1

Euea?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?iai?
N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai

IANTHE AeIEO?I IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE 636.22/28.087.7:612.1

O?C?IEIA?*IEE NOAI I?AAI?CIO

AEEAIEIO?EUeIEO EI??A ?

IA?IAeAEAIEO A?Ae IEO OAEssO

I?Ae AIEEAII I?AIA?AO?A AOIONIAI? I?E?IAeE

03.00.13 – o?c?ieia?y ethaeeie ? oaa?ei

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe

Euea?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e AI AOO,

caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee ia?iaeii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?

A?EAAI A?oae?e A?eai?iae/

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee

oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? oa

iaoieia?/ii? o?c?ieia?? oaa?ei, aeaeai oaeoeueoaoo

aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Niieyi?iia Ai?en A?eoi?iae/,

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e o?c?ieia?? ? a?io?i?? n.- a. oaa?ei

— aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?eooioi?iaa Aanna
Aieiaeeneaa?aia, E?einueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ? o?c?ieia?? n.- a. oaa?ei

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa ? a?ieia?? oaa?ei OAAI, i.Euea?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15“ eeiiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.826.01 o Euea?anuee?e aeaaeai??
aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?iai? N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai ca aae?anith: 290010,
i.Euea?a-10, aoe. Iaea?nueea, 50, aoaeeoi??y ?1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueei?
aeaaeai?? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?i.N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai ca aae?anith:
290010, i.Euea?a-10, aoe. Iaea?nueea, 50

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “15” /a?aiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, aeioeaio Aieiaa/ I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ca inoaii? ?iee cia/ii i?aeaeueany ?ioa?an iaoeiaeo
i?aoe?aiee?a ? i?aeoe/ieo niaoe?ae?no?a aei aea/aiiy a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? (?ineeiieoeoai, oaa?eiieoeoai, aaoa?eia?ia iaaeeoeeia)
i?e?iaeieo a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei aoioniai? i?e?iaee. Aiie
i?noyoueny a oi?oao, ao?iio oa ieeneaiiio eaiyiiio aoa?ee?, nai?iiaeyo,
oiui. Iayai?noue aeineoue cia/ieo caian?a eaonoia?ie?o?a o i?e?iae?, ?
ii??aiyii i?ino? niiniae io?eiaiiy ia ?o iniia? o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo
aoi?iiaeo i?aia?ao?a, ?iaeyoue ?o oe?iei aeinooiieie aeey aeei?enoaiiy
ca cacia/aiith iaoith.

Eeneioe aoi?iia? c oi?oo aoee aeae?eai? O. Aoa?aeii iaeaea aeaa noie?ooy
oiio ? eeoa a 40-o ?ieao iaoiai noie?ooy E.A. O?eno?aith (aia?oa ia
Oe?a?i?) aeiaaaeaii ?o o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaiee (noeioethth/ee) aieea ia
i?aai?ci ?ineei, a iio?i – ia oaa?ei ? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Iacaaaeath/e ia
aeaionioe?oith ?noi??th aea/aiiy oeeo niieoe, no/ania iaoea ua aeaeaea
a?ae iiaiiai ?icoi?iiy ?o aoaeiae, iaoai?cio ae??, ?ie? oa ooieoe?? a
a?inoa??. Oea iiynith?oueny ye neeaaei?noth ia?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, oae ?
aea/aiiyi aoi?iiaeo ?a/iaei o ??cieo aea?aeaaao iaaaeeeith a?oiith
a/aieo, aieiaiei /eiii a iaaeao a?oioiciaanoaa, o?i?? ai?th/eo eiiaeei,
o?c?ieia?? ?ineei, aa?io?i?? oa ?io. (A.?. Ai?iaa, Ae.N. I?eia, I.A.
Ua?aaiei, 1995).

Niaoe?aeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie oa anaa?/ieie ae?iaie/eie
aei?iaiaoaaiiyie anoaiiaeaiii, ui ?a/iaeie aoioniai? i?e?iaee – aoi?iao
(iao??th aoiao) ? a?ae?iaoiao iathoue noeioethth/o ae?th ? oe?eeii
i?eaeaoi? aeey canoinoaaiiy ye ei?iia? aeiaaaee a ?aoe?iiao aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae, naeiae oa ioeoe? c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy i?e?inoo aeeai?
iane ? iineeaiiy ianiaoeeo?/ii? ?acenoaioiino? i?aai?cio (G.
Visser,1972; A.A. A?eaai, N.N. Eanueyi, A.A. Aa?ai/aiei, 1990-1998; I.I,
Aeniein, 1992, 1998; E.I. Noai/aiei, 1980, 1992, 1997; E.?. TH?/aiei,
1997, I.I.Nioieeiaa, 1998 oa ?io.). I?e oeueiio a?aecia/a?oueny, ui oe?
i?aia?aoe ia aieiae?thoue oiene/i?noth, iooaaaii?noth, eaioea?iaaii?noth
? oe?aeeeaith iia?/iith ae??th ia i?aai?ci oaa?ei.

Aein? i?iaaaeai? eeoa iiiaeeiie? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aea/aiiy ae?? aoi?iaoo
oa a?ae?iaoiaoo ia ei?aeoe?th iai?io ?a/iaei aeoeieo oaa?ei. Oei /anii
a?aenooi? aeai? ye aieeaathoue aiie o ei??a-iaoa??a oa /e iiaeooue
i?aeaeuoaaoe ?acenoaioi?noue oaeyo, ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae oeeo ei??a. Naia
oea e aecia/eei iai?yiie ia?aii? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Caycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
caaaeaiiy 5 i?iaeoo 14 “Aaoa?eia?ia caaacia/aiiy” iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
i?ia?aie OAAI ”I?iaeiaieuenoai – 95”, I?ia?aie I?i?noa?noaa
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie (1996), ?icae?e “Aea/aiiy
iiaeeeainoae aieooeinueei? ooaeiae aei aaeaioaoe?? ca aee?iaoecaoe?? ??
aei oiia oeaio?aeueii? noaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie oa canoinoaaiiy a?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieo ?a/iaei c iaoith ?o i?aeaeuaiiy” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
01964021024).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue aoei aea/aiiy
o?c?ieia?/iiai noaio ei??a ? ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae ieo oaeyo ia oe? ae??
i?aia?ao?a aoioniai? i?e?iaee – aoi?iaoo oa a?ae?iaoiaoo. Ana oea
aea/aeinue a eaioethc? iaoe-ie?ae-i?eie?ae ia iaoaaie?ci aeeaieio?eueieo
ei??a, neeaae ? ye?noue iieiceaa oa ?acenoaioi?noue ia?iaeaeaieo oaeyo.

Caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe aoei aeine?aeeoe:

— o?c?ieia?/iee noai ca ii?oieia?/ieie oa a?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie
e?ia?, aia?aaoe/iei iai?iii o aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a;

— neeaae ? ye?noue iieiea oa iieiceaa o aeine?aeieo ei??a aieooeinueei?
ii?iaee;

— ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?cio oaeyo, iaea?aeaieo a?ae aeine?aeieo ei??a,
oa no?ee?noue ?o aei caoai?thaaiue;

— aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?aia?ao?a aoioniai? i?e?iaee aeey
ei?aeoe?? iai?io ?a/iaei ei??a-iaoa??a ? i?aeaeuaiiy ?acenoaioiino?
oaeyo, ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae oeeo ei??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa aea/aii ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?cio
aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a oa ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae ieo oaeyo ia oe? ae??
i?aia?ao?a aoioniai? i?e?iaee, a naia a oiiaao oeaio?aeueii? noaiiai?
ciie Oe?a?ie. ?ic?iaeaii niin?a canoinoaaiiy aoi?iaoo ia?aioa?aeueiei
oeyoii ? aecia/aii iioeiaeueio aeico a?ae?iaoiaoo ye ei?iiai? aeiaaaee
aeey aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a. Aeaoae?ciaaii aeai? i?i aieea aoi?iaoo ?
a?ae?iaoiaoo ia ii?oieia?/i? iieacieee e?ia?, aia?aaoe/iee, a?eeiaee oa
?io? aeaee iai?io ?aniaei o aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ? ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae
ieo oaeyo. Aea/aii aieea a?ae?iaoiaoo ia neeaae oa ye?noue iieiea ?
iieiceaa aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ei??a ? anoaiiaeaia iiaeeea?noue
canoinoaaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo aeey ei?aeoe?? iai?io ?a/iaei aeeaieio?eueieo
ei??a, i?aeaeuaiiy ?acenoaioiino? oa no?eeino? aei caoai?thaaiue,
ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae ieo oaeyo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? ? cai?iiiiiaai?
aeey aeei?enoaiiy noaie canoinoaaiiy a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo i?aia?ao?a
noeioethth/?? ae?? – aoi?iaoo oa a?ae?iaoiaoo a eaioethc?
iaoe-ie?ae-i?eie?ae.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? a ?ic?iaoe? “?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?c
aeei?enoaiiy iao??th aoiaoo (aoi?iaoo) aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?acenoaioi?no?
oa i?iaeoeoeai?no? oaa?ei” (Ee?a, 1991) oa “?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?c
aeei?enoaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei oaa?eiai ? ioeoe?”
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeyeenue ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
aenoaaeao Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano? (1994-1998).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a c: o?c?ieia??, a?io?i??,
aaoa?eia?iiai aeooa?noaa, aioo??oi?o iaca?acieo oai?ia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei oa oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a naiino?eiiio aeeiiaii? an???
aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie ?iaioe, i?iaaaeaii? eaai?aoi?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue e?ia?, iieiceaa, iieiea, aaciaia?aaoe/iiai iai?io,
noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, i?aeai?? ? ocaaaeueiaii?
aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e. Ca o/anoth iaoeiaiai ea??aieea ? ni?aaaoi??a
ioae?eaoe?e i?iaaaeai? aiae?c ? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? noaaeai? ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1991-1999), ia
i?aeaoc?anueeeo ? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo, i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo:
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei oa aoaeoeaiino? ?o e?eoaaiiy” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1994), ia Oe?a?inueei-aano??enueeiio neiiic?oi? “N?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai. Iaoea ? i?aeoeea” (Euea?a, 1996), ae?oa?e i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aaoa?eia?ii?
iaaeeoeeie ? aaoa?eia?iiai nai?oa?iiai eiio?ieth
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??” (Iineaa, 1997), i?aeia?iaei?e
eii?aeeiaoe?ei?e ?aae? “Aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie iaoieia??, oa?iaeieia?? ?
oa?ai?? oaa?ei” (Ai?iiaae, 1997), VII-io Oe?a?inueeiio a?io?i?/iiio
c?cae? (Ee?a, 1997), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“No/ani? i?iaeaie aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie, cii?iaeaia??? oa oaoiieia??
i?iaeoeo?a oaa?eiieoeoaa” (Euea?a, 1997), “Ae?oaiio Oe?a?inueeiio oeaei?
aano?iaioa?ieia?a” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue o aeo?iaeao, iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, oacao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e ?
a?io?i?/iiai c?caeo, c ieo- 5 noaoae, 6 oac ? 2 ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a: iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??aee ? iaoiaeeea,
aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia, aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? ae?iaieoeoao, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia noi??ieao iaoeiiieno,
i?noeoue 23 oaaeeoe?, 11 iaethie?a, 357 e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, ?c yeeo
58 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ii?iaeueii? ? iaoieia?/ii? o?c?ieia?? n.-a.
oaa?ei Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a ENI
?i. I?aeaeii?e?aeca, aea?aeieaicaaiae? “*oiaee” Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
?aeiio Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano? (1990-1999).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia ei?iaao /a?aiii? noaiiai?, aieooeinueei?
ii??ae ? ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae ieo oaeyoao o i?io?eaeoi?iee ia??iae. Ei?iae
oo?eioaaeeny a oiiaao iiei/ieo eiiieaen?a, aea aiie iine?aeiaii
ia?ai?uoaaeeny (caeaaeii a?ae o?c?ieia?/iiai noaio) ca oaeeie oeaoaie:
nooinoith, ioaeaiiy, ?icaeithaaiiy, in?iai?iiy ? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea.
An? oaa?eie aoee ee?i?/ii caei?ia?, aiaeoaaeenue ca?aeii
caaaeueiiaeciaieo ii?i (A.I. Eaeaoi?eia, 1985, Aeecii A.I., 1992).

O eiaeiiio aeine?ae?, caeaaeii a?ae iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, oi?ioaaeeny
eiio?ieuei? e aeine?aei? a?oie oaa?ei ca iaoiaeii ia?-aiaeia?a.
Aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia ?iaioe i?iaiaeeeanue o oaeeo iai?yiao:

a) aeey aea/aiiy aieeao aoi?iaoo ia iai?i ?a/iaei o aeeaieio?eueieo
ei??a ? aeeoo?no?ee?noue i?eieiaeo aoa iinoaaeaiee aeine?ae a ENI ?i.
I?aeaeii?e?aeca Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai ?aeiio ia 39 ei?iaao /a?aiii?
noaiiai? ii?iaee, 3-4 eaeoaoe?e ia 7 i?nyoe? o?eueiino?, aeeaith ianith
510 ea. Aoei noi?iiaaii 2 a?oie – iaeia eiio?ieueia (20 oaa?ei), ae?oaa
– aeine?aeia (19 oaa?ei). Aeine?aei?e a?oi? i?aeoe??ii aaiaeeee /a?ac
eiaei? 3 aei? ?ic/ei aoi?iaoo c ?ic?aooieo 2 ia nooi? ?a/iaeie ia 1 ea
iane o?ea i?ioyaii 6 oeaei?a. Aoiao iao??th – ae??aiiaeenia?niee
ii?ioie, yeee i?noeoue iao???a? nie? aoi?iiaeo, aeiaoiiaeaiiaeo ?
ooeueaieeneio. Io?eiothoue eiai oeyoii a?ae?ie?co i/a?aoyieo, inieiaeo
aai i/a?aoyii-inieiaeo oi?o?a. O oaa?ei aea/aee o?c?ieia?/iee noai ca
ii?oieia?/ieie ? a?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie e?ia?, aeoiaeii oaeyo ? ?o
no?ee?noth aei caoai?thaaiue;

a) c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueii? aeice a?ae?iaoiaoo, ye ei?iiai?
aeiaaaee aeey ei??a, aoa iinoaaeaiee aeine?ae a aea?aeieaicaaiae?
“*oiaee” ia 60 ei?iaao aieooeinueei? ii?iaee o?aouei? eaeoaoe?? c
na?aaeiuei??/iei iaaei?i 6400 ea iieiea a oeaoo ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea.
Aoee noi?iiaai? 4 a?oie aeine?aeieo oaa?ei ii 15 ei??a o eiaei?e. Ia?oa
a?oia — eiio?ieueia. Oaa?eie ?ioeo o?ueio a?oi aeiaeaoeiai aei ?aoe?iio
uiaeiy, i?ioyaii 21 aeiae, iaea?aeoaaee a?ae?iaoiao o oaeeo aeicao (a
ia?a?aooieo ia 1 ea iane o?ea): ia?oa a?oia – 75 ia, ae?oaa – 100 ia ?
o?aoy – 150 ia. I?aia?ao caiaeiaoaaee a ia??iae ?ai?oiuei? aiae?ae? c
eiia?ei?iii. A?ae?iaoiao – oea 10 % ?ic/ei aoioniaeo eeneio, yeee
io?eiothoue oeyoii a?ae?ie?co i/a?aoyiiai, inieiaiai aai
i/a?aoyii-inieiaiai oi?oo, a?ae?ie?ciaaiiai iaii/aoeo 5 % ?ic/eiii
H2SO4, a iio?i – 10 % ?ic/eiii NaOH. O oaa?ei aea/aee o?c?ieia?/iee noai
ca ii?oieia?/ieie ? a?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie e?ia? e iieiea;

a) o aea?aeieaicaaiae? “*oiaee” i?iaaaeaii aeine?ae ia aeaio a?oiao
ei??a aieooeinueei? ii?iaee 4-5-??/iiai a?eo (eiio?ieueia ? aeine?aeia)
ia nueiiiio i?nyoe? o?eueiino? ii 50 oaa?ei o eiaei?e ?c na?aaeiueith
aeeaith ianith 610 ea. Ei?iaai aeine?aeii? a?oie aeiaeaoeiai aei
?aoe?iio aeiaeaaaee i?ioyaii 21 aeiae a?ae?iaoiao o aeic? 100 ia (10 %
nooi? ?a/iaeie) ia 1 ea iane o?ea. O aeine?aeieo oaa?ei aea/aee
o?c?ieia?/iee noai ca: eaaaiaaei aeeoaiiyi ? aaciaia?aaoe/iei iai?iii,
ii?oieia?/ieie ? a?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie e?ia?. E?ia caae?aee c y?aiii?
aaie ia?aae ?ai?oiueith aiae?aeath. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee a aeaa
aoaie – i?ney caiaeiaoaaiiy i?aia?aoo ? /a?ac 30 aei?a (aeey aecia/aiiy
i?neyae??). Ca ei?iaaie aaeenue o?c?ieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy aei
ioaeaiiy. I?ney ?o ?icoaeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaee neeaae iieiceaa /a?ac
eiaei? 6 aiaeei i?ioyaii 36 aiaeei. Caaaeoaaee i?eie?ae ? a?aoiaoaaee
?ioaineai?noue ?inoo oaeyo aei 21 aeaiiiai a?eo. O oaeyo, ye ? o
ei??a-iaoa??a, aea/aee o?c?ieia?/iee noai ca eaaaiaaei aeeoaiiyi ?
aaciaia?aaoe/iei iai?iii, ii?oieia?/ieie ? a?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie
e?ia?, ni?eyoe?a?noue aei caoai?thaaiue ? aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaaiiy oaa?ei
aeine?aeiei i?aia?aoii.

O e?ia? aecia/aee e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a ? eaeeioeeo?a eiiaeoeoe?eiei
iaoiaeii ia aaiioeeoiiao?? AOeIE- 3, aaiiaeia?io — ca iaoiaeii Ae?aie?ia
(1985), eaeeia?aio – i?ae?aooieii ie?aieo eean?a eaeeioeeo?a o
o?eniaaieo iaceao e?ia? ii ?iiaiianeiio-Aeica (1987), caaaeueiee a?eie –
a?o?aoiaei ?aaeoeaii (1994), o?aeoe?? caaaeueiiai a?eea –
iaoaeiiao?e/ii, ioeea?iia? eeneioe — ca iaoiaeii Ni???ia (1991),
caeeoeiaee acio — ca eieuei?iaith ?aaeoe??th c ?aaeoeaii Ianea?a (1980),
a?eueiee acio ai?iee — ca iaoiaeii A.A. Ocaaeiaa a iiaeeo?eaoe?? C.N.
*oeeiai? (1985), na/iaeio — ca eieuei?iaith ?aaeoe??th c
aeeaoeaoeeiiiieneiiii, e?aaoei?i — ca iaoiaeii Iiiia?a a iiaeeo?eaoe??
ssooa (1994), ?ioii? a?eee — ca ?aaeoe??th iiiooi?iiy c noeueoaoii
oeeieo, aetheico — c aio?iiiaei ?aaeoeaii, n?aeia? eeneioe — ca iaoiaeii
Aanna (1994), caaaeuei? e?i?aee — a?aa?iao?e/iei iaoiaeii,
aaoa-e?iii?ioa?aee — ca iaoiaeii Ao?ooaeia (1987), eaeueoe?e – ca Aea
Aaa?aeii (1976), iai?aai?/iee oinoi? — eiei?eiao?e/iei iaoiaeii,
eeneioio ?ii?noue — ca Iaaiaeiaei (1991), ea?ioei ? a?oai?i A — ca
iaoiaeii Aannay a iiaeeo?eaoe?? A.A. Ai?niai? (1985).

O iieicea? oa iieioe? aecia/aee ieoiio aaao, ai?no nooeo ?a/iaei, aee?o,
a?eea ? eiai o?aeoe?e (aeueaoi?i?a, aeiaoe?i?a, eaca?io), eaeoice, ciee
— caaaeueiiaeciaieie iaoiaeaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy eaaaiaaiai aeeoaiiy ? aaciaia?aaoe/iiai iai?io
i?iaiaeeeenue ca iaoiaeii, iienaiei A.A. A?eaaiii (1991).

Aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii, cai?iiiiiaaiei A.I.
Eicith (1980).

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo io?eiaieo aeaieo i?iaiaeeee c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aie
Exnel-97 (A.O.Eae?i, 1990).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O AIAE?C

1. Iieacieee e?ia? aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ? aeeoo?no?ee?noue i?eieiaeo
i?ae aieeaii aoi?iaoo

Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioyaii nooino?eiiai ia??iaeo o e?ia? ei??a ciaiooaaany
ai?no a?eo?ioeeo?a c 6,798 aei 5,737 1012/e. Aiaeia?/i? ci?ie
a?aeaoaaeen ? o ai?no? aaiiaeia?io (ia 13,3 %), a e?euee?noue
eaeeioeeo?a c?inea ia 9,7 %, caeeoath/enue i?e oeueiio a iaaeao
o?c?ieia?/ii? ii?ie.

??aaiue aetheice o e?ia? ei??a ia 9-io i?nyoe? o?eueiino? aoa ia 7,9 %
ieae/ei ii??aiyii c 8-i i?nyoeai. I/aaeaeii, oea caycaii c i?aeaeuaiiyi
?ioaineaiino? ae?eie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a ? aeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiyi aetheice
ye aeaea?aea aia?a??. Ia aeeeth/aii, ui a cayceo c ?ioaineaiei ?inoii
ieiaeo ? i?aeaeuaiei aeei?enoaiiyi a?ee?a ? e?i?ae?a (ye ieanoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo), cieaeo?oueny aoaeoeai?noue aetheiiaiaaiaco. Ia oeueiio oe?
ciaiooaaeanue eeneioia ?ii?noue e?ia? (ia 3,5 %), ai?no eaeueoe?th (ia
3,8 %). Iniaeeai ??cei (c aenieei nooiaiai a??ia?aeiino?) cieceeany
eiioeaio?aoe?y a?oai?io A (c 0,66 aei 0,47 ieI/e) ? ea?ioeio (c 5,24 aei
3,70 ieI/e) o e?ia?. Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui ea?ioei ? a?oai?i A aeoeaii
ooee?cothoueny c e?ia? ai?oae?ioeeoaie iiei/ii? caeice, a a?oai?i A
oaeiae ieiaeii, ui ?icaeaa?oueny.

Ai?no iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o i?ioyaii nooino?eiiai ia??iaeo o ei??a
ca?eueoeany ia 5 %. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue a?eea a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ei??a
ca oeae ia??iae ciaiooaaeanue ia 4,3 a/e, a iniiaiiio, ca ?aooiie
aeueaoi?i?a (?o ??aaiue cieceany ia 21 %), a e?euee?noue aeiaoe?i?a
ca?eueoeeanue ia 5,6 %, ui i?eaaei aei cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioo a?eea. Aei
oiai ae aeyaeaii ciaioaiiy o e?ia? ai?noo acioo ai?iiiai ia 20 % ?
na/iaeie ia 18,5 %.

Ia?aioa?aeueia aaaaeaiiy aoiaoo iao??th ei?iaai aeine?aeii? a?oie
ii?iae?coaaei ai?no oi?iaieo aeaiaio?a e?ia?, aaiiaeia?io, a?eea oa
?ioeo iieaciee?a. Cie?aia, /enei a?eo?ioeeo?a o aeine?aei?e a?oi?
ca?eueooaaeinue ia 26,6 %, ai?no aaiiaeia?io – ia 35 %, oiaoi aoiao
iao??th a??ia?aeii i?aeaeuoaaa aaiiiiac, ca?eueooaaa oaeei /eiii
aeeoaiiy a oeaieiao i?aai?cio aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a. Oaeo ae
caeiiii??i?noue aeyaea o nai?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.I.Aeniein (1994).

Ca aieeao aoi?iaoo noaa?e?coaaeenue iieacieee a?ei? e?ia?, i?e oeueiio
e?euee?noue eaeeioeeo?a ciaioeeanue ia 9,7 %, aea caeeoeeanue a iaaeao
o?c?ieia?/ii? ii?ie. Ai?no aetheice o e?ia? aeine?aeii? a?oie ei??a aoa
ia 0,76 iI/e aeuei ii??aiyii c oaa?eiaie eiio?ieueii? a?oie.

Nooo?a? a?aei?iiino? i?ae aeine?aeiith ? eiio?ieueiith a?oiaie
aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a aoee ? ca ai?noii o e?ia? a?oai?i?a. Cie?aia,
e?euee?noue ea?ioeio aoea aeuith o oaa?ei aeine?aeii? a?oie ia 27 %, a
a?oai?io A ia 55 %. I/aaeaeii, aoiao iao??th ni?eya a?eueo aoaeoeaiiio
aniieooaaiith ea?ioeio a oeoieiai-eeoeiaiio o?aeo? oa oaeaeeiio
ia?aoai?aiith eiai o a?oai?i A o ia/?ioe?.

Ia?aioa?aeueia canoinoaaiiy aoi?iaoo aeaui aieeioei ia aooa?i?noue
e?ia?, a naia ai?no eaeueoe?th ? iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o i?aeaeuoaaany.
Oeae aieea ca nai?th aoaeoeai?noth iinooia?oueny ?acoeueoaoai i?e
canoinoaaii? eiai ae?iaioa?iei oeyoii (E.I. Noai/aiei, E.A. AEi??ia,
E.A. E?aaoeiaa, 1991).

A?ae aeine?aeieo ei??a aoei iaea?aeaii: a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? – 18 oaeyo,
a aeine?aei?e – 19. Na?aaeiy aeeaa iana oaeyo ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae ei??a o
aeine?aei?e a?oi? aoea ia 1,7 ea aeuith ii??aiyii c ?o iaeiie?oeaie,
iaea?aeaieie a?ae ei??a eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
ia?iaeaeaieie oaeyoaie i?iaiaeeeenue i?ioyaii ia?oiai i?nyoey. Iaca?aci?
caoai?thaaiiy o ia?iaeaeaiieo oaeyo neeaee a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? — 33,3
%, a aeine?aei?e — 21,0 %, a na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no aeeai? iane
oaeyo aeine?aeii? a?oie aoa ia 45 a aeuee ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai.
Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue a?ae aeei?enoaiiy aoi?iaoo noaiiaeea 2,37 a?i.
i?eaooeo ia 1 a?i. aeo?ao.

Ioaea aoi?iao, aaaaeaiee ia?aioa?aeueiei oeyoii, ii?iae?coaaa aaiiiiac ?
iai?ii? i?ioeane o ei??a-iaoa??a ?, oaeei /eiii, iiceoeaii aieeaaa ia
ia?iaeaeaiiy aeeoo?caeaoiiai i?eieiaeo.

2. Iai?i ?a/iaei o ei??a ? oaeyo, ui ia?iaeeeeny a?ae ieo ca
aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo

Aeiaaaeaii, ui aeniea i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ?ai?iaeoeoeaia ooieoe?y ei??a ?
aeeoo?no?ee?noue oaeyo, ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae ei??a, a ia?oo /a?ao
iaoiiaeai? iniiaieie eiiiiiaioaie ?aoe?iio – i?ioa?iaie, aia?a??th,
eaeueoe??i, oinoi?ii, a?oai?iaie, i?e?iaeaiaioaie oiui (Naiio?i A.O.,
1997).

Aeey ii?iae?caoe?? iai?io ?a/iaei o aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ? i?ae /an
eaeoaoe??, a oaeiae aeey iaea?aeaiiy aeeoo?no?eeiai i?eieiaeo,
canoiniaothoue ??ciiai ?iaeo a?ieia?/ii aeoeai? ?a/iaeie – a?oai?ie,
oa?iaioe, ai?iiie, ?ioiiiiaeoeyoi?e, a?inoeioeyoi?e (Eaea/ithe A.?.,
1994; Eiiae?ao?i ?.I., 1997; Eaa/aiei A.?., 1997; E?aaoe?a ?.E., 1997;
Niieyi?iia A.A., 1998 oa ?i.).

E??i aea/aiiy noeioethth/i? ae?? aoi?iaoo ia i?aai?ci ei??a, iaie
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? c ?ioei i?aia?aoii oe??? ae i?e?iaee —
a?ae?iaoiaoii, yeee ia? a?eueo aoaeoeaio ae?th o aeoeieo oaa?ei, i?ae
aoi?iao (A?eaai A.A., 1995).

2.1. Aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? aeice a?ae?iaoiaoo aeey ei??a

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue (oaae.1) iieacaee, ui
a?ae?iaoiao, ye ei?iiaa aeiaaaea, o aeic? 100 ia/ea aeeai? iane nooo?ai
aieeaaa ia ii?oieia?/i? ? a?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia?, a?eeiaee
iaoaaie?ci, noeioethth/e aiaaie?/i? i?ioeane, i?i ui na?ae/eoue
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo aeueaoi?i?a (ia 19 %), ioeea?iiaeo eeneio (ia 21 %),
a?eueieo ai?iieeneio (ia 39 %) oa ?ioeo niieoe.

Iaeii/anii, o aeine?aeieo ei??a aea/aee neeaae ? a?io?i?/i? iieacieee
iieiea. sse iieacaee iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, na?aaeiueiaeiaia? iaaei? aoee
aenieeie o ei??a eiio?ieueii? ? aeine?aeieo a?oi. O ae?oa?e a?oi? ei??a
aeyaeaii a??ia?aeia

ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? a?eea ia 5,5 %, eaca?io ia 7 %, caaaeueiiai
aee?o ia 3 %, ciee ia 3, 7 % iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o ia 9 %. Oe?eeii
eiia??ii, ui

a?ae?iaoiao noeioethaaa a?eieneioacoth/o ooieoe?th ia o?eueee ia/?iee,
aea e iiei/ii? caeice, canai?iiy i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei, a oaeiae ?o
iia?e?caoe?th aeey neioaoe/ieo i?ioean?a, ni?eya aeae?eaiith a?oai?io A
c iieieii ia aeineoue aenieiio ??ai?. A cia/i?e i??? oeae aieea
i?iyaeany ca aeei?enoaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo a aeic? 100 ia ia 1 ea iane o?ea.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aaiaoieia?/i? iieacieee ? iai?i ?a/iaei i?ae /an eaeoaoe?? ei??a ca
aieeao ??cieo aeic a?ae?iaoiaoo (Im, n=15)

IieacieeeEiio?ieueiaa?oiaAeine?aei? a?oie

??????A?eo?ioeeoe,

1012/e5,590,206,160,17*6,810,15***6,910,18***Aaiiaeia?i,
a/e115,17,11124,35,13124,26,52125,04,91Eaeeioeeoe,109/e4,820,455,160,385
,080,185,410,32A?eie caaaeueiee,
a/e75,63,177,82,379,62,872,03,3Aeueaoi?ie,
a/e34,41,737,01,341,01,1**40,81,2**Aeiaoe?ie,
a/e41,21,740,81,738,61,431,21,3**Eeneioe ioeea?iia?,
ia/e1,990,042,050,012,410,01***1,980,05Acio ai?iiee,
iI/e1,520,041,990,05***2,110,02***1,920,02***Na/iaeia,
iI/e3,660,283,280,221,850,49**4,200,22E?aaoei?i,
iI/e0,0540,0040,0360,003**0,0360,003**0,0500,003Acio caeeoeiaee,
iI/e30,552,6242,552,06**38,411,65*34,272,47E?i?aee caaaeuei?,
a/e7,050,117,940,38*7,990,28**7,950,37*-e?iii?ioa?aee,
a/e6,110,326,210,276,850,346,810,34Aetheica,
iI/e2,760,072,750,062,750,122,900,13Ea?ioei,
ieI/e7,710,347,430,367,530,197,480,21A?oai?i A,
ieI/e0,710,040,750,030,760,030,700,03Eeneioia ?ii?noue,
iI/e105,082,29111,453,90108,584,58113,506,60Eaeueoe?e,
iI/e2,240,032,180,022,160,032,170,04Oinoi? iai?aai?/iee,
iI/e1,340,011,330,011,320,011,260,02**O oe?e ? ianooiieo oaaeeoeyo
nooi?iue a??ia?aeiino? — *?0,05, **?0,01,***?0,001

Ioaea, iioeiaeueia aeica a?ae?iaoiaoo aeey ei??a noaiiaeea 100 ie/ea
iane o?ea ia aeiao i?ioyaii 3 oeaei?a.

2.2. Iieacieee iai?io ?a/iaei o aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ? aieea ia ieo
a?ae?iaoiaoo

Onoaiiaeaii, ui a i?ioean? o?eueiino? ei??a /anoioa aeeoaiiy o ieo
ca?eueooaaeanue ia 23,3 %, a ?? aeeaeia ciaiooaaeanue ia 12,8 %, oiaoi
aeeoaiiy noaei oi/a ? iiaa?oiaaei, aea /ano?oei. Cacia/eii, ui i?e iaio
aeeaieiio aeeoaii? ia aeaayoiio i?nyoe? o?eueiino? (ii??aiyii c
ainueiei) i?ioeaio ooee?caoe?? eenith oa aeae?eaiiy aoaeaeeneiai aaco ?c
i?aai?cio nooo?ai ia ci?ieany.

Caaaeueia e?euee?noue eenith, ui niiaeeaaeanue i?aai?ciii ei??a i?ioyaii
iaei??? oaeeeie, noaiiaeea ia ii/aoeo nooino?eiiai ia??iaeo 2,510 e i?e
cao?aoao aia?a?? 3615,1 eAeae ia aiaeeio, a ia e?iaoeue nooino?eiiai
ia??iaeo a?aeiia?aeii 2,420 e ? 3559,3 eAeae. A ia?a?aooieo ia 1 ea iane
o?ea ?o ?ioaineai?noue oaeiae cieceeanue ia 0,38 ie/oa/ea ? 0,44
eAeae/aiae/ea, oiaoi, iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?aeoaa?aeaeaii oaeo
cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aa?iaiiai aeeoaiiy a e?ioe? o?eueiino? a ei??a.

I?ae aieeaii a?ae?iaoiaoo (oaae.2) a??ia?aeii i?aeaeueeiny niiaeeaaiiy
eenith (ia 12 %) ? aia?aaoe/i? cao?aoe (ia 8,4 %), ye a aaniethoieo
aaee/eiao, oae ? i?e ia?a?aooieo ia 1 ea iane o?ea oaa?ei.

Oaaeeoey 2

Eaaaiaaa aeeoaiiy ? aia?aaoe/iee iai?i o aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ca aieeao
a?ae?iaoiaoo (Im, n=10)

IieacieeeA?oie oaa?eiEiio?ieueiaAeine?aeiaE?euee?noue aeeoaeueieo ?oo?a,
oa20,10,6720,50,87Aeeoaeueiee ia?i, e3,070,113,190,07Aaioeeyoe?y
eaaaiue, e/oa61,312,1166,121,61Aaioeeyoe?y eaaaiue,
ie/oa/ea0,1000,0040,1080,004Niiaeeaaiiy I2, %3,960,094,090,06Niiaeeaaiiy
I2, e/oa2,4200,072,7080,08*Niiaeeaaiiy I2,
ie/oa/ea3,970,054,440,19*Aeae?eaiiy NI2, %3,380,083,510,05Aeae?eaiiy
NI2, e/oa2,0520,052,3220,07**Aeae?eaiiy NI2, ie/oa/ea3,370,043,810,17*

I?iaeiaaeaiiy oaae. 2

Aia?aaoe/i? cao?aoe,

EAeae/aiae3559,352,33855,0118,0*Aia?aaoe/i? cao?aoe,

EAeae/aiae/ea5,830,796,320,27*

I?e aiae?c? ?ioeo iieaciee?a (e?euee?noue aeeoaeueieo ?oo?a, aeeoaeueiee
ia?i, aaioeeyoe?y eaaaiue) nooo?aeo ??cieoeue o ei??a aeine?aeii? ?
eiio?ieueii? a?oi ia aeyaeaii, aai ??cieoe? i?ae iieacieeaie aoee
noaoenoe/ii iaa??ia?aeieie.

Caiaeiaoaaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo aeeaieio?eueiei ei?iaai ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieueieie aeceaaei cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy o e?ia? e?eueeino?
a?eo?ioeeo?a (ia 9,7 %), aaiiaeia?io (ia 16,5 %) (oaae.3).

Oaaeeoey 3

Ii?oieia?/i? iieacieee e?ia? aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ca aieeao
a?ae?iaoiaoo ye ei?iiai? aeiaaaee (Im, n=10)

IieacieeeA?oie oaa?eiEiio?ieueiaAeine?aeiaA?eo?ioeeoe, 10
12/e6,230,216,840,11*Aaiiaeia?i, a/e96,542,74112,462,69***Eaeeioeeoe, 10
9/e5,590,375,480,33Iaeo?io?ee, %1,5160,191,4180,12Aiceiio?ee,
%0,8970,090,4120,04***Aacio?ee, %0,0770,0030,0690,001*Iiiioeeoe,
%0,3980,010,1840,02***E?ioioeeoe, %2,6990,273,3920,29*

Aeyaeaii, ui caaaeueia e?euee?noue eaeeioeeo?a o e?ia? ei??a aeine?aeii?
a?oie aoea ia oiio ae ??ai?, ui e oaa?ei eiio?ieueii? a?oie, i?ioa
ci?ieeiny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo ?o aeae?a: ciaioeeany e?euee?noue
aiceiio?e?a ? iiiioeeo?a (ia 54 %), aacio?e?a (ia 10 %), a e?ioioeeo?a
c?inea (ia 27 %).

A?ae?iaoiao nooo?ai aieeioa ia a?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia?. O ei??a
aeine?aeii? a?oie i?aeaeuoaaany ai?no caaaeueiiai a?eea o ne?iaaooe?
e?ia?, ia?aaaaeii ca ?aooiie aeiaoe?iiai? o?aeoe?? (oaae.4). Ia?aeaeueii
?c caaaeueiei a?eeii ca?eueoeeanue e?euee?noue a?eueieo ai?iieeneio (ia
12 %), na/iaeie (ia 19 %) ? e?aaoei?io (ia 33 %).

Oaaeeoey 4

A?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia? aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ca aieeao a?ae?iaoiaoo
ye ei?iiai? aeiaaaee (Im, n=10)

IieacieeeA?oie oaa?eiEiio?ieueiaAeine?aeiaA?eie caaaeueiee,
a/e79,50,681,80,9*Aeueaoi?ie, a/e29,20,629,80,4Aeiaoe?ie,
a/e50,30,552,00,9A?eeiaee eiao?oe??io, A/A0,580,010,580,01Acio ai?iiee,
iI/e2,160,022,410,03***Na/iaeia, iI/e3,610,164,310,27*E?aaoei?i,
iI/e0,060,0020,080,004***Aetheica, iI/e2,140,102,120,04Eeneioe n?aeia?,
iio.iae.0,1320,0050,0840,004***-ea?ioei, ieI/e7,640,257,960,33A?oai?i A,
ieI/e0,410,010,360,02*Eaeueoe?e, iI/e2,430,022,450,03Oinoi?
iai?aai?/iee, iI/e1,510,021,710,03***Eeneioia ?ii?noue,
iI/e98,751,2599,751,64E?euee?noue oinoi?o iai?aai?/iiai aoea aeuith a
aeine?aei?e a?oi? ia 13 % ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai. ??cieoey i?ae ?ioeie
iieacieeaie o oaa?ei aeine?aeii? ? eiio?ieueii? a?oie aoea noaoenoe/ii
iaa??ia?aeiith.

Oio?einy a caa?iooe oaaao ia ??aaiue a?oai?io A ? n?aeiaeo eeneio. Oe?
iieacieee o ei??a aeine?aeii? a?oie a??ia?aeii a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae
eiio?ieueii?. ??aaiue a?oai?io A o e?ia? aeine?aeieo ei??a aoa ia 11 %
iaioei, i?ae o eiio?ieueieo oaa?ei, ui aeaco?, iaiaaii, ia a?eueo
?ioaineaia niiaeeaaiiy eiai ieiaeii, n?aeiaeo eeneio ia 35 %, ui aeaco?
ia a?eueo aenieo ianiaoeeo?/io ?acenoaioi?noue.

Iiaoi?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ia? (/a?ac 30 aei?a i?ney caiaeiaoaaiiy
i?aia?aoo) iieacaei, ui a?ae?iaoiao iaa ae?aaeaio i?neyae?th. Ca
oeueiai, o ei??a aeine?aeii? a?oie ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueieie aoei
a??ia?aeii a?eueoa a?eo?ioeeo?a ? aaiiaeia?io; aiceiio?e?a aoei iaioa a
1,9 ?ace, ??aaiue iaeo?io?e?a aeuee ia 54 %, iiiioeeo?a ia 50 % ?
aacio?e?a ia 25 %. A ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ei??a, ye? iaea?aeoaaee
a?ae?iaoiao i?aeo?eioaaany a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue aeueaoi?i?a (ia 11 %)
ii??aiyii c oaa?eiaie eiio?ieueii? a?oie. I?e oeueiio, e?euee?noue
a?eueieo ai?iieeneio o ieo aoea aeuith ia 35 %, na/iaeie ia 56,5 %. I?ae
iieacieeaie aetheice, eaeueoe?th, iai?aai?/iiai oinoi?o, ea?ioeio,
a?oai?io A, n?aeiaeie eeneioaie, eeneioiith ?iiinoth o oaa?ei
aeine?aeii? ? eiio?ieueii? a?oi ia aeyaeaii nooo?ai? ??cieoe?.

Ioaea, a?ae?iaoiao ca iieacieeaie eaaaiaaiai aeeoaiiy, ii?oieia?/iiai ?
a?io?i?/iiai neeaaeo iie?iooaaa i?ioeane iai?io ?a/iaei o
aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a.

2.3. Iieacieee neeaaeo oa yeino? iieiceaa ei??a aieooeinueei? ii?iaee ca
aieeao a?ae?iaoiaoo

Iieiceai ? iniiaiei caycoth/ei eaioethaii o e?eoe/iee ia??iae ia?aoiaeo
oaeyoe a?ae ieaoeaioa?ii? aiae?ae? aei aiae?ae? a oiiaao ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua. Naia oiio, ianooiiei aoaiii iaoi? ?iaioe aoei aea/aiiy
aeeiai?ee neeaaeo iieiceaa aeine?aeieo ei??a i?ioyaii 36 aiaeei i?ney
?iae?a (oaae. 5).

Onoaiiaeaii, ui iieiceai, a?ae?a?aia a?ae?aco i?ney ?iae?a, o ei??a
eiio?ieueii? a?oie iaei aenieo u?euei?noue – 1,062 a/ni3. Aiii i?noeei
28, % nooi? ?a/iaeie, a oiio /ene?: aee?o – 9,1 %, a?eea — 14,7 %,
eaeoice – 3,1 %, i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei – 1,3 %.O ia??iae a?ae 6 aei 36
aiaeei i?ney ?iae?a i?ine?aeeiaoaaeanue /?oea aeeiai?ea cieaeaiiy a
iueiio nooi? ?a/iaeie ia 42 %, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny, cia/iith i??ith, ca
?aooiie a?eea (64 %).

Aeeeeea? iaaia caoe?eaaeaiiy ai?no aeiaoe?i?a o iieicea? ei??a. O ia?o?
aiaeeie i?ney ?icoaeaiiy ia ?o aeieth i?eiaaeaei 4,6 % a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? a?eea. E??i oiai /a?ac 6 aiaeei i?ney ?icoaeaiiy, aeyaeaii
iaae?iiy e?eueeino? aeiaoe?i?a ia 32,8 %, /a?ac 12 aiaeei ia 59,3 %. Ca
ianooii? ?ioa?aaee /ano oeae iieaciee i?iaeiaaeoaaa ciaiooaaoeny ? /a?ac
36 aiaeei cieaeoaaany o 7,7 ?ace ii??aiyii aei ia?oi? aiaeeie.
Cacia/eii, ui ?io? iieacieee oi/ ? cieaeoaaeeny (ai?no aeueaoi?i?a,
aee?o, i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei), aea cia/ii iia?euei?oa, i?ae ai?no
aeiaoe?i?a.

O ia?oeo ii?oe?yo iieiceaa ei??a, yeei caiaeiaoaaee a?ae?iaoiao
(ii??aiyii aei eiio?ieueii? a?oie), aeyaeaii ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?
eaca?io ia 15 % ? aee?o ia 34 %. *a?ac 12 aiaeei i?ney ?iae?a iieiceai
ei??a aeine?aeii? a?oie iaei ia?aaaao ca nooith ?a/iaeiith ia 26 %,
aee?o ia 45 %, a?eea ia 27 %, a oiio /ene? eaca?io ia 22 %, aeueaoi?io
ia 27 %, aeiaoe?io ia 36 %. A inoaii?o ii?oe?yo iieiceaa oe? iieacieee
oaae aoee cia/ii aeu? a?ae eiio?ieueieo, ui na?ae/eoue i?i i?ieiiaoth/o
ae?th a?ae?iaoiaoo ia iane/aiiy iieiceaa iniiaieie iiaeeaieie
?a/iaeiaie, a o./. aeiaoe?iaie.

Ioaea, aeei?enoaiiy aeeaieio?eueiei ei?iaai a?ae?iaoiaoo nooo?ai
iie?iooaaei a?ieia?/io oe?ii?noue iieiceaa ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy
aeiaoe?i?a.

15

Oaaeeoey 5

Neeaae iieiceaa aeine?aeieo ei??a (Ii, n=10)

IieacieeeEiio?ieueia a?oiaAeine?aeia a?oia 1 aiae.6 aiae.12 aiae.18
aiae.24 aiae.30 aiae.36 aiae.1 aiae.6 aiae.12 aiae.18 aiae.24 aiae.30
aiae.36 aiae.Nooa ?a/iaeia,%28,2

0,9325,01,0520,21,1418,31,1316,80,4515,40,5514,50,5130,151,7425,580,3025
,500,46***22,570,57**21,500,46***19,760,56***17,050,68**AEe?, %9,08

0,777,33

0,986,69

0,815,24

1,204,83

0,364,72

0,234,64

0,2412,180,55**9,70

0,26*10,22

0,64**8,29

0,35*7,7

0,53***7,1

0,51***6,3

0,26***A?eie, %14,7

0,3812,90,608,80

0,608,18

2,037,05

0,185,70

0,394,64

0,3213,531,1411,140,48*11,170,52**10,000,839,12

0,83*7,73

048**5,69

0,31*Aeueaoi?i, %5,84

0,305,65

0,363,63

0,193,40

0,752,90

0,211,80

0,311,04

0,184,85

0,21*4,39

0,33*4,6

0,25**4,32

0,153,16

0,183,04

0,36*1,84

0,20*Aeiaoe?i, %4,64

0,143,12

0,291,89

0,171,46

1,600,90

0,190,80

0,170,60

0,033,83

0,21**2,87

0,252,57

0,10**1,68

0,181,46

0,11*1,39

0,11**0,75

0,05*Eaeoica,%3,10

0,063,51

0,203,62

0,203,74

0,093,74

0,073,92

0,094,17

0,082,97

0,173,39

0,802,93

0,333,16

0,01***3,62

0,233,89

0,264,05

0,13Ciea, %1,31

0,071,24

0,031,09

0,041,14

0,081,18

0,031,06

0,081,05

0,061,47

0,03*1,35

0,04*1,18

0,01*1,12

0,121,06

0,061,04

0,081,02

0,11

21

2.4. O?c?ieia?/iee noai ia?iaeaeaieo oaeyo ? no?ee?noue ?o aei
caoai?thaaiue ca aieeao a?ae?iaoiaoo

Caiaeiaoaaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo aeeaieio?eueiei ei?iaai ni?eyei iaea?aeaiith
a?eueo aeeoo?no?eeiai i?eieiaeo. Ca oeueiai anoaiiaeaii, ui an? oaeyoa
a?ae ei??a aeine?aeii? a?oie iaee a?eueo aenie? iieacieee niiaeeaaiiy
eenith (ia 13,2 %), aia?aaoe/ieo cao?ao (ia 24,8 %), e?euee?no?
aaiiaeia?io (ia 26 %), ai?noo a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? caaaeueiiai a?eea (ia
6,4 %), aeiaoe?i?a (ia 13 %) ? a?oai?io A (ia 10 %). Aaeeea ??cieoey (ia
44 %) ia ei?enoue oaeyo aeine?aeii? a?oie aoea aeyaeaia ca ai?noii
?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a (oaae.6).

Ona oea nooo?ai iicia/eeinue ia ?o ?ino? e ?icaeoeo ca inoaii? i?nyoe?
?icaeoeo ieiaea. I?e ia?iaeaeaii? oaeyoa iaee aeeao iano ia 2,8 ea
a?eueoo, i?ae oaeyoa eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Oea oaeiae iiaei caaacia/eoe ?i
e?auo aaeaioaoe?th aei oiia ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Na?aae oaeyo
aeine?aeii? a?oie aeiaeia ia caoai??ei, a oie /an ye a eiio?ie?
caoai??ee o?e oaa?eie.

Oaaeeoey 6

Iieacieee e?ia? ? aaciaia?aaoe/iiai iai?io o aeine?aeieo oaeyo
21-aeaiiai a?eo (Im, n=10)

IieacieeeA?oie oaa?eiEiio?ieueiaAeine?aeiaNiiaeeaaiiy I2,
ie/oa/ea10,370,2611,740,17***Aia?aaoe/i? cao?aoe

EAeae/aiae/ea14,820,3918,500,29***A?eo?ioeeoe, 10
12/e5,3700,316,5390,37*Aaiiaeia?i, a/e88,04,4111,08,0*A?eie caaaeueiee,
a/e53,41,356,80,8*Aeueaoi?ie, a/e22,80,722,20,7Aeiaoe?ie,
a/e30,61,634,60,6**?ioiiaeiaoe?ie, a/e20,430,629,420,5***Acio ai?iiee,
iI/e4,030,496,520,33***Na/iaeia, iI/e3,930,253,710,22E?aaoei?i,
iI/e0,090,010,110,01Eeneioe n?aeia?, iio.iae.0,1310,0070,1250,007A?oai?i
A, ieI/e0,540,010,590,02*Iana oaeyo i?e ia?iaeaeaii?,
ea35,300,6438,10,63**Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no, ea0,3640,020,4200,01

Ca 21 aeiao i?e??no aeeai? iane a aeine?aei?e a?oi? oaeyo noaiiaea 8,81
ea, a a eiio?ieuei?e eeoa 7,65 ea, oiaoi oaeyoa aeine?aeii? a?oie iaee
a?eueo aenieo (ia 15 %) aia?a?th ?inoo. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue a?ae
aeei?enoaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo noaiiaeea 4,41 a?i. i?eaooeo ia 1 a?i. aeo?ao.

Ioaea, aeeoo?caeaoi?noue ? caa?aaeaii?noue oaeyo o ?aiiueiio a?oe?
nooo?ai c?inoaei i?e caiaeiaoaaii? aeeaieio?eueiei ei?iaai a?ae?iaoiaoo.

AENIIAEE

1. O?c?ieia?/iee noai aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ? ia?iaeaeaieo a?ae ieo
oaeyo caeaaeaa a?ae /eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? nooo?ai
iie?iooaaany ca ae??th i?aia?ao?a aoioniai? i?e?iaee.

2. Oi?iaeiaae nooino?eiiai ia??iaeo o ei??a cieaeoaaeanue ?ioaineai?noue
i?ioean?a ieeneaiiy o oeaieiao, o e?ia? – ai?no aaiiaeia?io, caaaeueiiai
a?eea, aeueaoi?i?a, na/iaeie, aetheice, a?oai?io A ? ea?ioeio,
iaeii/anii ca?eueooaaeanue e?euee?noue aeiaoe?i?a oa oinoi?o
iai?aai?/iiai.

3. Canoinoaaiiy aoi?iaoo a aeic? 2 ia/ea aeeai? iane c ?ioa?aaeii o 3
aei? i?ioyaii 6 oeaei?a aeeaieio?eueiei ei?iaai ia?aioa?aeueii
i?aeaeuoaaei e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a, aaiiaeia?io, caaaeueiiai a?eea,
aeueaoi?i?a, ai?iieeneio a?eueieo, a?oai?io A, eaeueoe?th, eeneioio
?ii?noue, noeioethth/e oaeei /eiii i?ioeane iai?iio ?a/iaei, ui i?eaaei
aei iie?auaiiy ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ieiaeo oa ia?iaeaeaiiy a?eueo
aeeoo?no?eeiai iioiinoaa.

4. Onoaiiaeaii iioeiaeueio aeico a?ae?iaoiaoo, ye ei?iiai? aeiaaaee,
aeey ei??a i?ae /an eaeoaoe?? — 100 ia ia 1 ea iane o?ea i?ioyaii 3-o
oeaei?a. O oe?e aeic? i?aia?ao noeioethaaa aaiiiiac, i?aeaeuoaaa ai?no
aeueaoi?i?a, a?eueieo ai?iieeneio, eeneio ioeea?iiaeo, na/iaeie,
e?i?ae?a caaaeueieo, a a iieioe? – eiioeaio?aoe?th a?eea, aee?o oa
oinoi?o iai?aai?/iiai.

5. Aeei?enoaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo (100 ia/ea) aeeaieio?eueiei ei?iaai i?eaaei
aei:

a) ?ioaineai?oiai niiaeeaaiiy eenith oa aia?aaoe/iiai iai?io,
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? a?eo?ioeeo?a ? ai?noo aaiiaeia?io a e?ia?, ci?i
eaeeioeeoa?ii? oi?ioee, a naia cieaeaiiy ??aiy aiceiio?e?a ? iiiioeeo?a;

a) i?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? caaaeueiiai a?eea, ai?iieeneio a?eueieo,
na/iaeie, e?aaoei?io ? oinoi?o iai?aai?/iiai o e?ia? aeine?aeieo oaa?ei.

6. Iieiceai ei??a aieooeinueei? ii?iaee, a?ae?a?aia a?ae?aco i?ney
?iae?a, iaei aenieo u?euei?noue — 1,062, i?noeei aaeeeo e?euee?noue
nooi? ?a/iaeie – 28,2 %, a oiio /ene? aee?o — 9,08 %, a?eea — 14,7 %,
eaeoice — 3,10 % ? i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei — 1,31 %. I?ioyaii ia?oeo 36
aiaeei i?ney ?iae?a i?inoaaeoaaeanue /?oea aeeiai?ea cieaeaiiy o
iieicea? a?eea ia 68 %, a oiio /ene? aeiaoe?i?a ia 87 %, aee?o ia 49 %,
i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei ia 20 %.

7. Canoinoaaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo aeeaieio?eueiei ei?iaai i?eaaei aei ci?i
yeino? oa neeaaeo iieiceaa (i?ioyaii ia?oeo 36 aiaeei ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai) oaeei /eiii:

a) o ia?oeo ii?oe?yo iieiceaa aeyaeaii a??ia?aeia ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? eaca?io oa aee?o;

a) o iieicea? aeine?aeii? a?oie ei??a, iaea?aeaiiio /a?ac 12 aiaeei
i?ney ?iae?a, aoa aeuei, i?ae a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi?, ??aaiue nooi?
?a/iaeie — ia 26 %, aee?o – ia 45 %, a?eea – ia 27 %, a o./. eaca?io –
ia 22 %, eaeoiaeueaoi?i?a – ia 27 %, eaeoiaeiaoe?i?a – ia 36 % i?e
iinooiiaiio ciaiueoaii? eaeoice;

a) a inoaii?o ii?oe?yo iieiceaa ??aaiue nooi? ?a/iaeie, aee?o, a?eea,
aeueaoi?i?a ? aeiaoe?i?a a??ia?aeii aeuee, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iiceoeaiee
aieea a?ae?iaoiaoo ia o?eaae?noue iane/aiiy iieiceaa iniiaieie
iiaeeaieie ?a/iaeiaie.

8. Oaeyoa, iaea?aeai? a?ae ei??a aeine?aeii? a?oie, iaee:

a) aeua niiaeeaaiiy eenith — ia 13 %, aia?aaoe/ieo cao?ao – ia 25 %,
ai?no aaiiaeia?io – ia 26 %, ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a – ia 44 %, ai?iieeneio
a?eueieo – ia 62 %, a?oai?io A – ia 10 %;

a) a?eueo ?ioaineaiee ??no oaeyo o ia??iae ?icaeoeo a oo?ia? iaoa?? oa a
ia?o? 21 aei?a iinoiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo. I?e ia?iaeaeaii? aeeaa iana o
ieo aoea aeuith ia 2,8 ea, a na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no ia 15,38 %
ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai.

I?IIICEOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

I?aia?aoe aoioniai? i?e?iaee i?iiiiothoueny aei aeei?enoaiiy a eiiieaen?
caoiae?a aeey ei?aeoe?? iai?io ?a/iaei o aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a c iaoith
iaea?aeaiiy a?ae ieo a?eueo aeeoo?caeaoiiai iioiinoaa:

— aoi?iao aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia?aioa?aeueii (i?aeoe??ii) a aeic? 2 ia/ea
aeeai? iane c ?ioa?aaeia a 3 aeiae i?ioyaii 6 oeaei?a;

— a?ae?iaoiao, ye ei?iiao aeiaaaeo aei iniiaiiai ?aoe?iio, caiaeiaoaaoe
o aeic? 100 ia/ea aeeai? iane i?ioyaii 21 aeiae.

NIENIE INIIAIEO I?AOeUe, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Ianthe Ae.I. Cia/aiiy neeaaeo ia?oeo i?ia iieiceaa ei??a o oi?ioaaii?
?ioii? ?aaeoeaiino? oaeyo //Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue Euea?anueei? aeaaeai??
aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?i N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai “No/ani? i?iaeaie
aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie, cii?iaeaia??? oa oaoiieia?e i?iaeoeo?a
oaa?eiieoeoaa”. – Euea?a. – 1997. – N.353-354.

2. Aeei?enoaiiy i?aia?ao?a ?c oi?oo aeey ei?aeoe?? iai?io ?a/iaei oa
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? ?acenoaioiino? oaa?ei /A.A.A?eaai,
N.N.Eanueyi, A.I.Aa?ai/aiei, Ae.I.Ianthe, A.A.Auethiaiei //A?niee aa?a?.
iaoee. – 1998. – N?/aiue (niaoe.aeione). – N.55-59.

3. Aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy a?ae?iaoiaoo aeey ei?aeoe?? iai?io ?a/iaei
o aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ? i?io?eaeoeee i?ney?iaeiaeo caoai?thaaiue
/A.A.A?eaai, Ae.I.Ianthe, A.I.Noo?i, A.A.Aaeoeee //A?niee
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai AeAO. – 1998. – ? 1-2. – N.83-86.

4. Ianthe Ae.I Iniaeeaino? a?eeiaiai iai?io o ei??a aieooeinueei?
ii?iaee i?e ??ciiio o?c?ieia?/iiio noai? //O?c?ieia?/. aeo?i. – 1998. –
O.44. — ? 3. – N.233-234.

5. Ianthe Ae.I. Aieea a?ae?iaoiaoo ia neeaae iieiceaa oa
aeeoo?no?ee?noue i?eieiaeo o aieooeinueeeo ei??a //N?euenueeee
ainiiaea?. — ? 5-6. – 1999. – n. 53-54.

6. Ianthe Ae.I, Athiaiei I.I., A?eaai A.A.Aieea aoiaoo iao??th ?
no?ioeuea?io ia iai?ii? i?ioeane o ei??a //I?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei oa aoaeoeaiino? ?o e?eoaaiiy (Oace aeiiia?aeae
?anioae?eainueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, 19-21 ea?oiy, 1994
?.). – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1994. – N.24.

7. Aeeiai?ea ci?i o neeaae? iieiceaa ei??a aieooeinueei? ii?iaee
/A.A.A?eaai, N.N.Eanueyi, Ae.I.Ianthe, A.I.Aa?ai/aiei //Oace aeii. VII
a?io. c?caeo. – Ee?a, 1997. – *. 2. – N. 11-12.

8. Ianthe Ae.I. Aeeyiea ninoaaa iieiceaa ei?ia ia oi?ie?iaaiea eiioiiie
?aaeoeaiinoe oaeyo //Yeieia. i?iaeaiu iaoieiaee, oa?iaeieiaee e oa?aiee
aeeaioiuo. – Ai?iiaae. – 1997. N.397-398.

9. A?eaai A.A., Ianthe Ae.I. Iniaaiiinoe oeie/aneiai ninoaaa iieiceaa
aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo ei?ia //Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu aao.-nai. eiio?iey n/o
i?iaeoeoeee. – Iineaa. – 1997. – N. 170-171.

10. A?eaai A.A., Ianthe Ae.I. E Eniieueciaaiea aeae?iaoiaoa aeey
i?ioeeaeoeee aeeniainee //Oace aeiiia?aeae ?? Oe?. Oeaeaeaiue
aano?iaioa?ieia?a (23-25 aa?aniy 1997). – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee. – N. 41.

11. Preparations of peat to stimulate productivity of cattle /V.Gryban,
L.Stepchenco, D.Masyuk, V.Stoyan //International Symposium Watural and
agricultural Ecosystems in Peatlands and their management/ — Saint-Malo
(France), 1997. — S. 26-27.

12. ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieueciaaieth aoiaoa iao?ey (aoieiaoa) aeey
iiauoaiey anoanoaaiiie ?acenoaioiinoe e i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo
/A.A.A?eaai., I.I.Auniein, Ae.I.Ianthe e ae?. – Aeiai?iiao?. ain. oi-o.
– Eeaa, 1991. – 12 n.

13. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enooaaiith a?ae?iaoiaoo
n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeei oaa?eiai ? ioeoe? /A.A.A?eaai, A.A.Aiaoayi,
Ae.I.Ianthe oa ?i. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith a?ae?iaoiaoo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei oaa?eiai ? ioeoe?. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee. –
1999. — 5 n.

Ianthe Ae.I. O?c?ieia?/iee noai i?aai?cio aeeaieio?eueieo ei??a ?
ia?iaeaeaiieo a?ae ieo oaeyo i?ae aieeaii i?aia?ao?a aoioniai? i?e?iaee.
– ?oeiien.

Aeenna?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaoa?eia?ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.13. – o?c?ieia?y ethaeeie ? oaa?ei.
Euea?anueea aeaaeai?y aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?i.N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai,
Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith iieaciee?a e?ia? o aeeaieio?eueieo
ei??a i?ae aieeaii aoi?iaoo, yeee canoiniaoaaee ia?aioa?aeueiei oeyoii.
Aeyaeaii, ui oeae i?aia?ao ii?iae?co? iai?ii? i?ioeane, ni?ey?
io?eiaiith aeeoo?no?eeiai i?eieiaeo. ?ic?iaeaia aeica aeei?enoaiiy
a?ae?iaoiaoo, eiai iiceoeaiee aieea ia ye?noue iieiea. Aeei?enoaiiy
a?ae?iaoiaoo aeeaieio?eueiei ei?iaai ni?eyei ei?aeoe?? iai?io ?a/iaei ?
aia?a?? o ieo. Iieiceai a?ae ei??a, ui io?eioaaee a?ae?iaoiao, iaei
a?eueoa iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, cie?aia, aee?o, eaca?io,
eaeoiaeiaoe?io.Oaeyoa, ia?iaeaeai? a?ae ei??a aeine?aeii? a?oie, aoee
a?eueo no?eeeie aei caoai?thaaiue a ii??aiyii? c ?o ?iaanieeaie c
eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe, aeeeaaeai? o
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, oa?eoee aei iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii
aeei?enoaiith aoi?iaoo (Ee?a, 1991) ? a?ae?iaoiaoo a oaa?eiieoeoa?
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999).

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ei?iae, aaa?oi?noue, oaeyoa, ei?iia? aeiaaaee, aoi?iao,
a?ae?iaoiao, iieacieee e?ia?, iieiea, iieiceaa.

Ianthe Ae.I. Oeceieiae/aneia ninoiyiea i?aaiecia aeoaieinoaeueiuo ei?ia
e ?iaeeaoeony io ieo oaeyo iiae aeeyieai i?aia?aoia aoioniaie i?e?iaeu.
– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaoa?eia?iuo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.13 – oeceieiaey /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo. –
Eueaianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey aaoa?eia?iie iaaeeoeeiu
ei.N.C.Aaeeoeeiai, Eueaia, 1999.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iiauneeny eioa?an enneaaeiaaoaeae e i?aeoeeia e
eco/aieth a naeueneii oicyenoaa (?anoaieaaiaenoai, aeeaioiiaiaenoai,
aaoa?eia?iay iaaeeoeeia) a ea/anoaa i?e?iaeiuo aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo
aauanoa i?aia?aoia aoioniaie i?e?iaeu. E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie i?iaaaeaiu
anaai eeoue aaeeie/iua enneaaeiaaiey ii auyaeaieth aeaenoaey aoieiaoa e
aeae?iaoiaoa ia ei??aeoeeth iaiaia aauanoa o aeaa/iuo aeeaioiuo. A oiaea
a?aiy ionoonoaotho aeaiiua i oii, eae yoe i?aia?aou aeeytho ia
ei?ia-iaoa?ae e iiaoo ee iie iiauoaoue ?acenoaioiinoue oaeyo,
?iaeeaoeony io yoeo ei?ia.

Oeaeueth i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee auei eco/aiea oeceieiae/aneiai
ninoiyiey ei?ia e ?iaeeaoeony io ieo oaeyo ia oiia aeaenoaey i?aia?aoia
aoioniaie i?e?iaeu – aoieiaoa e aeae?iaoiaoa. Ana yoi eco/aeinue a oeaie
iaoue-ieiae-i?eieiae ia iaoaaieeci aeoaieinoaeueiuo ei?ia, ninoaa e
ea/anoai iieiceaa e ?acenoaioiinoue ?iaeaeaiiuo oaeyo.

Ia eco/aiea auee iinoaaeaiu neaaeothuea caaea/e:

— enneaaeiaaoue oeceieiae/aneia ninoiyiea ii ii?oieiae/aneei e
aeioeie/aneei iieacaoaeyi e?iae, yia?aaoe/aneiio iaiaio o
aeoaieinoaeueiuo ei?ia;

— eco/eoue ninoaa e ea/anoai iieiea e iieiceaa o iiuoiuo ei?ia
aieooeineie ii?iaeu;

— auyaeoue oeceieiae/aneia ninoiyiea oaeyo, iieo/aiiuo io iiuoiuo ei?ia
e onoie/eainoue eo e caaieaaaieyi;

— ii?aaeaeeoue yooaeoeaiinoue i?aia?aoia aoioniaie i?e?iaeu aeey
ei??aeoeee iaiaia aauanoa e iiauoaiey ?acenoaioiinoe ei?ia-iaoa?ae e
?iaeeaoeony io ieo oaeyo.

?acoeueoaou iaoeo enneaaeiaaiee iieacaee, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee
nooinoieiiai ia?eiaea o ei?ia nieaeaaony eioaineaiinoue ieeneeoaeueiuo
oeaiaauo i?ioeannia, a e?iae – niaea?aeaiea aaiiaeiaeia, iauaai aaeea,
aeueaoieiia, ii/aaeiu, aetheicu, aeoaieia A e ea?ioeia, iaeiia?aiaiii
oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea aeiaoeeiia e iai?aaie/aneiai oinoi?a.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?eiaiaiea aoieiaoa aeoaieinoaeueiui ei?iaai
ia?aioa?aeueiui iooai a aeica 2 ia/ea aeeaie iannu n eioa?aaeii a 3 aeiy
ia i?ioyaeaiee 6 iaaeaeue iiauoaao niaea?aeaiea y?eo?ioeeoia,
aaiiaeiaeia, iauaai aaeea, aeueaoieiia, naiaiaeiuo aieiieeneio, aeoaieia
A, eaeueoeey, eeneioiie aieinoe, noeioee?oy oaeei ia?acii iaiaiiua
i?ioeannu, niinianoaoy ?inoo e ?acaeoeth ieiaea, ?iaeaeaieth aieaa
aeecianiiniaiiai iioiinoaa.

Aeieacaii, /oi eniieueciaaiea aeae?iaoiaoa a aeica 100 ia/ea iannu oaea
aeoaieinoaeueiui ei?iaai i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth iio?aaeaiey eenei?iaea
e yia?aaoe/aneiai iaiaia, eiee/anoaa y?eo?ioeeoia e niaea?aeaieth
aaiiaeiaeia a e?iae, eciaiaieth eaeeioeeoa?iie oi?ioeu, a /anoiinoe
nieaeaieth o?iaiy yiceiioeeia e iiiioeeoia, iiauoaieth eiioeaio?aoeee
iauaai aaeea, naiaiaeiuo aieiieeneio, ii/aaeiu, e?aaoeieia e
iai?aaie/aneiai oinoi?a. Eniieueciaaiea i?aia?aoa niinianoaoao
eciaiaieth ninoaaa e ea/anoaa iieiceaa ia i?ioyaeaiee ia?auo 36 /ania ii
n?aaiaieth n eiio?ieai (ii nooiio aauanoao, aee?o, aaeeo, aeueaoieio e
aeiaoeeio), /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iiceoeaiii aeeyiee aeae?iaoiaoa ia
aeeeoaeueiia iaiaauaiea iieiceaa iniiaiuie ieoaoaeueiuie aauanoaaie.

Oaeyoa, ?iaeaeaiiua io ei?ia, eioi?ua iieo/aee aeae?iaoiao eiaee aieaa
aunieia iio?aaeaiea eenei?iaea, yia?aaoe/aneeo cao?ao, niaea?aeaiea
aaiiaeiaeia, eiioiiaeiaoeeiia, naiaiaeiuo aieiieeneio, aeoaieia A, /oi
niinianoaiaaei eioaineaiiio ?inoo oaeyo a ia?eiae ?acaeoey a oo?iaa
iaoa?e e a ia?aua 21 aeaiue iinoiaoaeueiiai ia?eiaea. I?e ?iaeaeaiee
aeeaay ianna o ieo auea aieueoa ia 2,8 ea, a n?aaeianooi/iue i?eaan – ia
15,38 % ii n?aaiaieth n eiio?ieai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ei?iau, aa?aiaiiinoue, oaeyoa, ei?iiaua aeiaaaee,
aoieiao, aeae?iaoiao, iieacaoaee e?iae, iieiea, iieiceaa.

Massyuk D.M. The influence of humus preparations on physiological state
of down-calving cows and calves born from them. – Typescript.

The thesis for a Candidate of Veterinary Science degree. Speciality
03.00.13 – human and animal physiology. The Lviv Academy of Veterinary
Medicine named after S.Z. Gzhytskyi, Lviv, 1999.

The thesis describes the investigations into the effect of parenterally
applied huminat onto the blood count in down-calving cows. It has been
revealed that this preparation normalizes metabolic processes in cows
and improves the vitality of their offspring. The dosage of hydrohumat
has been precisely estimated as well as its positive impact on milk
quality. The application of hydrohumat in down-calving cows has improved
the metabolism and energy potential in cows. Colostrum from cows treated
with hydrohumat contained more nutrients – fat, casein and
lactoglobulinum in particular. Calves born from cows in the test group
were less susceptible to diseases as compared to the same age calves in
the control group. The principal results of the investigation stated in
the thesis have been included into the methodological recommendations on
the research into huminat (Kyiv, 1991) and hydrohumat (Dnipropetrovsk,
1999), administration in animals.

Key words: cows, pregnancy, calves, feed additives, hyminate,
hydrohumat, blood count, milk, colostrum.

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