio ?ineei. Anoaiiaeaii nooo?aa ca?eueoaiiy
o?iaeaeiino? iaeeie i?ae aieeaii oeeo i?aia?ao?a. Iaeiae, a?aoiaoth/e,
ui eaiiicai i?noeoue a nai?io neeaae? cia/io e?euee?noue i?ae?, a
2-OAOE-iano?eea niieoea, aoei ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th canoinoaaiiy ia
?ineeiao iaeeie aeaeno?aeo, a?o/eciyiiai i?aia?aoo, iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaiiai c aeieiai-oieneeieia?/ieo iiceoe?e. Anoaiiaeaii nooo?aa
ca?eueoaiiy o?iaeaeiino? iaeeie i?ae aieeaii 0,3%-iiai ?ic/eio
aeaeno?aeo ye o ??e ia?iaee, oae ? o ianooiiee ??e (?en.3), i?e oeueiio
ia iia??ooaaeany ye?noue ya?ae, ciaiooaaeany eeneioi?noue ? c?inoaa
ai?no anei?a?iiai? eeneioe. Aacio?iiaoia?ao?/iei iaoiaeii anoaiiaeaii
iiaio a?aenooi?noue caeeoe?a i?aia?aoo a yaiaeao, ui aeicaieeei
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe o ae?iaieoeoai cai?iiiiiaaio oaoiieia?th
[Caueoa ?anoaiee,1992].

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aaecae?aeueia ia?iaea ianaaeaeaiue
iaeeie aoeeaii?iaeooeaioaie i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?enei?aiiy
aeic??aaiiy ya?ae oe???

?en. 3. Aieea aeaeno?aeo ia o?iaeaei?noue iaeeie ni?oo Iiainoue
Eocuei?ia.

I?ei?oea: iecueeee o?iaeae 1990?. iiynith?oueny iaoeiiaeie aeey
A?iieoeueei? iaeano? caii?iceaie, ui ni?aiaaeaee c ia??iaeii oea?o?iiy.

eoeueoo?e, ?ic?iaeaii ? caiaoaioiaaii iaoiae i?enei?aiiy aeic??aaiiy
ya?ae iaeeie ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeno?aeo (Iaoaio ? 23419 A, 1998).
C’yniaaii iniaeeaino? aeaiie?ia?ecaoe?? iie?o?ii?ae?a aeic??aath/eo
ya?ae a ii?i? ? i?ae aieeaii aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a, ye? i?enei?ththoue
oeae i?ioean. Na?aaeiy iieaeoey?ia iana iaeoei?a aeic??aath/eo ya?ae ia
3-e, 5-e ? 7-e aeaiue i?ney ia?iaee ianaaeaeaiue 0,1%-iei eaiiicaiii ?
a eiio?ie? noaiiaeea 53 ? 74, 45 ? 67, 44 ? 49 eAe a?aeiia?aeii. Aiae?c
iieaeoey?ii-ianiaiai ?iciiae?eo ie?aieo o?aeoe?e iaeoei?a iieacaa, ui
ciaioaiiy na?aaeiuei? iieaeoey?ii? iane iaeoei?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
?aooiie aeaiie?ia?ecaoe?? aenieiiaeaeoey?ieo o?aeoe?e ? ca?eueoaiiy
/anoee o?aeoe?e iaeoei?a c iaioith iieaeoey?iith ianith. C’yniaaii, ui o
ia??iae oaeaeeiai aeic??aaiiy ya?ae, a oiio /ene? ? i?e oi?niaaiiio
aeic??aaiiy i?ae aieeaii aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a, iaeoeianoa?ace ia
i?eeiathoue o/ano? a aeaa?aaeaoe?? iaeoei?a-ai?no caaaeueieo, a?eueieo ?
ca’ycaieo ea?aieneeueieo a?oi ia i?ioyc? 7 ae?a aeic??aaiiy ia
ci?ithaaany ? noaiiaea a?aeiia?aeii 3,39, 0,63 ? 2,76 ia-aea/a iaeoei?a.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioeane aeic??aaiiy ya?ae noi?iaiaeaeothoueny
ca?eueoaiiyi iieaeoey?ii? iane oeaetheice. Ia 3, 5 ? 7 aeiao i?ney
ia?iaee ?ineei 0,1%-iei eaiiicaiii nooi?iue iie?ia?eceoe?? oeaetheice
ya?ae noaiiaea a eiio?ie? ? aeine?ae? 463 ? 550, 501 ? 605, 552 ? 633,
ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?oeioaaiiy oeaetheaciei eiieaenii a ia?oo /a?ao
iecueeiiieaeoey?ii? oeaetheice ia?aeiieo ee?oeiieo no?iie, c /ei
iia’ycaia ?ici’yaoaiiy ya?ae i?e aeic??aaii?.

Ia?aaecae?aeueia ia?iaea ianaaeaeaiue iaeeie 0,1%-ieie
?ic/eiaie aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ni?eyea ca?eueoaiith o?iaeaeiino? o ia?o?,
iaea?eueo aaaeeea? cai?e i?iaeoeoe?? ? cia/ii iaioa iac?a?aieo ya?ae
caeeoaeiny ia eouao i?ney inoaiiueiai cai?o ya?ae, ca ?aooiie /iai
oiaa?iee o?iaeae o ??ci? ?iee c?inoaa ia 19-56%. I?e oeueiio a yaiaeao
a?eueo ?ioaineaii iaeiie/oaaeeny oeoe?e ? ciaiooaaeany caaaeueia
eeneioi?noue. Oi?niaaia ca aeiiiiiaith 0,1%-ieo ?ic/ei?a aeea?ae?aeo ?
eaiiicaio aeic??aaiiy ya?ae iaeeie noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ciaioaiiyi ?yaeo
ai?iieeneio a ieo, iniaeeai e?c?io, ania?aa?iiai? eeneioe, o?aii?io,
na?eio, aae?io, oe?iceio. Ia?aaecae?aeueia ia?iaea /i?iiie?aeii?
ai?iaeie 0,1%-iei eaiiicaiii aaea?/? ca?eueooaaea ai?noo anei?a?iiai?
eeneioe ? ia aieeaaea ia ?io? ye?ni? iieacieee i?iaeoeoe??.

O C A A A E Ue I A I I ss

I?iaaaeai? iaie aaaaoi??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ui
ae?y ?aoa?aeaio?a ia ?ineeie ya?aeieo eoeueoo? ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac
ia?aaoaeiao aeiii?ii – aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei ?ineeie aiane?aeie
??ciioaeaee?niiai aaeueioaaiiy ?inoo i?aai?a, ci?ie ?o ao?aaoth/iai
iioaioe?aeo. ?aaoeyoe?y ?inoiaeo i?ioean?a, ao?aaoth/i? aeoeaiino?
ia?inoath/iai iaaiia ? aeiii?ii? aeoeaiino? eenoea i?e ?aoa?aeaioieo
aoaeoao aecia/athoueny nooo?aeie ci?iaie ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno,
ai?noo ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo a?oi o?oiai?iii?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ae?y ?aoa?aeaio?a ia iaiaaeo?oueny aieeaii ia
noaai?eaeuei? ia?enoaie, a iioe?th?oueny ia ?io? oeie oa??ieo oeaiei,
cie?aia ia eaoa?aeuei? ? ia?a?iaeuei? ia?enoaie. Aiane?aeie ?ia?aoaaiiy
aeoeaiino? eaia?th a?aeaoaaeeny cia/i? ci?ie o aoi?eii?e aoaeia? iaaiio
a a?e ciaioaiiy ?ici???a iniiaieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei, ui ? iniiaiith
i?e/eiith ciaioaiiy oiaueie ? iane iaaiia i?ae aieeaii ??cieo ca
o?i?/iith aoaeiaith ?aoa?aeaio?a. Oa?aeoa?iei aeey eouiaeo ya?aeieo
eoeueoo? (iaeeia, /i?iiie?aeia ai?iaeia) aoei ca?eueoaiiy a aeine?aeieo
aa??aioao a?aeiinii? e?eueeino? iaoai?/ieo oeaiei o aea?aaei?, iineeaiiy
iiaiooai?aiiy a?iiie?ia??a ee?oeiieo no?iie ? a?eueo ?aiiy ?o
e?ai?o?eaoe?y. ?aoa?aeaioe ??cii? o?i?/ii? aoaeiae — aeaeno?ae,
iaeeiaoo?acie, aeeeeeaee a?eueo ?aiith aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th ia?eaea?ie o
ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. Ia i?eeeaae? ?ineei iaeeie iieacaii, ui
?ia?aoaaiiy aeoeaiino? ia?a?iaeueieo ia?enoai ?aoa?aeaioaie i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ciaioaiiy iane ? caaaeueii? ieiu? eenoe?a iaaiio, ia?aaoaeiae
iacino?oeoo?e eenoea, iaeiae a?aeiinia iana eenoe?a iaaiio i?ae aieeaii
oeeo ?aoa?aeaio?a ca?eueooaaeany.

Aeyaeaii, ui o ?ineei c aenieeie oaiiaie ?inoo iaaii?a (iaeeia)
caeaaei?noue aoaeo – aeica i?iyaeyeany a?eueo /?oei, i?ae o ?ineei c
iia?eueieie oaiiaie ?inoo (/i?iiie?aeia ai?iaeia), a ??noaaeueioth/a
ae?y ?aoa?aeaio?a aoea a?eueo ae?aaeaiith o ?iee c iaaeinoaoiueith
e?euee?noth iiaae?a.

C’yniaaii, ui a iniia? ?ia?aoaaiiy ?inoo iaaiia, ye iniiaiiai aeoeaioi?o
anei?eyo?a, ? ?inoo eenoea, ye aeiii?a anei?eyo?a, ciaoiaeyoueny ci?ie
ai?iiiaeueiiai noaoono ?ineeie. Oiia?eueiaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo iaaiia
o aeiaaeeio ? oiaueio i?ae aieeaii on?o oei?a ?aoa?aeaio?a aecia/aeiny
ciaioaiiyi a oeaieiao aeoeaiino? ? ai?noo a?aa?ae?i?a ? ?iaeie?eioeoiai?
eeneioe. Ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a oioineioaoe/iiai
aia?aoo i?e ae?? ?aoa?aeaio?a aiane?aeie ?ia?aoaaiiy aeoeaiino? ia?enoai
eenoea aecia/aeiny ciaioaiiyi ai?noo ? aeoeaiino? oeeoie?i?i?a ?
a?aa?ae?i?a i?e iaeii/aniiio nooo?aiio iaeiie/aii? aanoeeciai? eeneioe.
Ia?yaeo c oeei, ?ia?aoaaiiy aeiii?ii? ooieoe?? eenoea a?aeaoaaeiny ca
?aooiie ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? oioineioaco, ai?noo oioineioaoe/ieo
i?aiaio?a, /anoeiai? ?oeiaoe?? oei?iieano?a ? iaeiie/aiiy a eenoeo
iaaeeeoe?a anei?eyo?a, a ia?oo /a?ao e?ioiaeth.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?iaea ?ineei ya?aeieo eoeueoo? oei?oie?ioei?eaeii
aieeaaea ia iaeiie/aiiy ? ia?a?iciiae?e aeaiaio?a i?ia?aeueiiai
aeeaeaiiy. Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ? ia?a?iciiae?e niieoe acioo a ?ineeiao
ya?aeieo eoeueoo? aecia/aeeny ci?iaie ao?aaoth/i? aeoeaiino? ?inoiaeo
oeaio??a – cii aaaaoaoeaiiai ?inoo ia ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? ?
iaaaioaaeaiiyi eou?a yaiaeaie, ui oi?ioaaeeny, o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
aaaaoaoe??.

Ia?iaea ?ineei iaeeie ?aoa?aeaioaie ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo,
iacaeaaeii a?ae o?i?/ii? aoaeiae ae?th/i? ?a/iaeie, i?ecaiaeeea aei
nooo?aeo ci?i ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, ai?noo ioeea?iiaeo eeneio ?
ai?iieeneio ia i?ioyc? anueiai ??/iiai oeeeeo ?icaeoeo, aeeth/ath/e
ia??iae in?iiuei – ceiiaiai niieith. Aiane?aeie ia?aaoaeiae
ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?ineeie ?ai?oa aeoiaeeee ?c noaio i?aai?/iiai
niieith, ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny iiaiooai?aiiyi ?IE ? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo
ai?iieeneio a a?oiueeao.

A?eueo aeniea cia/aiiy a?aeiinii? iane eenoe?a iaaiia o ia?iaeaieo
?aoa?aeaioaie ?ineei ia i?ioyc? anueiai ia??iaeo aaaaoaoe??
caaacia/oaaei e?aua aec??aaiiy iaaii?a ? iaeiie/aiiy a ieo ?aca?aieo
niieoe ia ia??iae cei?ae?, ui i?aeaeuoaaei ii?icino?ee?noue ?ineei.

Anoaiiaeaii niaoeeo?/i?noue ae?? ?aoa?aeaio?a ia ya?aei? eoeueoo?e. Aeey
?ineei /i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie, noieoeue ia?iaea ianaaeaeaiue
oei?oie?ioei?eaeii ia ?aii?o aoaiao aaaaoaoe?? ? iaaeioe?eueiith,
ine?eueee i?ecaiaeeoue aei yaeua ae??aiiie?aeiino? ? ciaioaiiy
a?iaeaeiino?. Aeniea aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy oei?oie?ioei?eaeo oa
?ioeo ?aoa?aeaio?a ia eoeueoo?? iaeeie aecia/a?oueny ii?oieia?/ieie
ci?iaie ?ineeie, iie?auaiiyi oiia ?nioaaiiy ieiaeiiinieo iaaii?a
aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy oaii?a ?inoo ii?ino? ? iaaii?a cai?uaiiy.

C’yniaaii, ui oi?niaaia aeic??aaiiy ya?ae i?ae aieeaii
aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a iia’ycaia c iineeaiiyi aeaiie?ia??caoe??
iie?o?ii?ae?a ? oeaetheice ee?oeiieo no?iie. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
noaee iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee niiniao i?enei?aiiy aeic??aaiiy ya?ae
iaeeie ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeno?aeo ( Iaoaio 23419 A, 1998?.).

Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo aaaaoi??/ieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeaia ? ai?iaaaeaeaia o
ae?iaieoeoai oaoiieia?y canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo aeaeno?ae aeey ?aaoeyoe??
?inoo, i?aeaeuaiiy ii?icino?eeino? ? i?iaeoeoeaiino? eoeueoo?e iaeeie.

I?aaenoaaeai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ? oai?aoe/iith
ia?aaeoiiaith aeey iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a eii?aeeiaoe??
ooieoe?e ?inoo, oioineioaco ? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineei, ?ic?iaee iiaeo
oaoiieia?e aoaeoeaiiai ? aacia/iiai canoinoaaiiy ?aoa?aeaio?a o
?ineeiieoeoa?.

AENIIAEE

1. Aieea ?aoa?aeaio?a ia ?ineeie ya?aeieo eoeueoo? iiina?aaeeiaaiee
ci?iaie aeiii?ii – aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei, ye? aecia/athoueny aeeaieith
ia?aaoaeiaith ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? ia?a?iciiae?eii iioie?a
anei?eyo?a, i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei i?ae i?aaiaie ?ineeie.

2. I?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a ??cii? o?i?/ii? aoaeiae a?aeaoaa?oueny
ciaioaiiy ai?noo ?IE ? aeoeaiino? a?aa?ae?i?a o oeaieiao ia?inoath/iai
iaaiia, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?ia?aoaaiiy eiai ia?enoai ? ciaioo?
ao?aaoth/ee iioaioe?ae i?aaio.

3. ?ia?aoth/ee aieea ?aoa?aeaio?a ia aeoeai?noue eaia?th i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ciaioaiiy iane iaaiia, ?ici???a iniiaieo eiiieaen?a oeaiei noaaea ?
e?eueeino? a?noieia?/ieo aeaiaio?a o ?aae?aeuei?e iiioeyoe?? eneeaie
iaaiia. Oe? ci?ie o aea?aa’yienoeo ?ineei ya?aeieo eoeueoo?
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny a?eueo ?aiiueith aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th ia?eaea?ie,
iineeaiei ooai?aiiyi iaoai?/ieo oeaiei ? iiaiooai?aiiyi a?iiie?ia??a
ee?oeiieo no?iie.

4. I?ae aieeaii ??cieo ca o?i?/iith aoaeiaith ?aoa?aeaio?a ciaiooaaeany
ieiua eenoiai? iiaa?oi? iaaiio, iana eenoe?a, ieoiia ieiua eenoea i?e
iaeii/aniiio eiai iioiauaii? ? a?eueo aenieeo cia/aiiyo a?aeiinii? iane
eenoe?a iaaiio. Ciaioaiiy ieiu? ? iane eenoe?a coiiaeaia ?ia?aoaaiiyi
aeoeaiino? ia?a?iaeueieo ia?enoai ?ineei aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ia?aoaaiiy aeoeaiino? ia?a?iaeueieo ia?enoai
?aoa?aeaioaie iiina?aaeeiaaii ciaioaiiyi aeoeaiino? neioaciaaieo naiei
eenoeii a?aa?ae?i?a ? ai?noo ciai?oiueiai ii a?aeiioaiith aei eenoea
noeioeyoi?o ee?oeiieo iiae?e?a – caaoeio, i?e cia/iiio ca?eueoaii?
ai?noo aioiaii?noo oeeo ai?iii?a – aanoeeciai? eeneioe.

6. Aeiii?ia aeoeai?noue eenoea i?e ?aoa?aeaioieo aoaeoao e?i?oo?oueny
ciaioaiiyi e?eueeino? no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo –
oei?iieano?a a ee?oeiao, e?eueeino? ee?oei iacio?eo, ieiu? ? iane
eenoe?a iaaiio. Iaiaaeaiiy aeiii?ii? ooieoe?? eenoea coiiaeaia oaeiae
ca?eueoaiiyi aeeoaeueieo aeo?ao ? iaeiie/aiiyi a eenoeao aeine?aeieo
?ineei iaaeeeoe?a anei?eyo?a, a ia?oo /a?ao e?ioiaeth, ui ciaioo? /anoeo
anei?eyo?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?ioeanao ?inoo iaaiia.

7. I?ae aieeaii oei?oie?ioei?eaeo a?aeaoaathoueny cia/i? ci?ie ai?noo ?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeaiaio?a i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy a oeaieiao aeine?aeieo
?ineei. ?aoa?aeaio aeeeeeaa ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo acioo ? iineeaia
ooai?aiiy a?eea o aaaaoaoeaieo i?aaiao ?ineei ya?aeieo eoeueoo?,
ciaioaiiy a?aeiioaiiy iaeiiaaeaioi? / aeaioaaeaioi? eao?iie aiane?aeie
oiia?eueiaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a oeaieie eae?th ? ca?eueoaiiy a ieo ai?noo
eaeueoe?th.

8. Ia?a?iciiae?e niieoe acioo a ?ineei? i?e ae?? ?aoa?aeaioo aecia/aany
ci?iaie ao?aaoth/i? aeoeaiino? ?inoiaeo oeaio??a. I?e ca?eueoaii?
iaaaioaaeaiiy o?iaea?i eou?a iaeeie i?ae aieeaii oei?oie?ioei?eaeo o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? aaaaoaoe?? iineethaaany a?aeoie a?eueieo ai?iieeneio c
aaaaoaoeaieo i?aai?a o ia?inoath/? yaiaee. O ?ineei /i?iiie?aeii?
ai?iaeie, aiane?aeie aeieeath/i? i?e ae?? ?aoa?aeaioo ae??aiiie?aeiino?,
a?aeaoaaeiny ca?eueoaiiy o ii??aiyii? aei eiio?ieth ai?noo a?eueieo
ai?iieeneio o aaaaoaoeaieo i?aaiao i?e iaeii/aniiio ciaioaiith ?o
ai?noo o ieiaeao.

9. Ia?iaea ?ineei iaeeie ??cieie ca o?i?/iith aoaeiaith ?aoa?aeaioaie ia
?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie ai?iiiaeueiiai noaoono,
ai?noo ?IE ? ai?iieeneio a ceioth/eo a?oiueeao iaeeie. A?eueo ?aii?e
aeo?ae ?c noaio i?aai?/iiai niieith ?ineei iaeeie aeine?aeieo aa??aio?a
iia’ycaiee ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeoeaiino? a?aa?ae?i?a, ciaioaiiyi ai?noo
a?eueii? AAE, iineeaiiyi ooai?aiiy ?IE ? ai?iieeneio a a?oiueeao.

10. Ia?iaeai? o thaai?eueiee ia??iae ?aoa?aeaioaie ?ineeie iaeeie
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny a?eueo aenieith ii?icino?ee?noth iniiaieo eiiieaen?a
oeaiei noaaea o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai aiane?aeie a?eueo ?aiiueiai ?
iiaiiai aec??aaiiy iaaiia, ?ioaineaiiai iaeiie/aiiy ?aca?aiiai
e?ioiaeth, ciaioaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?IE/AAE a a?oiueeao ceioth/eo
?ineei.

11. Iineeaia iiaiooai?aiiy a?iiie?ia??a ee?oeiieo no?iie iaaiia ?
eenoe?a ?ineei ya?aeieo eoeueoo?, a?eueo ?ioaineaia iaeiie/aiiy
e?ioiaeth a ieo i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a aecia/aeiny a?eueo aenieei ia
i?ioyc? anueiai ia??iaeo aaaaoaoe?? ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi “aeiii? –
aeoeaioi?” anei?eyo?a aiane?aeie e?aui? caaacia/aiino? ia?inoath/iai
iaaiia eenoiaei aia?aoii, ca?eueoaiiyi a?aeiinii? iane eenoe?a iaaiia.

12. ?ici’yeoaiiy ya?ae a i?ioean? ?o aeic??aaiiy iia’ycaia c
aeaiie?ia?ecaoe??th aenieiiieaeoey?ieo o?aeoe?e iaeoei?a ?
iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo o?aeoe?e oeaetheice ia?aeiieo ee?oeiieo iaieiiie.
Aoeeaii?iaeooeaioe iineethaaee aeoeai?noue iie?aaeaeoo?iiac ? oeaetheac,
i?enei?thth/e ca ?aooiie oeueiai oaiie aeic??aaiiy.

13. Canoinoaaiiy oei?oie?ioei?eaeo ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo ?ineei
/i?iiie?aeii? ai?iaeie ? noieoeue i?ecaiaeeei aei yaeua
ae??aiiie?aeiino?, iia??oaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? ? ciaioaiiy
o?iaeaeiino? ianaaeaeaiue. O ?ineei iaeeie ia?iaea eou?a oeei oa ?ioeie
?aoa?aeaioaie a aiaeia?/iee ia??iae aeeeeeaea nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy
o?iaeaeiino? ca ?aooiie ci?ie a?o?oaeoii?ee ianaaeaeaiue, oiia?eueiaiiy
oaii?a ?inoo iaaii?a cai?uaiiy, iie?ioaiiy oiia ?nioaaiiy ieiaeiiinieo
iaaii?a ? a?aee?eoiai ?icoaooaaiiy ea?oie ? ya?ae.

14. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei c oieneeieiai – a?a??i?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo
iiceoe?e aeey canoinoaaii? ia eoeueoo?? iaeeie ? a?o/eciyiee i?aia?ao
aeaeno?ae. Aeaie?aoia ia?iaea ianaaeaeaiue aoeeaii?iaeooeaioii
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ? ia aeeeeea? iaaaoeaii?
i?neyae??, i?e oeueiio iie?auo?oueny ye?noue ya?ae ? caeeoee i?aia?aoo a
yaiaeao ia iaeiie/othoueny.

?AEIIAIAeAOe??

Aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny oaoiieia?y ia?iaee ianaaeaeaiue iaeeie
aoeeaii?iaeooeaioii aeaeno?aeii. Iaoith canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo ?
aaeueioaaiiy ?inoo aaaaoaoeaieo iaaii?a ? ii?ino? ia i?ioyce ia??iaeo
ea?ooaaiiy ? ieiaeiiioaiiy. I?e oeueiio:

1. Cia/ii iie?ioothoueny oiiae ?nioaaiiy ieiaeiiinieo iaaii?a, ?o
na?oeiaee ?aaeei ? iia?o?yia aeeaeaiiy.

2. A?aee?eoa ?icoaooaaiiy ea?oie ia ieiaeiiinieo iaaiiao nooo?ai
iieaaoo? ?iaioo aaeae?e – iieethaa/?a, ca ?aooiie /iai ca?eueoo?oueny
e?euee?noue ya?ae, ui caa’ycaeeny.

3. A?aee?eoa ?icoaooaaiiy ya?ae o ia??iae cai?o aeicaiey? a?eueo iiaii
cae?aoe a?iaeae ? cia/ii iieaaoo? i?aoeth cae?a/?a.

4. I?ae aieeaii aeaeno?aeo i?aeaeuo?oueny ii?icino?ee?noue a?oiueie ?
oeaiei noaaea ceioth/eo ?ineei iaeeie.

Ae?iaie/eie aei?iaoaaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui noeoii?noue oeeo
oaeoi??a ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith o?iaeaeiino?, i?aia?ao ia iaeiie/o?oueny a
yaiaeao, ia iia??oo? yeino? i?iaeoeoe??.

?ic/eiii aeaeno?aeo 0,3%-ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? ia?iaeythoue iaaiie
cai?uaiiy ? ei?aiaao ii?inoue iaeeie. Aeo?aoe ?iai/iai ?ic/eio
noaiiaeyoue 1100 e/aa ianaaeaeaiue. ?iai/? ?ic/eie aioothoue a aeaiue
ia?iaee. Ia?iaeyoe ne?ae o?eueee aaaaoaoeai? iaaiie ? ii?inoue, ia
iai?eneoth/e aa?oith /anoeio ieiaeiiiniiai iaaiia, aea ?icoaoiaaia
eenoy, ui aa?aioo? a?aenooi?noue i?aia?aoo a yaiaeao. Aeaie?aoia
iai?eneoaaiiy ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe ii aenio? aaaaoaoeaieo iaaii?a 15-20 ni ?
40 – 45 ni ca aeiiiiiaith o?aeoi?o O-25 c iaa?niei iai?eneoaa/ai II-400.
Aei ia?eneoaa/a i?e?aeio?oueny O-iiae?aia aeaionoi?iiiy ooaiaa c
?aaoeueiaaiith aenioith ?iai/iai oiaeo, iaae oi?noieaie yei? iiioo?oueny
ueoie aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiiaaeaiiy ?ic/eio ia ieiaeiiini? iaaiie .

N I E N I E

iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??

1. Eo?ueyoa A.A. Eciaiaiey a iieenaoa?eaeiii eiiieaena eeaoi/iuo noaiie
e oeie/aneii ninoaaa yaiae iaeeiu iiae aicaeaenoaeai aeiii?a yoeeaia
eaiiicaia I // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueo. ?anoaiee.- 1991.- O. 23, ?
2.- N. 164 – 169.

2. Eo?ueyoa A.A. Aeaenoaea ?aoa?aeaioia ia iacino?oeoo?o eenoueaa iaeeiu
// Oai aea.- 1998.- O. 30, ? 2.- N. 144 – 149.

3. Eo?’yoa A.A. A?noiiao?e/iee aiae?c aoi?eiiiai ?inoo iaaii?a iaeeie
i?ae aieeaii iaeeiaoo?acieo ? aeaeno?aeo // Oai aea.- 1998.- O. 30, ?5.-
N. 374 –379.

4. Eo?’yoa A.A. Iaea?aeaiiy i?aia?ao?a ai?aea?i?no iaoiaeii /anoeiai?
iaoea?aoe?? oeaiei eenoea // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea —
1999.- ?2(5).- N.33-35.

5. Eo?’yoa A.A. O?c?ieiai – a?io?i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy
?aoa?aeaio?a ? aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia ?ineeiao ya?aeieo eoeueoo? //
O?c?ieia?y ? a?io?i?y eoeueo. ?ineei. – 1999.- O.31, ? 2.- N.93-102.

6. Eo?’yoa A.A. Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ? aaciaee canoinoaaiiy
?aoa?aeaio?a ? aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia ?ineeiao ya?aeieo eoeueoo? //
A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1999.- aei.
1.- N. 23 – 25.

7. Eo?’yoa A.A. Iaoiae i?enei?aiiy aeic??aaiiy ya?ae iaeeie. Iaoaio ?
23419 A, 02.06.1998.

8. Eo?ueyoa A.A., ?aiaithe A.E., Eiuo A.I. Aeeyiea oei?oieeioei?eaea ia
?inoiaua i?ioeannu, o?iaeaeiinoue e ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee /a?iiieiaeiie
?yaeiu // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueo. ?anoaiee.- 1984.- O. 16, ? 6.-
N. 548 – 553.

9. Eo?ueyoa A.A., ?aiaithe A.E., I?ieiiaiei E.N. Aeeyiea
oei?oieeioei?eaea ia ?ino, o?iaeaeiinoue e ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee yaiaeiuo
eoeueoo? // Oai aea.- 1985. – O.17, ?4.- N. 366 – 372.

10. Eo?ueyoa A.A., ?aiaithe A.E., Niao? E.I. Eciaiaiea niaea?aeaiey
acioa, oinoi?a e eaeey a iiaaaao e ieiaeao /a?iiieiaeiie ?yaeiu iiae
aeaenoaeai oei?oieeioei?eaea // Oai aea.- 1987.- O.19, ? 4.- N. 389 –
396.

11. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Niao? E.I., Aeaaeaeoe O.I. Oeceieiae/aneia
iainiiaaiea eiiieaeniiai i?eiaiaiey oei?oieeioei?eaea e eaiiicaia I a
ianaaeaeaieyo iaeeiu // Oai aea. – 1988.- O.20, ?3. – N. 296 – 302.

12. Eo?ueyoa A.A., ?aiaithe A.E., Niao? E.I. Eciaiaiey a niaea?aeaiee
ieanoeaeiuo ieaiaioia e yeaiaioia ieia?aeueiiai ieoaiey a eenoueyo
yaiaeiuo eoeueoo? iiae aeaenoaeai oei?oieeioei?eaea // Oai aea.- 1988. –
O. 20, ?3.- N. 303 – 309.

13. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I. Aeaenoaea ?aoa?aeaioia ia ii?oiaaiac e
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue iiaaaia iaeeiu // Oeceieiae/anee aeoeaiua aauanoaa.-
1989.- aui. 21.- N.89 – 92.

14. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I., ?aiaithe A.E., Niao? E.I. Eciaiaiey a
ieaiaioiii ninoaaa e ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeoeaiinoe oei?iieanoia
?acaeaathueony eenoueaa iaeeiu i?e ?aoa?aeaioiii aeaenoaee
yoeeaii?iaeooeaioia // Oeceieiaey ?anoaiee.- 1989.- O. 36, aui. 6.- N.
1096 – 1102.

15. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I., Eiaia A.I. Oeceieiae/aneia
iainiiaaiea i?eiaiaiey aeaeno?aea a ea/anoaa ?aoa?aeaioa // Oeceieiaey e
aeioeiey eoeueo. ?anoaiee.- 1991.- O. 23, ? 1.- N. 45 –51.

16. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe A.E., ?aiaithe A.E. Eciaiaiey a
ii?oiaaiaca, ninoiyiee iieiy e ii?icionoie/eainoe iaeeiu i?e
aicaeaenoaee ?aoa?aeaioia //Oai aea.- 1991.- O. 23, ? 3.- N. 257 – 263.

17. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aa?anoaoeeee A.A., Iaa?aoeeee A.A. Ai?iiiaeueiue
noaoon e ?inoiaua oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaaaia iaeeiu iiae aicaeaenoaeai
aeaaa?aeeeia e ?aoa?aeaioia // Oai aea.- 1991.- O. 23, ? 6.- N. 563 –
568.

18. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Niao? E.I. Iniaaiiinoe inaiia – ceiiaai iieiy
?anoaiee iaeeiu a nayce n aeaenoaeai ?aoa?aeaioia e aeaaa?aeeia //Oai
aea.- 1994.- O. 26, ? 4.- N.388 – 394.

19. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I., ?aiaithe A.E., Aa?anoaoeeee A.A.,
Iaa?aoeeee A.A. Aeaenoaea ?aoa?aeaioia ia ai?iiiaeueiue noaoon,
iacino?oeoo?o eenoueaa e ?ino ?anoaiee iaeeiu // Oai aea.- 1995.- O.27,?
5-6.- N.374 – 382.

20. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aoeyaa A.E. Aeeyiea ?aoa?aeaioia ia niaea?aeaiea
aanoeeciaie eeneiou e aeaaa?aeeeiia a ceiothueo ii/eao iaeeiu ia
?acee/iuo noaaeeyo ia?eiaea iieiy // Oai aea.- 1998.- O.30, ? 1.- N.3- —
35.

21. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aoeyaa A.E. Aicaeaenoaea ?aoa?aeaioia ia
anneieeyoeeiiiue aiia?ao, ii?oiaaiac e ?ino ?anoaiee// Oai aea. – 1999.-
O. 31, ? 1.- N. 3 –12.

22. Eo?’yoa A.A., E???c?e Ae.A., Aoeyaa A.?. Ae?y ?aoa?aeaio?a ia
oioineioac ? aeeoaiiy ?ineei iaeeie // Oai aea.- 1999.- O. 32, ? 3.- N.
243-248.

23. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Niao? E.I., ?aiaithe A.E. Aeeyiea eaiiicaia I e
aeeaeae?aea ia o?iaeaeiinoue e ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee ianaaeaeaiee iaeeiu
// Oeceieiai – aeioeie/aneea iniiau i?eiaiaiey ?aaoeyoi?ia ?inoa a
Neae?e / O?oaeu eiioa?aioeee, E?eoone, 26 oaa?aey – 1 ia?oa 1985 a.-
E?eoone: Ec – ai AI NNN?, 1986.- 117 – 120.

24. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I. Eciaiaiea oeie/aneiai ninoaaa
i?iaeoeoeee yaiaeiuo eoeueoo? i?e noeioeyoeee nic?aaaiey
yoeeaii?iaeooeaioaie // Oai?aoe/aneay e i?eeeaaeiay ea?iieiaey / Oac.
aeiee. Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee( Eeoeiaa, 30 ieoya?y – 1 iiya?y 1989 a.)
– Eeoeiaa, “Ooeeioea”, 1989.- N. 134 – 135.

25. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Niao? E.I., Aeaaeaeoe O.I., Iieeuoe A.N., Iaa?aoeeee
A.A., Aa?anoaoeeee A.A. Ai?iiiaeueiay ?aaoeyoeey oioineioaca iiae
aicaeaenoaeai ?aoa?aeaioia // Iaoa?eaeu ?aai/aai niaauaiey ii i?ia?aiia
“ ?aaoeyoi?u ?inoa e ?acaeoey ?anoaiee”/ Iineaa, 16 – 18 ethey 1991 a.-
I.: Ec-ai Iineianeie n.o. aeaaeaiee ei. E.A. Oeie?ycaaa, 1991.- N.9.

26.Eo?’yoa A.A., Aeaa?aeoe O.I., Iie?uoe A.N., Aa?anoaoeueeee A.A.,
Iaa?aoeueeee A.A. Ai?iiiaeueiee noaoon ? no?oeoo?ii – ooieoe?iiaeueia
i?aai?caoe?y oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo iaeeie i?e ?aoa?aeaioieo aoaeoao
// Oace aeiiia?aeae ?? c’?caeo Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa o?c?ieia?a
?ineei ( Ee?a, 1993 ?).- Ee?a, Aeae – ai AI Oe?a?ie, 1993.- N.125 — 126.

27. Kuriata V.G., Guliaev B.I. Effects of retardants on the second shoot
growth and leaf morphogenesis in raspberry plants ( Rubus ideaus L.) /
The 11th Congress of the Federation of European Societies of Plant
Physiology, 7 – 11 September 1998, Varna, Bulgaria // Bulgarian Jornal
Plant Physiology.-1998.-Special issue. – p. 305.

Eo?’yoa A.A. O?c?ieiai – a?io?i?/i? iaoai?cie ae?? ?aoa?aeaio?a ?
aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia ?ineeie ya?aeieo eoeueoo?.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 0.3.00.12 – o?c?ieia?y ?ineei. ?inoeooo o?c?ieia??
?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1999.

Aea/aii aieea ??cieo a?oi ?aoa?aeaio?a ia ??no, oioineioaoe/i? i?ioeane,
ia??iae niieith ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue ya?aeieo eoeueoo?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
??noaaeueioth/a ae?y i?aia?ao?a ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac ci?ie aeiii?ii –
aeoeaioi?ieo a?aeiinei ?ineeie, a iniia? yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny aeeaiea
ia?aaoaeiaa ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, ?ia?aoaaiiy aeoeaiino? ia?enoai,
ia?a?iciiae?e iioie?a anei?eyo?a ? aeaiaio?a i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy
i?ae i?aaiaie. Ia?iaea ?ineei ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ia?aaoaeiae ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a in?iuei-ceiiaee ia??iae ?
aeeeeea? a?eueo ?aii?e aeo?ae iaaii?a ?c noaio i?aai?/iiai niieith.
C’yniaaii, ui aiane?aeie ci?ie a?o?oaeoii?ee ianaaeaeaiue ? i?aeaeuaiiy
ii?icino?eeino? i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaio?a ca?eueoo?oueny
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei iaeeie, ui aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe o
ae?iaieoeoai oaoiieia?th canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo aeaeno?ae aeey
iioei?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano oe??? eoeueoo?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aoa?aeaioe, aoeeaii?iaeooeaioe, aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?i?
a?aeiineie, o?oiai?iiie, oioineioac, oei?iieanoe, aeeoaiiy, i?ia?aeueia
aeeaeaiiy, ia??iae niieith, ii?icino?ee?noue, i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ya?aei?
eoeueoo?e.

Eo?ueyoa A.A. Oeceieiai – aeioeie/aneea iaoaieciu aeaenoaey ?aoa?aeaioia
e yoeeaii?iaeooeaioia ia ?anoaiey yaiaeiuo eoeueoo?.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.12 – oeceieiaey ?anoaiee.- Einoeooo oeceieiaee
?anoaiee e aaiaoeee IAI Oe?aeiu. Eeaa,1999.

Eco/aii aeaenoaea ?aciuo a?oii ?aoa?aeaioia ia ?ino, oioineioac, ia?eiae
iieiy e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue yaiaeiuo eoeueoo?. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
?inooi?iicyuaa aeaenoaea i?aia?aoia ?aaeecoaony /a?ac eciaiaiey
aeiii?ii-aeoeaioi?iuo ioiioaiee ?anoaiey, a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeeo
aeoaieay ia?ano?ieea ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaena, eiaeae?iaaiea aeoeaiinoe
ia?enoai, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iioieia anneieeyoia e ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa
iaaeaeo i?aaiaie. Ia?aaioea ?anoaiee ia ?aiieo yoaiao ?acaeoey aucuaaao
ia?ano?ieeo ai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaena a inaiia ceiiee ia?eiae e i?eaiaeeo
e aieaa ?aiiaio auoiaeo iiaaaia ec ninoiyiey i?aaie/aneiai iieiy.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aneaaenoaea eciaiaiey a?oeoaeoiieee ianaaeaeaiee e
iiauoaiey ii?icionoie/eainoe iiae aeaenoaeai ?aoa?aeaioia oaaee/eaaaony
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ?anoaiee iaeeiu, /oi iicaieeei ?ac?aaioaoue e
aiaae?eoue a i?iecaiaenoai oaoiieiaeth i?eiaiaiey i?aia?aoa aeaeno?ae
aeey iioeieceoeee i?iaeoeoeaiinoe yoie eoeueoo?u.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aoa?aeaiou, yoeeaii?iaeooeaiou, aeiii?ii
— aeoeaioi?iua ioiioaiey, oeoiai?iiiu, oioineioac, oei?iieanou,
aeuoaiea, ieia?aeueiia ieoaiea, ia?eiae iieiy, ii?icionoie/eainoue,
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, yaiaeiua eoeueoo?u.

V.G. Kuryata. Physiology — biochemical mechanisms of action
of retardants and ethyleneproducers on plants of berry cultures.-
Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor‘s degree by speciality 03.00.12 – plant
physiology.-Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine, Eyiv, 1999.

Carried out long-term researches have established that the action of
retardants on plants of berry cultures is realized through
reorganization sourse-sink relations of the plants of the attitudes
owing to different rate of braking of growth of bodies, change them
attraction potential. The regulation of vegetative processes, of
attraction activity of an increasing shoot and of sourse activity of a
leaf with retardants effects are defined by essential changes of the
hormonal complex, contents and parity of separate groups of
phytohormones. Is established that the action of retardants is not
limited to influence on the subapical meristems, and is distributed to
other types of forming tissues, in particular on the lateral and
marginal meristems. Owing to inhibition activity of the cambium there
were significant changes in a secondary structure of the shoot in the
party of reduction of the sizes of the basic complexes of tissues that
is by the basic reason of reduction of thickness and weight of a stalk
under influence various behind a chemical structure of the retardants.
Characteristic of sectional berry cultures (raspberry, Aronia xylem) was
increase in research variants of relative quantity of mechanical
fabrics in wood, strengthening of new formation biopolymers cell walls
and earlier them the lignification. The retardants of a various chemical
structure -the dextrel, paclobutrazol, caused earlier differentiation of
periderm in comparison with the control. On an example of plants of a
raspberry is shown that inhibition of activity of the marginal meristems
with the retardants the leaf results in reduction of weight and general
area of leaves of shoot, reorganization of the mesostructure, however
relative weight of sprouts of shoots under the influence these
retardants was increased. Is certain that at plants with high rates of
growth of a stalk (raspberry) dependence effect — the doze was displayed
more precisely than at plants with slow rates of growth (Aronia xylem),
and the action, braking growth, of retardants was particularly
pronounced in one year with unsufficient quantity of deposits. Is
established that in the chapter of a corner inhibition of growth of a
stalk, as basic of sinker of assimilators, and growth a leaf, as donor
of assimilators, there are changes of the hormonal status of a plant.
The delay of intensity of growth of a stalk in length and thickness
under influence of all types of the retardants was determined by
reduction in fabrics of activity and contents of the gibberellins and
of a indolil acid. The reduction of quantity of structural elements of
the photosynthetic device with retardants action owing to inhibition of
activity of the meristems a leaf was determined by reduction of contents
and activity of cytokinins and gibberellins with simultaneous essential
accumulation of an abscisic acid. Alongside with it, inhibition of
sourse function the leaf occured at the expense of reduction of
intensity of photosynthesis, contents of photosynthetic pigments,
partial destruction of chloroplasts and accumulation in a leaf of
surpluses of assimilators, first of all of starch. Is established, that
the processing of plants of berry cultures with chlorcholinechloride has
affected accumulation and redistribution of elements of a mineral feed .
Receipt and redistribution of structures of nitrogen in plants of berry
cultures were determined by changes of attraction activity of growth
centres — zones of vegetative growth in the beginning of vegetation and
quantity of berries, which were formed, in second half of the
vegetation . The processing of plants of a raspberry with the retardants
at early stages of development, irrespective of a chemical structure of
working substance, resulted in essential changes of a hormonal complex,
contents of nuclein acids and aminoacids during all annual cycle of
development, including a period of the autumn — winter rest. Owing to
reorganization of a hormonal complex of a plant left from a condition of
organic rest earlier, which was accompanied new formation of RNA and
increase of contents of aminoacids in the buds. The higher importance of
relative weight leaves of the shoot in processed with retardants plants
during the whole period of vegetation provided the best ripening of
shoots and accumulation in them of reserve structures on a period of
themintering, which raised frost resistance of plants. The specificity
of action of the retardants on berry cultures is established. For plants
of Aronia xylem, wild strawberry the processing of plantings with the
chlorcholinechloride at early stages of the vegetation is inexpedient,
as results in the phenomenon of the small-fruit and reduction of
productivity. The high efficiency of application of chlorcholinechloride
and other retardants on culture of a raspberry is determined by
morphological changes of a plant, with improvement of conditions of
existence of fruitfull shoots owing to reduction of rates of growth
have become over also of stalks of replacement.

The forced maturing of berries under influence of the ethylenproducers
connected with strengthening of depolymerization of the polyuronids and
cellulose of cell walls is found out.

The received results become the basis for development of a way
of acceleration of maturing of berries of a raspberry with the help the
dextrel. On the basis of the received long-term data the technology,
developed and introduced into manufacture, of application of a dextrel
preparation for regulation of growth, increase of frost resistance and
productivity of culture of a raspberry. The results, submitted in work,
of researches are the theoretical precondition for of productivity of
plants, development of new technologies of effective and safe
application of the retardants in the plant growing.

Key words: retardants, ethyleneproducers, sourse-sink relations,
phytohormones,photosinthesis,respiration,chloroplast,mineral
nutrition,dormancy, frostresistance, productivity, berry cultures.

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