IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

IINOEOOO OICEEE

NOA?IAeOA AAEA??E IAO?IAE*

Iiaeaen OAeE 533.9

539.186

O?CE*I? I?IOeANE A AEOEAIEO NA?AAeIAEUAO

IEACIIAeEIAI?*IEO EACA??A IA IA?? IAOAE?A

OA AAEIAAI?AeAO ?IA?OIEO AAC?A

01.04.05 – iioeea, eaca?ia o?ceea

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeaeo?iiii? o?ceee

Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, Uaae??i
Aiaoie?e

?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, ?aaiiae/

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, I?ieaae/ ?ai?

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea, Iaaeiae/

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, Iie?ianueeee
Aaea??e

?inoeooo o?i?? iiaa?oi?
Ieaenaiae?iae/

IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ”28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.159.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252650 INI, Ee?a-22, i?iniaeo Iaoee,
46.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe?

?inoeoooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 15 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
?uoe A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Aei oeueiai /ano a ?ica`ycaiii i?iaeaie
ieaciiaeeiaii/ieo eaca?ia (IAeE) aeinyaiooi iaaiiai i?ia?ano, aea IAeE,
aiaeia?/iiai aaciaeeiaii/iiio CO2–eaca?o ca nai?ie aeoiaeieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oa oaoii/iith ?aae?caoe??th, ua ia noai?aii.

Iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeooueny a iai?yieao iiooeo iiaeo aeoeaieo
na?aaeiaeu, iie?auaiiy ?o aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, i?inoaaiiy a
iaeanoue ei?ioeeo aeiaaeei oaeeue. O ?one? ?aae?caoe?? oeeo iai?yie?a ?
eaaeeoue oey ?iaioa.

Iaeia c i?e/ei iecueeeo cia/aiue aia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aae?ciaaieo
IAeE, i/aaeaeii, iia`ycaia c aeai?ii ii/aoeiaeo i?iaeoeo?a aeey
noai?aiiy aeoeaiiai na?aaeiaeua. Aein? a iniiaiiio aeine?aeaeoaaeenue
aeoeaii na?aaeiaeua ia iniia? aac?a: H, He, Ar, Kr, Xe. Ona?aeiieaiiy
oiai oaeoo, ui na?aae aeaiaio?a oaaeeoei Ae.?. Iaiaeaea?aa a?eueo?noue
noaiiaeyoue iaoaee, i?eaaei aei aeine?aeaeaiiy aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu ye
ieaciiaeo eaca??a, oae ? IAeE ia ?o iniia?. Ia iao iiaeyae, oae?
iiooeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeooue ?icoe?thaaoeny, ai aaaaoi iaoae?a
iathoue iecuee? iioaioe?aee ?ii?caoe??, ui iieaaoo? noai?aiiy
aeniei?ii?ciaaii? ieacie i?e a?aeiinii iaaaeeeeo aeeaaeaieo iiooaeiinoyo
? caaacia/o? aenieee a?aie/iee EEAe IAeE ia ia?? iaoae?a.

I?iaaaeaiith ye oai?aoe/iiai, oae ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu ia iniia? ia?e iaoae?a aei iaaii? i??e ia?aoeiaeaea?
a?aenooi?noue iaae?eieo aeaieo uiaei eiinoaio oaeaeeinoae i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a ieaci? ia?e iaoae?a (iniaeeai eiinoaio aca?iiae??
aeaeo?ii?a c aoiiaie oa ?iiaie iaoae?a). Aei iaaii? i??e oey ia?aoeiaea
ci?ia?oueny a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo o ?aieao oe???
?iaioe. Oae, iaie aia?oa io?eiaii iaae?eii aoaeoeaii ia?a??ce
caoaeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii aaaaoueio (~200) niaeo?aeueieo
ia?aoiae?a aoii?a oa ?ii?a Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cu, Pb, Bi.

Aei oeueiai /ano i?aeoe/ii ia aeine?aeaeoaaeeny aeoeaii na?aaeiaeua IAeE
ia noi?o? eiiiiiaio. Ia iao iiaeyae, noi?o? iathoue a?eueoa iiaeeeainoae
aeey iaea?aeaiiy a?eueo aenieeo ia?aiao??a aaia?aoe??. Oae, o ieaciiaeo
no?oiaiyo ia noi?o? aeae?eueeio aeaiaio?a, canaeaiiy oa i/enoea ?iai/eo
??ai?a iiaea ?aae?ciaoaaoenue ye ca ?aooiie aeiaeaoeiaeo iai?oaeieo
i?ioean?a (aecioa?i?/ii? ia?aca?yaeee, ?aaeoe?? Iaii?iaa, ia?aaea/?
caoaeaeaiiy ? o.i.), oae ? caaaeyee aieeao aeii?oie /a?ac ci?io oaeeo
ia?aiao??a ieacie, ye oaiia?aoo?a oa eiioeaio?aoe?y aeaeo?ii?a. ?ieue
oeeo oaeoi??a aeey aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu ia ia?? iaoae?a aeine?aeaeaii oa
iaaiai?aii a aeai?e ?iaio?.

Iaie oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaii ia?niaeoeaia, ia iao iiaeyae, aeoeaia
na?aaeiaeua aeey IAeE – ieacio ia noi?o? ?ia?oiiai aaco c
aaeiaaiaaaioii. A aeoeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? IAeE ia noi?o? ?ia?oiiai aaco ?
aaeiaaiaaaioa iiaeooue aoaeoeaii i?ioiaeeoe ??cii ieaciio?i?/i? ?aaeoe??
(i?eeeiaiiy aeaeo?ii?a, ?ii-?iiia ?aeiia?iaoe?y, aa?ioiia ?aaeoe?y,
aeenioe?aoeaia ?aeiia?iaoe?y oa ?i.). O ca`yceo c oeei aeieea? iaoeiaee
oa i?eeeaaeiee ?ioa?an aei i?iaaaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith c`ynoaaiiy ?ie? oa aianeo ??cieo i?ioean?a a
ooai?aiiy iiiiaaeiaai?ae?a ?ia?oieo aac?a o ieaciiaiio no?oiai?. Aeoaea
aaaeeeai oaeiae a?aeiia?noe ia i?eioeeiiaa ieoaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue
io?eiaiiy noaoe?iia?ii? aai oi/a a eaac?noaoe?iia?ii? aaia?aoe?? ia
aeneia?ieo iieaeoeao o ieaciiaeo no?oiaiyo.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ui i?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, aeeiiai? a 1970 – 1986 ??. o I?iaeaii?e
eaai?aoi??? o?ceee aeaeo?iiieo c?oeiaiue ? ia eaoaae?? eaaioiai?
aeaeo?ii?ee Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, a oaeiae a 1986 – 1998
??. a ?inoeooo? aeaeo?iiii? o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o a?aeiia?aeieo onoaiia, caoaa?aeaeaieie
Iinoaiiaaie:

Aea?aeeii?oaoo ?I N?N? c iaoee ? oaoi?ee c oai:

1. “?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ? noai?eoe aia?aoo?o aeey i?aoeec?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ? iai?oaeiiai ?icn?thaaiiy
iia?eueieo iiiio?iiaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a ia aoiiao iaoae?a aeey noai?aiiy
?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu aaciaeo IEA, oa?iiaeaeo?iiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a,
IAAe-aaia?aoi??a”. Iino. ? 263 a?ae 21.05.74 ?., aea?ae. ?a?no?. ?
74050119.

2. “?ic?iaea ? aeaioiaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo ?iioeuenii-ia??iaee/ieo eaca??a
ia ia?? a?niooo ia aeiaaeeio oaee? 0,47 iei aeey ae??oaiiy caaea/
eaca?ii? niaeo?ineii??, eaca?ieo iaye?a, aaaaoieieuei?iaeo nenoai
ciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e oa ia?aaea/a a Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?aae?io?ce/iee
?inoeooo I?iaoco ??ON? aeey canoinoaaiiy”. Iino. ? 274 a?ae 03.08.87 ?.,
aea?ae. ?a?no?. ? 0188.0000763.

Iinoaiiaaie I?aceae?? AI O?N? c oai:

3. “?icaeoie oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy
niaeo?ineii?/ieo eiinoaio aoii?a (aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce c?oeiaiue, neee
inoeeeyoi??a, /ane aeeooy) oa nenoaiaoe/ieo ?o aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith
aea/aiiy aoaeiae aoii?a oa aoiiieo yaea? ? aeei?enoaiiy aeaieo o
i?eeeaaeieo oa oai?aoe/ieo ?iaioao, a oiio /ene? a iia?e oaoi?oe?, a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo a aaeoc? IEA, einiino oa ?i.”. Iino. ? 418 a?ae 15.12.71
?., aea?ae. ?a?no?. ? 7304609.

4. “I?aoeec?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a caoaeaeaiiy aoii?a
eoaeiicaiaeueieo iaoae?a iia?eueieie aeaeo?iiaie”. Iino. ? 416 a?ae
7.12.73 ?., aea?ae. ?a?no?. ? 74043302.

5. “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu aeey aoaeoeaieo aaciaeo eaca??a
ia iniia? ieaciiaeo no?oiai?a”. Iino. ? 27 a?ae 31.01.90 ?., aea?ae.
?a?no?. ? 01900061099.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Iiai aoaeoeaii na?aaeiaeua aeey ieaciiaeeiai?/ieo eaca??a
ia iniia? ia?e iaoae?a oa o?i?/ieo niieoe, iia? aoaeoeaii niiniae
i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae o ?aeiia?ioth/?e ieaci?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ?ica`ycoaaeeny ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

1) aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei ooai?aiiy
?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae o ieaciiaeo no?oiaiyo ia ia?? iaoae?a (Li, Na,
Sr, Cd);

2) aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiaie aoii?a
iaoae?a (eoaeiicaiaeueii aoiie oa Cu, Pb, Bi), ia?niaeoeaieo aeey
noai?aiiy aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu IAeE;

3) iiooe oa aeine?aeaeaiiy niiniao i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae o
?aeiia?ioth/?e ieaci?;

4) i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue ooai?aiiy iiiiaaeiaai?ae?a
?ia?oieo aac?a o iaia?a?aiiio ieaciiaiio no?oiai?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. I?aeoe/ii an? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa
?ic?iaie, ye? i?aaenoaaeaii a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, io?eiaii aia?oa a
na?oia?e iaooe?. Iaea?eueo aaaii? c ieo:

– io?eiaii aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy ~200 niaeo?aeueieo ia?aoiae?a
aoii?a oa ?ii?a Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cu, Pb, Bi oa ?aciiainieo ??ai?a oeeo
aoii?a;

– anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? caoaeaeaiiy aaeaioieo aeaeo?iiieo iaieiiie
aeuacaaaeaieo aoii?a, aeeth/ath/e aaaaoiaeaeo?iii? i?ioeane;

– cai?iiiiiaaii iia? aeoeai? na?aaeiaeua aeey ieaciiaeeiai?/ieo eaca??a
oa aeyaeaii iniiai? o?ce/i? i?ioeane, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ooai?aiiy
?iaa?nii? canaeaiino? a oeeo na?aaeiaeuao;

– cai?iiiiiaaii oa ?aae?ciaaii niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eaca??a
ia ?aeiia?iaoe?? ca ?aooiie aaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee Cs.

– cai?iiiiiaaii oa ?aae?ciaaii niin?a iaia?a?aiiai io?eiaiiy aeneia?ieo
iieaeoe o ieaciiaiio no?oiai?.

Aaaaoi iiaeo ?acoeueoaoia aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a aeine?aeaeaiiyo
i?ia?aeieo eaai?aoi??e NOA oa ?in??.

Iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe c aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaiaioa?ieo i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? aeaeo?ii?a c aoiiaie iaoae?a iinyoue o
ia?oo /a?ao ooiaeaiaioaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? ? e?eoa???i aeinoia??iino?
??cieo oai?aoe/ieo iaoiae?a oa iaaeeaeaiue, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny o
o?ceoe? aeaeo?iiieo c?oeiaiue. Aiie aeicaieythoue aeeaoa c?icoi?oe oae?
i?eioeeiia? ieoaiiy o?ceee aeaeo?iiii-aoiiieo c?oeiaiue, ye
caeiiii??iino? caoaeaeaiiy aaeaioieo aeaeo?ii?a c iniiaiiai noaio aoiia,
iaoai?cie aaaaoiaeaeo?iiieo caoaeaeaiue, ?ieue aaoi?ii?caoe?eieo noai?a
a ooai?aii? ?ii?a. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe aaea iaiaeii?aciai aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
?yaeii aeine?aeieoeueeeo a?oi o ?iaioao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai oa
oai?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o c o?ceee aeaeo?iiieo c?oeiaiue oa o?ceee eaca??a
ye a NIAe, oae ? ca ?? iaaeaie. E??i oiai, oe? ?acoeueoaoe
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaie a aeai?e ?iaio? i?e ?ic?aooieo e?iaoeee
i?ioean?a o ieaciiaeo no?oiaiyo ia ia?? iaoae?a.

Iaaeae? oe? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?:

– aeey noai?aiiy oai??? aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu oa iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a
?iaioe eaca??a ??ciiai oeio;

– aeey ?ic?aooieo oaeaeeinoae aeaiaioa?ieo i?ioean?a o aono?e
ia??aiiaaaei?e iecueeioaiia?aoo?i?e ieaci? c iaoith iioei?caoe??
?aaeei?a ?iaioe i?eno?i?a i?yiiai ia?aoai?aiiy aia?a??;

– aeey aiae?co ai?n?eieo niaeo??a ano?io?ce/ii? oa eaai?aoi?ii? ieacie;

– i?e iinoaiiaoe? aeoeaieo aenia?eiaio?a o iaaeieicaiiiio eini?/iiio
i?inoi??.

?acoeueoaoe aeaii? ?iaioe c aeine?aeaeaiue o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o
ieaciiaeo no?oiaiyo iathoue aaaeeeaee iaoeiaee (aea/aiiy iniiaieo
iaoai?ci?a, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca noai?aiiy ?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae) oa
i?aeoe/iee (iniiae aeey noai?aiiy aoaeoeaiiai IAeE o aeaeei?e oa OO
iaeano? niaeo?o – aiaeiaa aaciaeeiai?/iiai eaca?a a ?* iaeano? niaeo?o)
?ioa?an. E??i oiai, oe? ?acoeueoaoe aaea /anoeiai aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?e
?ic?iaoe? oa aeine?aeaeaii? aoaeoeaieo aeaea?ae OO aei?ii?ithaaiiy, i?e
noai?aii? aei?ii?ithaa/?a (XeCl oa XeF) aeey iciiiiao?e/iiai e?aea?a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui iei iaa?oioiaaii ?
caaacia/aii iinoaiiaeo aeooaeueieo iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue o?ce/ieo
i?ioean?a a aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeuao IAeE; ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?i?eoiaaii oa aeaioiaeaii
aenia?eiaioaeuei? onoaiiaee; naiino?eii, a oaeiae ?acii c ani??aioaie oa
ni?a?ia?oieeaie eiai a?oie i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iaaiai?aiiy
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a; noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? aeniiaee oa iieiaeaiiy
?iaioe, aeianai? ia caoeno.

?iaioe (1–5) (aeea. “Nienie ioae?eaoe?e aaoi?a ii oai? aeena?oaoe??”)
iaienaii aac ni?aaaoi??a, o (6–13, 24, 25, 29, 34–39) aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue
iinoaiiaea iaoeiai? caaea/?, aea?? oeyoo ? iaoiaeo ?? ?ica`ycaiiy,
aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? iniiaia ?ieue a iaienaii? ?ia?o. Aeeaae
aaoi?a a ?iaioe (15–23, 27, 28) – i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo, iaaiai?aiiy
?acoeueoao?a, iaienaiiy noaoae. ?acoeueoaoe ?ia?o (14, 26, 30–33)
iaeaaeaoue aaoi?ai ??aiith i??ith.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeeeaaeai? a ?iaio? ? aeianaii ia
caoeno ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a aeiiia?aeaeeny oa
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia VII I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c o?ceee
aeaeo?iiii-aoiiieo c?oeiaiue (Ainoa?aeai, 1971); ia V ?a?iiaenuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? c aoiiii? oa iieaeoey?ii? o?ceee (Aaeeiao?a, 1995); ia
I?aeia?iaei?e oeie?–nai?ia?? «Aenieioaiia?aoo?ia aaciaeeiai?ea, oaea?i?
oaee?, oaea?i? o?oae» (I?inuee, 1983); ia Ia?oiio Ananithciiio
neiiiceoi? c ieaciio?i?? (Iineaa, 1971); ia VII, IX oa X Ananithcieo
eiioa?aioe?yo c o?ceee aeaeo?iiii-aoiiieo c?oeiaiue (Iao?icaaiaenuee,
1978; ?eaa, 1984; Oaeai?iae, 1988); ia VIII Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c
aeeiai?ee ?ic??aeaeaieo aac?a (Iineaa, 1985); ia Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? «?iaa?nia canaeai?noue ? aaia?aoe?y ia ia?aoiaeao a aoiiao
? iieaeoeao» (Oiinuee, 1986, o?e aeiiia?ae?) ia VII Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? ?c o?ceee iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? ieacie (Oaoeaio, 1987); ia
II Ananithciiio nai?ia?? c o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o aaciaeo IEA (Oaeai?iae,
1978); ia Ananithcieo nai?ia?ao «Eaca?e ia ia?ao iaoae?a oa ?o
canoinoaaiiy» (Iiai?in?enuee, 1982; 1985);

Ioaeieaoei?. Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe iioaeieiaaii a
38 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo oa 1 iieno aei aeiaoiaeo, nienie yeeo iaaaaeaii a
eiioei aaoi?aoa?aoo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
naie ?icae?e?a, iniiaieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui
ai?uo? 244 iaeiaioaaiue, ? aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue
330 noi??iie, aeeth/ath/e 100 ?enoie?a (65 noi?.), 11 oaaeeoeue (10
noi?.), nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (25 noi?.) oa aeiaeaoie (5 noi?.).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, aecia/aii iaoo
?iaioe, a?aecia/aii ?? iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue,
i?eaaaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe oa iniaenoee aianie
aaoi?a, aeeeaaeaii ei?ioeee ci?no ?iaioe, iaaaaeaii nienie ioae?eaoe?e
aaoi?a c oaie aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iieno oaoi?ee ia?an?/ieo io/e?a oa iaoiaeeee
aenia?eiaioo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy caoaeaeaiiy aoii?a iaoae?a aeaeo?iiiei
oaea?ii.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia onoaiiaea c aeaeo?iiiei oa aoiiiei io/eaie, ui
ia?aoeiathoueny, neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo iniiaieo aoce?a: aeaea?aea
iaeo?aeueieo aoii?a, aeaeo?iiii? aa?iaoe, aeiea ?a?no?aoe??
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, eae?a?iaaii? eaiie ii??aiyiiy. Aeey io?eiaiiy io/ea
iaeo?aeueieo aoii?a aeei?enoiaoaaeiny aooc?eia aeaea?aei. Eiino?oeoe?y
aeaea?aea caaacia/oaaea aenieo noaa?euei?noue aoiiiiai io/ea i?ioyaii
o?eaaeiai /ano i?e ?ioaineaiino? 1015– 1016 ni2n–1 c eooii ?icoiaeaeaiiy
ia a?eueoa 150.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
aeaeo?iii? io/ee i?yiieooiiai oa e?oaeiai ia?a??co. Aeaeo?iii? io/ee
i?yiieooiiai ia?a??co aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeey aecia/aiiy aaniethoieo
aaee/ei aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiiy. Aeei?enoaiiy ?o aeicaiey?
a?eueo oi/ii aecia/eoe aaiiao??th iaeano? ia?aoeio io/e?a, ni?iuo?
?ic?aooiee i?e aecia/aii? aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiiy ia?aoiae?a c
aeiaaiaeeao/eo ??ai?a, a i?e aecia/aii? ?aaani?aoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aeicaiey? aeinyaoe iiaiiai ia?ae?eooy aoiiiiai io/ea aeaeo?iiiei. Io/ee
e?oaeiai ia?a??co aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo
caeaaeiinoae, ai aiie, ia a?aei?io a?ae io/e?a i?yiieooiiai ia?a??co,
iaioa i?aeeyaathoue ia?aoieonoaaiiyi, i?ino?o? o aeaioiaeaii?,
neeaaeaii? oa thnooaaii?. Oae? nenoaie i?ney i?ia??aaiiy aeicaieeee
iaea?aeaoe io/ee aeaeo?ii?a c aonoeiith 3–7 10–3 A/ni2 oa
iaiaeii??aei?noth 0,8–1,0 aA.

, (1)

aea k( – iiaa?oiaaa yne?aa?noue aieueo?aiiai? eaiie;

d(/dl – iaa?iaia aeenia?n?y niaeo?aeueiiai i?eeaaeo;

(l – oe?eia aeo?aeii? u?eeie niaeo?aeueiiai i?eeaaeo;

( – eiao?oe??io, yeee a?aoiao? ao?aoe ?ioaineaiino? ia a?aiyo iiai?ioii?
i?ecie;

N – na?aaeiy eiioeaio?aoe?y aoii?a o i?noe? ia?aoeio io/e?a;

i – neea no?oio;

e – ca?yae aeaeo?iia;

I1 oa I2 – neaiaee ia aeoiae? oioiiao?a, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
aei?ii?ithaaiith ?c ciie caoaeaeaiiy oa a?ae aoaeiiii? eaiie.

Eiioeaio?aoe?y aoii?a aecia/aeany ?aae?ioaoi?/iei iaoiaeii. Nooue
oeueiai iaoiaeo oaea. Ci?ia aeanii? /anoioe i`?cieaa?oeo (f i?e
eiiaeainaoe?? aoii?a ia eiai iiaa?oi? i?yii i?iii?oe?eia ian?
eiiaeainaoo Ik .

Mk = kf ( S ( (f ,
(2)

aea kf – noaea, ui aecia/a?oueny oeiii c??co oa aeaniith /anoioith
e?enoaea;

S – ieiua eiiaeainaoo ia e?enoae?.

O naith /a?ao, eiioeaio?aoe?y aoii?a o i?noe? ia?aoeio io/e?a N
aecia/aeany /a?ac iano neiiaeainiaaii? ?a/iaeie c ae?aco:

N = Mk /(m(t(l(b(v(() ,
(3)

aea m – iana aoiia,

t – /an, ca yeee iana Mk eiiaeaino?oueny ia aeaoaeoi??,

l, b – ona?aaeiai? aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e aoiiiiai io/ea a i?noe?
ia?aoeio eiai c aeaeo?iiiei,

v – na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue aoii?a o io/eo,

( – eiao?oe??io eiiaeainaoe??.

Iniaeeao oaaao a aeaiiio ?icae?e? i?eae?eaii ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo
aeac?aie aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia iaea?aeaiiy aeinoia??ieo
?acoeueoao?a i?e i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a c? caoaeaeaiiy aoii?a
aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii c aeei?enoaiiyi oaoi?ee ia?an?/ieo io/e?a.
Anoaiiaeaii aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a (?aaani?aoe?y aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
nooi?iue iiey?ecaoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy e?i?e, aeianaiiy aoii?a, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny a aeiaaiaeeao/eo caoaeaeaieo noaiao c ciie niinoa?aaeaiiy
aeaoaeoi?a aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ci?ia aaiiao??? aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aia?a?? aeaeo?ii?a, iaiaeii??aei?noue aeaeo?ii?a ca
aia?a??th a io/eo oa ?i.) ia aaee/eie aoaeoeaieo ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiiy
niaeo?aeueieo ia?aoiae?a oa ?o aia?aaoe/i? caeaaeiino?. Cai?iiiiiaaii
iaoiaeeee onoiaiiy ia?a?aoiaaieo oaeoi??a aai a?aooaaiiy ?o aieeao ia
aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy. A?aeiinia iioeaea aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaieo
ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiiy ?aciiainieo e?i?e noaiiaeoue ~21%. Aeey a?eueo
aenieeo /eai?a aieiaii? na??? oey iioeaea a?aeiia?aeii ??aia 26%, a aeey
niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e ?ioeo na??e ia ia?aaeuo? ~ 20%.

O ae?oaiio oa o?aoueiio ?icae?eao i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a caoaeaeaiiy aoii?a oa ?ii?a
iaoae?a, ia?niaeoeaieo aeey noai?aiiy aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu eaca??a, a
naia eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a (?icae?e 2), i?ae?, naeioeth oa a?niooo
(?icae?e 3).

Aeine?aeaeoaaeeny i?ioeane:

e + A0 ((( e + A* – Mg, Ca, Cu, Pb, Bi;
(4)

((( e + A** – Ca, Sr, Ba;
(5)

((( 2e + A+* – Pb, Bi;
(6)

((( 3e + A++* – Pb, Bi.
(7)

Aia?oa io?eiaii aaniethoi? aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy ~200
niaeo?aeueieo ia?aoiae?a aoii?a oa ?ii?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaoae?a.

Aia?oa aeyaeaii, ui aaee/eie ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiue ia?aoiae?a c ??ai?a
aeaioaeaeo?iiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aaeee? ? ii??aiyii? c iaeiiaeaeo?iiieie.
Aeaii c?noaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii io?eiaieo ia?a??c?a caoaeaeaiiy c
iayaieie oai?aoe/ieie ?ic?aooieaie (?en.1). Aeey iiaea?eieo caoaeaeaiue
aoiia eaeueoe?th ie ia?ii ianiiae?aaii oi?ioa ocaiaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooieo a ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? oai??? cao?aiue c aenia?eiaioii ye o
aaee/eiao ia?a??c?a, oae ? a oiae? aia?aaoe/ii? caeaaeiino?.

Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ye c iaeiiaeaeo?iiiiai, oae ?
c aeaioaeaeo?iiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe, ui aeae ooieoe?e
caoaeaeaiiy niaeo?aeueieo ia?aoiae?a ia caeaaeeoue a?ae eiio?ao?aoe??
iniiaiiai noaio, a aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiith ci?ie iiaiiai iiiaioo oa
iayai?noth iai?iii? aca?iiae??. A ?ac? ni?aaaaeeeaino? LS–ca`yceo
oa?aeoa? aia?aaoe/ii? caeaaeiino? ia?a??co caoaeaeaiiy noaio aoiia
aecia/a?oueny a ia?oo /a?ao ??cieoeath ni?iiaeo (S oa i?a?oaeueieo (L
iiiaio?a ii/aoeiaiai oa e?ioeaaiai noai?a. I?e (S(0 ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy
iathoue iaeneioi iiaeeco ii?iao ? oaeaeei niaaeathoue c ?inoii aia?a??,
ia a?aei?io a?ae ia?aoiae?a c (S=0, eiee ooieoe?? caoaeaeaiiy iathoue
iieiao oi?io c iaeneioiii i?e aia?a?yo o aeae?eueea ii?iaiaeo
iaeeieoeue. sse aeey ia?aoiae?a c (S=0, oae ? aeey ia?aoiae?a c (S(0
ooieoe?? caoaeaeaiiy caoaeothoueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi (L ? iaeneioi ?o
ci?uo?oueny aei ii?iao.

I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ?c caoaeaeaiiy
?aciiainieo ??ai?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo aoii?a c iayaieie ?acoeueoaoaie
a?eueo i?ci?o aei??thaaiue oa oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a ?ioeo aaoi??a
(aeea. ?en.2,3). A iaeano? ii?iaiai? aia?a?? caoaeaeaiiy iaee?aua
ocaiaeaeaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny c ?ic?aooieaie, aeeiiaieie iaoiaeii
neeueiiai ca`yceo. Caaeia?eueia ocaiaeaeaiiy aeey ?aciiainieo neiaeaoieo
??ai?a (c o?aooaaiiyi noaiaea?oiiai caaeuaiiy a iaeano? iaeeo aia?a?e)
ia? i?noea c ?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooie?a, aeeiiaieo iaoiaeii Ai?ia i?e
aeei?enoaii? oaaeeoeue Aaeiooaeia. Iaoiae Ai?ia ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aei
aeei?enoaiiy a ?ic?aooieao eiinoaio i?ioeano caoaeaeaiiy aoii?a
aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii i?e aiae?c? e?iaoeee i?ioean?a a aeoeaieo
na?aaeiaeuao ieaciiaeo oa ieaciiaeeiai?/ieo eaca??a.

Caoaeaeaiiy aoii?a Cu, Pb oa Bi aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii ? iniiaiei i?ioeanii
a aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeuao eaca??a ia naiiiaiaaeaieo ia?aoiaeao. Oiio
io?eiai? aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy aoaeooue aaeueie ei?eni? aeey
iioei?caoe?? ?iaioe oeeo eaca??a.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iienaii aenia?eiaioaeueio oa oai?aoe/io aaco aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaaecaoeiaeo ieaciiaeo no?oiai?a
ia ia?? iaoae?a, yea aeicaiey? aea/eoe o?ce/i? i?ioeane, ui i?ecaiaeyoue
aei canaeaiiy oa nionoioaiiy ??ai?a, i?ae yeeie ooai?th?oueny ?iaa?nia
canaeai?noue, aeine?aeeoe oiiae ooai?aiiy ?iaa?nii? canaeaiino? ia
ia?aoiaeao aoii?a oa ?ii?a aea?aieo ia`?eo?a.

Aeaea?aeii ieaciiaiai no?oiaiy neoaeea ieaciio?ii c «o?enaoe??th»
na?aaeiuei? aeiaaeeie aeoae «onooiii». Ia?aiao?e aeoae ?aaoethaaeeny a
iaaeao Uaeoae=15–40 A, Iaeoae=40–200 A.

O i?ioean? aenia?eiaioo aei??thaaeeny oae? iniiai? ia?aiao?e: oene o
aeoaia?e, ia?aaeniieia?e oa aaeooii?e eaia?ao; iania? aeo?aoe aac?a oa
iaoae?a; oaiia?aoo?a oa eiioeaio?aoe?y aeaeo?ii?a o ieaciiaiio no?oiai?
ia ??cieo a?aenoaiyo a?ae niiea; canaeai?noue caoaeaeaieo noai?a aoii?a
oa iieaeoe o ieaciiaiio no?oiai?; eiao?oe??ioe iiaeeiaiiy oa i?aeneeaiiy
niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e oa ?o eiioo?e.

Canaeai?noue caoaeaeaieo noai?a aoii?a o ieaciiaiio no?oiai? aecia/aeany
ca io?eiaiith iaie oi?ioeith

(8)

aea (l – oe?eia aeo?aeii? u?eeie niaeo?aeueiiai i?eeaaeo;

n – a?aeiioaiiy na?oeiaeo aia?a?e, ui iiiaaeathoue ia oioieaoiae
oioiaeaeo?iiiiai iiiiiaeoaa/a a?ae no?oiaiy oa aoaeiiiiai aeaea?aea;

r – ?aae?on no?oiaiy.

Aaniethoia eiioeaio?aoe?y caoaeaeaieo iieaeoe a aeaeo?iiiiio noai?
aecia/aeany noiaeei /eiii:

(9)

aea SI – aaee/eia, i?iii?oe?eia iiai?e aia?a?? (iiooaeiino?)
aei?ii?ithaaiiy nioae, ca?a?no?iaaia i?e oeo aea oiiaao, ui ? n2
(aaee/eia, i?iii?oe?eia aia?a?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy aoaeiiii? eaiie ia
/anoio? (n?).

Aeey aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e oa eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ii?a
aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ciiaeiaa iaoiaeeea, a oaeiae iaoiaee aecia/aiiy ca
a?aeiinieie ?ioaineaiinoyie niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e oa ca ?aeiia?iaoe?eiei
eiioeiooiii.

Aaee/eie a?aeiiniiai iiaeeiaiiy oa i?aeneeaiiy (A) niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e o
ieaciiaiio no?oiai? aei??thaaeeny iaoiaeii iaeiiai aeca?eaea.
Eiao?oe??io i?aeneeaiiy ( aecia/aany c io?eiaiiai iaie ae?aco:

(10)

aea l – aeiaaeeia iiaeeiath/iai oa?o

Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aaee/eio a?aeiiniiai
i?aeneeaiiy oa eiao?oe??io i?aeneeaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeey ??cieo
aaee/ei iioe/ii? aonoeie, aae aei k0 l = 5. I?e a?eueo aenieeo iioe/ieo
aonoeiao ?yae (12) noa? ?ica?aeiei ? iaoiae noa? iai?eaeaoiei /a?ac
iacaaeia?eueio oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy (0.

O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ?aeaae?ciaaio noaio ?ic?aooieo
canaeaiinoae caoaeaeaieo noai?a aoii?a oa ?ii?a aeeeth/ii c iaoith
ooi/iaiiy o?ceee i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a ieaciiaiio no?oiai?.

Aoei i?eeiyoi oae? i?eiouaiiy: ?icoe?aiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?ia?oe?ei?e
noaae??; ?icaeyaeaeiny iaeii??aeia ?icoe?aiiy ieaciiaiai caonoeo, a
??aiyiiyo oaieiaiai aaeaino iieeaaeaeiny, ui a ieaci? a?aenooi? noi?iii?
iae?iiiey, aieea a`yceino? oa aeeooc?? ciaooiaii iaeee; i?ioeane
oioi?ii?caoe?? oa oioi?aeiia?iaoe?? ia a?aoiaoaaeenue; oa?aeoa?i?
?ici??e ieaciiaiai caonoeo aaaaeaeeny aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeie, uia ia
a?aoiaoaaoe aieea iaae? ieacie ia e?iaoeeo ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a,
oaiei?ii?noue noi?o? aac?a o anueiio ae?aiacii? a?eueiiai ?icoe?aiiy ?
iino?eiith.

Nenoaia aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue, ye? iienothoue ?aeaenaoe?th ieacie, ui
?ice?oa?oueny, aeeth/aea aeeoa?aioe?ei? ??aiyiiy aeey canaeaiino?
caoaeaeaieo ??ai?a aoii?a oa ?ii?a, ??aiyiiy aeey iieno eiioeaio?aoe??
aoii?a a iniiaiiio noai?, ??aiyiiy aaeaino aeey eiioeaio?aoe??
aeaeo?ii?a oa ??aiyiiy oaieiaiai aaeaino aeey oaiia?aoo? aeaeo?ii?a oa
aaaeeeo /anoeiie, aea a?aoiaoaaeeny i?oaei? oa iai?oaei? ni?aoaea?e
eiiiiiaio ieacie.

Ia?aiao?e ieacie, ui iia?eueii ci?iththoueny, Te , T0 , Ne , N0
aecia/aeeny /enaeueiei ?ioaa?oaaiiyi (iaoiaeii ?oiaa-Eoooa aai iaoiaeii
A??a) a?aeiia?aeieo aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue, a canaeaiino? caoaeaeaieo
??ai?a aoii?a oa ?ii?a, ui oaeaeei i?aeeaooiaothoueny i?ae ci?io Te , T0
, Ne , N0, aecia/aeeny c nenoaie ??aiyiue iaoiaeii «noaoe?iia?iiai
noieo» aai «ia?aaaaeiiai noieo».

Iaoiae «noaoe?iia?iiai noieo» aeei?enoiaoaaany iaie aeey ?ic?aooieo
canaeaiinoae caoaeaeaieo ??ai?a e?o?th, iao??th oa oeac?th. *enei
caoaeaeaieo ??ai?a, ui a?aoiaoaaeenue o a?aeiia?aei?e nenoai?
aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue, cae/aeii noaiiaeei 15–20. E??i oiai,
a?aoiaoaaeiny a?ey 20 eaac???aiiaaaeieo noai?a.

Aeey aecia/aiiy canaeaiinoae caoaeaeaieo ??ai?a ?ii?a cae/aeii
aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiae «ia?aaaaeiiai noieo». A oeueiio iaaeeaeaiiio
iaoiae? iieeaaea?oueny, ui a canaeaii? ??ai?a ?ii?a ia?aaaaea? iio?e
i?i?aeiia?iiaaieo ?ii?a aeui? ca?yaeiino?, ui ?ooathoueny ii ??aiyo
cai?e aiec; a?aoiao?oueny iaaaeeea e?euee?noue ??ai?a ?iia ? iaooo?oueny
eaac???aiiaaaeiei niaeo?ii, a ?aeiia?iaoe?eiee iio?e aaiaeeoueny ia
a?oio iaea?eueo aa?oi?o a?aoiaaieo ??ai?a, ia?aoiaee i?ae ??aiyie a
iai?yieo cai?e aiec a?aoiaaii an?, a ia?aoiaee cieco aai?o o?eueee i?ae
non?aei?ie ??aiyie.

Iayai?noue iaoeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei??thaaiue canaeaiinoae
caoaeaeaiieo ??ai?a ?ii?a eaaei?th oa no?iioe?th, ye? ooai?ththoueny a
?aeiia?ioth/?e ieaci? He–Cd, He–Sr, aeicaieeea ioe?ieoe oi/i?noue
iaoiaeo «ia?aaaaeiiai noieo» ? cai?iiiioaaoe a?eueo oi/iee iaoiae
«o??caiiai noieo», yeee ? eiai ??ciiaeaeii. A?aei?ii?noue iaoiaeo
«o??caiiai noieo» iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iueiio a?aoiaothoueny an?
ia?aoiaee – ? cai?e aiec, ? cieco aai?o – i?ae a?aoiaaieie ??aiyie ?iia.

Ooo aea iaaaaeaii aiae?c ia?a??c?a aeaiaioa?ieo i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a ?aeiia?ioth/?e ieaci?, oa iaoiae?a ?o ?ic?aooieo.
Cie?aia, aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy aoii?a aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii,
io?eiai? a ?icae?eao 2 ? 3, aai aaciina?aaeiuei aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o
?ic?aooieo eiinoaio oaeaeeinoae caoaeaeaiiy, aai neoaeeee e?eoa???i aeey
aeai?o oai?aoe/iiai iaoiaeo ?o ?ic?aooieo.

O i`yoiio ?icae?e? iaaiai?ththoueny ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaeniiai
(aenia?eiaioaeueii–?ic?aooieiaiai) aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia oa iaoai?ci?a
noai?aiiy ?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae o ieaciiaeo no?oiaiyo ia ia?? iaoae?a.

Aia?oa io?eiaii e aeine?aeaeaii ?iaa?ni? canaeaiino? aoii?a e?o?th oa
iao??th, ?ii?a eaaei?th oa no?iioe?th a iaeano? a?eueiiai ?icoe?aiiy
ieaciiaeo no?oiai?a ia ia?? oeeo iaoae?a.

C`yniaaii iniiai? iaoai?cie, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei canaeaiiy aa?oi?o
?iai/eo ??ai?a ?iaa?oiaaieo ia?aoiae?a, a naia: o?ueio/anoeieiaa
aeaeo?ii-?iiia ?aeiia?iaoe?y aeey aoii?a e?o?th oa iao??th; aecioa?i?/ia
ia?aca?yaeea oa ?aaeoe?y Iaii?iaa aeey ?iia eaaei?th; o?ueio/anoeieiaa
aeaeo?ii-?iiia ?aeiia?iaoe?y oa ia?aca?yaeea aeaie?aoieo ?ii?a
no?iioe?th ia iaoanoaa?eueieo noaiao aoii?a no?iioe?th oa aae?th.

C ?en. 4 aeaeii, ui aeey e?o?th oa iao??th iaeneiaeuei? aaee/eie
?iaa?nii? canaeaiino? niinoa??aathoueny iiaeeco c??co niiea ? ??cei
iaaeathoue acaeiaae no?oiaiy, a?aenoaaeoth/e i?e oeueiio ci?io
eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ii?a. Ona oea aiai?eoue i?i oa, ui nooo?ao ?ieue o
noai?aii? ?iaa?nii? canaeaiino? a?athoue i?ioeane c o/anoth aeaeo?ii?a,
cie?aia i?ioean o?ueio/anoeieiai? aeaeo?ii-?iiii? ?aeiia?iaoe??. Oeae
aeniiaie i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeiaeaoeiaee aenia?eiaio c aaaaeaiiyi
i?enaaeee Cs o He–Li-ieaciiaee no?oi?iue (aeea. ?en.5) oa ?ic?aooiee
e?iaoeee canaeaiinoae He–Li–Cs-ieacie.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae eoaeieo iaoae?a, iaeneioi aaee/eie ?iaa?nii?
canaeaiino? o ?ii?a Sr+ oa Cd+ niinoa??aaany ia cia/i?e a?aeaeae? a?ae
c??co niiea (aeea. ?en.4, e?ea? 3,4). Oea iaeiicia/ii aiai?eoue i?i oa,
ui a eaaei??a?e oa no?iioe??a?e ieaci? ?aaeoe?? c o/anoth aeaeo?ii?a ia
aiinyoue nooo?aiai aeeaaeo a ooai?aiiy ?iaa?nii? canaeaiino?, ine?eueee
eiioeaio?aoe?y aeaeo?ii?a oai caiaaeoi iaea. Iaoai?ciaie, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei canaeaiiy aa?oi?o ?iai/eo ??ai?a ?ii?a eaaei?th oa
no?iioe?th, ? i?ioeane c o/anoth aaaeeeo /anoeiie.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii, aenia?eiaioaeueii oa oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii
iaoai?ci aieeao i?enaaeee, yea eaaei ?ii?co?oueny ? caaaa/o? ieacio
aeaeo?iiaie, ia oi?ioaaiiy ?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae o ?aeiia?ioth/?e
ieaci?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaea i?enaaeea aieeaa? ia aaee/eio ?iaa?nieo
canaeaiinoae ye /a?ac ci?io iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ieacie Ne oa Te, oae ?
/a?ac canaeaiiy ??ai?a aoii?a ?aaeoe?yie aoiiieo ni?aoaea??a. I?e
aaaaeaii? i?enaaeee a iioeiaeuei?e eiioeaio?aoe?? a ?aeiia?ioth/o ieacio
iiaeia ca?eueoeoe ?iaa?ni? canaeaiino? ia 1–2 ii?yaeee (?en.5).
Aeyaeaii, ui aeey e?o??ai? ieacie c aonoeiith 1016–1018 ni–3 iioeiaeueia
eiioeaio?aoe?y i?enaaeee oeac?th noaiiaeoue aeecueei 5(1015 ni–3.

Iieacaii, ui aaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee Cs a ieaciia? no?oiai? ia iniia?
aeaiaio?a c aenieeie iioaioe?aeaie ?ii?caoe?? ? c?o/iei
aenia?eiaioaeueiei iaoiaeii aeey c`ynoaaiiy ?ie? o?ueio/anoeieiai?
aeaeo?ii-?iiii? ?aeiia?iaoe?? o noai?aii? ?iaa?nii? canaeaiino?. Oai,
aea oeae i?ioean ? aeii?ioth/ei, aaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee nooo?ai ca?eueoo?
aaee/eio ?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae, ?, iaaiaee, oai, aea oeae i?ioean ia
aiineoue ?noioiiai aeeaaeo, aaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee iiieaeo? aaee/eio
?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae.

Aia?oa io?eiaii i?aeneeaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia 32S1/2–22P3/2 ia?aoiae?
aoiia e?o?th (?en.6) ? oei naiei iieacaii i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue
io?eiaiiy iaia?a?aii? eaca?ii? aaia?aoe?? ia aeacaiiio ia?aoiae? LiI.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? aia?oa ?aae?ciaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii
cai?iiiiiaaiee iaie niin?a iaia?a?aiiai io?eiaiiy aeneia?ieo iieaeoe.

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ooai?aiiy aeneia?ieo
iieaeoe KrF*, XeF*, KrCl* oa XeCl* a iaia?a?aiiio ieaciiaiio no?oiai? ia
noi?oao ?ia?oieo aac?a c iieaeoeaie SF6 oa CCl4. Anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei?
oiiae ooai?aiiy aeneia??a ca eiiiiiaioiei neeaaeii ?iai/eo noi?oae,
aeo?aoaie oa oeneaie aac?a (aeea., iai?eeeaae, ?en.7) ? iiooaei?noth, ui
aaiaeeoueny a ieaciio?ii (?en.8), i?e aeaio niiniaao ci?ooaaiiy (aei ?
i?ney niiea) iiia?aaeiuei io?eiaii? a aeoaiaiio ?ic?yae? ieacie ?ia?oieo
aac?a c SF6 oa CCl4.

Aei??yii aaniethoi? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeneia?ieo iieaeoe a aeaeo?iiieo
B2(+1/2 noaiao. Iaeneiaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y aeneia??a, aeinyaiooa aeey
iieaeoee KrF* ? aei??aith? N=5(1011 ni-3. Io?eiaia eiioeaio?aoe?y KrF(B)
a?aeiia?aea? ieoii?e iiooaeiino? 40–60 Ao/ni3 niiioaiiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeneia?ii? iieaeoee KrF(B) oa EEAe ia?aoai?aiiy
aeaeo?e/ii? iiooaeiino?, ui aaiaeeoueny a aeoaiaee ?ic?yae, –2–4%.

I?iaaaeaii aei??thaaiiy eiao?oe??io?a iiaeeiaiiy ? oe?ei niaeo?aeueieo
e?i?e aoii?a Kr oa Xe, iioe/ii ca`ycaieo c iaoanoaa?eueieie noaiaie.
Aeeiiaii ioe?iee canaeaiinoae 3P2 oa 3P0 _ noai?a KrI oa XeI o
ieaciiaiio no?oiai?. Aaee/eie canaeaiinoae oeeo noai?a aeinyaathoue
cia/aiue ~1012ni-3, ? ?o iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe a e?iaoeoe? i?ioean?a,
ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ieaciiaiio no?oiai?.

Aei??yii oaiia?aoo?o oa eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ii?a o no?oiai?, a oaeiae
aea/aii aieea SF6 oa CCl4 ia ci?io oeeo ia?aiao??a. Anoaiiaeaii
aca?iica`ycie aoaeo?a i?eeeiaiiy aeaeo?ii?a aei aaeiaaiiai?nieo iieaeoe
c ooai?aiiyi aeneia??a (?en.9). Iieacaii, ui iniiaiei eaiaeii ooai?aiiy
aeneia??a ? ?ii-?iiia ?aeiia?iaoe?y.

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c iaoai?ci?a ooai?aiiy iiiiooi?eae?a
oa iiiioei?eae?a ?ia?oieo aac?a o ieaciiaiio no?oiai?. Ia iniia?
ii??aiyiiy ?iciiae?e?a ?ioaineaiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeneia??a acaeiaae
no?oiaiy (?en.10), io?eiaieo i?e aeaio ??cieo niiniaao ci?ooaaiiy
aeneia?iooai?thth/eo eiiiiiaio (aaaaeaii? aaeiaaiaaaioo aei ? i?ney
niiea), oa aiae?co ci?ie iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ieacie (Ne, Te, Ta oa ?i.)
i?e aaaaeaii? aaeiaaiaaaioo, aoei anoaiiaeaii aca?iica`ycie ooai?aiiy
aeneia??a c aoaeoeai?noth i?eeeiaiiy aeaeo?ii?a aei aaeiaaiaaaio?a oa
ia?aa?aii o no?oiai? ?ii-?iiii? ?aeiia?iaoe??:

+ i?iaeoeoe ,
(13)

i?iaeoeoe
(14)

R+ + Cl– + M (( RCl* + M ,
(15)

aea R = Kr , Xe . M — o?aoy /anoeiea.

O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? ia iniia? noai?aii? iaie iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aoei
i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo iioeiaeueieo ii/aoeiaeo ia?aiao??a ieacie,
iaiao?aeieo aeey io?eiaiiy aaia?aoe?? a ieaciiaiio no?oiai? ia iieaeoe?
KrF*, ? aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeinyaiaiith oeeo ia?aiao??a.

Iiaeaeue noai?aiiy aeoeaiiai na?aaeiaeua aeneia?iiai KrF* IAeE aeeth/a?
iien iioieo ieacie e?eioiio ii iaaecaoeiaiio niieo, ?? ioieiaeaeaiiy
aiane?aeie ?icoe?aiiy oa ci?ooaaiiy c ooi?ii ia iaai?e a?aeaeae? a?ae
e?eoe/iiai ia?a??co niiea. Iiaeaeue caaacia/o? ciaiiy iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a ieacie e?eioiio ia aoiae? a iaeanoue ci?ooaaiiy:
eiioeaio?aoe?? oa oaiia?aoo?e eiiiiiaio ieacie ? oaeaeeino? no?oiaiy.
E??i oiai, aiia a?aeia?aaea? e?iaoeeo i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a
iaeano? ci?ooaaiiy ? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ooai?aiiy aeneia?ieo iieaeoe KrF*.

?icaeyaeaeany iaeiiaei??ia oa/?y ieacie e?eioiio ii iaaecaoeiaiio niieo.
Aaaaoieiiiiiaioia ieacia neeaaea?oueny c aeaeo?ii?a, iaeo?aeueieo
aoii?a, ?ii?a ??cii? e?aoiino? a iniiaiiio oa caoaeaeaiiio noaiao. On?
/anoeiee iathoue iaenaae?anueeee ?iciiae?e ca oaeaeeinoyie. Aieea
a`yceino?, oaieii?ia?aeiino? oa aeeooc?? ia a?aoiaoaaany. Ciai?oi?
aeaeo?e/i? oa iaai?oi? iiey aoee a?aenooi?.

Aiane?aeie ??cii? caeaaeiino? oaeaeeinoae ?ii?caoe?? oa ?aeiia?iaoe??
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e anth oa/?th iiaeia ?acaeoe ia ae?eyiee: a) ??aiiaaaeio
(oaeaee?noue ?ii?caoe?? aei??aith? oaeaeeino? ?aeiia?iaoe??); a)
e?iaoe/io (oaeaee?noue ?ii?caoe?? iaaaaaoi iaioa a?ae oaeaeeino?
?aeiia?iaoe??); a) caii?iaeaio (iaeaea? oaeaeeino? i?yiothoue aei ioey).

Iaae? ae?eyiie aecia/aeeny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi i?ae oa?aeoa?ieie
aaciaeeiai?/iei ((h) oa ?aeiia?iaoe?eiei ((?) /anaie. Ca aaciaeeiai?/iee
/an a?aany /an i?ieueioo ieaciith c? oaeaee?noth V a?aeaeae?, ??aii?
?ici??o e?eoe/iiai ia?a??co niiea H: (h=H/V. Oa?aeoa?iee /an
?aeiia?iaoe?? (p = 1/(Ne2, aea Ne – eiioeaio?aoe?y aeaeo?ii?a, ( —
eiao?oe??io ?aeiia?iaoe?? ?iia. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui iaeanoue
ia?aoiaeo a?ae ??aiiaaaeiiai iioieo aei caii?iaeaiiai ? aocueeith a
oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ia?aiao??a aaeueioaaiiy ieacie. Oea iineoaeeei
i?aea?oioyi aeey aeei?enoaiiy iiaeae? «ieoo?aiai caii?iaeoaaiiy», ca
yeith oa/?y ieacie ?icaeaa?oueny ia aea? ae?eyiee – ??aiiaaaeio oa
caii?iaeaio. Ia?ao?ae a?aeaoaa?oueny a «oi/eao caii?iaeoaaiiy», a ?o
iieiaeaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny ?c oiiae ??aiino? (h ? (p.

??aiyiiy ieaciiaeeiai?ee ia eiaei?e c ae?eyiie oa/?? ?ica`ycoaaeeny
iacaeaaeii, a a oi/oe? caii?iaeoaaiiy «coeaaeeny».

I?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a cii? ci?ooaaiiy, iienoaaeeny nenoaiith
oaeaee?nieo ??aiyiue aeaeo

aea Nm, Nn – eiioeaio?aoe?? aca?iiae?th/eo eiiiiiaio noi?o?, yea
neeaaea?oueny c Kr, Kr* , Kr+ , KrF*(B), KrF*0(B), KrF(X), F2 ,e, h(.

Ii/aoeiaeie ia?aiao?aie aeey nenoaie ??aiyiue (16) neoaeeee aeai?,
io?eiai? i?e ?ica`ycaii? ??aiyiue ieaciiaeeiai?ee.

O ?ic?aooieao a?aoiaoaaeiny, ui a ?acoeueoao? ?aaeoe?? ?ii-?iiii?
?aeiia?iaoe?? oa aa?ioiii? ?aaeoe??, a oaeiae i?e ia?aaea/? aia?a?? a?ae
??cieo eiiiiiaio, a?aeaoaa?oueny canaeaiiy aa?oi?o eieeaieo ??ai?a
iieaeoee KrF*(B) (n(4). A?oia ieaei?o eieeaieo ??ai?a (n=0(3) iieaeoee
KrF*0(B), ia ia?aoiaeao c yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny aaia?aoe?y, canaey?oueny a
?acoeueoao? eieeaii? ?aeaenaoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi aany/eo ni?aoaea??a.
?aae?aoe?eiee ?iciaae KrF*(B), KrF*0(B) a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ye
niiioaiieo, oae ? ?iaeoeiaaieo ia?aoiae?a o KrF(X) noaie c ianooiiei
?iciaaeii iieaeoee ia aoiie. A?aoiaoaaeiny oaeiae iiaeeiaiiy
aei?ii?iaieo eaaio?a ye iieaeoeith KrF(X), oae ? ?ioeie eiiiiiaioaie
noi?o?.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a canaeaiinoae KrF*0(B) o caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e aaeueioaaiiy ieaciiaiai iioieo Kr ? eiioeaio?aoe?? aaeiaaio
(F2) a i?noe? ci?ooaaiiy aeaio iioie?a iieacaii ia ?en.11. Oeeo?e ia
oiiia?ai? a?aeiia?aeathoue aaee/ei? lg(KrF*0,ni–3). Eiioeaio?aoe?y Kr a
ia?aaeniieia?e eaia?? i?e oeueiio noaiiaeea NKr=1019 ni–3. Ci?ooaaiiy
i?iaiaeeeiny ia a?aeaeae? 3 ii a?ae e?eoe/iiai ia?a??co ieineiai
eeeiiaeaeiiai niiea c eooii iai?a?ice?eooy 70 .

sse aeaeii c ?en. 11, ?c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e aaeueioaaiiy aeo?ae
aeneia?ieo iieaeoe nii/aoeo ca?eueoo?oueny, aeinyaa? iaeneioio, a iio?i
iaaea?. ??no eiioeaio?aoe?? aeneia??a c ?inoii T0 iia`ycaiee c?
ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a Kr+ oa aeaeo?ii?a. Ciaioaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ooai?aiiy KrF*0(B) i?ney aeinyaiaiiy iaeneioio coiiaeaia
aany/eie i?ioeanaie, a ia?oo /a?ao, aan?iiyi aeaeo?iiaie.

Iioeiaeueia a?aeiioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? Kr+(Ne) oa aaeiaaio (F2) aeecueea
aei iaeeieoe?. A ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? aei cia/aiue, i?e yeeo
aeinyaa?oueny iaeneiaeueiee aeo?ae KrF0*(B), aeaeo?iie ia aiinyoue
a?ae/ooiiai aeeaaeo a aan?iiy aeneia?ii? iieaeoee, ine?eueee ?o
eiioeaio?aoe?y iacia/ia aiane?aeie ?ioaineaiiai i?eeeiaiiy aei F2 ?
ooai?aiiy noaa?eueiiai iaaaoeaiiai ?iia F–. Iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e i?e iaci?ii?e eiioeaio?aoe?? F2 i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaaeeeoeo
eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ii?a, ui, a naith /a?ao, i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? KrF*0(B). Aeii?ioth/ee aeeaae a ooai?aiiy aeneia?ieo
iieaeoe aiineoue ?ii-?iiia ?aeiia?iaoe?y.

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??:

1. Cai?iiiiiaaii oa ?aae?ciaaii:

– iiaee niin?a iaia?a?aiiai io?eiaiiy aeneia?ieo iieaeoe;

– iiao iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa i?aeneeaiiy a ae?aiacii?
iioe/ieo aonoei (l ( 5 ca iiaeeiaiiyi niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaeiiai aeca?eaea, canoiniaaio aei ieaciiaeo no?oiai?a;

– iiaee, a?eueo oi/iee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo canaeaiinoae caoaeaeaieo ??ai?a
?ii?a o ?aeiia?ioth/?e ieaci? – iaoiae «o??caiiai noieo». Iieacaii, ui
?ic?aooiee canaeaiinoae ??ai?a ?ii?a eaaei?th oa no?iioe?th, aeeiiai?
aeaiei iaoiaeii, e?aua ?ioeo ocaiaeaeothoueny ?c ?acoeueoaoaie
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

2. Aia?oa io?eiaii aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy aaeaioieo iaieiiie
aoii?a eoaeiicaiaeueieo aeaiaio?a, i?ae?, naeioeth oa a?niooo. A oe?eiio
aea/aii aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy aeey ~200 niaeo?aeueieo
ia?aoiae?a.

3. Iieacaii, ui aeae aia?aaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae niaeo?aeueieo ia?aoiae?a
ye aeey iaeiiaeaeo?iiiiai, oae ? aeaioaeaeo?iiiiai caoaeaeaiiy ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae eiio?ao?aoe?? iniiaiiai noaio, a aecia/a?oueny
aaee/eiith ci?ie iiaiiai iiiaioo oa iayai?noth iai?iii? aca?iiae??. A
?ac? ni?aaaaeeeaino? LS–ca`yceo oa?aeoa? aia?aaoe/ii? caeaaeiino?
ia?a??co caoaeaeaiiy noaio aoiia aecia/a?oueny a ia?oo /a?ao ??cieoeath
ni?iiaeo (S oa i?a?oaeueieo (L iiiaio?a ii/aoeiaiai oa e?ioeaaiai
noai?a. I?e (S(0 ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy iathoue iaeneioi iiaeeco ii?iao oa
oaeaeei niaaeathoue c ?inoii aia?a??, ia a?aei?io a?ae ia?aoiae?a c
(S=0, eiee ooieoe?? caoaeaeaiiy iathoue iieiao oi?io c iaeneioiii i?e
aia?a?yo a aeae?eueea ii?iaiaeo iaeeieoeue. sse aeey ia?aoiae?a c (S=0,
oae ? ia?aoiae?a c (S(0 ooieoe?? caoaeaeaiiy caoaeothoueny c?
ca?eueoaiiyi (L ? iaeneioi ?o ci?uo?oueny aei ii?iao.

4. Aia?oa noai?aii oa aeine?aeaeaii ?iaa?ni? canaeaiino? aoii?a e?o?th
oa iao??th, ?ii?a eaaei?th oa no?iioe?th a iaeano? a?eueiiai ?icoe?aiiy
ieaciiaeo no?oiai?a ia ia?? oeeo iaoae?a. Anoaiiaeaii iniiai? iaoai?cie,
ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei canaeaiiy aa?oi?o ?iai/eo ??ai?a ?iaa?oiaaieo
ia?aoiae?a, a naia:

– o?ueio/anoeieiaa aeaeo?ii-?iiia ?aeiia?iaoe?y aeey aoii?a e?o?th oa
iao??th;

– aecioa?i?/ia ia?aca?yaeea oa ?aaeoe?y Iaii?iaa aeey ?iia eaaei?th;

– o?ueio/anoeieiaa aeaeo?ii-?iiia ?aeiia?iaoe?y oa ia?aca?yaeea
aeaie?aoieo ?ii?a no?iioe?th ia iaoanoaa?eueieo noaiao aoii?a no?iioe?th
oa aae?th.

5. Aia?oa io?eiaii i?aeneeaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia 32S1/2–22P1/2
ia?aoiae? aoiia e?o?th ((=812,6 ii, (0=0,05-0,13 ni–1) ? oeei naiei
iieacaii i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy iaia?a?aii? eaca?ii?
aaia?aoe?? ia aeacaiiio ia?aoiae? LiI.

6. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiee, aenia?eiaioaeueii oa oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii
iaoai?ci aieeao i?enaaeee, yea eaaei ?ii?co?oueny ? caaaa/o? ieacio
aeaeo?iiaie, ia oi?ioaaiiy ?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae o ?aeiia?ioth/?e
ieaci?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaea i?enaaeea aieeaa? ia aaee/eio ?iaa?nieo
canaeaiinoae ye /a?ac ci?io iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ieacie Ne oa Te, oae ?
/a?ac canaeaiiy ??ai?a aoii?a ?aaeoe?yie aoiiieo ni?aoaea??a. I?e
aaaaeaii? ?ii?ciaaii? i?enaaeee a iioeiaeuei?e eiioeaio?aoe?? a
?aeiia?ioth/o ieacio iiaeia ca?eueoeoe ?iaa?ni? canaeaiino? ia 1-2
ii?yaeee. Aeyaeaii, ui aeey e?o??ai? ieacie c aonoeiith 1016–1018 ni–3
iioeiaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y i?enaaeee oeac?th noaiiaeoue a?ey 5 1015
ni–3. Iieacaii, ui aaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee Cs a ieaciia? no?oiai? ia iniia?
aeaiaio?a c aenieeie iioaioe?aeaie ?ii?caoe?? ? c?o/iei
aenia?eiaioaeueiei iaoiaeii aeey c`ynoaaiiy ?ie? o?ueio/anoeieiai?
aeaeo?ii-?iiii? ?aeiia?iaoe?? o noai?aii? ?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae. Oai,
aea oeae i?ioean ? aeii?ioth/ei, aaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee nooo?ai ca?eueoo?
aaee/eio ?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae ? iaaiaee: oai, aea oeae i?ioean ia
aiineoue ?noioiiai aeeaaeo, aaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee ciaioo? aaee/eio
?iaa?nieo canaeaiinoae.

7. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ooai?aiiy
aeneia?ieo iieaeoe KrF, XeF, KrCl oa XeCl o iaia?a?aiiio ieaciiaiio
no?oiai? ia noi?oao ?ia?oieo aac?a c iieaeoeaie SF6 oa CCl4. Anoaiiaeaii
iioeiaeuei? oiiae ooai?aiiy aeneia??a ca eiiiiiaioiei neeaaeii ?iai/eo
noi?oae, aeo?aoaie oa oeneaie aac?a i?e aeaio niiniaao ci?ooaaiiy (aei ?
i?ney niiea) iiia?aaeiuei io?eiaii? a aeoaiaiio ?ic?yae? ieacie ?ia?oieo
aac?a c SF6 oa CCl4.

8. Ia iniia? aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo caeaaeiinoae oa ?ic?aooieiaeo
aeaieo aeyaeaii aca?iica`ycie aoaeo?a i?eeeiaiiy aeaeo?ii?a aei
aaeiaaii?noeeo iieaeoe c ooai?aiiyi aeneia??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiei
i?ioeanii, yeee i?ecaiaeeoue aei canaeaiiy caoaeaeaieo noai?a
iiiiaaeiaai?ae?a ?ia?oieo aac?a o ieaciiaiio no?oiai?, ?
o?ueio/anoeieiaa ?aeiia?iaoe?y ?ii?a Kr+, Xe+ oa ?ii?a F–, SF–5 o
aeiaaeeo iiiiooi?eae?a oa a?aeiia?aeieo iiceoeaieo ?ii?a c iaaaoeaieie
?iiaie Cl– – o aeiaaeeo iiiioei?eae?a.

9. ?icaeyiooi oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai i?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e
iiiiaaeiaai?ae?a ?ia?oieo aac?a o ieaciiaiio no?oiai? oa aeinyaiaiiy
ii?iaiaeo oiia aeey eaca?ii? aaia?aoe??. Iieacaii i?eioeeiiao
iiaeeea?noue aeinyaiaiiy aonoei aeneia??a N*– 1013 ni–3 oa eiao?oe??ioo
i?aeneeaiiy ( – 5 10–3 ni–1 ia B–X – ia?aoiae? KrF*.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E AAOI?A C OAIE AeENA?OAOe??

1. Noa?iaeoa A.I. I?i iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy ?iaa?nii? canaeaiino? ??ai?a
Sr+ o iaia?a?aiiio ieaciiaiio n?oiai? // OOAE. – 1997. – O.42, ?10. – C.
1204–1206.

2. Noa?iaeoa A.I. I?i ?ieue iaoanoaa?eueieo aoii?a Kr i Xe a ooai?aii?
aeneia?ieo iieaeoe aaeiaai?ae?a ?ia?oieo aac?a o ieaciiaiio no?oiai? //
OOAE. – 1998. – O.43, ?1. – C. 42–44.

3. Noa?iaeoa A.I. I iaoaieciao ia?aciaaiey eiaa?niie canaeaiiinoe
o?iaiae aoiiia e eiiia iaoaeeia a ieaciaiiie no?oa // AEOO. – 1998 –
O.68, aui.6. – N.134–135.

4 Noa?iaeoa A.I. Aeaooyeaeo?iiiia aicaoaeaeaiea aoiiia eaeueoeey,
no?iioeey e aa?ey iiae aeaenoaeai yeaeo?iiiiai oaea?a // AEIN.–
1998.–O.65, aui.3.–N.433–436.

5. Noa?iaeoa A.I. Yooaeoeaiua na/aiey aicaoaeaeaiey n 3P1–o?iaiae
uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia // Iio. e niaeo?. – 1998. – O.85, aui.1.–
N.24–26.

6. Eiaa?niay canaeaiiinoue o?iaiae eeoey e oeacey a ieaciaiiie no?oa /
N.I.Aiaa/aaa, I.O.Aa?ao, A.N.?iaoee/, A.I.Noa?iaeoa / OOAE. – 1985. –
O.30, ?2. – N.186–189.

7. ?iaoee/ A.N, Noa?iaeoa A.I., Oaaa?a A.N. Eceo/aiea yeneia?ia KrF* e
XeF* a ieaciaiiie no?oa // Ienueia a AEOO. – 1986. – O.12, ?10. –
N.606–609.

8. Aa?ao I.O., Caiani/iue E.I., Noa?iaeoa A.I. I aeaoo iaoaieciao
ia?aciaaiey eiaa?niie canaeaiiinoe o?iaiae Cd+ a iai?a?uaiie ieaciaiiie
no?oa // AEOO. 1987. – O.57, ?3. – N.573–574.

9. Aa?ao I.O, Caiani/iue E.I, Noa?iaeoa A.I. Io?eoeaoaeueiia iiaeiuaiea
ia (=812,6 ii aoiia eeoey a He-Li ieaciaiiie no?oa // Iio. e niaeo?. –
1987 – O.62, ?2. – N.245–247.

10. Aeeyiea i?enaaeee oeacey ia oi?ie?iaaiea eiaa?niuo canaeaiiinoae a
?aeiiaeie?othuae eeoeaaie ieacia / Aiaa/aaa N.I., Ai?iithe E.A.,
Caiani/iue E.I., Noa?iaeoa A.I., Oaaei?/aiei A.I. / IIOO. – 1984. – ?6.
– N.10–15.

11. ?iaoee/ A.N, Noa?iaeoa A.I., Oaaa?a A.N. Ia yooaeoeaiinoe
ia?aciaaiey yeneia?iuo iieaeoe a ieaciaiiie no?oa ia nianyo eia?oiuo
aacia n SF6 e CCl4 // AEOO. – 1988 – O.58, ?10. – N.1893–1896.

12. ?iaoee/ A.N., Noa?iaeoa A.I., Oaaa?a A.N. E aii?ino ia?aciaaiey
yeneia?iuo iieaeoe a iai?a?uaiie ieaciaiiie no?oa // Iio. e niaeo?. –
1990. – O.69, aui.4. – N.756–758.

13. Na?aethe A.A., Noa?iaeoa A.I. ?an/ao ia?aiao?ia ieaciaiiie no?oe ia
niane e?eioiia e aaeiaaiaaaioa // Iioeea aoiinoa?u e ieaaia. – 1996. –
O.9, ?2. – N.16.

14. A.n. 1611186 A1 NNN?, IEE H 01 S 3/22 Niinia iai?a?uaiiai iieo/aiey
yeneia?iuo iieaeoe / A.I. Noa?iaeoa, I.O. Aa?ao (NNN?). –
?4685192/31–25; Cayaeaii 25.04.89; Iioaeeeiaaii 01.08.90. – 2n.

15. Aicaoaeaeaiea ?aciiainiuo eeiee aoiiia aa?ey e eaeueoeey /
E.N.Aeaenaoei, E.I.Caiani/iue, E.E.Aa?aa, A.I.Noa?iaeoa / Iio. e
niaeo?. – 1971. – O.20, aui.6. – N.1178–1179.

16. Aicaoaeaeaiea uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii. I.
Iaaiee / E.N.Aeaenaoei, E.I.Caiani/iue, E.E.Aa?aa, A.I.Noa?iaeoa / Iio.
e niaeo?. – 1973. – O.34, aui.6. – N.1053–1061.

17. Aicaoaeaeaiea uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii. II.
No?iioeee (neiaeaou) / A.I.Noa?iaeoa, E.N.Aeaenaoei, E.E.Aa?aa,
E.I.Caiani/iue, / Iio. e niaeo?. – 1973. – O.35, aui.4. – N.1037–1045.

18. Aicaoaeaeaiea uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii. III.
No?iioeee (o?eieaou) / E.N.Aeaenaoei, E.E.Aa?aa, E.I.Caiani/iue,
A.I.Noa?iaeoa / Iio. e niaeo?. – 1974. – O.37, aui.1. – N.20–25.

19. Aicaoaeaeaiea uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii. IV.
Eaeueoeee / E.E.Aa?aa, E.N.Aeaenaoei, E.I.Caiani/iue, A.I.Noa?iaeoa /
Iio. e niaeo?. – 1974. – O.37, aui.5. – N.843–849.

20. Aicaoaeaeaiea uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiia yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii. V.
Aa?ee / E.N.Aeaenaoei, E.E.Aa?aa, E.I.Caiani/iue, A.I.Noa?iaeoa / Iio. e
niaeo?. – 1975. – O.38, aui.2. – N.228–235.

21. I aicaoaeaeaiee aoiiia iaaee yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii / E.N.Aeaenaoei,
A.A.Ai?iaee, A.I.Noa?iaeoa, E.E.Oao?aiueio / AEIN. – 1979. – O.30,
aui.2. – N.236239.

22. Yooaeoeaiua na/aiey aicaoaeaeaiey niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee aoiia naeioea
/ E.N.Aeaenaoei, A.A.Ai?iaee, A.I.Noa?iaeoa, E.E. Oao?aiueio / Iio. e
niaeo?. – 1979. – O.46, aui.6. – N.1125–1129

23. I aicaoaeaeaiee aeniooa yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii / E.E.Oao?aiueio,
A.I.Noa?iaeoa, O.A.Oeoiaa, E.N.Aeaenaoei / Iio. e niaeo?. – 1981. –
O.50, aui.4. – N.658–662.

24. Enneaaeiaaiea canaeaiiinoae o?iaiae Cd+ a He–Cd ieaciiaeeiaie/aneie
no?oa / N.I.Aiaa/aaa, I.O.Aa?ao, A.I.Noa?iaeoa, A.N.?iaoee/ – Oaeai?iae,
1984. – 18n. ?on. Aeai. a Oe?IEEIOE 11.06. 1984, ?1011 – Oe84-AeAI.

25. I ?iee o?ao/anoe/iie ?aeiiaeiaoeee a canaeaiee o?iaiae aoiiia
uaei/iuo iaoaeeia a ieaciaiiie no?oa / N.I.Aiaa/aaa, I.O.Aa?ao,
A.N.?iaoee/, A.I.Noa?iaeoa / I?ioeannu yeaiaioa?iuo acaeiiaeaenoaee a
aoiiao. – Oaeai?iae. – 1985. – N.168–177.

26. Naiiiiaeiuaiea eceo/aiey niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee a aoiiiii io/ea /
N.TH.Iaaeaaaeaa, E.E.Oao?aiueio, A.I.Noa?iaeoa, I.E.Nooiaey – Oaeai?iae,
1977.–7n. ?on. Aeai. a AEIEOE 17.06.1977 a., ?2391–77.

27. Oao?aiueio E.E., Noa?iaeoa A.I., Aeaenaoei E.N. Yooaeoeaiua
na/aiey aicaoaeaeaiey niaeo?aeueiuo ia?aoiaeia aeniooa yeaeo?iiiui
oaea?ii // Oaeai?iae, 1979. – 8n. ?on. Aeai. a AEIEOE 25.07.1979 a.,
?2813–79.

28. Inelastic collisions of slow electrons with twovalency atoms /
I.S.Aleksakhin, I.P.Zapesochny, I.I.Garga, V.P.Starodub / Proc. VII
ICPEAC. – Amsterdam. – 1971. – P.723–725.

29. Starodub V.P., Serdyuk V.A. Investigation of krypton and
halogenagent mixture in plasma flow // Proc. The fifth Europen conf. on
atomic and molecular physics – Edinburgh (United Kingdom) – 1995. –
V.19A, Part II. – P.733.

30. Eceo/aoaeueiua ia?aoiaeu a uaei/iicaiaeueiuo aoiiao iiae aeaenoaeai
iaaeeaiiuo yeaeo?iiia / Aeaenaoei E.N., Caiani/iue E.I., Noa?iaeoa A.I.,
Aa?aa E.E., Iinoie A.I. / O?oaeu Ia?aiai Ananithciiai neiiiceoia ii
ieaciioeiee – Iineaa –1971 – N.108.

31. Aeaenaoei E.N., Noa?iaeoa A.I., Oao?aiueio E.E. Eco/aiea yooaeoeaiuo
na/aiee aicaoaeaeaiey eaca?iuo o?iaiae CuI, PbI, BiI yeaeo?iiaie ieceeo
yia?aee // O?oaeu VII Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee ii yeaeo?iiii-aoiiiui
noieeiiaaieyi (AEYAN 78).– *anoue II. – Iao?icaaiaene. !978. N.80.

32. ?ieue aaoieiiecaoeeiiiuo ninoiyiee a canaeaiee eaca?iiai 62S1/2 –
o?iaiy eiia no?iioeey / E.N.Aeaenaoei, A.A.Ai?iaee, E.I. Caiani/iue,
A.I.Noa?iaeoa / O?oaeu II Ananithciiai naieia?a ii oece/aneei i?ioeannai
a aaciauo IEA. – Oaeai?iae.–1978. – N.156–158.

33. ?an/ao na/aiee yecioa?ie/aneie ia?aca?yaeee eiiia He+ ia aoiiao Cd
i?e iaaeeaiiuo noieeiiaaieyo / Aiaa/aaa N.I., Aa?ao I.O., Noa?iaeoa
A.I., ?iaoee/ A.N., Ea?aiaaiaoe I.E. / O?oaeu IX Ananithciie
eiioa?aioeee ii oeceea yeaeo?iiiuo e aoiiiuo noieeiiaaiee (AEYAN 84). –
*anoue I. – ?eaa. – 1984. – N.86.

Enneaaeiaaiea canaeaiiinoae aicaoaeaeaiiuo ninoiyiee aoiiia uaei/iuo
iaoaeeia e iiiiaaeiaaieaeia eia?oiuo aacia a ieaciaiiie no?oa / Aiaa/aaa
N.I., Aa?ao I.O., Noa?iaeoa A.I., ?iaoee/ A.N., Caiani/iue E.I., Oaaa?a
A.N. / O?oaeu VIII Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee ii aeeiaieea ?ac?aaeaiiuo
aacia – *anoue 2. – Iineaa. – 1985. – N.97.

35. Aa?ao I.O., Noa?iaeoa A.I. Oneeaiea eceo/aiey ia (=812,6 ii aoiia
eeoey a He–Li ieaciaiiie no?oa // O?oaeu Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee
«Eiaa?niay canaeaiiinoue e aaia?aoeey ia ia?aoiaeao a aoiiao e
iieaeoeao». – *anoue I. – Oiine. – 1986. – N.39–40.

36. ?iaoee/ A.N., Noa?iaeoa A.I., Oaaa?a A.N. Enneaaeiaaiea ia?aciaaiey
iiiiooi?eaeia eia?oiuo aacia a ieaciaiiie no?oa // O?oaeu Ananithciie
eiioa?aioeee «Eiaa?niay canaeaiiinoue e aaia?aoeey ia ia?aoiaeao a
aoiiao e iieaeoeao». – *anoue I. – Oiine. – 1986. – N. 60–61.

37. Enneaaeiaaiea ia?aciaaiey yeneia?ia XeF, XeCl, KrF, KrCl a
ieaciaiiie no?oa / A.I. Noa?iaeoa, A.N. ?iaoee/, A.N. Oaaa?a, N.I.
Aiaa/aaa / O?oaeu VII Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee ii oeceea
ieceioaiia?aoo?iie ieaciu – *anoue II. – Oaoeaio. – 1987. – N.53–54.

38. Noa?iaeoa A.I., ?iaoee/ A.N. Oooaiea B2(+ninoiyiee iieaeoe KrF e XeF
a ieaciaiiie no?oa ia niane eia?oiuo aacia n SF6 // O?oaeu X Ananithciie
eiioa?aioeee ii oeceea yeaeo?iiiuo e aoiiiuo noieeiiaaiee (AEYAN 88). –
*anoue II. – Oaeai?iae.–1988. – N.181.

39. Enneaaeiaaiea ieaciaiiie no?oe ia niane eia?oiuo aacia e
aaeiaaiaaaioia ia i?aaeiao iieo/aiey eaca?iie aaia?aoeee /
A.I.Noa?iaeoa, A.A.Na?aethe, TH.TH.Iaoeea, A.TH.Oo/ei / I?aoe? eiio.
?AO–93. – Oaeai?iae. – 1993. – C.185–188.

NIENIE AEEI?ENOAIEO AeAEA?AE

[1] Aaeaiai E.E. Au/eneaiea yooaeoeaiuo na/aiee ?annayiey n aoiiiuie
ooieoeeyie, o/eouaathueie acaeiiaeaenoaea eiioeao?aoeee // O?.OEAI
NNN?.– 1970.– O.51.–N.55–62.

[2] Aeiia?aaeia A.A. Eeanne/aneee iaoiae a oai?ee noieeiiaaiee aoiiia n
oyaeaeuie /anoeoeaie e yeaeo?iiaie // O?.OEAI NNN?.– 1970.– O.51.–
N.44–54.

[3] Cheen S.T., Leep D., Gallagher A. Excitation of the Sr and Sr
resonance lines by electron impact on Sr atoms // Phys.
Rev.A.–1976.–V.13, ?3. –P.947–952.

[4] Aaeiooaei E.A., Niaaeueiai E.E., THeia A.A. Na/aiey aicaoaeaeaiey
aoiiia e eiiia yeaeo?iiaie. –I.:Iaoea, 1973. – 143 n.

[5] Naa/aiei A.I. Ai?iianeea yooaeoeaiua na/aiey oiieie no?oeoo?u
1S0–1P1 e 1S0–3P0,1,2 ia?aoiaeia aoiiia iaaiey, eaeueoeey, no?iioeey e
aa?ey yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii // O/. cai. Aeaeueiaaino. oi–oa. – 1970. –
O.51. N.14–16.

[6] Oaa?eeaio E.E. Noieeiiaaiea iaaeeaiiuo yeaeo?iiia n aoiiaie
uaei/iicaiaeueiuo yeaiaioia // Aoiiiua i?ioeannu Iiae ?aae. Iaoa?eiia
?.E. – ?eaa: Ceiaoia. – 1975. –N.80–123.

[7] Aeaoeeee A.A., Nie?iia A.I. Iieoyiie?e/aneee ?an/ao iaoi?oaiai
?annayiey yeaeo?iiia ia aoiiao // AEYOO. – 1968. – O.38, ?1. – N.3–7.

[8] Van Blerkom I.K. Low energy electron scattering by MgI // J.Phys.
B.: Atom. Molec. Phys. – 1970. – V.3. – P.932–936.

Aiioaoe??

Noa?iaeoa A.I. O?ce/i? i?ioeane a aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeuao
ieaciiaeeiai?/ieo eaca??a ia ia?? iaoae?a oa aaeiaai?ae?a ?ia?oieo
aac?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.05 – iioeea, eaca?ia o?ceea. – ?inoeooo
o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a. 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai oa
oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a a ieaciiaiio no?oiai?,
ye? aaaeooue aei ooai?aiiy aeoeaiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey ieaciiaeeiai?/iiai
eaca?o ia ia?? Li, Na, Sr, Cd. Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeoeaiiai na?aaeiaeua ia ieaci?, yea ?aeiia?io? ca ?aooiie
aaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee Cs, yeee iaa?oioiaaii oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
aenia?eiaioaeueii. Io?eiaii oa aeine?aeaeaii iiiaae 200 aoaeoeaieo
ia?a??c?a iaeiiaeaeo?iiiiai oa aeaioaeaeo?iiiiai caoaeaeaiiy aoii?a Mg,
Ca, Sr, Ba, Cu, Bi oa Pb. Cai?iiiiiaaii oa ?aae?ciaaii niin?a
iaia?a?aiiai io?eiaiiy aeneia?ieo iieaeoe a ieaciiaiio no?oiai? ia
noi?o? ?ia?oieo aac?a c aaeiaaiaaaioaie. ?icaeyiooi oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? iiiiaaeiaai?ae?a ?ia?oieo aac?a o ieaciiaiio no?oiai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eaca?, ieaciiaee no?oiaiue, iaoaee, aaeiaai?aee ?ia?oi?o
aac?a, ?aeiia?iaoe?y, aoaeoeai? ia?a??ce caoaeaeaiiy,
aenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/i? iaoiaee.

Starodub V.P. Physical processes in the active media of plasmodynamic
metal-vapour and noble gas-halide lasers. – Manuscript.

Thesis for Dr.Sc. (Physics and Mathematics) degree. Speciality 01.04.05
– Optics, laser physics. – Institute of Physics, Ukr. Nat. Acad. Sci.,
Kyiv, 1999.

The results of experimental and theoretical studies of physical
processes in a plasma jet, resulting in the formation of an active
medium for Li, Na, Sr, Cd vapour plasmodynamic laser, are reported. A
method for increasing the efficiency of the active medium on the
recombining plasma due to the introduction of Cs additive is suggested,
being substantiated theoretically and confirmed experimentally. About
200 effective cross-sections of one-electron and two-electron excitation
of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cu, Bi and Pb atoms are obtained and studied. A
method for continuous obtaining of excimer molecules in the plasma jet
on the mixture of noble gases and halogen agents is suggested and
realized. The ways of increasing the noble gas monohalide concentration
in the plasma jet are considered.

Key words: laser, plasma jet, metals, noble gas holids, recombination,
effective cross-sections of excitation, experimental and theoretical
methods.

Noa?iaeoa A.I. Oece/aneea i?ioeannu a aeoeaiuo n?aaeao
ieaciiaeeiaie/aneeo eaca?ia ia ia?ao iaoaeeia e aaeiaaieaeia eia?oiuo
aacia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei–iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.05 – iioeea, eaca?iay oeceea.– Einoeooo
oeceee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?eaaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiiai e
oai?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey oece/aneeo i?ioeannia a ieaciaiiie no?oa,
eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e ia?aciaaieth aeoeaiie n?aaeu aeey
ieaciiaeeiaie/aneiai eaca?a ia ia?ao Li, Na, Sr, Cd. Nicaeaiu e
enneaaeiaaiu eiaa?niua canaeaiiinoe aoiiia eeoey e iao?ey, eiiia eaaeiey
e no?iioeey a iaeanoe naiaiaeiiai ?anoe?aiey ieaciaiiuo no?oe ia ia?ao
yoeo iaoaeeia. Onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua iaoaieciu, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e
canaeaieth aa?oieo ?aai/eo o?iaiae eiaa?oe?iaaiuo ia?aoiaeia, a eiaiii:
o?ao/anoe/iay yeaeo?ii-eiiiay ?aeiiaeiaoeey aeey aoiiia eeoey e iao?ey;
yecioa?ie/aneay ia?aca?yaeea e ?aaeoeey Iaiieiaa aeey eiia eaaeiey;
o?ao/anoe/iay yeaeo?ii-eiiiay ?aeiiaeiaoeey e ia?aca?yaeea aeaooe?aoiuo
eiiia no?iioeey ia iaoanoaaeeueiuo aoiiao no?iioeey e aaeey. Iieo/aii
oneeaiea eceo/aiey ia 32S1/2–22P1/2 ia?aoiaea aoiia eeoey ((=812,6 ii,
(0=0,05-0,13 ni–1) e yoei iieacaia i?eioeeieaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/aiey iai?a?uaiie eaca?iie aaia?aoeee ia oeacaiii ia?aoiaea LiI.
I?aaeeiaeai niinia iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeoeaiie n?aaeu ia
?aeiiaeie?othuae ieacia ca n/ao aaaaeaiey i?enaaeee Cs, eioi?ue
iainiiaai oai?aoe/anee e iiaeoaa?aeaeai yenia?eiaioaeueii. Onoaiiaeaii,
/oi oaeay i?enaaeea aeeyao ia aaee/eiu eiaa?niuo canaeaiiinoae eae /a?ac
eciaiaiea iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia ieaciu Ne e Te, oae e /a?ac canaeaiea
o?iaiae aoiiia ?aaeoeeyie aoiiiuo nioaea?aiee. I?e aaaaeaiee i?enaaeee a
iioeiaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee a ?aeiiaeie?othuoth ieacio iiaeii oaaee/eoue
aaee/eio eiaa?niie canaeaiiinoe ia 1-2 ii?yaeea. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeey
eeoeaaie ieaciu ieioiinoueth 1016–1018 ni–3 iioeiaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey
i?enaaeee oeacey ninoaaeyao ~ 5 1015 ni–3.

Iieo/aii e enneaaeiaaii ieiei 200 yooaeoeaiuo na/aiee iaeiiyeaeo?iiiiai
e aeaooyeaeo?iiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey aoiiia Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cu, Bi e Pb
yeaeo?iiiui oaea?ii. Onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe eae
iaeiiyeaeo?iiiiai, oae e aeaooyeaeo?iiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey yoeo aoiiia.
Iieacaii, /oi aeae ooieoeee aicaoaeaeaiey ia caaeneo io eiioeao?aoeee
iniiaiiai ninoiyiey, a ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eiie eciaiaiey iieiiai iiiaioa
e iaee/eai iaiaiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ooieoeee
aicaoaeaeaiey ia?aoiaeia, iaoneiaeaiiuo aeaooyeaeo?iiiui aicaoaeaeaieai,
iiaeiaiu ooieoeeyi aicaoaeaeaiey ia?aoiaeia n o?iaiae iaeiiyeaeo?iiiiai
aicaoaeaeaiey, a eo yooaeoeaiua na/aiey ?aaiiaaeeee.

I?aaeeiaeai e ?aaeeciaai niinia iai?a?uaiiai iieo/aiey yeneia?iuo
iieaeoe a ieaciaiiie no?oa ia niane eia?oiuo aacia n aaeiaaiaaaioaie.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iniiaiui i?ioeannii, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e canaeaieth
aicaoaeaeaiiuo ninoiyiee iiiiaaeiaaieaeia eia?oiuo aacia a ieaciaiiie
no?oa, yaeyaony o?ao/anoe/iay ?aeiiaeiaoeey eiiia Kr+, Xe+ e eiiia F–,
SF–5 a neo/aa iiiiooi?eaeia e niioaaonoaothueo iieiaeeoaeueiuo eiiia n
io?eoeaoaeueiuie eiiaie Cl– – a neo/aa iiiioei?eaeia. Iieacaia
i?eioeeieaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue aeinoeaeaiey ieioiinoe yeneia?ia N* –
1013 ni–3 e eiyooeoeeaioa oneeaiey ( – 5(10–3 ni–1 ia B–X –
ia?aoiaea KrF.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eaca?, ieaciaiiay no?oy, iaoaeeu, aaeiaaieaeu eia?oiuo
aacia, ?aeiiaeiaoeey, yooaeoeaiua na/aiey aicaoaeaeaiey,
yenia?eiaioaeueii–oai?aoe/aneea iaoiaeu.

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