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O A ? N I I N Ue E E E Ae A ? AE A A I E E

O A O I ? * I E E O I ? A A ? N E O A O

I I E ? U O E N O A I A I I E A E N A I Ae ? I A E *

OAeE 668.8 + 677.842.314.333.316

O?CEEI-O?I?*IA IAA?OIOOAAIIss OAOIIEIA?E EIEUeI?OAAIIss OAENOEEUeIEO
IAOA??AE?A HIAEIE AEIONEIEIE OI?IAIE I?AAI?*IEO AA?AIEE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.19.03 – oaoiieia?y oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?nii 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? oa
i?iieneiai? aeieia?? AAO “E?aneoaeue”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaee?i Aaeoa?ae Naiaiiae/,

?inoeooo oaoi?/ii? oaieio?ceee HAH Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a,

caa?aeoth/ee eaai?aoi???th

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aaenoyi Aai?? A?oaa??iae/,

?oa?aeainueea o?e?y No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith “Oaoiieia?y i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei”

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Naiae Aiaaeai Aeieo?iae/,

Euea?anueea eiia?oe?eia aeaaeai?y, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

“Oiaa?iciaanoai iai?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oaenoeeueii? i?iieneiaino?,

o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/ia iaoeiai-aeine?aeia eaai?aoi??y, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 2 aa?aciy 2000 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 67.052.02 i?e Oa?niinueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 352008, Oa?nii,
Aa?eneaanueea oina, 24.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?niinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: Oa?nii,
Aa?eneaanueea oina, 24

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 ” n?/iy 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? sseei/oe ?.I.

18

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A e o o a e ue i ? n o ue o a i e. A no/anieo oiiaao iaei??th c
aieiaieo caaea/ oaenoeeueii? i?iieneiaino? ? caaeiaieaiiy iio?aae
ianaeaiiy o aenieiye?ni?e, aeinooii?e ii oe?i? i?iaeoeoe??, yea a
a?aeiia?aeaea na?oiaei aeiiaai ? ciiaea a aeo?nieoe c ?eieo Oe?a?ie
?iii?oi? ae?iae.

O oa?aoaaeueii-iii?yaeaeoaaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?, yea i?aai?/ii aoiaeeoue
a oaenoeeueiee eiiieaen, caaea/a i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiino?
i?iaeoeoe?? ae??oo?oueny oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aneaieo, aeiiii?/ieo,
aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e oa?aoaaiiy oa iaianaiiy a?ca?oiea ia
oeaieie. I?e ?aae?caoe?? oeeo oaoiieia?e iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
yeino? aeioneieo oi?i i?aai?/ieo aa?aiee?a. Oiio, i?e i?iaeaaeao
ca?oa?aeieie o??iaie no/anieo oaoiieia?e eieuei?oaaiiy “iio-oao” a ia?oo
/a?ao yaey?oueny aeioneia oi?ia aa?aieea. Aeionei? oi?ie aa?aiee?a aeey
no/anieo oaoiieia?e eieuei?oaaiiy oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a iiaeii?
caaacia/oaaoe e?au? eiei?enoe/i? iieacieee (??aiii??i?noue caaa?aeaiiy,
aenieo nooi?iue o?enaoe?? oa iiaeeiaiiy, iaeiioiiia caaa?aeaiiy ??cieo
ii i?e?iae? aieieii a noi?o?, i?oei?noue caaa?aeaiiy aei o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
ae?e), cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe??, e?au? aeieia?/i? oiiae. A oea
a naith /a?ao iiaeia aeinyaoe ca ?aooiie aeioneieo oi?i aa?aiee?a
no?eeeo a oiiaao caa??aaiiy ? i?ioeanao aeei?enoaiiy, c i?aeaeuaiei
nooiaiai o?enaoe?? oa iiaeeiaiiy, c aenieith eiei?enoe/iith
noaa?euei?noth, ia eo?ieo, c i?i?iaeueiith i?iiooai?thth/ith
caeaoi?noth. Iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oeei aeiiaai i?eaiaeeoue aei
ia??aiii??iiai caaa?aeaiiy, iiyae “e?aio”, cieaeaiith iieaciee?a
i?oeiino?, ia?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith aa?aiee?a. Oea noino?oueny
aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo, aeenia?nieo, eeneioieo iaoaeii?noeeo aa?aiee?a,
ui iaea?eueo /anoi aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey eieuei?oaaiiy oaenoeeueieo
iaoa??ae?a ? ye? aeaioiaeythoueny a Oe?a?i? o cia/ieo e?eueeinoyo.

A?o/eciyi? aeionei? oi?ie oeeo aa?aiee?a ca aeuaaeacaieie iieacieeaie
cia/ii iinooiathoueny ca?oa?aeiei aiaeiaai ? ia aeathoue iiaeeeaino?
noai?thaaoe no/ani? oaoiieia?? eieuei?oaaiiy oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a.
*a?ac aei?noeo eiieo?aioe?th i?ae ca?oa?aeieie ae?iaieeaie aa?aiee?a
an? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iai?aaeai? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy aeioneieo oi?i,
caeeoathoueny canae?a/aieie ? o a?aee?eo?e e?oa?aoo?? ia
?icaeyaeathoueny.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue oe??? ?iaioe caaacia/o?oueny
iaiao?aei?noth iaa?oiooaaiiy oa noai?aiiy a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieo,
aeiiii?/ieo oa aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e oa?aoaaiiy oa iaianaiiy
a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeo aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo,
aeenia?nieo, eeneioieo iaoaeii?noeeo aa?aiee?a, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
aeioneaoe oaenoeeueio i?iaeoeoe?th c iaiao?aeieie niiaeea/eie
aeanoeainoyie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? oa
i?iieneiai? aeieia?? AAO “E?aneoaeue” (?OOIA, i.?oa?aeia) a
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei aea?aeaaieo caiiaeaiue NN 10203000889012,
41106001868,11219292-2-537 oa ainiiaea?/eo aeiaiai??a c AAO
“E?aneoaeue”, AOAO “I?aiaio”, oaenoeeueieie i?aei?e?inoaaie Oe?a?ie oa
NIAe.

I a o a ? c a ae a / ? ae i n e ? ae ae a i i y. Iaoith
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?e oa?aoaaiiy
oa iaianaiiy a?ca?oiea ia oeaieio iiaeie aeioneieie oi?iaie eoaiaeo,
aeenia?nieo ? eeneioieo iaoaeii?noeeo aa?aiee?a, ye? caaacia/othoue
e?au? eiei?enoe/i? iieacieee, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?,
cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? oaenoeeueii? i?iaeoeoe??, e?au? aeieia?/i? oiiae.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

– ?icaeyiooe c oai?aoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o ooai?aiiy a ?ic/eiao anioe?ao?a,
anoaiiaeoe ?o aoaeiao oa aieea ia no?ee?noue aa?aieea a aeionei?e oi?i?
a oiiaao caa??aaiiy ? i?ioeanao canoinoaaiiy, ?ic?iaeoe no?ee? aeionei?
oi?ie aeey aoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e eiei?oaaiiy;

– aecia/eoe ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?iiieo niaeo??a noai eaeeiniieoe eoaiaeo
aa?aiee?a o eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oiiio ?ic/ei?, cai?iiiioaaoe iaoai?ci
oa?aoaaiiy oeeie aa?aieeaie ? ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
noai?eoe aeionei? oi?ie c a?eueoei nooiaiai o?enaoe?? oa iiaeeiaiiy;

– aeine?aeeoe i?ioean iaeiioiiiiai oa?aoaaiiy noi?o? iie?ao??ieo oa
oeaetheicieo aieieii ia??iaee/iei oa aacia?a?aiei niiniaaie, ?ic?iaeoe
oaoiieia?th oa?aoaaiiy eoaiaeie oa aeenia?nieie aa?aieeaie,
cai?iiiioaaoe ani?oeiaio aa?aiee?a, ui caaacia/o? noaa?euei?noue
iaea?aeaiiy iaeiioiiiiai oa?aoaaiiy;

– aeyaeoe aieea iie?ia?iiai neeaaeo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei (IA?) ia
no?ee?noue aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo oa aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a a oiiaao
caa??aaiiy oa i?ioeanao canoinoaaiiy, ?ic?iaeoe ani?oeiaio IA? c
iioeiaeueiei iie?ia?iei neeaaeii, cai?iiiioaaoe no?ee? aeionei? oi?ie oa
a?eueo aoaeoeai? oaoiieia?? eieuei?oaaiiy;

– aea/eoe iniaeeaino? oaeaee?niiai oa?aoaaiiy iie?ao??ieo iaoa??ae?a,
anoaiiaeoe aeiiae aei aeioneieo oi?i aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a aeey oeueiai
iaoiaeo oa cai?iiiioaaoe oeyoe ?o iaea?aeaiiy;

– aeyaeoe i?e/eie ci?ie a?aeo?ieo oa eieuei?o i?e oa?aoaaii?
aeenia?nieie aciaa?aieeaie oa ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?o onoiaiith;

– aea/eoe caeiiii??iino? i?a?aoe?? eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a i?e i?ii?aei?e
noooe? a i?ioean? aacia?a?aiiai oa?aoaaiiy oa ?ic?iaeoe aeionei? oi?ie
aa?aiee?a, ye? iathoue iecueeo nooi?iue;

– aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? i?iiooai?aiiy IA? a aiaeieo ?ic/eiao ?
noniaic?yo aa?aiee?a oa ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeaiee aioei?iiee aeey ?o
aeioneieo oi?i;

– cai?iaaaeeoe oaoiieia?? eieuei?oaaiiy iiaeie aeioneieie oi?iaie
aa?aiee?a o oa?aoaaeueii-iii?yaeaeoaaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

I a o e i a a i i a e c i a i ae a ? ae a i e o ? a c o e ue o a o ?
a.

A ?iaio? aia?oa:

– oai?aoe/ii ?icaeyiooi noai i?aai?/ieo aa?aiee?a a ?ic/eiao ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/ai? ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?iiieo niaeo??a
iiaeeiaiiy iiey?eciaai? ? iaiiey?eciaai? iieaeoee eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a,
o?iiii? ? ii??a? iieaeoee aeenia?nieo aio?ao?iiiiaeo aa?aiee?a,
ieoaaae?e/i? ? o?eaiiaeueii-a?i??ai?aeaeuei? eiiieaene eeneioieo
iaoaeii?noeeo aa?aiee?a;

– anoaiiaeaii ooai?aiiy a ?ic/eiao i?aai?/ieo aa?aiee?a aeaio oei?a
anioe?ao?a, ui aieiae?thoue ??cieie eiei?enoe/ieie ? o?ceei-o?i?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie, oa cai?iiiiiaaii ?o aoaeiao;

– aea/aii aieea oeio anioe?ao?a aa?aieea, ui aeae?eythoueny ia inoaii?e
noaae?? neioaco, iie?ia?iiai neeaaeo IA? ? ?iciiae?eaiiy aa?aieea a
noniaic?? ii ?ici??ao ia no?ee?noue aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo ? aeenia?nieo
aa?aiee?a a oiiaao caa??aaiiy oa i?ioeanao canoinoaaiiy

– iaea?aeaii aenia?eiaioaeueia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?nioaaiiy eaeeiniieoe
eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a a eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oieo ?ic/eiao ? ia oeaetheiciiio
noano?ao? o aeaeyae? eiioaeoieo ? nieueaaoii-?icae?eueieo eiiieo ia?,
ui aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe iaoai?ci oa?aoaaiiy oeaetheicieo noano?ao?a
eoaiaeie aa?aieeaie;

– aeyaeaii i?e/eie cieaeaiiy eiei?enoe/ii? noaa?eueiino? aeioneieo oi?i
aeenia?nieo aciaa?aiee?a o oa?aoaaeuei?e aaii? ? cai?iiiiiaaii
aoaeoeaiee niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?o noaa?eueiino?;

– anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano i?a?aoe?? eoaiaeo ? aeenia?nieo
aa?aiee?a i?e i?ii?aei?e noooe? a i?ioean? aacia?a?aiiai oa?aoaaiiy i?e
ci?i? aeenia?niiai neeaaeo aeioneii? oi?ie ? ai?noo aa?aieea a i?e;

– iieacaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo iecueeiiieaeoey?ii? o?aeoe?? o neeaae?
IA? i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? aeioneii? oi?ie aa?aieea a
oiiaao caa??aaiiy oa i?ioeanao canoinoaaiiy, cieaeaiiy a’yceino? iano
aeey iaianaiiy a?ca?oiea ia oeaieio, cieaeaiiy iiaeeiaiiy eaeeiniieoee
eoaiaiai aa?aieea oeaetheiciei aieieiii;

– anoaiiaeai? iniiai? i?eioeeie noai?aiiy aeioneieo oi?i eeneioieo
iaoaeii?noeeo eiiieaeno 1:2 aa?aiee?a, aeoiaey/e ?c aeanoeainoae
ieoaaae?e/ieo ? o?eaiiaeueii-a?i??ai?aeaeueieo oaeaoieo eii?aeeiaoe?eieo
eiiieaen?a, ui ooai?ththoueny a oa?aoaaeueiiio ?ic/ei?.

I ? a e o e / i a c i a / a i i y i ae a ? ae a i e o ? a c o e ue o
a o ? a caeeth/a?oueny a oiio, ui a ?iaio? aia?oa caaacia/aii:

– e?au? eiei?enoe/i? iieacieee, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?,
cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe?? ca ?aooiie aeioneo oa oe?ieiai
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e oa?aoaaii? oa iaianaii? a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie no?eeeo
a oiiaao caa??aaiiy oa i?ioean? canoinoaaiiy ii?ioeiaeo oa ??aeeeo
aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo oa aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a;

– noaa?euei?noue iaeiioiiiiai caaa?aeaiiy ia oaenoeeueieo iaoa??aeao ?c
noi?o? iie?ao??ieo oa oeaetheicieo aieieii neeaaeo 67:33 oeyoii
noai?aiiy ani?oeiaioo aa?aiee?a i?ae oi?aiaith iacaith “Iie?oeae” oa
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?? ia??iaee/iiai oa aacia?a?aiiai
oa?aoaaiiy oeeie aa?aieeaie ia oaenoeeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao NIA;

– noaa?euei?noue iaea?aeaiiy iaeiioiiiiai caaa?aeaiiy ia oaenoeeueieo
iaoa??aeao ?c noi?o? iie?ao??ieo oa oeaetheicieo aieieii ?c ai?noii
inoaiiueiai a?eueoa 50% oeyoii i?aeai?o eiiiiiaio?a oa?aoaaeueiiai
?ic/eio ?c no?eeeo aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo oa aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a;

– i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaith o?enaoe?? ? iiaeeiaiiy eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a a
i?ioeanao ia??iaee/iiai oa aacia?a?aiiai oa?aoaaiiy ca ?aooiie
aeaioiaeaiiy ? oe?ieiai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia oaenoeeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao
aeioneieo oi?i, ui i?noyoue aa?aiee, aeae?eaiee ia inoaii?e noaae??
neioaco a iaiao?aei?e e?enoae?/i?e oi?i?, ? c aeuei eiai ai?noii;

– i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? oa iaea?aeaiiy ??aiii??iiai
caaa?aeaiiy i?e aacia?a?aiiio oa?aoaaii? oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a
aeioneieie oi?iaie c a?eueo iecueeei ai?noii IA? ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy
i?a?aoe?? aa?aieea i?e i?ii?aei?e noooe?;

– noaa?euei?noue caaa?aeaiiy neioaoe/ieo oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a
aeenia?nieie aciaa?aieeaie ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy i?e aeaioiaeaii?
aeioneieo oi?i iiaeeo?eiaaieo oeyoii ieeneaiiy IA?;

– i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? oa cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino?
iie?ao??ieo iaoa??ae?a ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy aeioneieo oi?i
aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a no?eeeo oa iaeii?iieo, c aenieith oaeaee?noth
iiaeeiaiiy a oiiaao oa?aoaaiiy;

– i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aa?aiee?a ca ?aooiie aianaiiy
oaenoeeueii-aeiiii?aeieo ?a/iaei (aioei?iiee?a, ae??aithaa/?a,
eaoae?caoi??a a?aeiiaeaiiy, noaa?e?caoi??a, ?aaoeyoi??a a’yceino?) aei
neeaaeo aeioneieo oi?i;

– e?au? aeieia?/i? oiiae oa?aoaaiiy oa cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? aiaiyieo
oa iie?ai?aeieo iaoa??ae?a ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy a?o/eciyiiai ani?oeiaioo
eeneioieo iaoaeii?noeeo eiiieaeno 1:2 aa?aiee?a (oi?aiaa ia?ea
“??acieai”) oa oe?ieiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy ia oaenoeeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao
Oe?a?ie.

I n i a e n o e e a i a n i e c ae i a o a a / a a iaoeiaeo ?
i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoaoao iieyaa? a iinoaiiaoe? oe?eaiai?aaeaii? caaea/?
ii noai?aiith aeioneieo oi?i i?aai?/ieo aa?aiee?a, ye?
caaeiaieueiythoue no/ani? aeiiae oaenoeeueii? i?iieneiaino?. Aeey
?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi aea/ai? i?ioeane
oa?aoaaiiy oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? iaianaiiy a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie ia
i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie ? e?a?i NIAe, c’yniaai? ?acii c? niiaeeaa/aie
aeiiae aei aeioneieo oi?i aa?aiee?a. Caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi ?
eieaeoeaii, yeee a?i i/iethaaa, cae?eniai? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
noai?ai? ? aei?iaoaai? ia oaenoeeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao aeionei?
oi?ie aa?aiee?a. Oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee, ui iiaeai? a aeena?oaoe??,
aeeiiai? aaoi?ii aac ni?aaaoi??a.

A i ? i a a oe ? y ? a c o e ue o a o ? a ae e n a ? o a oe ? ?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue:

– ia i?aeia?iaeieo, i?aeoe/ieo ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo a
i?noao Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a (1994 ?.), Oa?e?a (1995 ?.), Ia?aeoa?oea (1990
?.), Naaa?iaeiiaoeuee (1998 ?.); – ia ananithcieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
a i?noao Iineaa (1986 ?.), Aieaiaeiinuee (1984 ?.), ?oa?aeia (1981
?.);

– ia ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? a i?no? Oa?iiiie? (1992 ?.);

– ia ia’?aeiaiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo oaoiieia?e oa aeecaeio;

– ia ia’?aeiaiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? Oa?niinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

– ia ia’?aeiaiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

– ia iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oaoiieia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Iiae?eey”.

Ie?ai? ?icae?ee ?iaioe iiceoeaii a?aecia/ai? Iinoaiiaaie
Oeaio?aeueiiai (1981 ?.) ? Eoaainueeiai iaeaniiai (1986, 1987 ??.)
i?aae?iiy Ananithciiai o?i?/iiai oiaa?enoaa ?i. Ae.?. Iaiaeaea?aa.

I o a e ? e a oe ? ?. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 34 i?aoe?, c
ieo 11 i?aoeue iaienaii aac ni?aaaoi??a, 18 noaoae a i?ia?aeieo
iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 10 oacen?a aeiiia?aeae, 5 aaoi?nueeeo
na?aeioeoa ia aeiaoiaee, 1 ?ioi?iaoe?eiee eenoie.

N o ? o e o o ? a o a i a n y a ? i a i o e. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, e?oa?aoo?iiai iaeyaeo, iaoiaee/ii? /anoeie,
aeanyoe i?ae?icae?e?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoai ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 389 noi??iie,
82 oaaeeoe?, 60 ?enoie?a, 374 iaeiaioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae.
A aeiaeaoeao i?aaenoaaeai? aeoe aei?iaoaaiue ?ic?iaeaieo aeioneieo oi?i
aa?aiee?a ia oaenoeeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao NIAe.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? cae?eniaii iaeyae iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
?ice?eaathoue aeiiae oaenoeeueii? i?iieneiaino? aei ye?nieo
iieaciee?a aeioneieo oi?i i?aai?/ieo aa?aiee?a aeey eieuei?oaaiiy
oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a. Iienaii noaio no/aniiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo oa aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a, oa?aeoa?enoeee oa
niiniae iaea?aeaiiy IA?, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ?o aeaioiaeaiiy,
iaoiaee aiae?co oa eiio?ieth yeino? aeioneieo oi?i. ?ice?eoi i?iaeaio
no?eeino? /anoeiie eoaiaeo oa aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a a i?ioean?
oa?aoaaiiy oa a oiiaao caa??aaiiy. I?iaiae?ciaai? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy
no?eeino? /anoeiie aa?aiee?a.

Ie?aii ?icaeyiooi aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy uiaei aeei?enoaiiy ii?ioeiaeo
aeioneieo oi?i i?aai?/ieo aa?aiee?a – eo??iiy oa cii/oaaiiy i?e
i?eaiooaaii? oa?aoaaeueieo aaii, i?iiooai?aiiy i?e iecueeiiiaeoeueiiio
oa oaeaee?niiio i?ioeanao oa?aoaaiiy, no?eeino? e?enoae?/ieo
iiaeeo?eaoe?e aa?aiee?a a oiiaao oa?aoaaiiy, aieea
oaenoeeueii-aeiiii?aeieo ?a/iaei ia ?acoeueoaoe oa?aoaaiiy.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa caa?iooa ia oa, ui aeey cae?eniaiiy a?eueo
oaoiieia?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai i?ioeano eieuei?oaaiiy oaenoeeueieo
iaoa??ae?a, ii?yae c o?i?/iith aoaeiaith aa?aiee?a aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
ye?noue aeioneii? oi?ie.

Iai?ee?ioe? ?icae?eo c?iaeaii aea?? iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e?, ui neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a, aeeeaaeaii
iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? iiaeaia
oa?aeoa?enoeea aeei?enoaieo o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?aai?/ieo
aa?aiee?a, IA?, oaenoeeueieo oa o?i?/ieo iaoa??ae?a. O ae?oaiio
i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iaoiaee aiae?co aa?aiee?a oa ?o aeioneieo
oi?i, IA? oa ?o eiei?aeii-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae, iaoiaee oa?aoaaiiy oa
iaianaiiy a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie. I?eaaaeaii ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee
aecia/aiiy caaaeueii?, iai?aai?/ii? oa i?aai?/ii? n??ee a
aeine?aeaeaieo IA?, no?eeino? aeioneieo oi?i aa?aiee?a ia eaai?aoi?iiio
oa?aoaaeueiiio aia?ao? “I?aeneoano”.

I?oei?noue caaa?aeaiue oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a aei o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aieea?a ioe?iaii a?aeiia?aeii aei /eiieo Aea?aenoaiaea?o?a.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a ia?iaeaii a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoiae?a no/anii?
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e?, ui neeaaea?oueny c aeanyoe i?ae?icae?e?a, iiaeaia
aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia ?iaioe.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1. i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii iaa?oiooaaiith a?eueo
i?iaeoeoeaieo oa aeiiii?/ieo oaoiieia?e oa?aoaaiiy oaenoeeueieo
iaoa??ae?a ? iaianaiiy a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie ca aeiiiiiaith no?eeeo a
oiiaao caa??aaiiy ? a i?ioeanao aeei?enoaiiy aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo oa
aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a. Ao?aoa no?eeino? i?eaiaeeoue aei ia??aiioe
oa?aoaaiiy, aeieeiaiiy “e?aio” ?, a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao?, aei
a?aeo. Oiio, aeey noai?aiiy no?eeeo a oiiaao caa??aaiiy ? i?ioeanao
canoinoaaiiy aeioneieo oi?i aea/aii noai eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a a ?ic/eiao ?
noniaic?yo. I?e oeueiio, aeei?enoaia oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue iieaeoee
i?aai?/iiai aa?aieea, yea aaco?oueny ia ni?iiiaeiino? oeeo iieaeoe
iiaeeiaoe eaaioe aeaeeiiai na?oea, a iane?aeie /iai a?aeaoaa?oueny
aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ia ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeo. Ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeo
cae?enith?oueny c aeiii?ii? a?oie (Ae) ia aeoeaioi?io (A) /a?ac
?-nenoaio a?iiaoe/iiai o?aaiaioo (O), yeee c’?aeio? iaeaea? /anoeie.
Ca?aeii oe??? iiaeae?, iieaeoeo i?aai?/iiai aa?aieea iiaeia
i?aaenoaaeoe a ne?aeoth/iio aeaeyae?:

Ae ——– O ——- A

Ia i?eeeaae? iiaeaeueiiai (ui ia i?noeoue cai?niee?a) Eoaiaiai
aa?aieea oaiii-neiueiai I (Colour Index Vat blue 20) aeeiiaii
eaaioiai-o?i?/iee ?ic?aooiie iniiaiiai noaio ii iaoiaeo
Ia?eca?a-Ia??a-Iiiea (III). sse iieacothoue ?ic?aooiee (?en. 1), ia
aoii? eenith ea?aii?eueii? a?oie (>N=I) ?nio? iaaeeeoie aeaeo?iiii?
aonoeie (-0,25), a ia aoii? aoaeaoeth – iaaeinoaoie (+0,15). Ia ?aoo?
aoiiao aoaeaoeth iieaeoee aa?aieea oaae ?nio? iaaeeeoie ? iaaeinoaoie
aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie. Ioaea, aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ia ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeo
i?e ia?aoiae? iieaeoee aa?aieea c iniiaiiai a caoaeaeaiee noai iiaea
i?ioiaeeoe ?c ni?yaeaieo aoii?a aoaeaoeth a?iiaoe/ii? nenoaie
(aeiii?) ia aoii eenith (aeoeaioi?) ea?aii?eueii? a?oie /a?ac ?-nenoaio
a?iiaoe/iiai o?aaiaioo.

?en. 1. Eaaioiai-o?i?/i? ?ic?aooiee aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie ia aoiiao

iieaeoee Eoaiaiai oaiii-neiueiai I.

(-) (+) – iaaeeeoie ? iaaeinoaoie aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie.

Oeth oi?io aa?aieea iiaeia oiiaii iacaaoe iaiiey?eciaaiith ? caienaoe o
aeaeyae? a?aie/ii? no?oeoo?e:

Ae ——- O ——- N?+ = Iae-

aea ?+ ? ?- – aeacothoue ia iaaeeeoeiaee ca?yae, ui c’yaey?oueny a
iaeano? eiaeiiai aoiia.

Ii?yae c oe??th iiaea ooai?thaaoenue ? ?ioa iiey?eciaaia oi?ia, yeo o
aeaeyae? a?aie/ii? no?oeoo?e iiaeia caienaoe:

Ae ——- O ——- N+ – I-

Eoaia? aa?aieee a ?ic/eiao o aeaeyae? aeaio oi?i (iiey?eciaai?e
? iaiiey?eciaai?e) aieiae?thoue ??ciith iiaeeiaeueiith ni?iiiaei?noth
a aeaeei?e iaeano?. Aeiaaioaeeueiaa nioaa a aeaeo?iiieo niaeo?ao
iiaeeiaiiy eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a a aeaeei?e iaeano? iaoiiaeaia
ia?aianaiiyi ca?yaeo a iiey?eciaaieo iieaeoeao, ei?ioeioaeeueiaa – a
iaiiey?eciaaieo iieaeoeao. I?ae oeeie oi?iaie a ?ic/ei? eoaiaiai
aa?aieea ?nio? ??aiiaaaa, yeo iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ianooiiei /eiii:

Ae ——- O ——- N ae+= Iae-
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800120021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff06000000e0010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a20013a0001000000db000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 Ae ——- O
——- N+ – I-

A ?ic/eiao eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a i?e iaaieo oiiaao (iai?eeeaae,
i?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aa?aieea, cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e) iiaeooue
ooai?thaaoeny aeaa oeie anioe?ao?a: o? ui neeaaeathoueny ?c
iaiiey?eciaaieo oa iiey?eciaaieo iieaeoe. Aca?iia ?icoaooaaiiy
iaiiey?eciaaieo iieaeoe a anioe?aoao ia?oiai oeio noaiaoe/ii
i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 2a. Aca?iiae?y aeiii?iiai aoiia aoaeaoeth iaei???
iaiiey?eciaaii? iieaeoee ? aoiia eenith ea?aii?eueii? a?oie ae?oai?
iieaeoee oneeaaeith? ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeo a anioe?eiaai?e iaiiey?eciaai?e
iieaeoe? a ii??aiyii? c iaanioe?eiaaiith. Ioaea, anioe?aoe ia?oiai
oeio, ye? neeaaeathoueny c iaiiey?eciaaieo iieaeoe, iiaeii? iiaeeiaoe a
a?eueo ei?ioeioaeeueia?e iaeano? niaeo?a, i?ae iaanioe?eiaai?
iaiiey?eciaai? iieaeoee aa?aieea.

Anioe?aoe ae?oaiai oeio, ye? neeaaeathoueny c iiey?eciaaieo iieaeoe,
ooai?ththoueny ii oeio ieanoei/aoeo i?oeae IA? – iaiiey?eciaaiith
/anoeiith ana?aaeeio, a iiey?eciaaiith iaciai?. Aca?iia ?icoaooaaiiy
iiey?eciaaieo iieaeoe a oaeiio anioe?ao? noaiaoe/ii i?aaenoaaeaii ia
?en. 2a. Oaea ?icoaooaaiiy iiey?eciaaieo iieaeoe a anioe?ao? ni?ey?
a?eueo eaaeiio ia?aianaiith ca?yaeo i?e caoaeaeaii? anioe?eiaaii?
iiey?eciaaii? iieaeoee a ii??aiyii? c iaanioe?eiaaiith. Ioaea,
anioe?aoe ae?oaiai oeio, ye? neeaaeathoueny c iiey?eciaaieo iieaeoe,
iiaeii? iiaeeiaoe a a?eueo aeiaaioaeeueia?e iaeano? niaeo?a, i?ae
iaanioe?eiaai? iiey?eciaai? iieaeoee. Ooai?aiiy anioe?ao?a iaio
oei?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaae?iiyi iiaeeiaeueii? caeaoiino? iieaeoe
aa?aieea ? i?iyaey?oueny a niaeo?ao ciaioaiiyi ieiu? nioae iiaeeiaiiy ?
aeieeiaiiyi neaai ae?aaeaii? ? iaei?ioaineaii? nioae aai iea/a e?ai?o/
/e i?aai?o/ a?ae iniiaieo nioa.

Aeeeaaeaia oai?aoe/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y noaio eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a a ?ic/eiao
? noniaic?yo ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aenia?eiaioaeueiei iaoa??aeii,
iaeiie/aiei aei oaia??oiueiai /ano.

a
a

?en. 2. Noaiaoe/ia cia?aaeaiiy aca?iiiai ?icoaooaaiiy iaiiey?eciaaieo
iieaeoe eoaiaiai aa?aieea a anioe?aoao ia?oiai oeio (a) oa iiey?eciaaieo
iieaeoe a anioe?aoao ae?oaiai oeio (a).

Ia i?eeeaae? Eoaiaiai yne?aai-aeaeeoiiai CAe ? CI iieacaii, ui eiai
aeionei? oi?ie, iaea?aeai? ?c anioe?ao?a ia?oiai oeio, iathoue
i?aeaeuaio no?ee?noue o ii??aiyii? c aeioneieie oi?iaie oeueiai
aa?aieea, iaea?aeaiiai ?c anioe?ao?a ae?oaiai oeio. Oaoiieia?y
aeae?eaiiy aa?aieea Eoaiaiai yne?aai-aeaeeoiiai C a no?ee?e oi?i?
inai?ia ia AAO “E?aneoaeue”.

I?e aea/aii? noaio aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a a ?ic/ei? aeiaea?aeoaaeenue
oiai, ui iniiao aeenia?nieo aio?ao?iiiiaeo aa?aiee?a neeaaeathoue
o?i?/i? no?oeoo?e, ui yaeythoueny 1,4- ? 1,4,5,8-iio?aeieie
aio?ao?iiio, ye? iathoue a aeiaaioaeeueia?e nioc? aeaa iaeneioie. Oea
aei?noe? no?oeoo?e c aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ieie aiaeiaaeie ca’yceaie. Ia
i?eeeaae? Aeenia?niiai o?ieaoiaiai E (Colour Index Disperse violet
1) oey no?oeoo?a ia? aoaeiao I. A oaeeo no?oeoo?ao iiaeeeaa i?a?aoe?y
i?ioiia, ui cae?enith? aiaeiaaee ca’ycie c aoiiii eenith
ea?aii?eueii? a?oie. I?e oeueiio ooai?th?oueny no?oeoo?a II. A
no?oeoo?? I, yeo iiaeia iacaaoe o?iiiiith, ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeo i?e
caoaeaeaii? cae?enith?oueny c aoiia acioo ai?iia?oie ia aoii eenith
ea?aii?eueii? a?oie. A no?oeoo?? II, yeo iiaeia iacaaoe ii??aith,
ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeo i?e caoaeaeaii? a?aeaoaa?oueny c aoiia eenith
a?ae?ieneeueii? a?oie ia aoii acioo ?i?iii? a?oie.

?nioaaiiy aeenia?nieo aio?ao?iiiiaeo aa?aiee?a o aeaeyae? aeaio no?oeoo?
(yaeua i?ioio?ii??), ia?aaeaa/a? ?o ??cio ni?iiiaei?noue iiaeeiaoe
eaaioe na?oea a aeaeei?e iaeano?. Aeiaaioaeeueiaa nioaa a niaeo?ao
iiaeeiaiiy aeenia?nieo aio?ao?iiiiaeo aa?aiee?a a aeaeei?e iaeano?
iaoiiaeaia aeaeo?iiiei ia?aoiaeii, ca’ycaiei c ia?aianaiiyi ca?yaeo a
ii??a?e no?oeoo??, ei?ioeioaeeueiaa – a o?iiii?e no?oeoo??.
Aeaoi?iaoe?ei? ci?ie ei?ioeioaeeueiai? ? aeiaaioaeeueiai? nioa a
aeaeo?iiieo niaeo?ao aeacothoue ia iieiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae i?ae
no?oeoo?aie I ? II. Ci?uaiiy oe??? ??aiiaaae a ?ic/eiao iiaeeeai i?e
ci?i? iiey?iino? ?ic/eiieea ? aiaeiaaiai iieacieea (pH).

A ?ic/eiao aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a aio?ao?iiiiaiai ?yaeo a iaaieo oiiaao
iiaeooue ooai?thaaoeny aeaa oeie anioe?ao?a: ia?oee – ui
neeaaea?oueny ?c o?iiiieo iieaeoe, ae?oaee – ?c ii??aeo iieaeoe.
Anioe?aoe ia?oiai oeio, ye? neeaaeathoueny ?c o?iiiieo iieaeoe,
iiaeeiathoue a a?eueo ei?ioeioaeeueia?e iaeano?, i?ae
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? o?iiii? iieaeoee aa?aieea. Anioe?aoe, ye?
neeaaeathoueny ?c ii??aeo iieaeoe, iiaeeiathoue a a?eueo
aeiaaioaeeueia?e iaeano?, i?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ii??a? iieaeoee.
Ooai?aiiy anioe?ao?a iaio oei?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny caaaeueiei
cieaeaiiyi iiaeeiaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino? iieaeoe aa?aieea ? i?iyaey?oueny
aeieeiaiiyi a niaeo?ao iaei?ioaineaii? nioae aai iea/a e?ai?o/ ?
i?aai?o/ a?ae iniiaieo nioa.

Iieaeoee aeenia?nieo aciaa?aiee?a a ?ic/ei? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
??ciei iaaeinoaoeii aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie ia aoii? acioo aeoeaioi?ii?
i?o?ia?oie, yea eieeaa?oueny a?ae + aei – . I?e oeueiio i?yeeo ci?i
c aoiiii acioo ia a?aeaoaa?oueny. Oiio a?aenooiy noaa?e?caoe?y
iiey?eciaaieo ? iaiiey?eciaaieo iieaeoe a ?ic/ei? aeenia?niiai
aciaa?aieea. Aiane?aeie /iai ?nio? iaeia oe?iea nioaa a niaeo?ao
iiaeeiaiiy a aeaeei?e iaeano?.

Aeenia?ni? aciaa?aieee oaeiae ye ? aio?ao?iiiia? a iaaieo oiiaao
ooai?ththoue aeaa oeie anioe?ao?a, ye? iiaeeiathoue a a?eueo
ei?ioeioaeeueia?e ? a?eueo aeiaaioaeeueia?e iaeanoyo, i?ae
iaanioe?eiaai? iieaeoee.

Aecia/ai? oiiae neioaco Aeenia?niiai aeiaoiai iao o aeaeyae?
oa?iinoaa?eueieo anioe?ao?a ia?oiai oeio. Aeenia?niee aeiaoee iao
aeae?ey?oueny a i?ioean? neioaco o aeaeyae? no?eeeo anioe?ao?a ia?oiai
oeio a i?enooiino? ieneaoeeueiaaieo ia?iiiaaiieo IA? (II-10,
IN-20,i?ienai?i 385). Iaeaeuee aeo?ae aa?aieea iaea?aeaii a
i?enooiino? i?ienai?io 385 (75,9-77,2%). Oaoiieia?y iaea?aeaiiy
Aeenia?niiai aeiaoiai iao a no?ee?e oi?i? cai?iaaaeaeaia ia
Oaiaianueeiio AOAO “I?aiaio” c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaniiai aaoi?nueeiai
na?aeioeoaa N?N?.

Ae?oaei aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii, ui nooo?aei /eiii aieeaa? ia no?ee?noue
ii?ioe?a ? iano eoaiaeo oa aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a a oiiaao caa??aaiiy oa
??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e noniaic?? aa?aieea ia oaenoeeueiiio iaoa??ae? a
i?ioean? oa?aoaaiiy, ? i?e?iaea IA?, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy aeioneieo oi?i, oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?ia?ieo o?aeoe?e a ?o
neeaae?.

Aeei?enoaiiy e?aiinoeueoiiao?a iao??th, ye? aieiae?thoue oe?iieie
aeanoeainoyie (aeinooii?noue, aeaoaaecia, iecueea oiene/i?noue), a
oaia??oi?e /an aeeeeea? i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an. Aea/aii aieea
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?ia?ieo o?aeoe?e a e?aiinoeueoiiaoao iao??th ?
nooiaith noeueooaaiiy e?ai?io ia eiai noaa?e?coth/o ni?iiiaei?noue.
Noaa?e?coth/a ni?iiiaei?noue e?aiinoeueoiiao?a iao??th coiiaeth?oueny ?o
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie aeanoeainoyie, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny e?eoe/iith
eiioeaio?aoe??th i?oeaeeiooai?aiiy (EEI). Aeey eiaeiiai ?yaeo c?ace?a c
iaeiei nooiaiai noeueooaaiiy c i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo aenieiiieaeoey?ii?
o?aeoe?? noaa?e?coth/a ni?iiiaei?noue ciaioo?oueny. C i?aeaeuaiiyi
ai?noo aenieiiieaeoey?ii? o?aeoe?? a e?aiinoeueoiiao? iao??th cia/aiiy
EEI c?inoa? a eiaeiiio ?yaeo. Iiieaeaiiy nooiaith noeueooaaiiy
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a iao??th, i?e iino?eiiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? iie?ia?ieo
o?aeoe?e i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy EEI ? i?aeaeuaiith iiaa?oiaai?
aeoeaiino?. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, EEI i?eeiyoa ye e?eoa??e
aeai?o e?aiinoeueoiiao?a iao??th c aenieith noaa?e?coth/ith
ni?iiiaei?noth.

Aecia/aii o?ceei-o?i?/i? iieacieee e?aiinoeueoiiao?a iao??th aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo ? aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a. Aeey
aa?aiee?a c a?ae?ioiaiith iiaa?oiath /anoeiie ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th
e?aiinoeueoiiaoa iao??th c iecueeith iieaeoey?iith ianith ? na?aaei?i
nooiaiai noeueooaaiiy (oi?aiaa ia?ea E?aiiiie AOE).

Aeey aa?aiee?a c a?ae?io?e?ciaaiith iiaa?oiath /anoeiie ?ic?iaeaii
oaoiieia?th e?aiinoeueoiiaoa iao??th c iecueeith iieaeoey?iith ianith ?
iecueeei nooiaiai noeueooaaiiy (oi?aiaa ia?ea “Aeanoe?i AOE”), yeee ii
o?ceei-o?i?/iei iieacieeai a?aeiia?aea? ca?oa?aeiiio aiaeiao
Marasperse CB (o??ia?American Can Co., NOA). ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia??
inai?i? ia AAO “E?aneoaeue” ? AOAO “I?aiaio”.

?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th oi?aa?naeueiiai IA? ia iniia? noeueoaoiiai
e?ai?ia ?c a?o/eciyii? ne?iaeie (oi?aiaa ia?ea “?oaao?e AOE”),yeee ii
o?ceei-o?i?/iei iieacieeai a?aeiia?aea? ca?oa?aeiiio aiaeiao Reax 83A
(o??ia Vestwaco Co., NOA).

C iaoith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?ia?ieo o?aeoe?e
o Aeenia?aaoi?? IO aea/aia noaa?e?coth/a ni?iiiaei?noue eiai
neeaaeiaeo, a oaeiae aecia/ai? ?o EEI a aiaeieo ?ic/eiao. Oaeiae ye ?
aeey e?aiinoeueoiiao?a iao??th, i?aeaeuaiiy iecueeiiieaeoey?ii?
o?aeoe?? o Aeenia?aaoi?? IO i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy eiai
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo aeanoeainoae ? noaa?e?coth/i? ni?iiiaeiino?.
Caaaeyee iaea?aeaiei ?acoeueoaoai, anoaiiaeai? iniiai? iieacieee yeino?
Aeenia?aaoi?a IO ? aeaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii eiai neioaco.

?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th ai?iiieo IA? ia iniia? noeueoiiaoeeueiaaieo
e?acieioi?iaeueaeaa?aeii? (oi?aiaa ia?ea “Aeenia?aaoi? NN”) ?
oaiieioi?iaeueaeaa?aeii? (oi?aiaa ia?ea “Aeenia?aaoi? ON”) niie.
?ic?iaeai? IA? inai?i? ia AAO “E?aneoaeue” ? AOAO “I?aiaio”.

Noai?aiee ani?oeiaio IA? (aeenia?aaoi?e ia?ie IO, NN, ON, Aeanoe?i AOE,
E?aiiiie AOE) aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe no?ee? a oiiaao caa??aaiiy ?
i?ioeanao canoinoaaiiy, eiieo?aioiini?iiiaei? aeionei? oi?ie eoaiaeo
? aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a. Aeionei? oi?ie oeeo aa?aiee?a, ia iniia?
?ic?iaeaieo IA?, aei?iaoaai? c iiceoeaiei ?acoeueoaoii ia oaenoeeueieo
i?aei?e?inoaao a oa?aoaaii? oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? iaianaii?
a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie.

O?ao?i aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii, ui coiiaeth? no?ee?noue aeioneieo oi?i
eoaiaeo oa aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a a oiiaao caa??aaiiy ? a i?ioeanao
oa?aoaaiiy oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? iaianaii? a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie ?
nooi?iue iaeii??aeiino? /anoeiie aa?aiee?a. ?aeaaeueiith ca no?ee?noth
aeioneiith oi?iith eoaiaeo ? aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a aaaaea?oueny
aeioneia oi?ia, ui ia? iiiiaeenia?niee neeaae /anoeiie aa?aieea a
noniaic??. Iaeiae, a ?aaeueieo oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa aeionei? oi?ie oeeo
aa?aiee?a iathoue iie?aeenia?niee neeaae.

?ic?iaeaii niin?a iaea?aeaiiy aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo ? aeenia?nieo
aa?aiee?a aaaaoinoaae?eiei iaoai?/iei iiae??aiaiiyi noniaic?e aa?aieea
ia a?na?ieo ieeiao c aeei?enoaiiyi iiae??aithth/eo o?e ?ici??ii 0,67 –
3,0 ii, i?e iine?aeiai?e ci?i? ?o ?ici??o ia eiaeiiio ie?aiiio ieei?.
Iiae??aiaiiy aa?aieea ia ia?o?e noaae?? aaaeaoueny c aeei?enoaiiyi
iiae??aithth/eo o?e ?ici??ii 2,5 – 3,0 ii, ia iine?aeoth/eo noaae?yo
?ici?? iiae??aithth/eo o?e ciaioo?oueny. Ia inoaii?e noaae??
iiae??aiaiiy aaaeaoueny c aeei?enoaiiyi iiae??aithth/eo o?e ?ici??ii
0,67 – 1,0 ii. I?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano iiae??aiaiiy aa?aiee?a i?e oaeiio
/a?aoaaii? iiae??aithth/eo o?e i?eaiaeeoue aei iaea?aeaiiy a?eueo
iaeii??aeii? noniaic?? a ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiei iiae??aiaiiyi. Ha
i?eeeaae? Eoaiaiai yne?aai-caeaiiai N (Colour Index Vat green 1)
iieacaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaith iaeii??aeiino? /anoeiie aa?aieea a
aeionei?e oi?i? i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?o no?eeino? i?ioe
aa?aaaoe?? oa aaeiia?aoe?? a oiiaao caa??aaiiy ? i?ioeanao canoinoaaiiy.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 i?iaaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy a?eueo aeiiii?/ieo
oaoiieia?e eieuei?oaaiiy oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a ca aeiiiiiaith
aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a c i?aeaeuaiei nooiaiai o?enaoe?? ?
iiaeeiaiiy i?e aacia?a?aiiio oa ia??iaee/iiio niiniaao oa?aoaaiiy.

Aea/aii noai eaeeiniieoe eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a a eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oieo
?ic/eiao ? aecia/aii iaoai?ci oa?aoaaiiy oeeie aa?aieeaie oeaetheicieo
iaoa??ae?a. Aeey aecia/aiiy aeiii?ii? ? aeoeaioi?ii? /anoei a iieaeoe?
eaeeiniieoee eoaiaiai aa?aieea i?iaaaeaii eaaioiai-o?i?/iee ?ic?aooiie
iniiaiiai noaio ii iaoiaeo III ia i?eeeaae? iiaeaeueii? eaeeiniieoee
Eoaiaiai oaiii-neiueiai I. Caaaeyee ?ic?aooieai anoaiiaeaii (?en. 3),
ui ia aoii? eenith ?iieueii? a?oie iaaeeeoie aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie
(-0,93), a ia aoii? aoaeaoeth – iaaeinoaoie (+0,24). Ia ?aoo? aoiiao
aoaeaoeth iieaeoee eaeeiniieoee aa?aieea ?nio? oaeiae iacia/iee
iaaeeeoie ? iaaeinoaoie aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie. Ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeo i?e
ia?aoiae? iieaeoee eaeeiniieoee eoaiaiai aa?aieea ?c iniiaiiai a
caoaeaeaiee noai cae?enith?oueny c aeiii?iiai aoiia eenith ?iieueii?
a?oie /a?ac ?-nenoaio a?iiaoe/iiai o?aaiaioo ia ni?yaeai? aoiie
aoaeaoeth, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaeinoaoeii aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie.

?en. 3. Eaaioiai-o?i?/i? ?ic?aooiee aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie ia aoiiao
iieaeoee eaeeiniieoee Eoaiaiai oaiii-neiueiai I

A iniiaiiio noai? iieaeoea eaeeiniieoee eoaiaiai aa?aieea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo ia aoii? eenith
?iieueii? a?oie, yeee eiiiaino?oueny iiceoeaiei ca?yaeii eao?iia
iao??th ? ooai?th? eiioaeoio (o?nio) ?iiio ia?o (E?I), yeo noaiaoe/ii
iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe a ianooiiiio aeaeyae?:

Na+ I–N ——- O ——- Aae+

Ii?yae c oeeie iieaeoeaie ?niothoue iieaeoee eaeeiniieoee eoaiaiai
aa?aieea a yeeo aaea a iniiaiiio noai? a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?uaiiy
aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie c aeiii?iiai aoiia eenith ia aeoeaioi?io
?-nenoaio. I?e oeueiio iaaaoeaiee ca?yae ia aoii? eenith
iaeo?ae?co?oueny ? i?ioe?ii Na+ nieueaaoo?oueny iieaeoeaie ?ic/eiieea.
Ooai?th?oueny nieueaaoii-?icae?eueia ?iiia ia?a (N??I) iieaeoee
eaeeiniieoee eoaiaiai aa?aieea, yeo noaiaoe/ii iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe a
ianooiiiio aeaeyae?:

Iae– N ——- O ——- Aae+

A aeaeo?iiieo niaeo?ao iiaeeiaiiy a aeaeei?e iaeano? eaeeiniieoe
eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a E?I iaeaaeeoue ei?ioeioaeeueiaa nioaa, N??I –
aeiaaioaeeueiaa.

A eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oieo ?ic/eiao eaeeiniieoe i?e i?aeaeuaii? ?o
eiioeaio?aoe?? iiaeooue ooai?thaaoenue aeaa oeie anioe?ao?a, ye?
neeaaeathoueny ?c E?I oa N??I. Aoaeiaa oeeo anioe?ao?a aiaeia?/ia
aoaeia? anioe?ao?a eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a. Anioe?aoe ia?oiai oeio, ye?
neeaaeathoueny ?c E?I, iiaeeiathoue a a?eueo ei?ioeioaeeueia?e iaeano?
niaeo?o, i?ae iaanioe?eiaai?. Anioe?aoe ae?oaiai oeio, ye?
neeaaeathoueny ?c N??I, iiaeeiathoue a a?eueo aeiaaioaeeueia?e iaeano?,
i?ae iaanioe?eiaai?. Caaaeueia noaia noaio eaeeiniieoee eoaiaiai
aa?aieea a eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oiiio ?ic/ei? ia? ne?aeoth/ee aeaeyae:

E?I an
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800120021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff06000000e0010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a20013a0001000000db000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 E?I
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800120021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff06000000e0010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a20013a0001000000db000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 N??I
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800120021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff06000000e0010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a20013a0001000000db000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 N??I an

aea E?I an – anioe?aoe ia?oiai oeio;

N??I an – anioe?aoe ae?oaiai oeio.

Ia ?en. 4 i?aaenoaaeai? niaeo?e iiaeeiaiiy eaeeiniieoee Eoaiaiai
oaiii-neiueiai I i?e ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo. Aeiaooie eiioeaio?aoe??
aa?aieea ia oiaueio ethaaoe – aaee/eia iino?eia. I?e oe?e oiia? aeey
?aeaaeueiiai aa?aieea (aa?aiee, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a iieaeoey?ii
?ic/eii?e oi?i?, iaaeenioe?thth/ee ? ia ooai?thth/ee anioe?ao?a)
niaeo?e iiaeii? aooe iaeeiaeiaeie. Aeey ?aaeueieo aeine?aeieo
eaeeiniieoe c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? ?o a eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oiiio
?ic/ei? aaee/eia E, ui oa?aeoa?eco? a?aeiioaiiy iioe/ieo aonoei
aeiaaioaeeueiai? ? ei?ioeioaeeueiai? nioa iiaeeiaiiy, cieaeo?oueny.
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i a?aeiinia i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo E?I ? cieaeaiiy
ai?noo N??I a ?ic/ei?. I?e i?aeaeuaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? eaeeiniieoee a
?ic/ei? a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeiae i?ioean ooai?aiiy anioe?ao?a.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? cieaeaiiy iiaeeiaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino?
?ic/eio eaeeiniieoee (ciaioaiiy ieiu? i?ae niaeo?ii). Eoaiaee
oaiii-nei?e I ooai?th? ia?aaaaeii o?eueee anioe?aoe, ye? neeaaeathoueny
?c E?I (?en. 4a). Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeai? ? ia ?ioeo eoaiaeo
aa?aieeao.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ni?aoe?eii? aeoeaiino? E?I ? N??I aei oeaetheiciiai
noano?aoo i?iaaaeaii oa?aoaaiiy oeaetheicii? ie?aee eaeeiniieoeaie
Eoaiaiai oaiii-neiueiai I (?en. 4a) ? Eoaiaiai yne?aai-o?ieaoiaiai E i?e
??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo aa?aieea. E?euee?noue eaeeiniieoee a
oa?aoaaeuei?e aaii? ia iaeeieoeth iane ie?aee iaea iino?eia cia/aiiy.

C i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? eaeeiniieoee o oa?aoaaeuei?e aaii?
c?inoa? e?euee?noue ni?aiaaii? eaeeiniieoee ia oeaetheici?e
ie?aoe?. Ca aeaeo?iiieie niaeo?aie anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiith /anoeith,
yea coiiaeth? iiaeeiaiiy oeaetheiciei noano?aoii eaeeiniieoe eoaiaeo
aa?aiee?a, yaey?oueny E?I. Iieaeoea E?I aeaeo?iiaeo?aeueia, a oie /an ye
oeaetheiciee noano?ao o eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oiiio ?ic/ei? ia? iaaaoeaia
cia/aiiy aeaeo?ie?iaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo. Oiio, E?I aaeni?ao?oueny
oeaetheiciei noano?aoii aac ia?aoeiae. Iieaeoea N??I ia? iaaaoeaiee
ca?yae ? ia iiaea aaeni?aoaaoenue noano?aoii.

Niaeo?e eaeeiniieoe aeine?aeieo eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a ia oeaetheiciiio
noano?ao? iathoue ci?uaiiy nioa iiaeeiaiiy a aeiaaioaeeueiao iaeanoue
(aaoio?iiia c?ooaiiy) ? a?eueoa cia/aiiy E o ii??aiyii? ?c niaeo?aie
a eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oiiio ?ic/ei?. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aeey
caoaeaeaiiy ? ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeo a aaeni?aiaai?e iieaeoe?
eaeeiniieoee iaiao?aei? eaaioe na?oea c iaioith aia?a??th, i?ae aeey
iieaeoee eaeeiniieoee, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a ?ic/ei?. E??i oeueiai, ia
oeaetheicieo noano?aoao, iioa?aiaaieo ?c aaii c ??ciith
eiioeaio?aoe??th eaeeiniieoee, anoaiiaeaii iino?eia cia/aiiy E.
Aiaeia?/i? ci?ie (aaoio?iiia c?ooaiiy nioae iiaeeiaiiy ? a?eueoa
cia/aiiy E) anoaiiaeai? a eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oiiio ?ic/ei? eaeeiniieoe,
ye? i?noyoue ia?iiiaaii? IA?. Oiio, IA?, ye? iathoue ieneaoeeuei?
a?oie, iiaeooue aooe iiaeaeeth oeaetheiciiai noano?aoo i?e aea/aii?
aca?iiae?? eaeeiniieoee ? noano?aoo.

?en. 4. Aeaeo?iii? niaeo?e iiaeeiaiiy eaeeiniieoee Eoaiaiai
oaiii-neiueiai I a eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oiiio ?ic/ei? (a), ia iioa?aiaai?e
oeaeioaiia?e ie?aoe? (a).

a) 1 – eiioeaio?aoe?y eaeeiniieoee a ?ic/ei? (n, ia/e) – 5, oiaueia
ethaaoe (l, ii) – 20; 2 – n=10, l=10; 3 – n=20, l=5; 4 – n=50, l=2; 5
– n=200, l=0,5;

a) 1 – eiioeaio?aoe?y eaeeiniieoee a oa?aoaaeuei?e aaii? (c,ia/e) –

2,5, iana ie?aee aeey oa?aoaaiiy (m, a) 0,2; 2 – n=3,13, m=0,25;

3 – n=6,25, m=0,5; 4 – n=12,5, m=1,0.

?icaeyiooa a?ae?ioiaii-a?ae?io?eueia aca?iiae?y eaeeiniieoee c
ieneaoeeueiith /anoeiith iieaeoee IA?. Aiane?aeie caeeaeaiiy
a?ae?ioiaii? /anoeie iieaeoee eaeeiniieoee (aeoeaioi?i? aoiie
aoaeaoeth) ? a?ae?ioiaii? /anoeie iieaeoee IA? (aoiie aiaeith
ieneaoeeueieo a?oi) a?aeaoaa?oueny iineeaiiy aeoeaioi?ieo
aeanoeainoae eaeeiniieoee. Caeeaeaiiy a?ae?io?eueii? /anoeie iieaeoee
eaeeiniieoee (aoii aoaeaoeth ?iieueii? a?oie) ? a?ae?io?eueii? /anoeie
iieaeoee IA? (aoii eenith) i?eaiaeeoue aei aeeiieue-aeeiieueii?
aca?iiae??, yea ni?ey? iieaaoaiiio ia?aianaiith ca?yaeo i?e caoaeaeai?
eaeeiniieoee. Iane?aeeii oeueiai yaey?oueny aaoio?iiia c?ooaiiy nioa oa
a?eueoa cia/aiiy E a aeaeo?iiieo niaeo?ao iiaeeiaiiy.

Aeoeaieie oeaio?aie a oeaetheiciiio noano?ao?, oaeiae ye ? a IA?, ye?
i?noyoue ieneaoeeuei? a?oie, yaeythoueny aoiie eenith ao??ieo ?
aoi?eiieo a?ae?ieneeueieo a?oi, a oaeiae aoiie aiaeith. Ia?ai?uaiiy
eaeeiniieoee a noano?ao? cae?enith?oueny caaaeyee aca?ii?e ia?aaea/?
?? c iaeiiai ?ooiiiai aeoeaiiai oeaio?o ia ae?oaee a?eueiee, aai oie, ui
o?eueee ui ca?eueieany. I?e iane/aii? aeoeaieo oeaio??a oeaetheiciiai
noano?aoo iieaeoeaie eaeeiniieoee iiaeaeueoa ?o aaeni?aoe?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny aaea ia aaeni?aiaaio eaeeiniieoeo c ooai?aiiyi ia
noano?ao? anioe?ao?a ia?oiai oeio, ye? neeaaeathoueny ?c E?I. Oaeei
/eiii, noai eaeeiniieoee a eoaeiuei-aeeo?ii?oiiio ?ic/ei? ? iaoai?ci
oa?aoaaiiy iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ne?aeoth/ith noaiith:

E?I an
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800120021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff06000000e0010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a20013a0001000000db000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 E?I
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800120021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff06000000e0010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a20013a0001000000db000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 N??I
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800120021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff06000000e0010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a20013a0001000000db000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 N??I an

picscalex142010009000003890000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02c00140011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffc0ffffff00010000800100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000400011000000fb02c0fe000000000000900100000002040200104d54204578747261
0002040000002d01000008000000320a400128000100000063000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000

N??I aae
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800120021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff06000000e0010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a20013a0001000000db000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 E?I aae
picscalex100010009000003880000000200120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800120021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff06000000e0010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a20013a0001000000db000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 (E?I an)aae

aea aae – aaeni?aiaaiee ia oeaetheiciiio noano?ao? noai.

A?aoiaoth/e cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoai?ci oa?aoaaiiy, aeine?aeaeaii
iiaeeiaiiy oeaetheiciei aieieiii aeaio eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a
(yne?aai-i?aiaeaaee EO ? ei?e/iaaee NE) i?e ??ciiio ai?no? aa?aieea a
aeionei?e oi?i?. Iiaeeiaiiy eoaiaiai aa?aieea i?e oa?aoaaii? ye a
na?aaei?e oae ? a iane/aiee oiie ca?eueoo?oueny c i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo
aa?aieea a aeionei?e oi?i?. Oea iiynith?oueny ciaioaiiyi caaea?aeoth/i?
ae?? Aeenia?aaoi?a IO i?e cieaeaii? eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? a
oa?aoaaeuei?e aaii?.

Ia i?eeeaae? 6 eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a aea/aii aieea ai?noo aa?aieea a
aeionei?e oi?i? ia eiai nooi?iue o?enaoe?? i?e aacia?a?aiiio
oa?aoaaii?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eoaiaeo
aa?aiee?a a aeioneieo oi?iao i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy
nooiaith o?enaoe?? aa?aieea i?e noniaic?eiiio oa?aoaaii? (oaae. 1).

Oaeei /eiii, canoinoaaiiy oiieiaeenia?nieo aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo
aa?aiee?a c aenieei ai?noii aa?aieea i?e aacia?a?aieo ? ia??iaee/ieo
niiniaao oa?aoaaiiy aeiiii?/ii a?eueo aea?aeii, caaaeyee iaio?e aeo?ao?
aei?iaiai aa?aieea ? aeu?e yeino? oa?aoaaiiy. Eoaia? aa?aieee c
i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii aa?aieea a aeionei?e oi?i? inai?i? ia AAO
“E?aneoaeue” ? aei?iaoaai? c iiceoeaiei ?acoeueoaoii ia Naiai?anuee?e
oeaoeueei-iii?yaeaeoaaeuei?e oaa?eoe?.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.3 i?iaaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaii? ?
aeiiii?/ii? oaoiieia?? iaianaiiy a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie ca aeiiiiiaith
aeei?enoaiiy ??aeeeo aeioneieo oi?i (iano).

I?e iaianaii? a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie oae naii, ye ? i?e oa?aoaaii?
oaenoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a, iioeiaeueiith aaaaea?oueny aeioneia oi?ia,
yea ia? iiiiaeenia?niee neeaae /anoeiie aa?aieea a iano?. Iaeiae, a
?aaeueieo oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa, ianoe eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a iathoue
iie?aeenia?niee neeaae. Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a iaea?aeaiiy iano a?eueo
iaeii??aeiiai neeaaeo oeyoii iine?aeiaiiai iiae??aiaiiy ia a?na?ieo
ieeiao ?c canoinoaaiiyi a?na?o a ii?yaeeo ciaioaiiy eiai ?ici???a.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Nooi?iue o?enaoe?? eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a c ??ciei ai?noii aa?aieea a
aeionei?e oi?i?.

Eoaiaee

aa?aieeAi?no

aa?aieea,

%|Iiaeeiaiiy noniaic??, %Nooi?iue o?enaoe??, %.

*an i?iyaeaiiy, oa131045ei?e/iaaee NE60

30100

9532

2552

4667

6087

80yne?aai-i?aiaeaaee EO55

40100

9536

3368

6588

8690

87yne?aai-i?aiaeaaee45

33100

9070

6679

7584

7988

84ei?e/iaaee E40

30100

9648

4469

6573

6983

78cieioenoi-aeiaoee EO50

31100

9452

4773

6878

7382

77nei?e I40

30100

9743

4079

7791

8993

91

??aeeii? aeionei? oi?ie aeine?aeieo aa?aiee?a, ye? iaea?aeai?
cai?iiiiiaaiei niiniaii, ii iaeii??aeiino?, naaeeiaioaoe?ei?e
no?eeino?, eiei?enoe/iei iieacieeai (nooi?iue o?enaoe?? ia oeaiei? i?e
iaianaii? a?ca?oiea) cia/ii ia?aaa?oothoue aeionei? oi?ie, iaea?aeai?
i?e iiae??aiaii? a?na?ii iaeiiai ?ici??o.

Ae?oaei oeyoii i?aeaeuaiiy naaeeiaioaoe?eii? no?eeino? iano aeey
iaianaiiy a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee
aea?? neeaaeo iano. ?ic?iaeaii neeaae iano Eoaiaiai yne?aai-i?aiaeaaiai
EOI, yeee aeicaieea ca?eueoeoe ?? no?ee?noue i?ioe naaeeiaioaoe??.

Oa?aeoa?ieie aa?aieeaie, ui ooai?ththoue “e?ai” i?e iaianaii?
a?ca?oiea ia oeaetheici? oeaieie ? Eoaiaee yne?aai-aeaeeoiee CI ?
Eoaiaee cieioenoi-aeiaoee EOI. Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaea?aeai? ianoe oeeo aa?aiee?a, ui ia ooai?ththoue “e?ai” i?e
iaianaii? a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie ? ii o?ceei-o?i?/iei ? eiei?enoe/iei
iieacieeai a?aeiia?aeathoue e?auei ca?oa?aeiei aiaeiaai.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eiiiiiaio?a aeioneii? oi?ie ia eiei?enoe/i?
aeanoeaino? aeicaieeei aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee neeaae ianoe
A?ii?iae?ai I. Oea aeaei ciiao aeeeth/eoe “e?ai” i?e iaianaii?
a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie.

??aeeiia aeioneia oi?ia Eoaiaiai yne?aai-o?ieaoiaiai EI i?e iaianaii?
a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie ia? iaaeinoaoith nooi?iue ? oaeaee?noue o?enaoe??
aa?aieea. Aaaaeaiiy iiaiai eaoae?caoi?a a?aeiiaeaiiy 2-ieneaio?ao?iiio a
neeaae ianoe, aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe /enoioo a?aeo?ieo, nooi?iue ?
oaeaee?noue o?enaoe?? aa?aieea i?e iaianaii? a?ca?oiea ia oeaieie.

Aeine?aei? ia?o?? Eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a yne?aai-i?aiaeaaiai EOI,
yne?aai-o?ieaoiaiai EI, A?ii?iae?ai I aei?iaoaai? c iiceoeaiei
?acoeueoaoii ia Oa?e?anueeiio oi?aiai-i?iieneiaiio i?aei?e?inoa?
“?ienieaia”.

??aeeii? aeionei? oi?ie eoaiaeo ? aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a iiaeii? aooe
oaeo/eie ? ia ooai?thaaoe oeenio?iii? no?oeoo?e. Oaeo/?noue ?o
coiiaeth?oueny a ia?oo /a?ao i?e?iaeith ? iie?ia?iei neeaaeii IA?, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny (?ic??aeaeoaaeueia ni?iiiaei?noue).

?icaeyiooi ?aieia?/i? aeanoeaino? 25%-ieo noniaic?e O?i?iae?ai
yne?aai-?iaeaaiai AE, ui i?noeoue Aeenia?aaoi? IO c ??ciei iie?ia?iei
neeaaeii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo aenieiiieaeoey?ii?
o?aeoe?? o Aeenia?aaoi?? IO c?inoa? a?aie/ia iai?oaa c?ooaiiy, ieanoe/ia
? aoaeoeaia a’yce?noue c?oeiiaaii? no?oeoo?e. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa,
ui iecueeiiieaeoey?ia o?aeoe?y a ii??aiyii? c aenieiiieaeoey?iith ia?
a?eueoo ?ic??aeaeoaaeueio ni?iiiaei?noue. Aiaeia?/i? caeaaeiino? aoee
iaea?aeai? ? ia ?ioeo ?icaeyiooeo eoaiaeo ? aeenia?nieo aa?aieeao.

A?eueo?noue aiaeieo iano eoaiaeo aa?aiee?a a i?enooiino? Aeenia?aaoi?a
IO iathoue a?aie/io iai?oao c?ooaiiy ? ieanoe/io a’yce?noue. *anoea
a?ae ?o ae?eaiiy oa?aeoa?eco? ieanoe/i?noue iano. Iaioa aaee/eia
ieanoe/iino? a?aeiia?aea? a?eueo ?ooii?e nenoai?. C ?inoii aaee/eie E
(oaae. 2) cia/ii iaaea? ?ooii?noue (ca?eueoo?oueny ieanoe/i?noue)
noniaic?e aa?aiee?a I-III, aeey aa?aieea IV ?? ci?ia iacia/ia. Cieaeaiiy
?ooiiino? noniaic?e aa?aiee?a I, II ? III (iie?oeeee?/i? o?iiie)
iiynith?oueny iiieaeaiith ni?aoe?eiith aeoeai?noth aenieiiieaeoey?ii?
o?aeoe??, yea ca ?ic??aeaeoaaeueiith ni?iiiaei?noth iinooia?oueny
iecueeiiieaeoey?i?e. Iayai?noue a iieaeoe? aa?aieea IV iene- ?
ai?iia?oi iaaea? iiaa?oi? a?ae?io?euei? aeanoeaino?, ui cieaeo?
ni?aoe?th iecueeiiieaeoey?ii? o?aeoe??.

Aea/aia ?ooii?noue noniaic?e aa?aiee?a a i?enooiino? IA? ??cii?
i?e?iaee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui IA?, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
i?eaiooaaiiy aeioneieo oi?i aa?aiee?a, ii ?ic??aeaeoaaeuei?e
ni?iiiaeiino? ?icoaoiaothoueny a ianooiiee ?yae:

Aeenia?aaoi? NN > Aeenia?aaoi? IO > Aeenia?aaoi? ON > E?aiiiie AOE.

Oaeei /eiii, oaeo/?noue ??aeeiieo aeioneieo oi?i aa?aiee?a iiaeia
?aaoethaaoe oeyoii i?aeai?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?ia?ieo o?aeoe?e IA?, aai
?o i?e?iaee.

Oaaeeoey 2.

Ieanoe/i?noue aiaeieo noniaic?e aa?aiee?a c

Aeenia?aaoi?ii IO ??ciiai neeaaeo.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o?aeoe?e a c?aceao Aeenia?aaoi?a IO, EIeanoe/i?noue
aa?aiee?a, ? , n-1O?i?iae?ai yne?aai-?iaeaaee AE (I)Eoaiaee
yne?aai-o?ieaoiaee E (II) |Eoaiaee cieioenoi-aeiaoee EO (III)Aeenia?niee

?iaeaaee 2C iao (IU)1,436813102205542,139116302625722,64161760306569

Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ii ?ic??aeaeoaaeuei?e
ni?iiiaeiino? IA? ?ic?iaeaii neeaae ianoe Eoaiaiai yne?aai-caeaiiai NI,
yeee aeicaieea onoiooe oeenio?ii?th. Ca o?ceei-o?i?/ieie ?
eiei?enoe/ieie iieacieeaie ?ic?iaeaia aeioneia oi?ia a?aeiia?aea?
e?auei ca?oa?aeiei aiaeiaai. Ianoa Eoaiaiai yne?aai-caeaiiai NI
aei?iaoaaia c iiceoeaiei ?acoeueoaoii ia oaenoeeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao
Oe?a?ie.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.4 i?iaaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieo ?
aeiiii?/ieo oaoiieia?e eieuei?oaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith iaeii?iieo aeioneieo
oi?i eoaiaeo ? aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a. A i?ioeanao canoinoaaiiy
aeioneieo oi?i eoaiaeo ? aeenia?nieo aa?aiee?a ooai?aiiy i?ie
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia??aiii??iiai oa?aoaaiiy, iniaeeai eiee oaenoeeueiee
iaoa??ae ?ooa?oueny c aaeeeith oaeaee?noth aai i?iaiaeeoueny iiiioaaiiy
oa?aoaaeueiiai ?ic/eio /a?ac oiauo oaenoeeueiiai iaoa??aeo. C iaoith
caiia?aoe ooai?aiith i?ie a oa?aoaaeuei?e aaii?, a aeionei? oi?ie
aa?aiee?a aaiaeyoue aioei?iieee.

A i?ioeanao oa?aoaaiiy aeei?enoiaothoue i?aia?aoe aioei?iieea ia
iniia? nee?eiiiaeo iie?ia??a o aeaeyae? no?eeeo aioeuen?e. Iaeiae,
oe? i?aia?aoe iathoue aenieo aa?o?noue, aeao?oeeoi? ? a ?yae? aeiaaee?a
iia??oothoue ye?noue aeioneieo oi?i aa?aiee?a ? iioa?aiaaieo
iaoa??ae?a. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii
i?aia?ao aioei?iieea, yeee iicaaaeaiee aeua ia?a?aoiaaieo
iaaeie?e?a, ? yaey? niaith aioeuen?th oeio ianei a aiae? (oi?aiaa ia?ea
“I?iiaaeue”). Aeenia?niith oacith a oe?e aioeuen?? ? aeeaooeeooaeao, a
aioeueaaoi?ii – ia?iiiaaiia IA? II-10.

Noniaic?? aa?aiee?a o i?enooiino? IA? ooai?ththoue aeineoue no?ee? i?ie
ca ?aooiie a?eueo neeueieo a?ae?ioiaieo aca?iiae?e i?ae aa?aieeii ?
IA?, i?ae i?ae naieie IA?. Aea/aia aioei?iia ni?iiiaei?noue
?ic?iaeaiiai i?aia?aoo I?iiaaeue a ii??aiyii? c aioei?iieeaie ia
iniia? nee?eiiiaeo iie?ia??a ia?ie EA-10-12, EA-10-19, EA-10-26 ?
ca?oa?aeiei aioei?iieeii Nofoam AI-30 (o??ia ACNA, ?oae?y).
Aioei?iieee ii nai?e aoaeoeaiino? ?icoaoiaothoueny a ianooiiee ?yae:

EA-10-12

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