IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI IAOA??AEICIAANOAA ?i. ?.I.O?AIOeAAE*A

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

IAO?IANUeEEE A?oae?e ss?ineaaiae/

OAeE 621. 762

O?CEEI-OAOI?*I? INIIAE

OA OAOIIEIA?*I? I?EIOeEIE IAeA?AEAIIss

OOIEOe?IIAEUeIEO A?AAe??IOIEO

EA?AI?*IEO IAOA??AE?A IA AAC?

AACEENIAAEO OOAIIEAAEEO NIIEOE

(Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.06 — Ii?ioeiaa iaoaeo?a?y

oa eiiiiceoe?ei? iaoa??aee)

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EE?A 1999 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ____________?oeiien
___________________________

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa . ?i.
?.I.O?aioeaae/a Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie

Nei?ioiae Aaea??e Aieiaeeie?iae/

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a

Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, Aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?

Eeneee Iaaei Noaiaiiae/, ?inoeooo Iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a IAIO ,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

(iaoeiaee nooi?iue, iaoeiaa caaiiy, i??caeua, ?i’y, ii aaoueeia?, i?noea
?iaioe, iinaaea)

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Nieii?i Na?a?e Ieoaeeiae/,

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAIO, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

(iaoeiaee nooi?iue, iaoeiaa caaiiy, i??caeua, ?i’y, ii aaoueeia?, i?noea
?iaioe, iinaaea)

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eoieoeueeee TH??e Aiaoie?eiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo», i?ioani? eaoaae?e aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo iaoa??ae?a oa
ii?ioeiai? iaoaeo?a??

(iaoeiaee nooi?iue, iaoeiaa caaiiy, i??caeua, ?i’y, ii aaoueeia?, i?noea
?iaioe, iinaaea)

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y:

Aeiiaoeueeee O?ceei — oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo IAIO, i. Aeiiaoeuee

(iacaa, a?aeae?e, a?aeiinoai, i?noi)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 22 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i _10_aiae ia can?aeaii?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 207. 03

?inoeoooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?. I. O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie

252142, i.Ee?a-142, aoe. E?aeeaeai?anueeiai, 3

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I.O?aioeaae/a, IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 30 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

Aaoi? i?ineoue Aan i?eneaoe ia aae?ano ?aaee a?aeaoe ia aaoi?aoa?ao (a
2-o aecaiiey?ao). A?aeaoe iiaeiai aooe iniaenoi Aaie i?aeienaiee ? oeae
i?aeien iiaeiai aooe caa??aiee ia/aoeith onoaiiae, a ye?e Ae
i?aoeth?oa. A?aeeeee ia? iinooieoe a Niaoe?ae?ciaaio a/aio ?aaeo ia
i?ci?oa ye ca 10 aei?a aei caoenoo aeena?oaoe??.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I?iaeiaa ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Ui??/ii o na?o? aeey iio?aa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy e
aeaeo?ioaoi?/ii? i?iieneiaino? i?iaeoeo?oueny ae?ia?a ?c niaoe?aeueii?
ea?ai?ee ia noio, aeecueeo aei 3 ie?ae. aeiea??a. A?eueoa 60 % oaeeo
ae?ia?a — oea ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoa??aee aeey aeaeo?ioaoi?ee
(ae?aeaeo?e/i? i?aeeiaeee, eiiaeainaoi?e, oa?eoe, ?acenoeai? iaoa??aee
aeey ??ciiiai?oieo aeao/ee?a, naini??a, aa?enoi??a ? o.ae.). Aei e?ioey
80-o ?ie?a on? oe? iaoa??aee io?eioaaeenue o iaaeao o?aaeeoe?eieo
i?aeoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia iaea?aeaiiy iae?ineii?/ii iaeii??aeieo ca
neeaaeii iaoa??ae?a oa ae?ia?a. I?ioa oae? iaoa??aee aaea ia iiaeooue
caaeiaieueieoe c?inoath/? iio?aae iiai? oaoi?ee. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui
ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeanoeaino? aeaiaioo ? ooieoe??th a?ae o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae iaoa??aeo, ? ?ano?ne iaoa??ae?a c iae?ineii?/ii
iaeii??aeiith ca neeaaeii no?oeoo?ith naaa ae/a?iaee. Iiaee ??aaiue
o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoa??ae?a iiaea aooe
caaacia/aiee ca ?aooiie iiaoaeiae iaiao?aeii? iae?ino?oeoo?e. O ca’yceo
c oeei c e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a a oaoiieia?? ea?ai?ee aeiee iiaee iai?yiie —
oaoiieia?y a?aae??ioieo iaoa??ae?a (aai a?ia?eiiiiceo?a), yeee iaea?aeaa
caaaeueio iacao «Ceramic laminated object manufacturing». Iia? iaoa??aee
noai?thaaeeny (ia?aaaaeii ia aac? ooaiieaaeeo ieneae?a) ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
oaoi?ee iie?eoo?a ye aeey iio?aa aa?aoe?eii? ? ?aeaoii? oaoi?ee, oae ?
aeey aeaeo?ioaoi?/ii? i?iieneiaino?.

Aeoaea aaeeeith oaoi?/iith i?iaeaiith a aeaeo?ioaoi?oe? ? noai?aiiy
aenieiaoaeoeaieo aia?ai-eiiaa?n?eieo nenoai, o ia?oo /a?ao, aeey
ia?aoai?aiiy aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a?? a oaieiao. Aeei?enoaiiy oaoi?ee
iie?eoo?a o oaoiieia?? a?aae??ioieo iaoa??ae?a c aaceeniaai? ea?ai?ee
aeey iaea?aeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?eeaae?a o oe?eyo aia?ai-ia?aoai?aiiy
(Kyocera Corp., Japan, 1989 ?.) iieacaei ia?niaeoeai?noue iiaiai
iai?yieo, aea i/?eoaaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia iaea?aeaee. Oea aoei iia’ycaii
c oei, ui oaoiieia?y iie?eoo?a aeicaieyea iaiineoe o?eueee aeoaea oiie?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?ioa?ee (aeanyoee i?e?ii), a aeey ?aae?caoe??
iaiao?aeii? iae?ino?oeoo?e iio??aii noai?thaaoe i?ioa?ee oiaueiith a
aeae?eueea i?e?iao??a.

Aaaeeeaith ? aeooaeueiith oiiaith noai?aiiy iiaeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
aeaiaio?a c a?aae??ioieo ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a ia iniia? aaceeniaaeo
ooaiieaaeeo niieoe ? iaeii/aniei ae??oaiiyi o??aaee i?iaeai:
iae?ino?oeoo?a (eiino?oeoe?y) a?aae??ioiiai iaoa??aeo — neeaae
iaoa??ae?a a?aae??ioieo (ooieoe?iiaeuei?) cii – oaoiieia?y. Ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie ?ic?aooieo ? oaoi?/ii? ?aae?caoe?? caaeaii? iae?ino?oeoo?e
a?aae??ioiiai iaoa??aeo caaacia/eoue caaeaio i?inoi?iao caeiiii??i?noue
ci?ie o?ce/ii? (ooieoe?iiaeueii?) aeanoeaino? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
aeaiaioa. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?iaeooaaiiy neeaaeo iaoa??ae?a
ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii a?aae??ioiiai eiiiiceoo caaacia/eoue caaeaiee
??aaiue eiai aeanoeainoae oa iaiao?aeii? aeiaaia?/iino?
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aeaiaioa. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?iaeooaaiiy ?
?aae?caoe?y no?eeiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano io?eiaiiy a?ia?eiiiiceoo
caaacia/eoue caaeaio iiaoi?thaai?noue (a?aeoai?thaai?noue)
ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeanoeaino? aeaiaioa ca oiia ianiaiai aeioneo ae?ia?a
iiaiai oeio.

I/aaeaeii, ui eiino?othaaiiy ? iaea?aeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo
a?aae??ioieo iaoa??ae?a — oea ianoaoe?iia?iee, iae?i?eiee,
aaaaoiaei??iee i?ioean ?c aaaaoueia aioo??oi?ie cai?ioieie ca’yceaie.
Oiio aeey ?ic?iaee no?eei? oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy iiaeo ea?ai?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a aeoaea aaaeeeai ?ic?iaeoe a?aeiia?aei? o?ce/i? iiaeae?. ?o
iniiao iiaeiai neeaaeaoe eiiiaeoiee, iai/iee ? aca?iicaeaaeiee
a?aeaeoie iaeiie/aieo oyaeaiue i?i o?ce/i?, o?ceei-o?i?/i? e ?io?
aeanoeaino? iaoa??ae?a c a?aooaaiiyi aieeao ia oe? aeanoeaino? i?ioean?a
?o iaea?aeaiiy, ui caaacia/eoue aea?? aoaeoeaieo ea?oth/eo aieea?a ia
neeaae, eiino?oeoe?th a?aae??ioiiai eiiiiceoo ? oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie
eiai iaea?aeaiiy.

?aae?caoe?y iiaiai iai?yieo a oaoiieia?? ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a ia
iiaeeeaa aac oe?ieiai i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ui iaiao?aeii, o
ia?oo /a?ao, aeey ooi/iaiiy no?aoaa?? ? iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue,
oi?o?eaoe?? oiia ?nieo?a, a oaeiae ?icoe?aiiy iaeanoae canoinoaaiiy
iiaeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo eiiiiceo?a.

O ca’yceo c aeeeaaeaiei ?iaioe, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai
iiaeo oei?a nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a, ui iathoue
oi?eaeuei? aeanoeaino?, ? ?aae?caoe?y yeeo iaiiaeeeaa o?aaeeoe?eieie
niiniaaie, ? aacoiiaii aeooaeueieie. Aeooaeuei?noue oeeo ?ia?o
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae ? oei, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue a
?aieao 8 aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai oa iaoeiai -aeine?aeieo oai, eio??
aeeiioaaeenue ca?aeii c iinoaiiaaie AeEIO oa ?ioeo aee?aeoeaieo i?aai?a
(iiia?e aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0193U028671, 0193U28799, 193U028772 oa
?io?).

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea o?ce/ieo iniia ? oaoiieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a
noai?aiiy iaoiaeaie ii?ioeiai? iaoaeo?a?? iiaiai iieie?iiy aaaaoioacieo
ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a, ui neeaaeathoueny c aeae?eueeio ??ciiiai?oieo
iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo niieoe, aca?iia
?icoaooaaiiy yeeo a ia’?i? nooe?eueii ea?ai?/iiai ae?iao ci?ith?oueny
oe?eani?yiiaaii aeey ?aae?caoe?? iioeioio ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeanoeaino?
eiiiiceoa, a oaeiae noai?aiiy (c aeei?enoaiiyi ii?aoeueiaaieo
i?eioeei?a) iiaiai oeio ea?ai?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a aeey
aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo canoinoaaiue.

Iniiai? caaea/?. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe
oae? caaea/?:

1. anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ? aeine?aeeoe
ii?oieia?th i?e?ino?oeoo?e ?cieyoe?eieo ? ?acenoeaieo oac aaaaoioacieo
ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a c a?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui i?ioeane ?oiueiai ni?eaiiy
i?io?eathoue a oiiaao aaoa?ioacii? aca?iiae?? o aaiiao?e/ii iaiaaeaiiio
ia’?i?, a oiio /ene? ca o/anoth aca?iiae?th/i? ca?iia?aie/ii? ??aeeie
aeey nenoaie c iaiaaeaii? ?ic/eii?noth eiiiiiaio;

2. noai?eoe iaoiaeeee e aenia?eiaioaeuei? noaiaee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a, neeanoe ianii?oe
eiioeaio?aoe?eieo ? oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ?acenoeaieo ?
ae?aeaeo?e/ieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? aaceeniaai? ea?ai?ee ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a, aeeiiaieo ?c ?oi?i
canoinoaaiiyi;

3. aea/eoe aca?iica’ycee “i?e?ino?oeoo?a – aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue” aeey
aaaaoioacieo a?aae??ioieo ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a ? ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ici??o iii?o ?acenoeaieo eiiiiceo?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae
i?e?ino?oeoo?e ? eiioeaio?aoe?? oace aeniei? i?ia?aeiino? c a?aooaaiiyi
aaiiao??? ?acenoeaii? iaeano? a?aae??ioiiai iaoa??aeo ? oaiia?aoo?ii —
/aniaeo ia?aiao??a oaoiieia?/iiai ?aaeeio eiai iaea?aeaiiy;

4. ii?aoethaaoe o?ce/io iiaeaeue aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oa ?? oaiia?aoo?ii?
caeaaeiino? aeey iie?e?enoae?/ieo iaiaeii??aeieo ea?ai?/ieo ia’?eo?a
oeio “ae?aeaeo?ee – i?ia?aeiee”, aeaeo?iia?aianaiiy o yeeo
cae?enith?oueny a iaiaaeaiiio i?inoi?? ooieoe?iiaeueii? ciie, a
i?e?ino?oeoo?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ae?aaeaiith ai?cio?ii??th, a oaeiae
aeey aeiaaeeo, eiee aeaeo?iia?aianaiiy cae?enith?oueny o ea?ai?/iiio
ia’?eo?, ui i?aeaea?oueny iaoai?/iiio iaaaioaaeaiith;

5. ?ic?iaeoe iiaee oei ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a ia iniia? aaceeniaaeo
ooaiieaaeeo niieoe — a?aae??ioi? ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeaiaioe oe?eueiaiai
i?ecia/aiiy, ii?aoethaaoe i?eioeeie iioei?caoe?? niieo/aiiy iaoa??ae?a
aeey ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo iaoa??ae?a (OAI)
aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy, ?ic?iaeoe neeaaee ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oa
?acenoeaieo iaoa??ae?a eiiiiiaio?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy
?oi?o aeanoeainoae, ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy ea?ai?/ieo eeno?a ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?io?e?a eiiiiceoo c oeeo iaoa??ae?a aeey caaacia/aiiy
iaiao?aeii? no?oeoo?e aca?iica’yce?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii a ianyc? OAI;
?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/i? i?eioeeie ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii ooai?aiiy
i?e?ino?oeoo?e ooieoe?iiaeueiiai a?aae??ioiiai eiiiiceoo, caniiaai? ia
ci?i? o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? eiiiiiaio?a i?ae aieeaii oaiia?aoo?ii —
/aniaeo /eiiee?a, oeneo ? neeaaeo na?aaeiaeua ni?eaiiy;

6. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeee eiio?ieth yeino? ? i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no
ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey ?iaioe a oiiaao iaeii/aniiai aieeao
iaoai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ? oaiia?aoo?e, a oaeiae
ia?oeioth/? iaoiaeeee ioe?iee i?e?ino?oeoo?e ?aaeueiiai ?acenoeaiiai
ia’?eoo;

7. ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii canoinoaaiith ooieoe?iiaeueieo
a?aae??ioieo aeaiaio?a aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy a neeaae? aoce?a ?
ono?i?a iiai? oaoi?ee.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaea?aeaiiy iaoa??ae?a. Aeine?aeaeoaai? iaoa??aee aeaioiaeyeeny
ia?aaaaeii c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy (a na?aaeiaeu?
NI) a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie (?II), aeaye?
aeine?aei? c?acee ni?eaeeny o na?aaeiaeu? N2 a ?inoeooo? neea ?
ea?ai?ee (Aa?oaaa, Iieueua) ? ia i?aei?e?inoa? «Oaoiieia?? oiiei?
ea?ai?ee» («FCT», ?ueiaeaioaeue, I?ia//eia); ia inoaiiueiio
i?aei?e?inoa? oaeiae aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aee ii ni?eaiith a?aae??ioieo
iaoa??ae?a iaoiaeii ?cinoaoe/iiai aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy (PN2= 800 IIa).
Oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?ioa?e?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo
iaoa??ae?a aea/aany ia onoaoeoaaii? i?aei?e?inoaa “?ioai” (Ee?a,
Oe?a?ia) oa «Eaai?aoi??? ia?aaeiai? ea?ai?ee» («Bach & Co», Aa?e?i,
I?ia//eia). Ne?iaeii? iaoa??aee aeey aeaioiaeaiiy c?ace?a aoee iaaeai?
?II IAI Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae i?aei?e?inoaaie “?ioai” (Oe?a?ia) oa “ Bach
& Co ” (I?ia//eia).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeo ? no?oeoo?e. Canoiniaoaaee noaiaea?oi? iaoiaeeee
oa iaoiaee aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? ? oaciaiai aiae?co, a oaeiae noaiaea?oi?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo ii?ioe?a o ?II IAI
Oe?a?ie oa o O?e?? ?inoeoooo aoiiii? aia?a?? ?i. Eo?/aoiaa (i.
O?i?oeuee, ?in?y).

Aei?? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae. Aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue ?acenoeaieo oa
?cieyoe?eieo eiiiiceo?a aei??thaaee a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 20-1500°N a
aeaeo?e/iiio iie? 0,1-100 A/ii i?e u?eueiino? oieo 0,03-100 A/ii2,
ia?aaaaeii ia onoaoeoaaii? ?II IAI Oe?a?ie. Niaeo?e aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny o Aa?oaanueeiio iie?oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? (Iieueua).
Iaoai?/i? ia?aiao?e oa ae?aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? iaoa??ae?a aei??thaaee
a ?II IAI Oe?a?ie, eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oa
aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? i?ae aieeaii ia?inoath/iai iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeiny a ?inoeooo? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?iaeai oaoi?ee oa o
Aa?oaanueeiio iie?oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? (i. Aa?oaaa, Iieueua).

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo a?aee o/anoue ni?a?ia?oieee oaeeo i?aai?caoe?e: ?II
IAI Oe?a?ie, O?e?y IEOA ?II IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Iae??aea), i?aei?e?inoai
«?ioai» (i. Ee?a, Oe?a?ia), O?e?y ?inoeoooo aoiiii? aia?a?? ?i.
Eo?/aoiaa (i. O?i?oeuee, ?in?y), Aa?oaanueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo (i.
Aa?oaaa, Iieueua) oa “Bach & Co”

(i. Aa?e?i, I?ia//eia).

Aeinoia??iinoue oa iaa?oioiaai?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ?
aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe?? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny: aaeeeei ianyaii
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, io?eiaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno no/anieo,
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeiiiaiththoue iaeei iaeiiai; noaoenoe/iith
ia?iaeith aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi AII; iiceoeaieie
?acoeueoaoaie noaiaeiaeo ? i?iieneiaeo ?nieo?a iiaeo ea?ai?/ieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a; aoaeoeaiith ?aae?caoe??th oaoiieia?? a
ae??aiina??eiiio ae?iaieoeoa? oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a a
aeaeo?ioaoi?oe?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aia?oa ii?aoeueiaaii i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii ooai?aiiy iio??aii?
ii?oieia?? i?e?ino?oeoo?e ooieoe?iiaeueiiai a?aae??ioiiai eiiiiceoo, ui
aacothoueny ia aeiai?? iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy iaoa??ae?a aeey
ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii OAI oa o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? eiiiiiaio?a ye ia aoai?
oi?ioaaiiy ea?ai?/ieo eeno?a ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?io?e?a OAI oa
neeaaeaiiy eiiiiceoo, oae ? ia aoai? ni?eaiiy. Oe? i?eioeeie yaeythoueny
iniiaith oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? aaceeniaaeo
ooaiieaaeeo niieoe;

Aia?oa nenoaiaoe/ii aeine?aeaeai? e?iaoe/i? caeiiii??iino? oa aecia/ai?
iaoai?cie aca?iiae?? eiiiiiaio a aaiiao?e/ii iaiaaeaiiio i?inoi?? a
oiiaao ni?eaiiy a i?enooiino? aca?iiae?th/i? ??aeei? oace c iaiaaeaiith
?ic/eii?noth eiiiiiaio (ye aeey ?cieyoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia?
b-i?o?eaeo e?aii?th oa I’-n?aeiio, oae ? aeey ?acenoeaieo ea?ai?/ieo
eiiiiceo?a ?c o??? ae iniiaith, aea c aeiaaaeaie TaN, ZrC, HfC, B4C,
SiC) o i?ioeanao aaoa?ioacii? aca?iiae?? i?e aa?y/iio i?anoaaii?
iaoa??ae?a o ??ciiiai?oieo na?aaeiaeuao (acio, a?aii, aaeooi, iia?o?y )
? a i?enooiino? i?iaeoeo?a i??ie?co i?aai?/ieo niieo/ieo.

Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aia?oa aeicaieeee i?iaiicoaaoe aieea
ii?oieia?? i?e?i- oa iae?ino?oeoo?e ia aeaeo?e/i?, iaoai?/i? oa
oaieio?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ?cieyoe?eieo oa ?acenoeaieo iaoa??ae?a
ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a. Iiae?ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoee i?iaaaeai? nenoaiaoe/ii ? c a?aooaaiiyi iiaeaeueoiai aieeao
ii?oieia?? iae?ino?oeoo?e ia caeiiii??iino? i?io?eaiiy i?ioean?a
aia?aiiai?io ia iiaa?oi? ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia oa iaa?oioiaaia iiaeaeue, eio?a, c iaeiiai aieo,
?ice?eaa? o?ce/io i?e?iaeo iaiiiioiiiino? oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino?
iii?o aaaaoioacieo ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a, a, c ae?oaiai aieo, ?ica’yco?
«cai?ioith» caaea/o — aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i ii?oieia?th
no?oeoo?e ea?ai?/iiai eiiiiceoo aeoiaey/e c aei??thaaiue aaee/eie eiai
iii?o a aecia/aieo oaiia?aoo?ieo oiiaao. Oea ??oaiiy aeicaiey?
iaea?aeoaaoe ?acenoeai? aeoeai? i?ioa?ee OAI, ui naiinoaa?e?cothoueny a
/an? ?iaioe, a oea caaacia/o? iaae?eio ?iaioo a?aae??ioiiai eiiiiceoo a
?aaeei? aei?ii?ithaaiiy oaieiaeo iioie?a aaeeei? aonoeie.

Oaeineiiaeaii o?ce/io iiaeaeue aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ea?ai?/iiai iaoa??aeo
oeio “ae?aeaeo?ee – iaoae” ia i?aenoaa? a?aooaaiiy yaeu, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny ia iaaeao ca?ai e?enoae?o?a oace aeeth/aiiy i?ae /an
i?io?eaiiy /a?ac ieo no?oio. Ia aac? oaeineiiaeaii? iiaeae? aia?oa
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee ii?oieia?? no?oeoo?e oaeiai eiiiiceoo,
caniiaaia ia ?a?no?aoe?? eiai aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a caaeaieo oiiaao, a
oaeiae anoaiiaeaii e?euee?niee aca?iica’ycie i?ae ?ic?aooieiaeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?e?ino?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo ? ia?aiao?aie oaoiieia?/iiai
i?ioeano eiai iaea?aeaiiy, ia iniia? yei? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia
aoaeoeaia iaoiaeeea oi?aae?iiy neeaaeii iaoa??aeo oa aeacaieie
ia?aiao?aie.

Aea/aii aieea iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?ioeane aeaeo?iia?aiino a
ea?ai?/iiio ia’?eo?. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia o?ce/ia iiaeaeue, ui aeicaiey?
a?aooaaoe aieea oa?iiiaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue
eiiiiceoo. Ia iniia? oe??? iiaeae? noai?aii iiaee iaoiae o?i?oiiai
eiio?ieth yeino? aaeeeiaaaa?eoieo ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a aai OAI, ui
aeicaiey? c aenieith aeinoia??i?noth i?iaiicoaaoe oa?i?i neoaeae
ae?iao.

Ia iniia? anoaiiaeaieo aaoi?ii caeiiii??iinoae aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea i?iaeooaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aeaiaioa aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai
i?ecia/aiiy ia iniia? iioei?caoe?? oa?aeoa?enoee ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii
a?aae??ioiiai iaoa??aeo. Aia?oa aiia canoiniaaia aeey iaea?aeaiiy ia
aac? aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo niieoe iiaiai oeio eiiaa?n?eieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a, a naia: nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo iaa??aa/?a, niieo/aieo c
aaeanoieie ?acenoi?aie ea?ai?/ieo ai?oa??a, a oaeiae ae?aeaeo?e/ieo
i?aeeiaeie ?c aiiioiaaiith eiiooaoe??th.

Iiaecia oaoi?/ieo ae??oaiue aeena?oaioa i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ?a?iiaenueeei
iaoaioii (Pat. 94917644.0-2211 Europ., MKI H05B 3/14).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa ?aae?caoe?y io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aaoi?ii oia?oa
?aae?ciaaii:

Iiaa iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoioa?iaiai a?aae??ioiiai ea?ai?/iiai
eiiiiceoa oe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy iaoiaeii iioa?iaiai niieo/aiiy
i?eaioiaaieo i?ea?iaeueiei niiniaii caaioiaie ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii (a
a?aeiia?aeiino? c caaeaiith noaiith niieo/aiue), ui caaacia/o?
?aae?caoe?th i?inoi?iaiai iaeneioio o?ce/ii? aeanoeaino? i?e caaeaiiio
?ano?n? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aeaiaioo;

I?ea?iaeueiee niin?a eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a, ui caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue
?aae?caoe?? ia?oeioth/iai eiio?ith yeino?, aai, ui aeicaiey? ii
aeaeo?io?ce/iei aeanoeainoyi ?iaeoe ei?aeyoe?th c ?ioeie o?ce/ieie
aeanoeainoyie ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a;

Iiaee oei ea?ai?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?eeaae?a oe?ieiai i?ecia/aiiy, ui
neeaaeathoueny c e?eueeio iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo
niieoe, aca?iia ?icoaooaaiiy eio?eo a ia’?i? nooe?eueiiea?ai?/iiai
ae?iao ci?ith?oueny oe?eani?yiiaaii aeey ?aae?caoe?? iioeioio
ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoo.

Ii?aoeueiaaiee oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean aoei cai?iaaaeaeaii o aeine?aeii —
i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai ia aeaio i?aei?e?inoaao (o Iae??anueeiio IEOA
?II IAI Oe?a?ie oa ia i?aei?e?inoa? “?ioai ” (i. Ee?a)).Ai?iaaaeaeaia
oaoiieia?y oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany aenieith no?ee?noth aei ae?? aeiaaeeiaeo
cao?thth/eo ia?aiao??a. Iiaee i?ioean io?eiaiiy nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeaiia iniiaieie ia?aaaaaie:

Aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe oae? ea?ai?/i? ae?iae, eio?? ia iiaeooue aooe
io?eiai? a ?aieao o?aaeeoe?eieo oaoiieia?e;

Caaacia/o? aaea?/? a?eueoee aeo?ae ye?nieo ae?ia?a i?e oeo naieo
ne?iaeiieo oe aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?aoao, i?ae o?aaeeoe?eiee i?ioean
io?eiaiiy ae?ia?a c aaceeniaai? ea?ai?ee.

A ?aieao oeueiai i?ioeano aoee aeiouai? iia? ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?eeaaee
aeey eaca?ii? oaoi?ee – noi?uai? ai?oa?e aaci?ic?yaeieo eaia?
oaoiieia?/ieo eaca?ieo onoaiiaie, ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?eeaaee aeey
i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee – ae?aeaeo?e/i? i?aeeiaeee ?c aiiioiaaiith eiiooaoe??th
oei aeeaeaiiy ? caie?, a oaeiae aenieiaoaeoeai? oa aeiiii?/i?
nooe?eueiiea?ai?/i? ia?aoai?thaa/? aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a?? a oaieiao –
iaa??aa/? oa ?io?a/a?aii? aei?ii?ithaa/?.

Iniiaa i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy noai?aieo a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a
caeeaaeaia a ?ic?iaeaieo caeiaoaa/ai i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo ii
canoinoaaiith nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo iaa??aa/?a ? ?io?a/a?aiieo
aei?ii?ithaa/?a o iiaooiaeo aeaeo?ii?eeaaeao ? i?eno?iyo iiai? oaoi?ee.
Nooe?eueiiea?ai?/i? iaa??aa/? e ?io?a/a?aii? aei?ii?ithaa/? ia iniia?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo iaoa??ae?a aoee aei?iaoaai? a?eueo i?ae ia
17 i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie, ?in??, Iieueu? ? I?ia//eie, a ?acoeueoao?
/iai aeiaaaeaia ?oiy aeniea aoaeoeai?noue, ui iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?io?a/a?aii? aei?ii?ithaa/? ? ea?ai?/i? iaa??aa/? ciaioothoue o 1,4 —
4,7 ?ace aeo?aoe aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?eno?i?i aeaeo?iiaa??ao. ?ic?iaeai?
caeiaoaa/ai ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?aae??ioi? iaoa??aee aeey i?eno?i?a
aeaeo?iiaa??ao ia I?aeia?iaei?e aenoaaoe? a i. Aeaeaio/ (Iieueua, 1993
?.) aoee aeciai? a?aeieie aeeieiia » Ca e?auee aeniiiao aenoaaee».

Noi?uai? ea?ai?/i? ai?oa?e c aaeanoieie ?acenoi?aie caaacia/eee aenieo
u?euei?noue ia’?iiiai caiiaiaiiy aaciaei ?ic?yaeii aaci?ic?yaeieo eaia?
NI2-eaca??a, i?aeaeueee aonoeio no?oio ?ic?yaeo, ? ca?eueoeee oa?i?i
neoaeae aaci?ic?yaeieo eaia? i?e cieaeaii? ?oi?o ianiaaaa?eoieo
oa?aeoa?enoee. I?aeeiaeee iiaiai oeio caaacia/eee i?aoeacaeaoi?noue
aeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a a caaeaiiio ae?aiacii? /anoio i?e aieea?
iaeiie?aoieo oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? i?e aeei?enoaii?
iai?a?ia?aeieeiaeo aeaiaio?a aeniei? iiooaeiino? ( aei 5 Ao/ni2), ui
?icn?th?oueny aac noai?aiiy i?eioniaiai oaieiiai?io.

?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae eiio?ieth yeino? (ai?iaaaeaeaiee ia eaoaae??
ea?ai?ee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Aa?oaanueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai
?inoeoooo) noai?th? i?eioeeiiai iia? iiaeeeaino? i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no
ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a, ui i?aoeththoue a neeaaeieo oiiaao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ocaaaeueiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeiiai? aaoi?ii aaciina?aaeiuei aai
eieaeoeaii oao?aoe?a i?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii. A inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo
caeiaoaa/ noi?ioethaaa iaoo ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, cae?eniea
iinoaiiaeo ?iaioe, aeae?aa iai?yiee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?coaaa
? ocaaaeueithaaa io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
ia i?noyoue ?aeae ? ?ic?iaie, ye? a iaeaaeaee ni?aaaoi?ai, c yeeie aoee
iaienai? iioae?eiaai? iaoeia? i?aoe?.

Aaoi?ii aoea aenoiooa ?aeay noai?aiiy OAI ia aac? ea?ai?ee c aaceeniaaeo
ooaiieaaeeo niieoe, i?aai?ciaaia i?iaaaeaiiy iaiao?aeieo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ye o ?aieao Aea?aeaaieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai, oae ?
a ?aieao i?aeaea?aeaaiiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa,
i?aai?ciaaia aeine?aeii — i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai OAI ca ?ic?iaeaiei
oaoiieia?/iei i?ioeanii ? aeiaaaeaia aeniea aoaeoeai?noue i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy iiaiai iieie?iiy nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
i?eno?i?a.

Iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue oae? ?aea? ? ?ic?iaee:

?aeay noai?aiiy iiaiai iieie?iiy ea?ai?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?eeaae?a
ia aac? a?aae??ioieo ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a c i?aai?ciaaiith
iae?ino?oeoo?ith ?c aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo niieoe;

?aeay aeei?enoaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ye no?oeoo?ii-/ooeeaiai
ia?aiao?a;

?aeay canoinoaaiiy OAI ia iniia? i?o?eaeo e?aii?th ye
nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo ?io?a/a?aiieo aei?ii?ithaa/?a ? iaa??aaeueieo
aeaiaio?a oe?ieiai i?ecia/aiiy e ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a ?oi?o i?aeoe/ieo
?nieo?a o ??ciiiai?oieo iiaooiaeo ? oaoiieia?/ieo i?eno?iyo;

?aeay ? i?aeoe/ia ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano oi?iiooai?aiiy
i?io?e?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii, caniiaaiiai ia aeeiai?/iiio i?anoaaii?
a’yceeo ea?ai?/ieo ian, ? niiniao oi?ioaaiiy iae?ino?oeoo?e OAI
a?aeiia?aeii aei iaiao?aeii? iiioaaeii? noaie;

?aeay ? i?aeoe/ia ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee ia?oeioth/iai ae?iaie/iai eiio?ieth,
a oaeiae eiio?ieth yeino? aioiaeo ae?ia?a, caniiaaieo ia iaeii/aniiio
aei??? ci?i aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? ? oaiia?aoo?e aai aeaeo?e/ii?
i?ia?aeiino? e aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?ae aieeaii
no?oio aai iia?eueii ia?inoath/iai iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Caeiaoaa/ai io?eiai? iia? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?acoeueoaoe a iaeano?
ii?ioeiai? iaoaeo?a?? ? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, ui o noeoiiino?
ae??oothoue aaaeeeao iaoeiai — i?eeeaaeio i?iaeaio – iaea?aeaiiy iiaiai
oeio ea?ai?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a ia aac? a?aae??ioieo
iaoa??ae?a ?c aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo niieoe aeey aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo
canoinoaaiue. Ca aaeeeee iniaenoee aianie o ?icaeoie i?iaeaie noai?aiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a ia iniia?
aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo niieoe caeiaoaa/ iaai?iaeaeaiee Aea?aeaaiith
i?ai??th Oe?a?ie a iaeano? iaoee ? oaoi?ee ca 1989 ?. (? 3384).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeena?oaioa aeiiia?aeaeenue ia 20 nai?ia?ao, ia?aaeao,
eiioa?aioe?yo ? eiia?anao. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe aoa ina?/aiee a 40
ioae?eaoe??, o oiio /ene?: o 11 ioae?eaoe?yo o ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo
aac ni?aaaoi??a, 29 ioae?eaoe?yo ?c ni?aaaoi?aie. I?e aeeiiaii? ?iaioe
aaoi?ii io?eiaii 2 iaoaioe.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a ? iaeiiai aeiaeaoea. O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iienaii noai
aeine?aeaeaiue ca oaiaoeeith aeena?oaoe??, a ?ioeo, ui neeaaeathoue
aenia?eiaioaeueio /anoeio, iienai? iaoiaee ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaaiai?ai? e ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae iiaeai?
caaaeuei? aeniiaee. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 219 iiceoe?e. Caaaeueiee
ianya ?iaioe: 338 noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ui ai?uo? 239 ?enoie?a
? 39 oaaeeoeue. O aeiaeaoeo, ui i?noeoue 22 noi??iee, i?eaaaeai? aeoe
i?i canoinoaaiiy aai ?nieoe io?eiaieo iaoa??ae?a ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo i?ioean?a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ei?ioei aeeeaaeai? oaia ? ianya aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeena?oaoe??,
aeacaiee ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?? c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie,
i?eaaaeai? iaoa ? iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? c?iaeaiee iaeyae aeine?aeaeaiue o na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?
a ?aieao i?iaeai, ui neeaaeathoue iaoo ? caaea/? aeena?oaoe??. Iieacaii,
ui on? caaea/?, ye? ?ica’ycothoueny a aeena?oaoe??, iiaeia ia’?aeiaoe o
/ioe?e a?oie.

1. I?iaeaie aeai?o ne?iaeie aeey neeaaeiaeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
a?aae??ioieo iaoa??ae?a ? oi?iiooai?aiiy i?io?e?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii
aeey oi?ioaaiiy iae?ino?oeoo?e a?aae??ioiiai eiiiiceoa, ui a?aeiia?aea?
aeiiaai niiaeeaa/a.

2. I?iaeaie eiinie?aeaoe?? a?aae??ioiiai eiiiiceoa i?e aca?iiae?th/i?
ca?iia?aie/ii? ??aeeie c a?aooaaiiyi caeiiii??iinoae i?ioean?a o?i?/ii?
aca?iiae?? ? oaciooai?aiiy a iaoa??aeao ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii i?ae /an ?o
ni?eaiiy i?ae aieeaii oaiia?aoo?ii — /aniaeo /eiiee?a, oeneo ? neeaaeo
na?aaeiaeua aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy;

3. I?iaeaie i?iaeooaaiiy neeaaeo ea?ai?/ieo ian aeey iaoa??ae?a
ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a, oa eiino?ththaaiiy
i?io?e?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii, a oaeiae oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a
iaea?aeaiiy OAI;

4. I?iaeaie na?oeo?eaoe?? ? eiio?ieth yeino? aioiaeo ae?ia?a ?
iai?aoaa?eeao?a c aaaaoioacieo iie?e?enoae?/ieo eiiiiceo?a.

Iieacaii, ui ia ?nio? caaaeueieo i?aeoiae?a, i?eaeaoieo aeey
aeei?enoaiiy i?e ae??oaii? ia?oi? a?oie i?iaeai; i?eaaaeaii
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o iniiae OAI aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy (i?o?eaeo
e?aii?th) ? aaciaiai i?ioeano ni?eaiiy a?aae??ioieo iaoa??ae?a (aa?y/a
i?anoaaiiy). Iieacaii, ui i?ioean aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy
i?o?eaeie?aii?eiaeo iaoa??ae?a cae/aeii cae?eniththoue o na?aaeiaeu?
acioo a oiiaao, ui i?aeoe/ii aeeeth/athoue ooai?aiiy ca?iia?aie/ii?
??aeeie.

I?ioa, yeui ci?ieoe na?aaeiaeua i?anoaaiiy, oa iioei?coaaoe
oaiia?aoo?ii — /aniaee ?aaeei i?ioeano oaeei /eiii, uia eiinie?aeaoe?y
eiiiiceoa a?aeaoaaeany ca o/anoth aca?iiae?th/i? ??aeei? oace, oi
c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue ?aae?coaaoe oae? no?oeoo?i? noaie, o yeeo
aenieii?oei? oaa?ae? /anoee iao?e/ii? oace c aenieei iiaeoeai i?oaeiino?
(i?o?eae e?aii?th) aoaeooue nooe?eueii ioi/ai? i’yeith oacith c iecueeei
iiaeoeai i?oaeiino? (ienei?o?eae e?aii?th), ui noai?eoue ia?aaeoiiae
aeey noai?aiiy iaoa??ae?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii OAI c aeiyoeiaith
no?eeino? aei oa?i?/ieo oaea??a. A?aeiiino? i?i aoaeue-ye? i?aeoe/i?
ae??oaiiy iiae?aieo no?oeoo?ieo noai?a o eiiiiceoao aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai
i?ecia/aiiy ia iniia? aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo niieoe a e?oa?aoo??
a?aenooi?.

Iieacaii, ui aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy neeaaeo ea?ai?/ieo ian ?acenoeaieo
ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a iaiiaeeeai aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?nioth/? o?ce/i?
oyaeaiiy i?i caeiiii??iino? eiioeaio?aoe?eii? ci?ie aeanoeainoae oeio
i?ia?aeiino? eiiiiceo?a “?cieyoi? – i?ia?aeiee”. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui
a e?oa?aoo?? iaia? ?aeeii? aeoiee uiaei o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee ia?aiao??a
ia?eieyoe?eieo ??aiyiue ? uiaei aca?iica’yceo oeeo ia?aiao??a ?c
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?e?ino?oeoo?e eiiiiceoa. Iieacaii, ui ?ic?iaea
aoaeoeaieo niinia?a ea?oaaiiy aeanoeainoyie ooieoe?iiaeueieo
a?aae??ioieo iaoa??ae?a aai ia?aiao?aie oaoiieia?/iiai ?aaeeio ?o
iaea?aeaiiy, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea i?inoeo ? iaae?eieo iaoiae?a ae?iaie/iai
aai o?i?oiiai ia?oeioth/iai eiio?ieth yeino? iiaeeeaa eeoa ia iniia?
?aoaeueiiai aea/aiiy aca?iica’yceo neeaae – oaoiieia?y – no?oeoo?a –
aeanoeaino?.

Oeeie ianoaaeiaie a iniiaiiio ? i?iaeeeoiaai? iinoaaeai? a ?iaio?
eiie?aoi? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iieno canoinoaaiiy caeiaoaa/ai o?aaeeoe?eieo
niinia?a iaea?aeaiiy ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a, iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o
neeaaeo, i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae, a oaeiae
?ic?iaoe? i?ea?iaeueieo ae?aaiinooth/eo iaoiaeee (eoo cii/oaaiiy
ca?iia?aie/iith ??aeeiith e?enoae?o?a iniiaii? ?a/iaeie, iaeii/ania
?a?no?aoe?y aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ? oaiia?aoo?e, a oaeiae
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oa aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? aeey c?ace?a, ui i?aeaeathoueny
aieeao no?oio aai iia?eueii ia?inoath/iai iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy) ?
i?ea?iaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo niinia?a oi?iiooai?aiiy ea?ai?/ieo eeno?a
?c iaoa??ae?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii ? oi?ioaaiiy iae?ino?oeoo?e OAI.
?ic?iaea oeeo niaoe?aeueieo iaoiaeee ? i?ioean?a aoea i?iaeeeoiaaia
iaiao?aei?noth ?aae?caoe?? a ianyc? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai a?aae??ioiiai
eiiiiceoa caaeaii? noaie c’?aeiaiue, a i?ea?iaeuei?noue ?aae?ciaaieo
caeiaoaa/ai niinia?a i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aeaea/ath eiio ?a?iiaenueeiai
iaoaioo.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeo ? no?oeoo?e iaoa??ae?a canoiniaai? o?i?/iee,
?aioaaiioaciaee, e?enoaeiiioe/iee aiae?c, ?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiee
i?e?iaiae?c, ?io?a/a?aiia niaeo?ineii?y, e?euee?niee iaoaeia?ao?/iee
aiae?c oa neaioth/a aeaeo?iiia i?e?ineii?y. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aia?aoo?o ?
iioeaee aecia/aiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ? oaieio?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a
eiiiiceo?a. I?e ii?aoethaaii? ?acoeueoao?a aei???a canoiniaai? iaoiaee
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Aeey aecia/aiiy e?aeiaiai eooo cii/oaaiiy ?icieaaii ca?iia?aie/ii?
??aeeie e?enoae?o?a iniiaii? oace ea?ai?/iiai eiiiiceoo caeiaoaa/ai
aoea iiaeeo?eiaaia a?aeiia iaoiaeeea “nii/eaath/i?” e?aie?. A?aeiia?aeii
aei aei?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee, ia i?aeeiaeoe? c iiia?aaeiuei nia/aiiai
iaoa??aeo iniiaii? oace ?ici?uaeany ne?a caaioiaea, neeaae yei?
a?aeiia?aeaa ?ic?aooieiaiio neeaaeo ca?iia?aie/ii? ??aeeie. C?acee
iii?uaeeny aei aaeooiii? ia/? (?c aeaiia ioai?aie a eiaeon? aeey
niinoa?aaeaiue). E?aie? ia i?aeeiaeoe? oioia?aooaaeeny e?iieaia?ith, a
eooe cii/oaaiiy aecia/aeeny ca aeiiiiiaith aei??thaaeueiiai i?e?ineiia.

Aeey ioe?iee ca?iiaiai neeaaeo ia?eieyoe?eiiai eeanoa?a ?acenoeaieo
iaoa??ae?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii OAI aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia i?ea?iaeueia
iaoiaeeea. ?? nooi?noue iieyaa? a iaeii/ani?e ?a?no?aoe??
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ? oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oi? a?aae??ioiiai eiiiiceoa, ui
iaa??aa?oueny i?ae ae??th aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio, ui i?io?ea? /a?ac iueiai.
Aaoi?ii anoaiiaeaiee ei?aeyoe?eiee aca?iica’ycie i?ae aonoeiith no?oio
(i?e ye?e aeinyaa?oueny aecia/aia oa?aeoa?enoe/ia oaiia?aoo?a) ?
a?aeiiniei ai?noii o neeaae? ia?eieyoe?eiiai eeanoa?a ae??aieo ? a?oaeo
no?oeoo?ieo o?aaiaio?a. Anoaiiaeaiee aca?iica’ycie iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaiee o ae?iaie/iio eiio?ie? aeey iia?aoeaii? ioe?iee oa?aeoa?o
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy a?aae??ioiiai ea?ai?/iiai iaoa??aeo.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ??aiy aioo??oi?o iai?oa ?ic?iaeaia i?ea?iaeueia
iaoiaeeea, caniiaaia ia iaeii/aniiio aei??? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oa
aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? i?ae aieeaii ciai?oiuei? iia?eueii ia?inoath/i?
iaoai?/ii? iai?oae. Iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, yeei niiniaii aei ea?ai?/iiai
iaoa??aeo i?eeeaaea?oueny iaoai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy (ciai?oi?i aieeaii aai
/a?ac aeieeiaiiy aioo??oi?o oa?iiiaoai?/ieo iai?oa i?e iaa??aaii?
eiiiiceoo), o iueiio aeieeia ?oo aeaoaeo?a, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
aeonoe/ieie ooiaie. Aaoi? cai?iiiioaaa oaeee eiiiiceo iii?noeoe a
ciai?oi? aeaeo?e/ia iiea ? anoaiiaea, ui oa?aeoa?enoe/ia ci?ia
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ? no?oeoo?ii-/ooeeaei /eiieeii ? iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia ye ooieoe?iiaeueiee ia?aiao? aeey ae?aaiinoeee yeino?
ae?ia?a ? i?iaiicoaaiiy ?o ?ano?no.

Aeey oi?iiooai?aiiy caaioiaie ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii caeiaoaa/ai
canoiniaaiee iaoiae aeeiai?/iiai i?anoaaiiy aieiaeo ea?ai?/ieo ian
aeniei? a’yceino?. A?aeiia?aeii aei ?ic?iaeaiiai aaoi?a i?ioeanii,
ea?ai?/iee ii?ioie ci?oo?oueny c? ca’ycoth/ei oa ieanoeo?eaoi?ii, ? ca
aeiiiiiaith ?ic/eiieea ea?ai?/i?e ian? iaaea?oueny iaiao?aeia
a’yce?noue. A’ycea noanoaioe?y iiaea?oueny a u?eeio, ooai?aio
aaeueoeyie, ui iaa?oathoueny ia cono??/ iaeei iaeiiio, ?
ia?aoai?th?oueny a ea?ai?/iee eeno caaeaieo ?ici???a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
a?aei?iiino? o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeo?aeieo ii?ioe?a ia ?iaeyoue
i?eioeeiiaiai aieeao ia i?ioean aeeiai?/iiai i?anoaaiiy ? ye?noue
noi?iiaaieo oeei iaoiaeii ea?ai?/ieo eeno?a.

Aeey oi?ioaaiiy i?io?e?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii caeiaoaa/ai ?ic?iaeaiee
i?ea?iaeueiee niin?a, caniiaaiee ia ?aea? ooaiioaaiiy a ne?iio
ea?ai?/iiio eeno? c iaoa??aeo ?cieyoe?eii? ciie OAI iane??ciiai
i?io?eueiaaiiai ioai?o, ?ici?? yeiai a?aeiia?aea? i?io?eth ?acenoeaii?
aeeaaeee. C ?acenoeaiiai iaoa??aeo ( yeee caaacia/o? iaiao?aei? o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? ooieoe?iiaeueii? ciie) aeaioiaey?oueny aeeaaeea, ui oi/ii
a?aeiia?aea? ?ici??ai ae?oaaiiai ioai?o. Iio?i aeeaaeea iii?ua?oueny a
i?aeaioiaeaiee aeey ia? ioa??, aiane?aeie /iai ooai?th?oueny i?ioa?ie
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai a?aae??ioiiai iaoa??aeo. Iaeeaaeath/e, noi?iiaai? a
oaeee niin?a i?ioa?ee, iaeei ia iaeiiai a?aeiia?aeii aei iaiao?aeii?
noaie, aaoi? iaea?aeo? caaio?aeo ooieoe?iiaeueiiai a?aae??ioiiai
eiiiiceoo (Iae. 1).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy neeaaeo ? no?oeoo?e
aeo?aeieo caaioiaie ? nia/aieo c?ace?a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ? ?acenoeaieo
iaoa??ae?a, a oaeiae a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a.

Iieacaii, ui aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeniei? oa?iino?eeino? “ei?iona”
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai a?aae??ioiiai iaoa??aeo iaiao?aeii ?aae?coaaoe oaeo
eiai i?e?ino?oeoo?o, i?e ye?e ii iaaeao e?enoae?o?a b-Si3N4 ??aiii??ii
?iciiae?eyeany a oaca I’-n?aeii, ui noai?th?oueny a i?ioean?
eiinie?aeaoe?? eiiiiceoa i?e aca?iiae?th/i? ??aeei? oace.

Ii ?ic?iaeai?e iaoiaeeoe? aaoi?ii aea/ai? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie eooa
cii/oaaiiy ?icieaaii ca?iia?aie/ieo oac Al2O3–TiO2–SiO2; Al2O3–CaI–SiO2;
Al2O3–ZrO2–SiO2. E?enoae?o?a iniiaii? ?a/iaeie, a oaeiae oaciooai?aiiy
ia iaaeao ca?ai b-Si3N4.

Anoaiiaeaii (Iae. 2), ui iioeiaeuei? oiiae aeey ?nioaaiiy
ca?iia?aie/ii? ??aeeie acaeiaae iaae e?enoae?o?a b-Si3N4 noai?ththoueny
a iaoa??ae?, o yeee aeiaaaeyeany noi?o Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 a onoaiiaeai?e
i?iii?oe??. I?e/iio iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeieeiaiiy ??aeeie aoei
aeei?enoaiiy aeo?aeiiai ii?ioeo i?o?eaeo e?aii?th, ia iiaa?oi?
e?enoae?o?a yeiai ciaoiaeeany oiieee i?ioa?ie oace Si2ON2. Onoaiiaeaii,
ui aeey neeaae?a, aaaaoeo SiO2, ieaeiy iaaea iiyae ?icieaao
i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 150°N, oiae? ye aeey neeaae?a aaaaoeo TiO2 ? Al2O3,
aiia cieaeo?oueny ia 70 ? 290°N a?aeiia?aeii.

Iieacaii, ui cae/aeii niinoa??aathoueny o?e oa?aeoa?enoe/i? ciie: ciia
iie?ioaiiy cii/oaaiiy i?ioyaii i?ioeano, ciia iia??oaiiy cii/oaaiiy
?icieaaii e?enoae?o?a Si3N4 ? iaeo?aeueia ciia. sseui i?ioean
i?ioiaeeoue oae, ui eiai iiaeia a?aeianoe aei ia?oi? oa?aeoa?enoe/ii?
ciie ii eooo cii/oaaiiy, oi o nia/aiiio iaoa??ae? ca?iia?aie/ia oaca ?
iiiioaciei I’-n?aeiiii (Iae. 3).

?ic?iaeaiee aaoi?ii niin?a oi?ioaaiiy iae?ino?oeoo?e a?aae??ioiiai
eiiiiceoa ia?aaeaa/a? iiia?aaei? oi?iiooai?aiiy o aeaeyae? ea?ai?/ieo
eeno?a ia i?aai?/iiio ca’ycoth/iio. I?ae /an oaiia?aoo?ii? ia?iaee
(ni?eaiiy) OAI a?aeaoaa?oueny i??ie?c ca’ycoth/iai, ? i?iaeoeoe
i??ie?co aa?ooue o/anoue o aaoa?ioacieo ?aaeoe?yo, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue
i?ioean eiinie?aeaoe?? eiiiiceoa. O caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeei?a
oaiia?aoo?iiai ii?aoethaaiiy ?aaeoe?? ca o/anoth ca’ycoth/eo iiaeooue
i?eioeeiiai ci?ithaaoeny. Oae, o na?aaeiaeu? acioo ?iceeaaeaiiy eao/oeo
aoaea eoe ii ?aaeoe?? ooai?aiiy ai?aeo. Ai?ae aca?iiae?? c aeoeaaoi?ii
(Al2O3), noai?thth/e AlN, ? a n?aeiiia?e nenoai? c’yaeyoueny 27R-Al
iie?oeie, ui i?ecaaaeooue aei aeieeiaiiy n?oee o??uei o ae?ia?. O
na?aaeiaeu? CO ?iceeaaeaiiy eao/oeo i?ecaaaea aei ca?eueoaiiy
aoaeaoeaaiai caaaa/aiiy eiiiiceoa. I?e i??ie?c? i?aai?/ieo aeiaaaie , ui
i?noyoue eenaiue, aeae?ey?oueny aiaea ? i?ioiaeyoue ?aaeoe??
a?ae?aoaoe??, ui ni?eythoue ca?eueoaiith e?eueeino? ieneaeo e?aii?th a
iaoa??ae?, ui ni?ea?oueny, ? cieaeaiith ?ioaineaiino? i?ioean?a
aoaeaoeaaiai caaaa/aiiy – oei a?eueoiio, /ei a?eueoa e?euee?noue SiO2 o
cii? ?aaeoe??.

Aaoi?ii iioeaiaaii aea?? iaoaeiiiae?aieo i?o?eae?a ? ea?a?ae?a
ooaiieaaeeo niieoe ye oace aeiaaaee aeey iaea?aeaiiy ?acenoeaieo
eiiiiceo?a. sse e?eoa??e aaoi? aeei?enoiao? o?e o?ce/ieo ia?aiao?e:
i?i?iaeueio ?iaioo aeoiaeo, i?i?iaeueiee eiao?oe??io e?i?eiiai
?icoe?aiiy ? iaeneiaeueiee ieoiiee ii??. O ca’yceo c aeeeaaeaieie aoee
aea?ai? ?a/iaeie TaN, ZrC, HfC, SiC, B4C (o ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueii cia/eieo ia?aiao??a).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?noe? eiioaeoo /anoie, ui i?ia?aeieo aeeth/aiue
(TaN) ?c iao?e/iith oacith (Si3N4) i?io?eathoue aaoa?iaaiii —
eaoae?oe/i? ?aaeoe?? ca o/anoth iaoa??aeo iao?eoe? OAI ? na?aaeiaeua
i?anoaaiiy (NI aai N2), i?e/iio eaoae?caoi?aie i?ioeano aenooiathoue
niieoee cae?ca (FeSi) ? eenaiue (ye i?iaeoeo oa?i?/iiai ?iceeaaeaiiy
aoaeaeeneiai aaco). Aecia/aii oaciaee neeaae i?iaeoeo?a aca?iiae?? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? TaN o eiiiiceo? aeey aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy
o a?aeiiaiiio (NI) ? iaeo?aeueiiio (N2) na?aaeiaeuao oa o aaeooi?.
Iieacaii, ui i?e aa?y/iio i?anoaaii? o a?aeaoaeiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?
ooai?youeny ia?aaaaeii ea?ainee?oeeae (TaCxSiy) ? nee?oeeae (Ta5Si3)
oaioaeo, oiae? ye o iaeo?aeueii? – i?o?inee?oeeae (Ta5Si3N7) ?
nee?oeeae (TaSi2) oaioaeo. O aaeooi? ooai?youeny o? ae oace, ui e o
iaeo?aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?, aea c oaiaeaioe??th aei ca?eueoaiiy oo?eiaiiy
Ta5Si3.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia i?noe? eiioaeoo /anoie o nenoai? Si3N4-TaN (i?e
aeei?enoaii? Al2O3 o yeino? aeoeaaoi?a) iaoae aeoeaaoi?a (Al) i?aeoe/ii
ia i?iieea? a ca?ii TaN, a oaioae neaaei aeeooiaeo? a i?o?eae e?aii?th,
oae naii ye e?aii?e o TaN. O ?acenoeai?e nenoai? Si3N4 -ZrC o i?noeyo
eiioaeoo /anoie aeeth/aiue ?c Si3N4 ooai?youeny ea?aii?o?eaee oee?eii?th
(Iae. 4, a). O oe?e nenoai? aeeooc?y aoii?a oee?eii?th a i?o?eae
e?aii?th a?aenooiy, aea niinoa??aa?oueny aeeooc?y e?aii?th a /anoee ZrN.
Aeeaeia oaeiai i?iieeiaiiy ioe?ith?oueny ?ici??ii 3-4 m , a
eiioeaio?aoe?y e?aii?th a iiaa?oiaaiio i?ioa?eo /anoie ZrN neeaaea? »1%.
O nenoai? Si3N4–HfN niinoa??aaee ?ioaineaio aeeooc?th aoii?a aaoi?th a
i?o?eae e?aii?th, a e?aii?th e acioo – o /anoee ea?a?aeo aaoi?th.
Aeeaeia i?iieeiaiiy a iaio aeiaaeeao neeaaea? 2-4 m, a eiioeaio?aoe?y Hf
o i?o?eae? e?aii?th ia ia?aaeuo? 0,5%, oiae? ye eiioeaio?aoe?y Si o
ea?a?ae? aaoi?th aoea ia ??ai? 1,5 ian. %. sse ? a nenoai? c ea?a?aeii
oee?eii?th, niinoa??aaeiny ooai?aiiy ea?aii?o?eae?a aaoi?th. A on?o
aeiaaeeao ea?aii?o?eaee ooai?youeny ia oii? nee?oeeae?a MeSi2.

E?iaoeea ?aaeoe?e a aiae?ciaai?e nenoai? aecia/a?oueny a a?eueoiio
nooiai? oaiia?aoo?ith i?ioeano e o iaioiio – eiai o?eaae?noth. Noia?ia
oaeaee?noue aca?iiae?? aeniiiaioe?eii c?inoa? c i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e. I?e oa?aeoa?enoe/i?e oaiia?aoo?? aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy
aaoa?iaaiiee i?ioean iiaea ia?aeoe aei aeeooc?eii? iaeano?, o yei?
noaae??th, ui e?i?oo?, noa? aeeooc?eia ianiia?aianaiiy, a oea i?ecaaaea
aei aiiiaai?caoe?? oi?ie no?oeoo?iiai o?aaiaioa i?ia?aeiiai eeanoa?a
(Iae. 4, a,a).

Aeae, ?iciiae?e ? ?ici??e /anoie i?ia?aeii? oace ?acenoeaiiai
iaoa??aeo caeaaeaoue ye a?ae /enoioe ? aeenia?niino? aeo?aeiiai ii?ioeo,
oae ? a?ae na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio cae?enith?oueny eiinie?aeaoe?y
eiiiiceoa. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey eiiiiceo?a, aeaioiaeaieo ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi ii?ioe?a TaN, ui i?noyoue aeii?oeo Ta2N, aeeth/aiiy
ooai?youe iaeano? i?aeaeuaii? eiioeaio?aoe??, i???ioiaai? i?ae eooii
135° aei iai?yieo i?anoaaiiy. I?e aeei?enoaii? iaaeae??aiica?ienoeo
ii?ioe?a oaea oaenoo?a ia niinoa??aa?oueny .

?acenoeai? eiiiiceoe, eiinie?aeaoe?y yeeo a?aeaoaaeany a acio?,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaeeeei ?ici??ii i?ia?aeieo aeeth/aiue ( a?ey 3,5
iei), ui iathoue aeae aeoyaiooeo ae?ini?ae?a iaa?oaiiy c?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi inae 1,74:1 ? ni?yiiaaieo aeiaaith a?nnth i?ae eooii
135° aei iai?yieo i?anoaaiiy. sseui ii?ioie i?ia?aeiiai eiiiiiaioa
iiia?aaeiuei iaoai?/ii aeoeao?oueny (iai?eeeaae, i?ieaooaaiiyi), oa
aneiao?e/i?noue /anoie i?ia?aeieo aeeth/aiue ciaioo?oueny (1,44:1) i?e
caa??aaii? ?ici??o aeeth/aiue. Aeey eiiiiceo?a, io?eiaieo o
a?aeiiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, na?aaei?e ?ici?? aeeth/aiue – 2,25 iei,
aneiao?e/i?noue – 1,34:1. O eiiiiceoao ia iniia? iaeaiiai ii?ioeo
aeiaaaee a?ae??ciythoueny aeoaea iaeei ?ici??ii i?ia?aeieo
aeeth/aiueue: ?oi?e na?aaei?e ?ici?? – a?ey 1,5 iei i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii?
inae 1,47:1.

Ii?ioee Si3N4, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ye iniiaia oaca eiiiiceoo,
iiaeooue i?noeoe aeayeo /anoeo aeii?oee cae?ca, ui /anoi a?a?
eaoae?oe/io ?ieue o i?ioeanao aca?iiae??. Naia a i?noeyo neoi/aiiy
aeii?oeiai? oace FeSi2 aeyaey?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ?ioaineo?eaoe??
i?ioeano aaeiia?oaaiiy /anoie i?ia?aeii? aeiaaaee, ? a aaeiia?aoao, ui
ooai?eeeny, cae?ci ?icoaoiao?oueny ii iaae? i?ia?aeiiai aeeth/aiiy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a ye o aeaeyae? ie?aieo c?ace?a, oae ? o aeaeyae?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii o neeaae? ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a.

Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeoaai? ae?aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? eiiiiceo?a ia iniia?
I’-n?aeii?a, io?eiaieo a oiiaao aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy ?c aca?iiae?th/ith
??aeeith oacith. Anoaiiaeaii, ui naia a oeueiio aeiaaeeo oi?io?oueny
iaiao?aeiee aeaioaciee iaoa??ae, ui i?noeoue aeineoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue
( aeecueei 25 %) i?aeca?aiii? oace o aeaeyae? I’-n?aeiio ? e?enoae?oe
b-Si3N4. Oaea i?e?ino?oeoo?a caaacia/o? aeiyoeiai iecuee? cia/aiiy
ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? ? oaiaaina eooa ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ao?ao, a
oaeiae iecueeo aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue ?cieyoi?a (Iae. 5, a).

Oaieio?ce/i? aeanoeaino? aea/ai? ye aeey ae?aeaeo?e/ieo, oae ? aeey
?acenoeaieo eiiiiceo?a. O? ae neeaaee iaoa??ae?a ?cieyoe?eii? iao?eoe?,
aeey yeeo ie niinoa??aaee iaee?au? ?cieyoe?ei? aeanoeaino?, iieacaee
aenieo oaieii?ia?aei?noue (Iae. 5, a). Eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino?
?ic?iaeaiiai aeaioaciiai ae?aeaeo?e/iiai eiiiiceoo cae/aeii neeaaea?
60–72 Ao/i. Aaaaeaiiy aei neeaaeo iaoa??aeo aeiaaaie iaoaeiiiae?aieo
i?o?eae?a ci?ith? oeth aaee/eio, i?e/iio oae? ci?ie iae?i?ei? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? oace aeiaaaee. Aeiaaaea iaeeo
e?eueeinoae (2-5 %) aeayeeo i?o?eae?a (o ia?oo /a?ao, oeoaio ? i?ia?th)
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e c eiao?oe??ioii oaieii?ia?aeiino?
a?aeiia?aeii 72 ? 103 Ao/iE.

I?o?eae oaioaeo, ea?a?aee aaoi?th, oee?eii?th, ai?o, e?aii?th
i?ecaiaeyoue aei iiiioiiiiai cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa oaieii?ia?aeiino?
eiiiiceoo a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?oiuei? eiioeaio?aoe??, ? i?e ai?noo
aeiaaaee 20–30 % cia/aiiy ei?o?oe??ioo aaea ia ia?aaeuo? 17–40 Ao/iE.
Oaiei?ii?noue ?acenoeaieo eiiiiceo?a, ye i?aaeei, c?inoa? i?e
ca?eueoaii? ai?noo iaoaeiiiae?aii? aeiaaaee. I?ioa anoaiiaeaii, ui
oaiei?ii?noue ?acenoeaieo iaoa??ae?a, ui i?noyoue aeiaaaeo TaN, ?
?noioii ieae/ith ca oaiei?ii?noue iao?eoe? (iai?eeeaae, 770 ? 550
Aeae/ea a?aeiia?aeii aeey iao?eoe? ? eiiiiceoa, ui i?noeoue aeiaaaeo 5%
TaN).

Iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aoee aea/ai? ye aeey ?cieyoe?eii? iao?eoe?, oae ?
aeey aeayeeo ?acenoeaieo eiiiiceo?a (Si3N4–TaN, AlN –SiC). Anoaiiaeaii,
ui i?e oiio naiiio neeaae? noi?o? iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acenoeaiiai
eiiiiceoo iiaeooue ci?ithaaoeny a aeineoue oe?ieeo iaaeao a caeaaeiino?
a?ae na?aaeiaeua i?anoaaiiy ? oaiia?aoo?ii-/aniaiai ?aaeeio ni?eaiiy.
Iieacaii, ui noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia aeey ooai?aiiy ca?iia?aie/ii?
oace I’-n?aeiio ( ca ?aooiie ci?ie na?aaeiaeua i?anoaaiiy ? aei?noeiai
?aaeaiaiooaaiiy oaeaeeino? iaa??aaiiy e ioieiaeaeaiiy ae?iao, ui
ni?ea?oueny) i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?inoo no?eeino? OAI aei oa?iioaea??a. Oae,
aeey aaaaoeo I’-n?aeiiii neeaae?a aaoi? aeinya ?ici??o e?eoe/iiai
ia?aiaaeo oaiia?aoo? DO=880°N i?ioe cia/aiue DO = 580°N, cae/ieo aeey
i?o?eaeie?aii??ai? ea?ai?ee.

Aaeeeo oaaao aaoi? i?eae?ey? aea/aiith aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ?acenoeaieo
eiiiiceo?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo aeiaaaee ? ?ici??o /anoie aeeth/aiue
aeey iaoa??ae?a, i?e?ino?oeoo?a yeeo aeieeaaeii ?icaeyaeaeany a ?icae?e?
3. Ia Iae. 6 iieacai? oeiia? e?ea? ci?ie iii?o ia’?iiiai eiiiiceoo
Si3N4–ZrN, aeey yeeo oa?aeoa?ia iayai?noue aeae?eueeio ae?eyiie
iaiiiioiiiino?. Ia iaethieo oeacai? a?aie/i? a?aeoeeaiiy ?ici??o iii?o
i?e aeai?e eiioeaio?aoe?? (oiie? e?ea?, ui iaiaaeothoue caoo?eoiaaio
iaeanoue).

O iiaeaeueoiio aeeeaaeaii? (aeea. ?icae?e 5) aaoi? iieaco?, ui oe?
ci?ie iii?o ? ooieoe??th ii?oieia?? i?e?ino?oeoo?e oac ?acenoeaiiai
eiiiiceoo. Oeeie ci?iaie iiaeia aoaeoeaii ea?oaaoe, ci?ithth/e
aeenia?niee neeaae oace aeniei? i?ia?aeiino? ? a?aeiinii? ?ioaineaiino?
eiinie?aeaoe?? iao?e/ii? oace ? oace aeeth/aiiy, aaiaey/e a oeooo
eaaoth/? eiiiiiaioe, ci?ithth/e na?aaeiaeua oa oaiia?aoo?ii-/aniaee
?aaeei aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy.

Aea/ath/e iiaeaeueio nenoaio AlN–SiC, aeey yei? oa?aeoa?ii ooai?aiiy
aacia?a?aiiai ?yaeo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a, aaoi? iieacaa, ui a ?acenoeai?e
nenoai? ooai?eoueny ye i?ia?aeiee eeanoa? SiC a ?cieyoe?ei?e iao?eoe?,
oae ? ?cieyoe?eiee eeanoa? AlN o i?ia?aei?e iao?eoe? SiC. Oaeo
?acenoeaio nenoaio iaiao?aeii iienoaaoe a?aeiia?aeiith nenoaiith
ia?eieyoe?eieo ??aiyiue (Iae. 7). Aeiaeaaaiiy aeii?oie (CaF2), ui
ni?eythoue i/euaiith iaae e?enoae?o?a AlN ? aeoeaaoe?? ni?eaiiy
iao?e/ii? oace (? ooai?aiith oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a), i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ca?eueoaiiy iii?o eiiiiceoo. Aeiaaaea a nenoaio aeoeaaoi??a ni?eaiiy
i?ia?aeiiai eiiiiiaioa (La2O3, C) ni?ey? cieaeaiith iii?o eiiiiceoo ?
ciaioaiith e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? ooai?aiiy ye i?ia?aeiiai, oae ?
?cieyoe?eiiai eeanoa??a (Iae. 7). Oea iia’ycaii c i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy
naa?aaoaaiiy i?ia?aeieo aeeth/aiue ii iaaeao ?cieyoe?eieo ainaiae?a
(i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy iao?e/iino? nenoaie, ca A.A.Nei?ioiaeii) ?
caaaeueiei iiae??aithaaiiyi ca?ai iie?e?enoaeo. Aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?
?cieyoe?eii? iao?eoe? (Si3N4) i?eioeeiiai ia ci?ith? oa?aeoa?o
eiioeaio?aoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae iii?o ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoo yeui ia
ci?ith?oueny oa?aeoa? iao?e/iino? no?oeoo?e. Onoaiiaeaii, ui nooi?iue
iao?e/iino? no?oeoo?e cae/aeii iineeth?oueny c? ciaioaiiyi aca?iiae??
i?ae /anoeaie oace aeeth/aiiy ? iaoa??aeii iao?eoe?.

Iae. 7. Eiioeaio?aoe?ei? aei??e iii?o ?acenoeaieo eiiiiceo?a AlN-SiN
(oiano? e?i??)? Si3N4 — SiN (oiie? e?i??) Oo?eoiaa e?i?y — e?oa?aoo?i?
aeai? aeey eiiiiceo?a ?c iaiiii?ioe?a SiN

Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui nooi?iue iao?e/iino? no?oeoo?e caeaaeeoue a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? oace aeiaaaee ? ?? o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? a eiie?aoieo
oiiaao ni?eaiiy. Oiio aeey ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoo oa?aeoa?ii ooai?aiiy
ia iaei??? e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? On, a aeae?eueeio oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo
ii?ia?a. Oea oaa?aeaeaiiy aa?oi ?icoi?oe oae, ui, iai?eeeaae, aaiethoe?y
i?e?ino?oeoo?e ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoo i?ae aieeaii oaiia?aoo?e ni?eaiiy
aoaea i?ecaiaeeoe oi aei ooai?aiiy «aace?aeiueiai» eeanoa?a, oi aei eiai
?oeiaoe?? ? oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai «aace?aeiueiai» eeanoa?a aaea i?e ?io?e
eiioeaio?aoe??.

Aaoi? iieacaa, ui ii?? eiiiiceoo i?e i?ii?aeieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo
i?ia?aeieea neaaei caeaaeeoue a?ae iii?o iaoa??aeo iaiiaithaa/a ?
neeueii – a?ae ?ici??o ca?ai aeeth/aiue i?ia?aeieea. Aeey ?icoi?iiy ci?i
iii?o ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoa, ui a?aeaoaathoueny, iaiao?aeii aaanoe
iiiyooy «ii?? iaoaeiiiae?aiiai eeanoa?a reeMe » ? «ii?? ?cieyoe?eiiai
eeanoa?a reeDi «. Aaee/eia reeMe aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?enoe/iei
aaiiao?e/iei aei??ii iiiaeeiieiai i?ia?aeiiai aeeth/aiiy aai ?ici??ii
«ainaiaeth» i?ia?aeieo /anoie, o naith /a?ao, reeDi aecia/a?oueny iii?ii
reeMe ? oa?aeoa?enoe/iei aaiiao?e/iei ?ici??ii ?cieyoe?eieo
i?ae/anoeiaeo i?ii?aee?a. O caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ae??aieo ?
aaeeeeo /anoie o neeaae? i?ia?aeiiai ainaiaeth (no?oeoo?? i?ia?aeiiai
eeanoa?a) oa?aeoa?enoe/iee ii?? ?cieyoe?eiiai ? i?ia?aeiiai eeanoa??a
aoaea ??ciei iaa?oue i?e aeei?enoaii? iaeieo ? oeo aea o?i?/ieo niieoe.
Aaoi?ii anoaiiaeaii, ui aaiiao??y ?acenoeaii? iaeano? OAI iaeeaaea?
iaai? iaiaaeaiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy ye ?ici??o «ainaiaeth» i?ia?aeiiai
eeanoa?a, oae ? oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo ?ici???a i?ae/anoeiaeo ?cieyoe?eieo
i?ii?aee?a.

Aaoi? i?ecaiaeeoue aeai? i?i oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie ieoiiiai iii?o
?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoo e aiae?co? i?e/eie yaeua «iiceoeaiiai
oaiia?aoo?iiai eiao?oe??ioa iii?o». Anoaiiaeaii, ui yaeua iiceoeaiiai
OEI aeieea? i?e aecia/aieo ii?aeiaiiyo ?ici???a i?ia?aeieo /anoie o
neeaae? «ainaiae?a» aai a i?enooiino? ii?enoino?. I?eaiaeeoueny aia?a?y
aeoeaaoe?? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoo a iaeano?
i?ei?nii? i?ia?aeiino?.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui i?e iaa??aaii? ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoo i?ia?aei?
aeeth/aiiy ? i?ae/anoeia? i?ii?aeee i?aeaeathoueny aieeao coneeue ui
?icoyaothoue ? noeneothoue, aaoi? aeieeaaeii ?icaeyioa ci?ie
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ye ?acenoeaieo, oae ? ?cieyoe?eieo eiiiiceo?a i?ae
aieeaii ia?inoath/iai iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aaoi? iieacaa, ui
iaoai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ea?ai?/iiai c?acea aeeeeea? a iueiio ci?io
e?eueeino? ? ?ooeeaino? iin??a aeaeo?e/iiai ca?yaeo. Oea aeyaey?oueny a
oa?aeoa?ieo ci?iao aaee/eie no?oio a ciai?oiueiio eie? (Iae. 8), i?e/iio
aiie aeyaeythoueny aaea ia aoai? ii/aoeo i?yioaaiiy aaeain?e
aeeneieaoe?e i?ae aieeaii iaoai?/ii? iai?oae.

Ni?eueia ?a?no?aoe?y aeaeo?e/ii? i?ia?aeiino? ? neaiaee aeonoe/ii?
ai?n?? aeicaieeea ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeaio iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ??aiy
aioo??oi?o oa?iiiaoai?/ieo iai?oa o ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceoao ? ia ?oi?e
iniia? aoaeoeaii i?iaiicoaaoe ?ano?n ea?ai?/iiai eiiiiceoo i?e eiai
?iaio? a oiiaao aieeao oeeee?/ieo iaoai?/ieo aai oa?iiiaoai?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue.

I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y eiiaa?n?eieo i?eeaae?a ia aac? a?aae??ioieo
iaoa??ae?a i?ecaaea aaoi?a aei iaiao?aeiino? aeeiiaiiy niaoeeo?/iiai
aenia?eiaioo ii aeine?aeaeaiith caeiiii??iinoae oaieiiai?io ia iiaa?oi?
OAI i?e iaa??aaii? ?acenoeaieo iaeanoae a oiiaao i?iioneaiiy /a?ac ieo
aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oae? ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeaiaioe, ye nooe?eueiiea?ai?/i?
iaa??aa/?, iathoue ?yae iiceoeaieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo iniaeeainoae, oae?
ye: ia ?oi?e iiaa?oi? noai?ththoueny aenie? aonoeie oaieiaiai iioieo
i?e iae?e niiaeeaai?e iiooaeiino? (Iae. 9); niaeo? aei?ii?ithaaiiy
iaa??aa/a ia iniia? a?aae??ioiiai eiiiiceoa («Tesil-R») i?aeoe/ii
ca?aa?oueny c? niaeo?ii iiaeeiaiiy a?eueoino? iai?aai?/ieo ? i?aai?/ieo
niieoe ? ?aaeeeae?a (Iae. 10); ?ioaineai?noue aei?ii?ithaaiiy c?inoa? c
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oi?. Iiceoeaia cia/aiiy OEI ?acenoeaiiai
i?ioa?eo caaacia/o? aoaeoeaio naiinoaa?e?caoe?th aeaiaioa a i?ioean?
eiai ?iaioe.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iiaeai? o?ce/i? iiaeae? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ?
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ?acenoeaieo eiiiiceo?a. Ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo i?i
ii?oieia?th no?oeoo?e iaoa??ae?a ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a i?inoi?iaiai
i?iaeooaaiiy ?ic?aoiaaia oiiieia?y ?iciiae?eo ai?noo i?ia?aeieo /anoie o
ia?aoei? e ianyc? ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoo.

Ia ?en. 11 iiaeai? oae? ?iciiae?ee aeey i?e?ino?oeoo? oeiiaeo
eiiiiceo?a. O ieiuei? ia?aoeio ooieoe?iiaeueii? ciie aeieeathoue
ia?aeaeueii ?icoaoiaai? ?cieiioeaio?aoe?ei? iaeano?.

O eiiiiceoao, io?eiaieo ?c a?oai? ne?iaeie, oae? iaeano? iiaeia
i?iiiaeaethaaoe “eaioethaeeaie”. Aeey eiiiiceo?a ia iniia? oiieeo
ii?ioe?a oa?aeoa?ia no?oeoo?a oeio “ie?ii?enueeeo e?eaoeue”. O no?oeoo??
ia?oiai oeio iaeano? aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?e aeeth/aiue ia?aeaeuei?
iaeanoyi ?c iecueeith eiioeaio?aoe??th aeeth/aiue ocaeiaae on???
aeiaaeeie ia?aoeio.

O no?oeoo?? ae?oaiai oeio iaeano? aeniei? eiioeaio?aoe??th aeeth/aiue
ioi/othoue iaeanoue ?c iecueeith eiioeaio?aoe??th aai iaaiaee. O cii?
eiioaeoo i?ioa?e?a ?c ??ciith eiioeaio?aoe??th no?oi c iaei??? iaeano?
aei ?ioi? aoaea i?iieeaoe ia /a?ac onth ieiuo iiaa?oi? i?ioa?e?a, ui
noeeathoueny, a o?eueee /a?ac ia?aoei, ui aoaea aecia/aiee aeieeeei
aace?aei?i eeanoa?ii (Iae. 11, a). Iniaeea?noth i?e?ino?oeoo?e
?acenoeaieo eiiiiceo?a, io?eiaieo aa?y/ei i?anoaaiiyi o NI, ? oa, ui
i?ia?aei? aa?aaaoe iathoue no?oeoo?o “ia?aaeeaa”, oiae? ye i?ia?aei?
aa?aaaoe eiiiiceo?a, io?eiaieo aa?y/ei i?anoaaiiyi o N2, i?aeoe/ii
iiiie?oi?.

Ia Iae. 12 iieacaiee aca?iica’ycie i?ae ii?oieia??th no?oeoo?e oace
aeniei? i?ia?aeiino?, oaoiieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie (ao?aoa iane,
ii?eno?noue) ? aenieoaoaoe?eiith aeanoea?noth – ieoiiei iii?ii.

sseui ni?eaiiy ?cieyoe?eii? iao?eoe? ii/eia?oueny ? cae?i/o?oueny
?ai?oa, i?ae ni?eaiiy oace aeeth/aiiy, oi ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? i?ioeano
a?aeaoaa?oueny oiaeiaoaaiiy /anoie ii?ioeo, ooai?aiiy ainaiae?a
i?ia?aeieo /anoie, neaaica’ycaieo i?ae niaith.

I?e iioeiaeuei?e oaiia?aoo?? i?ioeano oe? ainaiae? ooai?youe
iie?e?enoae?/i? aa?aaaoe c i?oeieie eiioaeoaie i?ae niaith; oeiiaeie ?
aeeth/aiiy ?cieyoi?a ana?aaeei? i?ia?aeiiai aa?aaaoo («ia?aaeeaia»
/anoea). I?e iiaeaeueoiio i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e ?cioa?i?/ii? aeo?eiee
ii/eiathoueny i?ioeane ni?eaiiy /anoie i?ia?aeieo aeeth/aiue, ui
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi ieiu? eiioaeo?a i?ae i?ia?aeieie /anoeaie
aai iaa?oue ?oi?ie ?ic?eaaie. I?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? oaiia?aoo?e
?cioa?i?/ii? aeo?eiee i?ia?aei? /anoee iiaeooue ni?eaoeny aei
iiii/anoie.

C a?aooaaiiyi aeinyaiaiue no/anii? ia?eieyoe?eii? oai??? ? caaaeueii?
oai??? aoaeoeaiiai na?aaeiaeua (GEM), a oaeiae anoaiiaeaieo aaoi?ii
aca?iica’yce?a oaoiieia?y – i?e?ino?oeoo?a – ieoiiee ii?? o ?iaio?
aeiiiaiaia eiioeaio?aoe?eia iiaeaeue aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ?acenoeaiiai
eiiiiceoo, cie?aia aecia/aiee o?ce/iee ci?no ii?iaa i?io?eaiiy Xn
ia?eieyoe?eii? nenoaie, iieacieea t ? aaee/eia iii?o «aace?aeiueiai»
eeanoa?a rmee . Aaoi? iieacaa, ui aeoaea aaaeeeaei ? a?aooaaiiy
i?ia?aeieo /anoie, ui ia aa?eoee aei ia?eieyoe?eiiai eeanoa?a, a
aeyaeeeny “caoiieaieie” ainaiaeai ?cieyoe?eieo /anoie. Aaoi? oaeiae
canoinoaaa aeiiouaiiy, ui naa?aaaoe?y /anoie i?ia?aeieea iiaea
a?aeaoaaoeny ia o?eueee iaaeiei cia/ieo ca?ai iao?e/ii? oace, aea ?
iaaeiei ainaiae?a ?cieyoe?eieo /anoie, no?oeoo?oaaiiy yeeo
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e eiinie?aeaoe?? ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoo, iai?eeeaae, ca
?aooiie ??aeei? oace.

E?eoe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y Xc iiaea aooe aecia/aia ye

,

aea ia?oee ni?aiiiaeiee ia? o?ce/iee ci?no eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai /enea
oiaeiaoaaiiy, ae?oaee – aoaeoeaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ia?aeii? oace, ?
o?ao?e – eiao?oe??ioa iao?e/iino? no?oeoo?e ( ca A.A.Nei?ioiaeii), Rm,
Rd — oa?aeoa?enoe/i? ?ici??e /anoie iaoaeiiiae?aiiai aeeth/aiiy ?
i?ae/anoeiaeo ?cieyoe?eieo i?ii?aee?a, zm — eii?aeeiaoe?eia /enei, Xm.Xc
— iioi/ia oa ii?iaiaa eiioeaio?aoe??.

Aaoi?ii iieacaii, ui aoaeoeaia eiioeaio?aoe?y i?ia?aeii? oace
ci?ith?oueny iiiioiiii, a eiao?oe??io iao?e/iino? – aeene?aoii, ? oey
aeene?aoia ci?ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeenia?niino? oace aeeth/aiiy ?
eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ia?aeieea a eiiiiceo? (Iae. 13). Oeth aeene?aoi?noue
aaoi? ca’yco? c ?icoiaeaeaiiyie a e?eoe/i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ia?aeii?
aeiaaaee a iiiaio ooai?aiiy i?ia?aeiiai ca’yceo oa o iiiaio noai?aiiy
iaeneiaeueii? u?eueiino? oiaeiaoaaiiy i?ia?aeieo /anoie o eeanoa??.

Iae. 13. Caeaaei?noue ?ici??o i?ia?aeieo o?aaiaio?a ? i?ae/anoeiaeo
i?ii?aee?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? oace aeeth/aiiy.

Iai?eeeaae, yeui ca?eueoo?oueny ni?eueia oo?eiaiiy /anoie Nmall o
?acenoeaiiio eiiiiceo? ? a?aeaoaa?oueny ?oiy naa?aaaoe?y iaaeiei
ainaiae?a ?cieyoe?eieo /anoie, oi i?e eieaeueiiio aeinyaiaii? ia iaae?
oaeiai ainaiaeth aeayei? eiioeaio?aoe?? Xmgr ocaeiaae iaae? ooai?eoueny
i?ia?aeiee ca’ycie. Iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy ni?eueiiai /enea /anoie o
eiiiiceo? ( /a?ac c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aeeth/aiue Xm) ia aoaea
ci?ithaaoe /enea i?ia?aeieo ca’yce?a aeioe, iiee aeey eiie?aoiiai
ca’yceo ia aoaea aeinyaiooa iaeneiaeueii u?eueia oiaeiaoaaiiy /anoie.

O? /anoee, ui ia aa?eoee a i?ia?aeiee eeanoa?, aeiaaeeiaei /eiii
?icoaoiaothoueny a ianyc? ?cieyoe?eieo ainaiae?a, ci?ithth/e aeanoeaino?
oeeo ainaiae?a. ?c c?inoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ia?aeieo aeeth/aiue Xm
ca?eueoo?oueny /enei /anoie, ui ia iaeaaeaoue i?ia?aeiiio eeanoa?o. Ii
aeinyaiaiith oeeie /anoeaie i?i?iaeueii? (aeey aeaiiai aeaeo no?oeoo?e)
a?aie/ii? eiioeaio?aoe??, ooai?eoueny iiaee i?ia?aeiee ca’ycie, ui
?icae?ey? ?cieyoe?eiee ainaiaeue ia j /anoei, aea j=2?n . Oaeei /eiii,
iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ia?aeieea Xm
i?ney ooai?aiiy i?ia?aeiiai eeanoa?a iiaeiia ianooieoe neooaoe?y, i?e
ye?e e?eoe/ia eiioeaio?aoe?y Xceff ia aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Rm/Rd aeioe, iiee ia a?aeaoaeaoueny no?eaeiiiae?aii?
ci?ie ?ici??o ainaiaeth ?cieyoe?eieo /anoie (Iae. 14). O ?aaeueieo
?acenoeaieo eiiiiceoao iienai? yaeua ciaeaeooue a?aeaeoie o iaiiiioiii?e
caeaaeiino? rn – Xm ? o aeieeiaii? ii?iao i?io?eaiiy ca ??cii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? oace aeniei? i?ia?aeiino?.

Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii o ia?aaeaa/aii? iii?o ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoo ? aea??
iii?o oace aeeth/aiiy (rm (rd). Aaoi?o ia a?aeii? ?iaioe, a yeeo
aeine?aeieee caa?oaee a oaaao ia oeae ia?aiao?. Cae/aeii ca aaee/eio rm
i?eeia?oueny aeayea aoaeoeaia cia/aiiy iii?o iaoa??aeo ?a/iaeie oace
aeeth/aiiy (/anoi aeia?aeeiaa), ui iaeaea caaaeaee iai?aaii??ia.

Aaoi? anoaiiaea, ui ii?? eeanoa?a rmee oaeiae ? ia??iaee/iith
ooieoe??th no?oeoo?e ? caeaaeeoue ye a?ae ?ici??o iaeeie/iiai o?aaiaioa
ia?eieyoe?eiiai eeanoa?a (Iae. 15), oae ? a?ae e?eueeino? i?ia?aeieo
/anoie o neeaae? iaeeie/iiai o?aaiaioa i?ia?aeiiai eeanoa?a.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia ?ici?? iii?o eeanoa?a aoaeooue aieeaaoe (?c ??ciei
ciaeii), uiiaeiaioa i’youe /eiiee?a: eii?aeeiaoe?eia /enei oiaeiaoaaiiy;
ye?noue ? ?ici?? i?ae/anoeiaeo eiioaeo?a; ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ici??o
ae?iao (o?aaiaioo ae?iao) ? ?ici??o oa?aeoa?enoe/iiai ainaiaeth
i?ia?aeieo /anoie; a?aeiioaiiy aoaeoeaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ia?aeii? oace
c? noaoenoe/iith aaaith iao?e/i?noue, a?aei?iiith a?ae ioey, aei
ni?eueii? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ia?aeieo aeeth/aiue; nooi?iue iao?e/iino?
?cieyoe?eii? oace.

Aaoi?ii anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey aiae?ciaaieo ?acenoeaieo eiiiiceo?a o
oe?eiio oa?aeoa?iee aeoeaaoe?eiee (aa?’??iee) iaoai?ci
aeaeo?iia?aianaiiy. I?ioa i?enooi?noue ii?o/ iaeia c iaeiei /anoie
??ciiiai?oieo ?ici???a iiaea aianoe nooo?a? iii?aaee a oeae iaoai?ci.
Aaoi? aiae?co? aca?iica’yceo aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ? i?e?ino?oeoo?e
?acenoeaieo eiiiiceo?a c iiceoe?e o?ceee neeueiieaaiaaieo
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a. Aaoi? iieacaa, ui ca aecia/aieo e?euee?nieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo a?oai? oa ae??aii? o?aeoe?e o neeaae? i?ia?aeiiai
eeanoa?a a iueiio ii?yae c ii?/iei iiaea aeieeaoe aeeooc?eiee no?oi.
Aeieeiaiiy aeeooc?eiiai no?oio iiaea ni?eyoe ye ca?eueoaiith /enea
iin??a a aeaeo?e/iiio eaioethc? (i?ioeane ?iaeaeoe??), oae ? ciaioaiith
?o (eieae?caoe?y iin??a ia ??aiyo ianoie). Ae?oaee i?ioean aoaea
ni?eeiaoeny o ciai?oiueiio eaioethao ye ??no iii?o, ui aeyaey?oueny
noaa?eueii o aecia/aiiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?. Aeey eiiiiceo?a
Si3N4–TaN oaeei ae?aiaciiii ? oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oi? a?aae??ioiiai
eiiiiceoa 1000–1300°N. ?ioith onoaiiaeaiith i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy
iiceoeaiiai OEI ( ui niinoa??aa?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao iiaa?oi? 500 —
750 °N) ? oei/aniaa ciaioaiiy /enea iin??a o ciai?oiueiio eaioethao
aiane?aeie ?oiuei? ao?aoe ia oa?iiai?n?th c i?ia?aeieo /anoie o
?icoaoiaai? ii?o/ ii?e (ii?iaeieie) Oa?iiai?n?y a?aeaoaathoueny c
iiaa?oi? iaii/anoie, ui i?ae aieeaii no?oio iaa??aathoueny aei aenieeo
oaiia?aoo? (eiei 1500-1600°N). ?c-ca oiai, ui caaaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y
oaeeo /anoie iaaeniea, i?ae ae??th oeueiai iaoai?cio oaiia?aoo?a
iiaa?oi? ae?iao ia i?aei?ia?oueny aeua 700 — 750°N.

?icaeyiooi niaoeeo?eo iiaiaeaeaiiy ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoa a neeaae?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ciie OAI aeey aeiaaeeo, eiee oaiia?aoo?a eiiiiceoa
i?aeaeuo?oueny ca ?aooiie aeaeioeaaiai oaiea. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ii?oieia?? i?e?ino?oeoo?e ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoa
iiaeooue ?aae?ciaoaaoeny o?e noaie.

Oaca aeniei? i?ia?aeiino? i?noeoue iaaeeeoie iin??a ca?yaeo ia ae??aieo
??aiyo caoiieaiiy ? iaeo e?euee?noue aeeaieeo ??ai?a caoiieaiiy. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?e i?iioneaii? e??cue eiiiiceo iino?eiiai no?oio
aeieea? ?ioaineaiee aeeooc?eiee iio?e iin??a, ca ?aooiie yeiai
aeae?ey?oueny aeiaeaoeiaa oaiei. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy o?eniaaii? oaiia?aoo?e
iiaa?oi? eiiiiceoa ( ca ?aooiie aeaeioeaaiai oaieiaeae?eaiiy) aeo?aoe
iiooaeiino? ia iino?eiiio no?oi? ia 15–35% iaioa, i?ae ia ci?iiiio.

Oaca aeniei? i?ia?aeiino? i?noeoue iaaeeeoeiao e?euee?noue aeeaieeo
??ai?a caoiieaiiy ? iecueeo e?euee?noue iin??a ca?yaeo ia ae??aieo
??aiyo. I?e i?iioneaii? e??cue eiiiiceo iino?eiiai no?oio aeieea? yaeua
?ioaineaiiai caoiieaiiy iin??a ia aeeaie? ??ai?. Ni?eueia /enei iin??a o
eaioethao ciaioo?oueny. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy o?eniaaii? oaiia?aoo?e ia
iino?eiiio no?oi? aeo?a/a?oueny ia 15-35% a?eueoa iiooaeiino?, i?ae ia
ci?iiiio.

O eiiiiceo? e?euee?noue neaaica’ycaieo iin??a ca?yaeo ia ae??aieo
??aiyo ianoie a?aeiia?aea? /eneo aeeaieeo ianoie. I?ney iao?eaaeiai
ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano aeieea? aeaeo?iia?aianaiiy ii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o.
Aeey aeinyaiaiiy o?eniaaii? oaiia?aoo?e aeo?aoe iiooaeiino? ia
iino?eiiio ? ci?iiiio no?oiao iaeiaeia?.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? iniiae ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee i?iaeooaaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aeaiaioa aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai aai iaoeiiaoae?aiiai
i?ecia/aiiy, iniiae ?ic?iaeaiiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a ?c iaiao?aeiith i?inoi?iaith
i???ioaoe??th ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ia?aiao?a, iniiae ia?oei?aieo iaoiae?a
eiio?ieth yeino? ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a oa i?iaiicoaaiiy ?oiueiai
?ano?no. I?eaaaeaii ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy
nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a o neeaae?
i?eno?i?a iiai? oaoi?ee ? iiaooiaeo aeaeo?ii?eeaae?a.

I?eaaaeaii aeai? i?i a?aeoai?thaai?noue ?ic?aooieiaiai
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ia?aiao?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae iniaeeainoae eiie?aoiiai
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano. Iieacaii, ui iaiioei?ciaaiee oaoiieia?/iee
i?ioean caaacia/o? aeo?ae ae?ia?a ?c ?ic?aooieiaeie ooieoe?iiaeueieie
ia?aiao?aie 35–60 %, oiae? ye i?ney iioei?caoe?? a?aeiia?aeii aei
?ic?iaeaieo i?eioeei?a ea?oaaiiy aeo?ae ae?ia?a ?c ?ic?aooieiaei
ooieoe?iiaeueiei ia?aiao?ii noaiiaea 65–85 % .

?icaeyiooi canoinoaaiiy onoaiiaeaieo aca?iica’yce?a
neeaae–no?oeoo?a–aeanoea?noue aeey ae??oaiiy caaea/? iiiia?aoe?eiiai
eiio?ieth yeino? ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a ? iieacaii, ui i?aeoe/ii aecia/ai?
ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee oa?aeoa?enoe/i? ia?aiao?e
ia?eieyoe?eii? nenoaie iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ioe?iee aai
i?iaeooaaiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aaaaoioacieo eiiiiceo?a (Iae. 16).
Ia ?enoieo i?eaaaeai? ei?aeyoe?ei? aca?iica’ycee i?ae aecia/aieie ca
?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith oa?aeoa?enoe/ieie ia?aiao?aie oace iao?eoe?
(H/DDi) ? oace aeeth/aiiy (reeIa) oa iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie
eiiiiceo?a Si3N4 -TaN.

I?eaaaeaii oaeiae ii??aiyeuei? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no
ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a, aeeiiai? ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith, ui caniiaaia
ia iaeii/ani?e ?a?no?aoe?? neaiae?a aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ? aeonoe/ii?
ai?n?? aeey ea?ai?/iiai c?acea, ui i?aeaea?oueny aieeao iia?eueii
ia?inoath/iai iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Iieacaii aenieee nooi?iue
a??ia?aeiino? i?iaiico, oei a?eueoee, /ei aeuee ??aaiue oa?iiiaoai?/ieo
iai?oa o eiio?ieueiaaiiio c?aceo.

Aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaaia ia?niaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy iiaeo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ae?ia?a (ia i?eeeaae? nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo iaa??aa/?a)
cai?noue o?aaeeoe?eieo ? iieacaia ia?aeiieeaa ia?aaaaa ae?ia?a ia aac?
OAI. Iia? ae?iae aeiiii?/i? ( i?ae /an ?oiueiai aeei?enoaii?
niiaeeaa?oueny a 1,4-4,7 ?ac?a iaioa aeaeo?iaia?a??, i?ae i?ae /an
aeei?enoaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo i?eno?i?a aeaeo?iiaa??ao), iathoue oi?eaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? ?iaioe a aa?aneaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, i?e aenieeo u?eueiinoyo
oaieiaiai iioieo, ui aei?ii?iththoueny c iiaa?oi? ae?iao, a oaeiae
oi?eaeueiei niaeo?aeueiei neeaaeii aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

I?eaiaeyoueny aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic?iaeaieo
nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo iaa??aaeueieo aeaiaio?a oe?ieiai i?ecia/aiiy,
niieo/aieo ea?ai?/ieo ai?oa??a aeey eaca?ii? oaoi?ee ? oaieii?ia?aeieo
ae?aeaeo?e/ieo i?aeeiaeie ?c aiiioiaaiith eiiooaoe??th aeey iio?aa
i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee.

I?eaiaeyoueny noaoenoe/i? ?ic?aooiee a??ia?aeiino? ?acoeueoao?a
ia?aaeaa/aiue ?ano?no ea?ai?/ieo ia’?eo?a i?ae /an aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo
eiio?ieth yeino? ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a, caniiaaiiai ia iaeii/aniiio
aei??? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ? aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ui ai?iaaaeaeaiee
aaoi?ii ia eaoaae?? ea?ai?ee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Aa?oaanueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Io?eiai? iia? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?acoeueoaoe a iaeano?
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo niieoe, ui o
noeoiiino? ae??oothoue aaaeeeao iaoeiao i?iaeaio – iaea?aeaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a aeey
aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo canoinoaaiue. I?ioean iaea?aeaiiy oaeeo eiiiiceo?a
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio iniiaieo noaae?e:

Noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy iae?ino?oeoo?e OAI, ui caaacia/o? ?aae?caoe?th
i?inoi?iaiai iioeioio ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ia?aiao?a aeey eiiiiceoa. Oey
noaae?y aeeth/a? niiniae: i?iaeooaaiiy ia’?iiiai ai?noo ? ca?iiaiai
neeaaeo oace aeeth/aiiy; oi?iiooai?aiiy caaioiaie ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii
OAI; eiino?othaaiiy i?inoi?iaiai i?io?eth ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii;

Noaae?? ea?iaaiiai no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo
eiiiiceo?a, ui aeeth/a? niiniae: aeiai?o iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy
eiiiiiaio?a aeey ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii OAI; iioeiaeueii? o?i?/ii?
aeoeaiino? eiiiiiaio?a (ye ia aoai? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e OAI, oae ? i?ae
aieeaii oaiia?aoo?ii-/aniaeo /eiiee?a, oeneo ? na?aaeiaeua ni?eaiiy);

Noaae?? ae?iaie/iai oa inoaoi/iiai eiio?ieth yeino? ea?ai?/ieo
eiiiiceo?a, ui aaco?oueny ia anoaiiaeaiiio no?oeoo?ii-/ooeeaiio
ia?aiao?? – aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ? oaeaeeino? ?? ci?ie i?ae aieeaii
iaoai?/iiai aai oaieiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

2. Ia i?aenoaa? oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
anoaiiaeai? iia? o?ceei-o?i?/i? caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy
a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a, ye? coiiaeai? aca?iiei ii?aeiaiiyi iaoa??ae?a o
neeaae? aaaaoioacieo eiiiiceo?a. Aia?oa io?eiai? aeai? i?i iaoai?cie
i?aai?caoe?? i?e?ino?oeoo?e a i?ioeanao aaoa?ioaciiai aca?iiae?? ca
o/anoth ??aeei? oace, na?aaeiaeua ni?eaiiy (acio, a?aii, aaeooi,
iia?o?y) ? aeii?oie (aoaeaoeth, eenith, aiaeith) i?e aa?y/iio
i?anoaaii? ye aeey ?cieyoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? aaceeniaaeo
ooaiieaaeeo niieoe, oae ? aeey ?acenoeaieo ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a ?c
aeiaaaeaie TaN, ZrC, HfC, B4C, SiC.

3. Anoaiiaeaii iia? no?oeoo?ii — ii?oieia?/i? oa o?ceei — o?i?/i?
caeiiii??iino? ?icaoaeiae no?oeoo?e i?ia?aeieo /anoeiie. Iieacaii, ui
i?e aeei?enoaii? aeoeaieo ii?ioe?a aeii?oee c aecia/aiei
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi a?oai? oa ae??aii? o?aeoe??, noaa?eueii ?aae?co?oueny
eaioethaiaa no?oeoo?a o?aaiaioiaaieo /anoie. Aecia/aii, ui ii?oieia?y
i?e?ino?oeoo?e ?acenoeaiiai eiiiiceoa aecia/a?oueny aaiiao???th
?acenoeaii? ciie. Iieacaii, ui aaciaeie e?eoa??yie, ia ye? iio??aii
aieeaaoe, uia noi?ioaaoe iaiao?aeio i?e?ino?oeoo?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo
i?io?e?a eiiiiceoa, ?: neeaae ? aeenia?ni?noue, a oaeiae o?i?/ia
aeoeai?noue oeooiaeo eiiiiiaio?a, aeae a?iaea?a ? ieanoeo?eaoi?a,
oaiia?aoo?ii-/ania? ?aaeeie i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy.

4. Anoaiiaeaii aieea oaoiieia?/ieo /eiiee?a ia ou?eueiaiiy iane
ea?ai?/ieo ii?ioe?a i?e aeeiai?/iiio i?anoaaii? a i?ioean? iaea?aeaiiy
ea?ai?/ieo eeno?a aeey oi?ioaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?io?e?a OAI.
Iieacaii, ui o?eueee i?ioean aeeiai?/iiai i?anoaaiiy a’ycei? iane
caaacia/o? aecia/aio «a?iiaaio» ii?enoo no?oeoo?o ea?eana, ui iaaeae?
i?aeaeuo? o?i?/io aeoeai?noue i?ioa?e?a eiiiiceoa i?e eiai ni?eaii? ?
ni?ey? ia?aoai?aiith oa?oaaoi? caaioiaee a iiiie?oiee ae??a, o yeiio
aeeeth/a?oueny iaaea iaoai?/iiai iiae?eo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioa?e?a.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aenieee nooi?iue aiiiaaiiino? ca?iia?aie/ii? oace
I’-n?aeiio iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaiee ca ?aooiie oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeeiai?ee ci?ie eooo cii/oaaiiy ?icieaaii ca?iia?aie/ii?
oace e?enoae?o?a iniiaii? ?a/iaeie, i?e/iio e?auei ? oae? noaie ia
iaae? oac, i?e yeeo eoo cii/oaaiiy ci?ith?oueny i?ioyaii i?ioeano a?ae
45° aei 5°. Iieacaii, ui a?aeoai?thaai?noue oaeeo oaciaeo noai?a
?noioii i?aeaeuo?oueny, yeui aei oeooe aaiaeyoueny iaaaeee? aeiaaaee
oeoaio.

6. Aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aeniea aoaeoeai?noue aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaiiai aaoi?ii niiniao oi?ioaaiiy ia’?iiiai i?io?eth
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ciie ea?ai?/iiai eiiiiceoa. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai
niiniao oaanue ianya ooieoe?iiaeueiiai eiiiiceoa ?icaeaa?oueny ia
aecia/aia /enei i?ioa?e?a, ui oi?iothoueny c ?cieyoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo
(iaoa??aeo ei?iono OAI). O eiaeiiio c oaeeo i?ioa?e?a ae?oao?oueny
ioa??, ui a?aeiia?aea? ii ?ici??? i?io?eth ?acenoeaiiai aeeaaeeoo.
Noi?iiaaiee ioa?? u?eueii caiiaith?oueny aeeaaeeith c ?acenoeaiiai
iaoa??aeo ? iio?i, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c? noaiith niieo/aiue, i?ioa?ee c
?acenoeaieie aeeaaeaie cae?athoueny aei caaioiaee iaeaooiueiai ae?iao.

7. Aeeiiaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ? aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/ai?
caeiiii??iino? eiioeaio?aoe?eieo ? oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? o ?acenoeaieo eiiiiceoao; aeine?aeaeai?
aca?iica’ycee «no?oeoo?i? noaie – o?ce/i? ia?aiao?e –oaoiieia?/i?
?aaeeie», ui a oe?eiio aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe i?eioeeie i?iaeooaaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo eiiiiceo?a aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy c
aaceeniaai? ea?ai?ee ia aac? ooaiieaaeeo niieoe, ui neeaaeathoueny c
aeae?eueeio ??ciiiai?oieo iaoa??ae?a ?c oe?eani?yiiaaiith ci?iith
oa?aeoa?o ?oiueiai aca?iiiai ?icoaooaaiiy a ianyc? eiiiiceoa.

8. Aeiiiaiaia o?ce/ia iiaeaeue aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? nenoai oeio
“ae?aeaeo?ee-iaoae” ?c a?aooaaiiy yaeu, ui a?aeaoaathoueny ia iiaa?oi?
/anoie oace aeniei? i?ia?aeiino? ?acenoeaiiai iaoa??aeo i?e i?io?eaii?
no?oio ii i?ia?aeiiio eeanoa?o, noi??iiio c ?ici??aie ooieoe?iiaeueii?
iaeano?. Anoaiiaeaii aca?iica’ycie i?ae ?ic?aooieiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
i?e?ino?oeoo?e ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ioean?a ci?ooaaiiy,
oi?iiooai?aiiy oa ni?eaiiy, ia iniia? yei? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia
iaoiaeeea aoaeoeaiiai e iia?aoeaiiai ea?oaaiiy ia?aiao?aie
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eiai i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?
ca?eueoaiiy i?ioeaioo aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo ae?ia?a.

9. ?ic?iaeaia iiaa o?ce/ia iiaeaeue aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ? ??
oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? aeey iie?e?enoae?/ieo iaiaeii??aeieo
ea?ai?/ieo ia’?eo?a oeio “ae?aeaeo?ee – i?ia?aeiee”, o yeiio
aeaeo?iia?aianaiiy cae?enith?oueny a iaiaaeaiiio i?inoi??
ooieoe?iiaeueii? ciie, o?aaiaioe i?e?ino?oeoo?e yei? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
ae?aaeaiith ai?cio?ii??th, a oaeiae o aeiaaeeo, eiee aeaeo?iia?aianaiiy
cae?enith?oueny a ea?ai?/iiio ia’?eo?, ui i?aeaea?oueny aieeao
oa?i?/iiai aai iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Oea ae??oaiiy aeicaiey?
iaea?aeoaaoe ?acenoeai? aeoeai? i?ioa?ee OAI, ui caaacia/othoue eiai
noaa?eueio ?iaioo a ?aaeei? aei?ii?ithaaiiy oaieiaeo iioie?a aaeeei?
u?eueiino?. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa i?aeoe/ii ?aae?ciaaii noai?aiiy
ia iniia? oe??? iiaeae? iiaiai iaoiaeo ia?oeioth/iai eiio?ieth yeino?
ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a, ui aeicaiey? c aenieith aeinoia??i?noth i?iaiicoaaoe
?ano?n ae?iao, a oaeiae iaoiaeeee ia?oeioth/i? ioe?iee noaio
i?e?ino?oeoo?e ?aaeueiiai ?acenoeaiiai ia’?eoo, eio?a noi?ioaaeanue i?ae
aieeaii eiie?aoieo oaoiieia?/ieo /eiiee?a

10. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaeooaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aeaiaioa
aeaeo?ioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy e iioei?caoe?? oa?aeoa?enoee
ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii a?aae??ioiiai iaoa??aeo c o?aooaaiiyi iaiao?aeieo
aenieoaoaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aeaiaioa, eio?a aia?oa
canoiniaaia aeey iaea?aeaiiy ia aac? aaceeniaaeo niieoe iiaiai iieie?iiy
ea?ai?/ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a: nooe?eueiiea?ai?/iiai
iaa??aaeueiiai aeaiaioa, aaeanoiiai ?acenoi?a, ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?aeeiaeee
?c aiiioiaaiith eiiooaoe??th.

11. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iiaee oei ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a ia aac?
ea?ai?ee c aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo niieoe: nooe?eueiiea?ai?/i?
iaa??aaeuei? aeaiaioe, aenieiiiooaei? aaeanoi? ?acenoi?e,
aenieiaoaeoeai? ea?ai?/i? ai?oa?e ? aaeeeiaaaa?eoi? ae?aeaeo?e/i?
oaieii?ia?aei? i?aeeiaeee aeey i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeai?
i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? canoinoaaiiy nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo iaa??aaeueieo
aeaiaio?a ? ?io?a/a?aiieo aei?ii?ithaa/?a o iiaooiaeo aeaeo?ii?eeaaeao
i?eno?i?a iiai? oaoi?ee.

12. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae oi?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oei?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo
a?aae??ioieo ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a (nooe?eueiiea?ai?/ieo iaa??aa/?a)
iieyaa? a iie?ioaii? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eno?i?a
aeaeo?iiaa??ao ca ?aooiie i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano noo?iiy (yeee
a?aeaoaa?oueny caaaeyee ca?ao niaeo??a aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeaea?aea
iaa??aaiiy ? niaeo?o iiaeeiaiiy ia’?eoa noo?iiy), ? cia/ii? aeiiii??
aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?eno?i?i ( a?ae 1,4 aei 4,7 ?ac?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae
oeio ia’?eoa noo?iiy).

NIENIE Ae?OEIAAIEO I?AOeUe AAOI?A CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

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3/4 N7(45). 3/4 S. 413/451.

2. Iao?ianeee A. ss. Aeeyeaeo?e/aneea naienoaa ea?aieee ia iniiaa
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3/4 N9(47). 3/4 S.733/485.

3. Iao?ianeee A.ss. Yeaeo?e/aneay i?i/iinoue eiiiiceoia ia iniiaa
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N7(45). 3/4 S. 633/473

4. Pietrowskij W. Ceramika z azotku krzemu // Prace ITME. 3/4 Warszawa:
ITME. 3/4 1993. 3/4 Zeszyt 40. 3/4 52 s.

5. Iao?ianeee A. ss. I?eiaiaiea i?iaiaeyueo eiiiiceoia ia iniiaa Si3N4
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39. Pat. 167542 PL MKI C04 B 35/58. Ceramiczny element grzejny
/Piotrowski W., Katasyznski W., Chmielecki W.i inne. 3/4 Iioae.
30.09.95.

40. Pat. 94917644.0-2211 Europ., MKI H05B 3/14. Keramisches Heizelement
sowie Verfahren zur Herstellung eines solchen Heizelements / Petrowski
W.(Ukraine). 3/4 Iioae. 09.02.95.

Iao?ianeee A.ss. Oeceei-oaoie/aneea iniiau e oaoiieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu
iieo/aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo a?aaeeaioiuo ea?aie/aneeo iaoa?eaeia ia aaca
aaneenei?iaeiuo ooaiieaaeeo niaaeeiaiee. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.06 — Ii?ioeiaay iaoaeeo?aey e eiiiiceoeeiiiua
iaoa?eaeu. — Einoeooo i?iaeai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai i?iaeoe?iaaiey e iieo/aiey
ea?aie/aneeo ecaeaeee iiaiai iieieaiey ii oaoiieiaee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
ea?aie/aneeo iaoa?eaeia. A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaii iiaia iai?aaeaiea a
oaoiieiaee ia?aaeiaie ea?aieee, aace?othuaany ia nicaeaiee
oeaeueiiea?aie/aneiai iauaeoa ii?aaeaeaiiiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
iacia/aiey, aioo?e iauaia eioi?iai oi?ie?othony ooieoeeiiaeueiua ciiu,
ninoaaeythuea aaeeiia oeaeia n iauaeoii e ii?aaeaeythuea aai oieeaeueiua
iio?aaeoaeueneea oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Oeaeueth ?aaiou yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea oece/aneeo iniia e oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?eioeeiia nicaeaiey iaoiaeaie ii?ioeiaie iaoaeeo?aee iiaiai iieieaiey
iiiaioaciuo ea?aie/aneeo eiiiiceoia, ninoiyueo ec ianeieueeeo ?acee/iuo
iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa aaneenei?iaeiuo ooaiieaaeeo niaaeeiaiee, acaeiiia
?aniieiaeaiea eioi?uo a iauaia oeaeueiiea?aie/aneiai ecaeaeey eciaiyaony
oeaeaiai?aaeaiii aeey ?aaeecaoeee iioeioia ooieoeeiiaeueiiai naienoaa
eiiiiceoa e nicaeaiea iiaiai oeia ea?aie/aneeo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
yeaiaioia aeey eo eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa aunieiyooaeoeaiuo
i?aia?aciaaoaeae yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee a ae?oaea aeaeu yia?aee.

Yoa oeaeue aeinoeaaaony ?ac?aaioeie: iiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eaiia e
i?ioeannia, iaania/eaathueo caaeaiioth yaiethoeeth no?oeoo?u iaoa?eaea,
aeinoiaa?iuo niiniaia i?aaeneacaiey o?iaiy oece/aneeo naienoa
ea?aie/aneeo iaoa?eaeia, ninoaaeythueo ooieoeeiiaeueiua ciiu
a?aaeeaioiiai eiiiiceoa, a caaeneiinoe io ninoaaa iaoa?eaea e aai
no?oeoo?u, a oaeaea ?ac?aaioeie i?inouo e yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia eiio?iey
ea/anoaa eae aioiauo ecaeaeee ec ooieoeeiiaeueiuo a?aaeeaioiuo
iaoa?eaeia, oae e eo iieooaa?eeaoia.

A ?aaioa aia?aua iieo/aiu aeaiiua i iaoaieciao i?aaiecaoeee
iee?ino?oeoo?u ea?aie/aneeo eiiiiceoia ia iniiaa ieo?eaea e?aiiey
?acee/iiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey, ecaioiaeaiiuo a oneiaeyo
niaeaiey a i?enoonoaee acaeiiaeaenoaothuae aeeaeeie oacu. Enneaaeiaaiu
eeiaoe/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe e ii?aaeaeaiu iaoaieciu acaeiiaeaenoaey
?acee/iuo aeiaaaie eae aeey ecieyoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa
b-ieo?eaea e?aiiey e I`-neaeiia, oae e aeey ?acenoeaiuo ea?aie/aneeo
eiiiiceoia n oie aea iniiaie, ii n aeiaaaeaie TaN, ZrC, HfC, B4C, SiC) a
i?ioeannao aaoa?ioaciiai acaeiiaeaenoaey i?e ai?y/ai i?anniaaiee
iaoa?eaeia a ?acee/iuo n?aaeao (acio, a?aii, aaeooi, aicaeoo ) e a
i?enoonoaee i?iaeoeoia ie?ieeca i?aaie/aneeo naycothueo. Aia?aua
iiaeiaiua enneaaeiaaiey auee i?iaaaeaiu nenoaiaoe/anee e n o/aoii
aeaeueiaeoaai aeeyiey ii?oieiaee iee?ino?oeoo?u ia caeiiiia?iinoe
yeaeo?iia?aiina a ecieyoeeiiiuo e ?acenoeaiuo ea?aie/aneeo eiiiiceoao.

Aia?aua ?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii
ia?aciaaiey iae?ino?oeoo?u ooieoeeiiaeueiiai a?aaeeaioiiai eiiiiceoa,
iniiaaiiua ia iiaeai?a iioeiaeueiiai ni/aoaiey iaoa?eaeia aeey
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo cii OAI oeie/aneie aeoeaiinoe eiiiiiaioia eae ia yoaia
oi?iiaaiey ea?aie/aneeo eenoia e oi?ie?iaaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo i?ioeeae
OAI, oae e iiae aicaeaenoaeai oaiia?aoo?ii-a?aiaiiuo oaeoi?ia, aeaaeaiey
e ninoaaa n?aaeu niaeaiey. Aia?aua iiaeiaiua enneaaeiaaiey auee
i?iaaaeaiu nenoaiaoe/anee e n o/aoii aeaeueiaeoaai aeeyiey ii?oieiaee
iae?ino?oeoo?u OAI ia caeiiiia?iinoe oaieiiiaiaia n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie
ia iiaa?oiinoe iaoa?eaea.

Oniaa?oainoaiaaia oece/aneay iiaeaeue yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe ea?aie/aneiai
iaoa?eaea oeia “aeeyeaeo?ee3/4iaoaee” ca n/ao o/aoa yaeaiee,
i?ienoiaeyueo ia a?aieoeao ca?ai e?enoaeeeoia oacu aeeth/aiey. Ia aaca
oniaa?oainoaiaaiiie iiaeaee aia?aua ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ioeaiee
ii?oieiaee no?oeoo?u oaeiai eiiiiceoa, iniiaaiiay ia ?aaeno?aoeee aai
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe a caaeaiiuo oneiaeyo, a oaeaea onoaiiaeaia
eiee/anoaaiiay acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ?an/aoiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
iee?ino?oeoo?u iaoa?eaea e ia?aiao?aie oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna aai
iieo/aiey, ia iniiaa eioi?ie aia?aua i?aaeeiaeaia yooaeoeaiay iaoiaeeea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiio?iey.

Aia?aua onoaiiaeaia oece/aneay i?e?iaea ia iiiioiiiinoe oaiia?aoo?iie
caaeneiinoe nii?ioeaeaiey i?iaiaeyueo ea?aie/aneeo eiiiiceoia e
i?aaeeiaeaiu oaoiieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey yoie oa?aeoa?enoeeie.
Yoi ?aoaiea iicaieyao iieo/aoue ?acenoeaiua naiinoaaeeece?othueany
aeoeaiua neie OAI, iaania/eaathuea iaaeaaeioth ?aaioo a?aaeeaioiiai
eiiiiceoa a ?aaeeia eceo/aiey oaieiauo iioieia aieueoie ieioiinoe.

Aia?aua ?ac?aaioaia oece/aneay iiaeaeue yeaeo?iia?aiina a ea?aie/aneii
iauaeoa, iiaeaa?aathuainy aicaeaenoaeth iaoaie/aneiai eee oa?ie/aneiai
iaa?oaeaiey. Ia iniiaa yoie iiaeaee nicaeai iiaue iaoiae oeieoiiai
eiio?iey ea/anoaa e?oiiiaaaa?eoiuo ea?aie/aneeo ecaeaeee eee OAI,
iicaieythuee n aunieie aeinoiaa?iinoueth i?iaiice?iaaoue n?ie neoaeau
ecaeaeey.

Aia?aua ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea i?iaeoe?iaaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiiai yeaiaioa
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey ia iniiaa iioeiecaoeee oa?aeoa?enoee
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo cii a?aaeeaioiiai iaoa?eaea. Aia?aua iia i?eiaiaia aeey
iieo/aiey ia aaca aaneenei?iaeiuo ooaiieaaeeo niaaeeiaiee iiaiai oeia
eiiaa?neiiiuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae, a eiaiii: oeaeueiiea?aie/aneeo
iaa?aaaoaeae, niaiauaiiuo ea?aie/aneeo yieooa?ia e aaeeanoiuo
?acenoi?ia, a oaeaea aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo iiaeeiaeae ni ano?iaiiie
eiiiooaoeeae.

Aaoi?ii ?aaeeciaai iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann
iieo/aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo a?aaeeaioiuo iaoa?eaeia. Oeacaiiue i?ioeann
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaoiy iniiaiuie i?aeiouanoaaie: iicaieyao iieo/aoue
oaeea ea?aie/aneea ecaeaeey, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue ecaioiaeaiu a ?aieao
o?aaeeoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee; iaania/eaaao aaeaia aieueoee auoiae aiaeiuo
i?e oao aea nu?ueaauo e yia?aaoe/aneeo cao?aoao.

A ?aieao yoiai i?ioeanna auee auiouaiu aunieiyooaeoeaiua e yeiiiie/iua
oeaeueiiea?aie/aeea i?aia?aciaaoaee yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee a oaieiaoth
3/4 iaa?aaaoaee e eio?ae?aniua eceo/aoaee, a oaeaea iiaua
ooieoeeiiaeueiua i?eai?u aeey eaca?iie oaoieee 3/4 niaiauaiiua yieooa?u
aaci?ac?yaeiuo eaia? oaoiieiae/aneeo eaca?iuo onoaiiaie, e
ooieoeeiiaeueiua i?eai?u aeey iee?iyeaeo?iieee 3/4 aeeyeaeo?e/aneea
iiaeeiaeee ni ano?iaiiie eiiiooaoeeae oei ieoaiey e caiee.

Iniiaa i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey nicaeaiiuo a?aaeeaioiuo eiiiiceoia
caeiaeaia a ?ac?aaioaiiuo nieneaoaeai i?aeoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyo ii
i?eiaiaieth oeaeueiiea?aie/aneeo iaa?aaaoaeae e eio?ae?aniuo eceo/aoaeae
a auoiauo yeaeo?ii?eai?ao e ono?ienoaao iiaie oaoieee.
Oeaeueiiea?aie/aneea iaa?aaaoaee e eio?ae?aniua eceo/aoaee ia iniiaa
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo a?aaeeaioiuo iaoa?eaeia auee eniuoaiu aieaa /ai ia 17
i?aaei?eyoeyo Oe?aeiu, ?innee, Iieueoe e Aa?iaiee, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
aeieacaia eo aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue. ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee
i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea a i?iaeoe?iaaiee e i?iecaiaenoaa e ae?oaeo oeiia
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ea?aie/aneeo yeaiaioia, oaeeo eae iiaeeiaeee aeey
iee?inai?ie iee?ie?enoaeee/aneeo iiaeoeae, e niaiauaiiua n aaeeanoiuie
?acenoi?aie ea?aie/aneea yieooa?u aaci?ac?yaeiuo eaia? oaoiieiae/aneeo
eaca?ia.

I?eaeiaeueiinoue iaoiaeeee, ?ac?aaioaiiie aaoi?ii, iiaeoaa?aeaeaia
iieo/aiiui ei Aa?iiaeneei iaoaioii. Ca eiiieaen ?aaio ii i?aaiecaoeee
i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaeecaoeee ?acoeueoaoia iaeiiai ec yoaiia ?aaiou aaoi? aue
oaeinoiai a 1989 aiaeo Ainoaea?noaaiiie i?aiee Oe?aeiu a iaeanoe iaoee e
oaoieee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaneenei?iaeiua niaaeeiaiey, ooieoeeiiaeueiua
a?aaeeaioiua iaoa?eaeu, ea?aieea, ai?y/aa i?anniaaiea, iee?ino?oeoo?a,
aiaeec, yeaeo?ioece/aneea naienoaa, ia?eieyoeey, eiio?ieue ea/anoaa,
?acenoeaiua iaoa?eaeu, iaa?aaaoaee, iiaeeiaeee iee?inai?ie

Iao?ianueeee A.ss. O?ceei-oaoi?/i? iniiae oa oaoiieia?/i? i?eioeeie
iaea?aeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aae??ioieo ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a ia aac?
aaceeniaaeo ooaiieaaeeo niieoe. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
oaoii 05.16.06 — «Ii?ioeiaa iaoaeo?a?y ? eiiiiceoe?ei? iaoa??aee» .-
?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi i?iaeooaaiiy oa io?eiaiiy ea?ai?/ieo
ae?ia?a iiaiai iieie?iiy ca oaoiieia??th ooieoe?iiaeueieo ea?ai?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a. O aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaiee iiaee iai?yiie o oaoiieia??
niaoe?aeueii? ea?ai?ee, ui aaco?oueny ia noai?aii? nooe?eueii
ea?ai?/iiai ia’?eoa oe?eueiaiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, a ia’?i?
yeiai oi?iothoueny ooieoe?iiaeuei? ciie, ui noaiiaeyoue ?aeeia oe?ea c
ia’?eoii ? aecia/athoue eiai oi?eaeuei? niiaeea/? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Aia?oa
anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? ci?i aeanoeainoae oeio i?ia?aei?noue a
ea?ai?/ieo ?acenoeaieo eiiiiceoao c a?aooaaiiyi i?inoi?iaiai iaiaaeaiiy
?acenoeaii? iaeano? ? ?ic?iaeaiee iiaee i?ea?iaeueiee iaoiae
eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeanoeainoae ea?ai?/ieo eiiiiceo?a ia
eiaeiiio aoai? oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino?
canoiniaai?, ye aeey oe?eae i?iaeooaaiiy iiaeo ae?ia?a c oaeei ??aiai
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ui ia iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaiee ?nioth/eie
(o?aaeeoe?eieie) iaoiaeeeaie iaea?aeaiiy ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, oae ?
aeey oe?eae iacieuothuiai eiio?ieth yeino? o?aaeeoe?eieo ? iiaeo
aaaaoioacieo eiiiiceoia. I?ea?iaeuei?noue iaoiaeeee, ?ic?iaeaii?
aaoi?ii, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia io?eiaiei ?a?iiaenueeei iaoaioii. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy a i?iaeooaaii? ?
ae?iaieoeoa? iiaeo oei?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo ea?ai?/ieo ia’?eo?a, oaeeo ye:
i?aeeiaeee aeey iie?icai?ie i?e?ie?enoae?/ieo iiaeoe?a; ?io?a/a?aii?
aei?ii?ithaa/? ? iaa??aaeuei? aeaiaioe oe?ieiai i?ecia/aiiy; noi?uai?
ea?ai?/i? ai?oa?e oa aaeanoi? iii?e aaci?ic?yaeieo eaia? oaoiieia?/ieo
eaca??a. Ca eiiieaen ?ia?o ii i?aai?caoe?? i?iieneiai? ?aae?caoe??
?acoeueoao?a iaeiiai c aoai?a ?iaioe aaoi? o 1989 ?ioe? aoa aeciaiee
a?aeiei Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie a iaeano? iaoee ? oaoi?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaceeniaai niieoee, ooieoe?iiaeuei? a?aae??ioi?
iaoa??aee, ea?ai?ea, aa?y/a i?anoaaiiy, i?e?ino?oeoo?a, aiae?c,
aeaeo?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino?, ia?eieyoeiy, eiio?ieue yeino?, ?acenoeaii
iaoa??aee, iaa??aa/?, iiaeeiaeee i?e?icai?ie

Petrovsky V.Ya. Physique-technical basses and technological principles
for manufacturing of functional gradient ceramic materials on the base
of oxygen free refractory compounds. Manuscript

Thesis for doctorate competition on technical sciences on specialty
05.16.06 — Powder metallurgy and composite materials. Institute for
Problems of Materials Science NASc. of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine, 1999.

Thesis is devoted to the problems of designing and manufacturing of
ceramic products of new generation under the technology of functional
ceramic materials. New direction in the technology of advanced ceramics,
which is based on making of monoblock object of definite functional
designation within which volume functional zones, composing one block
with object and defining its unique consumer characteristics are formed,
was developed in thesis. Regulations of formation of conductivity type
properties in ceramic resistor composite accounting space limitation of
resistor area was determined for the first time and new original
computer modeling method for ceramic composites type at each stage of
technological process was developed. Determined regulations were applied
with the aim of designing of new products with such level of service
characteristics, that can not be realized by existing (traditional)
ceramic material’s manufacturing methods and as far with the aim of
nondestructive method of quality control for traditional and new
multiphase composites. Unique principle of the method, developed by
author, is protected by European patent. Main results of the work were
implemented during designing and manufacturing of the new types of
functional ceramic objects, such as: substrates for microcrystal modules
microassemblies; infrared radiators and heating elements of wide
application; ballast resistors; ceramic emitters. The author was awarded
with the State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technique in
1989 for the set of works on arranging of industrial implementation of
one stage of work results.

Key words: oxygen free compound, functional gradient materials,
ceramics, hot pressing, microstructure, analysis, electrophysicss,
percolation, quality control, resistor materials, heaters, substrates

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