IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

O?CE*IIAI AEOIAAIIss ? NII?OO OE?A?IE

Aeue OAI? ?a?aa?i

OAeE: 616.711–08; 96.32.072

O?CE*IA ?AAA?E?OAOe?ss

NII?ONIAI?A-?A?IAEE?A

C INOAIOIIAe?ICII OEEII-A?OAeIIAI

A?AeAe?EO O?AAOA

24.00.02 — O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe

c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ?
nii?oo Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaaiee Eii?oao Oe?a?ie c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ?
nii?oo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo Oe?a?ie
Eeeiaiei Na?oeaia Einoyioei?aia

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?a?iaeo
aeae?a nii?oo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo
Oe?a?ie Eaoeoeaae/ Eaii?ae Aioiiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Euea?anueeee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, nii?oeaii? iaaeeoeeie oa EOE
Iaaeueiaaiee Aiaoie?e Aaneeueiae/

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???th niaoe?aeueiiai
oa?/oaaiiy Nioeuenueeee Aaea??e Eaii?aeiae/

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 16 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiae 30 oa ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.829.01 Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo Oe?a?ie (252150, i.Ee?a-150,
aoe.O?ceoeueoo?e, 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo Oe?a?ie (252150, i.Ee?a-150,
aoe.O?ceoeueoo?e, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 16 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani? ?aauaii E.ss.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Inoaioiiae?ic o?aaoa ? iaeiei ?c
iae?iciianthaeaeai?oeo o?ii?/ieo caoai?thaaiue (ss.TH.Iiiaeyinueeee,
1983; A.ss.O?uaiei c? ni?aaao., 1989; Hayes et al., 1989; Turneret al.,
1989 oa ?i.). Ieoiia aaaa eiai ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a na?aae on??? iaoieia??
ia?eoa??eii? ia?aiai? nenoaie noaiiaeoue a?ae 67 aei 95 % (?.I.Aioiiia?
A.E.Iaaecueaaaeue, 1984; Porter, 1989).

I?iyae inoaioiiae?ico nooo?ai iaiaaeothoue o?ce/i? oa ooieoe?ei?
iiaeeeaino? iaoe??io?a. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy oea ia? aeey nii?oniai?a, ia
yeeo iino?eii aieeaathoue i?aeaeuai?, /anoi caiaaeia? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ye?
ca aeaieie aeayeeo aeine?aeiee?a ? iaeiei ?c /eiiee?a, ui i?iaieothoue
iiaeaeueoa caaino?aiiy i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaiue i?enay/aia i?iyaai inoaioiiae?ico
o?aaoa o aei?ineeo iaoe??io?a, iaeiae ca inoaii?e /an c’yaeeeny
a?aeiiino?, ui oea caoai?thaaiiy a 5,3–21% aeiaaee?a o?aaea? in?a
iieiaeiai a?eo, ii/eiath/e c 10 ?ie?a aeeooy (E.A.Ai?iae?ia, 1980;
O.C.Aoiaaeia,1981; I.?.Oaenthe c? ni?aaao., 1985; A.A.Oaiueei oa
N.?.Ieoi?aa, 1985; A.A.Noaae? A.A.Oaae??a, 1992).

Na?aae on?o eieae?caoe?e oe??? iaoieia?? inoaioiiae?ic a?oaeiiai oa
oeeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa ia? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a, oiio ui ia oeueiio ??ai? ciaoiaeyoueny oeaio?e
niiaoe/ii? oa aaµaoaoeaii? ?aaoeyoe?? ae?yeueiino? aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo
i?aai?a a?oaeii? ee?oee oa aa?oiueiai iiaa?oo /a?aaa, a oaeiae i’ycia?
ianeae, ui a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?ooia?e aeoeaiino?.

Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano aaaaoi ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny o?ce/ii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa, iniaeeai o
nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe??, aeaeae? a?ae inoaoi/iiai
ae??oaiiy. Cie?aia ia aea/aia ieoaiiy aieeao iaoieia?? o?aaoa ia ?ooia?
ooieoe?? nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a. Ia aena?oeaia aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy
o ieo oaeeo caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo ? i?io?eaeoe/ieo
caoiae?a, ye iaioaeueia oa?ai?y a ii?aeiaii? c ianaaeai ? eiiieaenii
niaoe?aeueieo ai?aa, iai?aaeaieo ia noaa?e?caoe?th o?aaoa. Aeiaaa?
ie?aiiai ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiiieaeno ?aaa?e?oaoe?? c
aeieo/aiiyi iaioaeueii? oa?ai?? o nii?oniai?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe??.

Oiio ?ic?iaea e aenia?eiaioaeueia iaµ?oiooaaiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a o?ce/ii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? oyaeythoueny iaiao?aeieie e aei?aaaeaieie. Ana iaaaaeaia
aeua aecia/a? ?aaa?e?oaoe?ei?, iaaeaaia?/i?, nioe?aeuei? e aeiiii?/i?
aniaeoe aeooaeueiino? aeeiiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
?icae?eii oaie ca?aeiiai ieaio IAe? c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa nii?oo ia
1996-2000 ?.?. ca o?ao?i iai?yieii: «Aaeaieia?y oa o?ce/ia
?aaa?e?oaoe?y», oaia 3.1.2.: «No?oeoo?a oa ci?no iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i ia oaeoeueoao? caei?ia’y oa o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??» (?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0196E010545).

Iaoith ?iaioe ?: iaµ?oiooaaiiy e ?ic?iaea i?ia?aie o?ce/ii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico a?oaeiiai e oeeiiai a?aeae?e?a
o?aaoa o nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaioaeueii? oa?ai??, ianaaeo oa e?eoaaeueii? a?iianoeee.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico a?oaeiiai oa oeeiiai
a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa o nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe??, ye?
i?aeaeathoueny i?aeaeuaiei o?ce/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi.

2. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo eiiieaeniiai canoinoaaiiy iaioaeueii? oa?ai??,
ianaaeo oa e?eoaaeueii? a?iianoeee o nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei?
eaae?o?eaoe?? c i?iyaaie inoaioiiae?ico a?oaeiiai oa oeeiiai a?aeae?e?a
o?aaoa, aecia/eoe i?eioeeie, oa?aeoa? ? iine?aeiai?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy
i?e ??cieo aa??aioao i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa.

3. Aeine?aeeoe ci?ie ooieoe?eiiai noaio oiiono eieio?aaoiaeo i’yc?a
a?oaeiiai oa oeeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa, oeaio?aeueiiai oa ia?eoa??eiiai
e?iaiia?ao o aeno?aeiiio noai? oa a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy
?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a.

4. Ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? eiiieaenii? iaoiaeeee
o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? o oaiaoe/ieo iaoe??io?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a iaµ?oiooaaii?, iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? oa
oaeineiiaeaii? aaoi?ii eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?e
i?iyaao oeeiiai oa a?oaeiiai inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa o
nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? ? iiaeeaeaiiio aecia/aii?
caeiiii??iinoae ci?i aea/a?ieo ooieoe?eieo iieaciee?a o aeeiai?oe?
a?aeiiaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??, a oiio /ene? aia?oa aee?eoeo caeiiii??iinoae
ii?ooaiue naµiaioa?iiai e?iaiia?ao aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny iaµ?oiooaaiiyi aaoi?ii
eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico
a?oaeiiai oa oeeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa o nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei?
eaae?o?eaoe??, ye? i?aeaeathoueny i?aeaeuaiei o?ce/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi,
?c caeo/aiiyi iaoiae?a iaioaeueii? oa?ai??, ianaaeo oa e?eoaaeueii?
a?iianoeee ? anoaiiaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae ci?i ooieoe?eieo iieaciee?a,
ui aea/athoueny, o aeeiai?oe? ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai i?ioeano.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai iaµ?oioiaaiiai
eiiieaeno iaei?eaeaoi?oeo cania?a ? iaoiae?a o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa
anoaiiaeaii? ?ioi?iaoeaieo iieaciee?a ioe?iee aeeiiaii? e?iac?oa?ai?? o
nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe??, ye? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aaciina?aaeiuei a i?aeoeoe? o?aioaaeueiiai oa ciaaaeueiiai
i?ioean?a, a oaeiae o niaoe?ae?ciaaieo o?ceoeueoo?ieo aeeniaina?ao aeey
a?aeiiaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? nii?oniai?a c oe??th iaoieia??th.

?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoe/io
ae?yeuei?noue: eaoaae?e iaioaeueii? oa?ai?? iaaee/iiai ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? anioe?aoe?? ia?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie, oa aeei?enoiaothoueny a
o/aiaiio i?ioean? ia eaoaae?? o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo Oe?a?ie, i?i ui ? a?aeiia?aei?
aeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny iinoaiiaeith iaoe e
caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaeith oa aeeiiaiiyi eiiieaeno
?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a 52 iaoe??ioai c i?iyaaie a?oaeiiai oa oeeiiai
inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa, aeeiiaiiyi on?o ia’?eoeaieo ee?i?/ieo oa
?ino?oiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue o oaiaoe/iiai eiioeiµaioo iaoe??io?a, a
oaeiae o 26 caei?iaeo nii?oniai?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Ie??i oiai,
io?eiaiee iaoa??ae ocaaaeueiaiee oa ia?iaeaiee iniaenoi aaoi?ii c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?eaeaoieo iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co — aa??aoe?eii?
noaoenoeee, ei?aeyoe?eii-?aµ?an?eiiai oa /anoioiiai aiae?co, ia
i?aenoaa? /iai cae?eniaii iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
coi?ioeueiaai? aeniiaee.

O ni?aaaoi?noa? aeeiiaii 6 ?ia?o, a yeeo aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue
ocaaaeueiaiiy ii aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a ?aaa?e?oaoe?? eiioeiµaioo
iaoe??io?a, ui ianoaaeoaaeenue, i?aai?caoe?y oa aeeiiaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea i?ia?aie o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??
nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? c i?iyaaie inoaioiiae?ico
oeeiiai oa a?oaeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Ca iniiaieie iieiaeaiiyie
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee c?iaeai? aeiiia?ae? ia i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Iaioaeueia oa?ai?y a eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii?
aeaµaia?aoeaii-aeeno?io?/ieo caoai?thaaiue iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo»
(Ee?a, 1997); 2-e Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ani??aio?a «Iniaeeaino?
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??» (Euea?a, 1998);
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo a 1996–1998 ?.?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii aeai? iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, 4 ?iaioe o ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a i?aeia?iaeieo ?
anaoe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?e ? 2 ?iaioe o ca??ieeao o?oae?a.

Ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 157 noi??ieao
? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, ?icae?eo «Iaoa??ae,
iaoiaee e i?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiue», o?ueio ?icae?e?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a ? nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, ui ioiieth?
233 aeaea?aea (cie?aia 70 — aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey); ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia
33 oaaeeoeyie oa 23 iaethieaie.

AIEIAIEE CI?NO

1. No/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i i?iyae inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa o nii?oniai?a

Aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy no/anieo aeaieo, iaaaaeaieo o e?oa?aoo??,
aeicaieeee aecia/eoe, ui aei iei?oiueiai /ano ieoaiiyi ?aaa?e?oaoe??
i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico oeeiiai oa a?oaeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa o
nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? i?eae?eyeany iaaeinoaoiy
oaaaa. A?aeii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?ei? i?ia?aie c caeo/aiiyi iaioaeueii? oa?ai??
ia aaeaioiaai? aei iniaeeainoae i’yciai? nenoaie nii?oniai?a, ui iathoue
iiooaei? eieio?aaoia? i’yce, iaaeinoaoiy oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
eiiieaeniiio ii?aeiaiith i?eeii?a iaioaeueii? oa?ai?? c ??cieie aeaeaie
o?ce/ieo ai?aa ? ianaaeai.

Aacoiiaia i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy a oeueiio ieai? aoaea iaoe e
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y i?ia?ai a?aeiiaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
??aiy e i?inoyaeiino? o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa, aieo o?aaeaiiy oa aeaaiino?
aeieeiaiiy i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico.

A oai?aoe/iiio aniaeo? aeyaeyoueny ei?enieie iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ooieoe?eieo ci?i i?aai?a ? nenoai, ?ia?aiaaieo o?aaeaieie
nieiiiiiceiaeie ei??ioeyie, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue ?icaeoie i?iya?a
inoaioiiae?ico oa ?o aeeiai?eo a i?ioean? canoinoaaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo
caoiae?a.

2. Iaoiaeieia?y, iaoiaee e i?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoiaeieia?y aeeiiaii? ?iaioe µ?oioo?oueny ia ia’?eoeai?e ioe?ioe?
ooieoe?eiiai noaio i?aai?a ? nenoai, ui io?eiothoue ?ia?aaoe?th a?ae
oeeiiai oa a?oaeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa, a oaeiae e?iaiiinoa/aiiy ii
a?oa??yo, aiaoii?/ii caeaaeieo a?ae no?oeoo?ieo ci?i o o?aao?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeeiiai? ia aacao eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ?
eaoaae?e a?iiaoai?ee Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o?ce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aoee aeei?enoai? ia’?eoeai? ee?i?/i?,
aio?iiiiao?e/i?, o?c?ieia?/i?, iaaeaaia?/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue,
aieaooaaiiy, i?ioiiinaeniiiao??y, eiii’thoa?ia ?aiaacia?ao?y,
noaa?eia?ao?y, iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

I?ae iaoei niinoa?aaeaiiyi ciaoiaeeeenue 52 nii?oniai?a ?a?iaeo aeae?a
nii?oo aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? (iaeno?e nii?oo e eaiaeeaeaoe a iaeno?e
nii?oo) o a?oe? 16–35 ?ie?a (27 thiae?a ? 25 ae?a/ao). ?c ieo 16
caeiaeeny aaiaeaieii, 14 — aaoa?iiei, 11 — aaneaoaieii ? 9 — aieaeaieii.

Ie??i oiai, aoee ianoaaeai? 26 nii?oniai?a aiaeia?/iiai a?eo oa
nii?oeaii? eaae?o?eaoe?? (12 thiae?a ? 14 ae?a/ao) aac ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a
inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa, ui neeaee eiio?ieueio a?oio.

?ino?oiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy o iaoe??io?a aeeiioaaeenue o aeno?aeiiio
noai? (aei i?iaaaeaiiy ?i ?aaa?e?oaoe??), a iio?i aea?/? iiaoi?thaaeenue
— i?ney cae?i/aiiy eo?no iaioaeueii? oa?ai?? c ianaaeai ? i?ney
caaa?oaiiy anueiai eo?no ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a, ui ioiiethaaa eo?n
e?eoaaeueii? a?iianoeee.

Ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aeeiioaaeanue ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie
e?eoa??yie, ye? caaacia/oaaee ni?anoaai?noue iaoeo aeaieo c
e?oa?aoo?ieie: «aa?iee» ?acoeueoao ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aecia/aany i?e iiaiiio
?aa?an? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico; «caaeia?eueiee» ?acoeueoao o?enoaaany
i?e ae?aaeai?e iiceoeai?e aeeiai?oe? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico;
«iacaaeia?eueiei» ?acoeueoaoii iiaea aaaaeaoeny a?aenooi?noue iiceoeaii?
aeeiai?ee i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico /e iia??oaiiy noaio.

3. Aeno?aeiee noai ee?i?/ieo ? ooieoe?eieo iieaciee?a o ianoaaeaieo
nii?oniai?a

O ianoaaeaieo nii?oniai?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie ia aoei aeyaeaii i?yeeo
ia’?eoeaieo iaoieia?/ieo iciae o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa (ii?iaeuei? iica oa
iinoaaa, a?aenooi?noue iaiaaeaiiy ?ooiiino? ooeoaa oa oe?, ci?uaiiy
a?notheiaeo a?ae?inoe?a, cii iaa?yeeino? oeaiei; oe??iee /a?aiiee
aea?iiµ?ao?ci aoa neaaei ae?aaeaiei ? neiao?e/iei). O ieo ia
niinoa??aaeinue oaeiae ii?ooaiue oiiono eieio?aaoiaeo i’yc?a,
oeaio?aeueii? ea?ae?iaaiiaeeiai?ee, naµiaioa?iiai e?iaiia?ao aa?oi?o
e?ioe?aie ? ??aiiaaae o?ea.

?iciiae?e ianoaaeaieo iaoe??io?a ii ??aith, ?iciianthaeaeaiino? oa aieo
o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa iaaaaeaiee o oaae.1. Iieaciai, ui iaeaea a iieiaei?
an?o aeiaaee?a (48 %) o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa aoei ?iciianthaeaeaiei ?
caoiiethaaei ye oeeiee, oae ? a?oaeiee a?aeae?ee.

Oa?i?i, ui ieioa a?ae iiiaioo aeieeiaiiy i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa
aei iiiaioo caa?iaiiy iaoe??io?a ca aeiiiiiaith neeaaeaa a?ae 3 ae?a aei
1,5 i?nyoe?a ? a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaea 6,5±2,1 ae?a. I?e oeueiio
aeaai?noue aei 1 oeaeiy a?aecia/aia o 31 nii?oniaia (59,6 %), aei 1
i?nyoey — o 17 (32,7 %) ? iiiaae 1 i?nyoeue — o 4 iaoe??io?a (7,7 %).

Oaaeeoey 1

?iciiae?e ianoaaeaieo nii?oniai?a c inoaioiiae?icii o?aaoa

ii ??aith o?aaeaiiy oa aieo ia?aaaaeaiiy eiai i?iya?a

??aaiue o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa Iaeiia?/i? i?iyae Aeaia?/i? i?iyae Onueiai

Oeeiee 7 (13,5 %) 4 ( 7,7 %) 11 (21,2 %)

A?oaeiee 9 (17,3 %) 7 (13,5 %) 16 (30,8 %)

?iciianthaeaeaiee 16 (30,7 %) 9 (17,3 %) 25 (48,0 %)

Onueiai: 32 (61,5 %) 20 (38,5 %) 52 (100 %)

Ee?i?/i? iciaee, ui niinoa??aaeenue o ianoaaeaieo iaoe??io?a, iaaaaeai?
a oaae.2. ?c ieo iae/ano?oeie aoee a?eue o o?aao? e a?ae/oooy aoiie o
niei?, a?aecia/ai?, a?aeiia?aeii, o 94,2 oa 78,8 % iaoe??io?a.
Ia?aaaaeaiiy eeoa iaeiiai c neiioii?a a?aecia/aii eeoa o 7 iaoe??io?a
(13,5 %), o ?ioeo 45 (86,5 %) nii?oniai?a aiie niinoa??aaeenue o ??ciiio
ii?aeiaii? (a na?aaeiueiio o eiaeiiai c ieo ii?aeioaaeinue 3,48 neiioiie
o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa).

Ia’?eoeai? iciaee i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico, aeyaeai? o iaoeo iaoe??io?a,
iaaaaeai? a oaae.3. Nooo?ai? ??cieoe? i?ae /anoioith ?o aeyaeaiiy
aecia/aii ia aoei, oi/a iae/ano?oa aeyaeyeeny iaiaaeaiiy ?ooiiino?
o?aaoa oa ci?uaiiy a?notheiaeo a?ae?inoe?a.

Oaaeeoey 2

*anoioa aa?oaa?iaaiieo i?iya?a o nii?oniai?a

c inoaioiiae?icii o?aaoa ??cieo eieae?caoe??e

Ee?i?/i? aa?oaa?iaaii? *anoioa aeyaeaiiy

iciaee Oeeiee A?oaeiee ?iciianthaeaeaiee Onueiai

A?eue o o?aao? 9 13 27 49

A?eue a ae?eyioe? na?oey 1 8 11 20

A?eue ca oiaeii i?ae?aaa?. i?ii?aee?a — 7 7 14

A?eue o ?oeao 8 — 8 16

A?ae/oooy aoiie o niei? 5 14 22 41

Neoo?noue ?oo?a 6 10 18 34

A?ae/oooy ii?i?iiy a ?oeao 4 — 3 7

Onueiai: 33 52 96 181

O oie aea /an ca ?aioaaiieia?/ieie iciaeaie nooi?iue ae?aaeaiino? ci?i o
o?aao? ia caaaeaee ni?aiaaeaea c? nooiaiai ae?aaeaiino? ee?i?/ieo
i?iya?a iaoieia??, ui ni?aiaaea? c aeaieie aeayeeo aaoi??a (Hayeset al.,
1989; Shafter et al., 1990).

Oaaeeoey 3

*anoioa ia’?eoeaieo iciae o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa o nii?oniai?a

c inoaioiiae?icii o?aaoa ??cieo eieae?caoe?e

Ia’?eoeai? iciaee *anoioa aeyaeaiiy

o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa Oeeiee A?oaeiee ?iciianthaeaeaiee Onueiai

Iaiaaeaiiy ?ooiiino? 8 12 20 40

Ci?uaiiy a?notheiaiai a?ae?inoea 10 15 17 42

Aieth/?noue a?notheiaiai a?ae?inoea 9 12 17 38

“I’yciaee aaeie” 4 14 19 37

*a?aiiee oe??iee aea?iiµ?ao?ci 5 13 14 32

Onueiai: 36 66 87 189

?acoeueoaoe ia’?eoeaiiai ee?i?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy aoee i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
aeaieie ?ino?oiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo
ni?anoaaeyeeny c aeaieie, io?eiaieie o eiio?ieueii? a?oie caei?iaeo
nii?oniai?a.

O iaoiai eiioei?aioo iaoe??io?a aei aeeiiaiiy ?i ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aoei
aeyaeaii i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iiai oiiono eieio?aaoiaeo i’yc?a, ui
a?aeaeaaeiny aeinoia??iei cieaeaiiyi (P < 0,05) ?iaeaeno aei?noeino? ia 26,4 %, i?aeaeuaiiyi (P < 0,05) ?iaeaeno aeaiioa?iino? ia 21,9 % e iii??iei (P > 0,05) cieaeaiiyi ??cieoe? /anoioe eieeaaiue i’yc?a o noai?
?ciiao?e/iiai oa ?cioii?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy ia 16,1 %.

Oe? ci?ie iieaciee?a i?ioiiinaeniiiao??? aoee oa?aeoa?ieie a ia?oo /a?ao
aeey i’yc?a ia ??ai? o?aaeaiiai a?aeae?eo o?aaoa, i?e /iio i?e
iaeiia?/ieo i?iyaao inoaioiiae?ico — c aieo iaea?eueoi? ae?aaeaiino?
i?iya?a iaoieia??. I?e aeaia?/ieo i?iyaao inoaioiiae?ico aiie
niinoa??aaeeny c iaio aie?a o?aaoa. Oiion i?aeaeuoaaany oaeiae o oeeieo
eieio?aaoiaeo i’ycao i?e ia?aaaaeiiio o?aaeaii? a?oaeiiai a?aeae?eo
o?aaoa (0,1 > P > 0,05), oiae? ye i?e o?aaeaii? oeeiiai a?aeae?eo oaea
i?aeaeuaiiy oiiono a a?oaeieo i’ycao aoei iaio ae?aaeaiei (P > 0,05).

Iienaia caeiiii??i?noue ci?i i’yciaiai oiiono, aeyaeaia iaie aia?oa,
a?aeaeaa? ?icaeoie i?noeaai? oa iaiaaeaii? i?io?enaoe?? ye ?aaeoe?? ia
iiae?aciaiiy nieiiiiiceiaeo ei??ioe?a. I?noeaaa i?io?enaoe?y
?icaeaa?oueny a eieio?aaoiaeo i’ycao ia ??ai? o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa,
ia?aaaaeii c aieo o?aaeaiiy, ye i?e oeeiiio, oae ? i?e a?oaeiiio
inoaioiiae?ic?. Iaiaaeaia i?io?enaoe?y ?icaeaa?oueny ia?aaaaeii i?e
a?oaeiiio inoaioiiae?ic?, caoiiethth/e e oeeiee a?aeae?e, oiae? ye i?e
oeeiiio inoaioiiae?ic? ?? ae?aaeai?noue ia a?oaeiiio ??ai? iaio cia/ia.
Oeae i?ioean iiaeia o?aeooaaoe ye ioi?iiio ?aaeoe?th ia?aiai-i’yciaiai
aia?aoo, iai?aaeaio ia noaa?e?caoe?th o?aaeaiiai naaiaioo o?aaoa.

Nei?i/oaaeueia ooieoe?y na?oey, ianoaaeaia iaoiaeii ?aiea?ae?ia?ao??, o
nii?oniai?a c inoaioiiae?icii o?aaoa aeyaeeanue i?aeoe/ii ia ii?ooaiith:
iai ia aaeaeiny aeyaeoe aeinoia??ieo ci?i ?? iieaciee?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?eoa??eiiai e?iaiia?ao o aa?oi?o e?ioe?aeao iaoiaeii
?aiaacia?ao?? oa noaa?eueiino? o?ea iaoiaeii noaa?eia?ao?? aeyaeee, ui
a?oaeia eieae?caoe?y inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia oe?
ooieoe??. On? oeeo?ia? iieacieee iaaaaeaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?e
a?oaeiiio inoaioiiae?ic? ia a?ae??ciyeenue a?ae ii?iaeueieo cia/aiue (P
> 0,05).

O oie aea /an i?e i?iyaao oeeiiai inoaioiiae?ico a ?ooe? c aieo eiai
iaea?eueoeo i?iya?a a?aecia/aeinue nooo?aa (P < 0,05) cieaeaiiy aiie?ooaee ?AI-oaee? (ia 25–41 % o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueiith a?oiith caei?iaeo nii?oniai?a ? eiio?aeaoa?aeueiei ia?aaeie?//yi), c ?? iii??iei (P > 0,05) i?aeaeuaiiyi ia iaeii?iaiiiio iea/? (ia 8–15 %), aiane?aeie
/iai a?aeiioaiiy aiie?ooaee ?AI-oaee? ia?aaeie?//y aei iea/a
i?aeaeuoaaeinue aei 98–136 % (i?e ii?iaeueiiio cia/aii? 72,2±4,6 %).
Aiaeia?/i? ci?ie aeyaeai? oaeiae o nii?oniai?a c ?iciianthaeaeaiei
inoaioiiae?icii.

Ciaeaeai? ci?ie iieaciee?a ?aiaacia?ai na?ae/aoue i?i ?icaeoie
ia?eoa??eiiai noaeeiiiai niacio a cii? ?ia?aaoe?? o?aaeaiiai
nieiiiiiceiaiai ei??ioey c eiiiainaoi?iei ia?a?iciiae?eii ioeueniaiai
ia’?io e?ia? a i?ieneiaeuei?oiio naaiaio? e?ioe?aee (o iea/?). Oae?
ci?ie e?iaiia?ao a ia?aaeie?//yo iaoiiaeai? ia no?eueee aeiaae?iiyi
ooieoe?? ei??ioe?a, ne?eueee ?o iiae?aciaiiyi.

O nii?oniai?a c oeeiei inoaioiiae?icii aoee aeyaeai? ci?ie noaa?eueiino?
o?ea. Aiie iieyaaee a aeinoia??iiio (P < 0,05) i?aeaeuaii? aiie?ooaee eieeaaiue i?iaeoe?? oeaio?o aaae o?ea a iicaii?e ieiuei?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ii?iaeueieo noaa?eia?ai, ye? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny oee?eoey?iei oa?aeoa?ii eieeaaiue o?ea, o nii?oniai?a c oeeiei inoaioiiae?icii aiie iaaoaaee e?i?e/anoiai oa?aeoa?o, i?e /iio eieeaaiiy i?e iaeiia?/ieo i?iyaao inoaioiiae?ico aoee iai?aaeai?, ye i?aaeei, aia?aae — o a?e ia?aaaaeaiiy i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico e iacaae — o i?ioeeaaeiee a?e. A?aoiaoth/e, ui noaa?euei?noue o?ea caaacia/o?oueny ooieoe??th i?ci/ea, yeee e?iaiiinoa/a?oueny a cia/i?e i??? ii nenoai? o?aaoiai? a?oa???, iienai? ci?ie noaa?eueiino? o?ea o nii?oniai?a c oeeiei inoaioiiae?icii iiaeia iiynieoe ?icaeoeii ?aoeaeoi?iiai niacio o?aaoiai? a?oa??? i?ae aieeaii iiae?aciaiiy neioaa?oaa?aeueieo ia?a?a ye iane?aeie ?icaeoeo i?iya?a oeeiiai inoaioiiae?ico. 4. Iaoiaee ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aa?oaa?iaaiieo i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa Aeey ?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico o iaoiai eiioeiaaioo nii?oniai?a aoea ?ic?iaeaia i?ia?aia o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??, yea ioiiethaaea iaoiaee iaioaeueii? oa?ai??, ianaaeo oa e?eoaaeueii? a?iianoeee c aeaiaioaie a?iaeeiai?/ii? naiiei?aeoe??. Oe? iaoiaee µ?oiooaaeeny ia i?eioeeiao, aaeaioiaaieo aei nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? oa caaacia/oaaee i?iaaaeaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae /an o?aioaaeueiiai oa ciaaaeueiiai i?ioean?a. Cie?aia, iaie aoa iiaeeo?eiaaiee ?yae i?eeii?a iaioaeueii? oa?ai?? aeey caaacia/aiiy a?eueoi? aoaeoeaiino? oa eiio?ieueiaaiino? iai?ioeyoe?? n o?aooaaiiyi i?aeaeuaii? neee eieio?aaoiaeo i'yc?a o eiioeiaaioo o?aiiaaieo nii?oniai?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe??, ui niinoa??aaeeny iaie, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaen e?eoaaeueii? a?iianoeee ?c ai?aa aeaio oei?a — ?cioii?/ieo (aeeiai?/ieo) oa ?ciiao?e/ieo (noaoe/ieo). Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi canoinoaaiiy ?ciiao?e/ieo ai?aa aoei i?aeaeuaiiy noaoe/ii? aeo?eaaeino? i'yc?a o?aaoa, i?aeo?eiaiiy o?aaoiaeo ?ooiaeo naµiaio?a o ei?eaiaaiiio iieiaeaii?. Aeeiai?/i? ai?aae aaeeaaeeny ia?aaaaeii aeey naiiei?aeoe??, a oaeiae aeey eiiiainaoe?? ia'?io oa aeaeo ?oo?a, yeeo aeyaeyeiny iaaeinoaoiuei a oiio aeae? nii?oo, yeiio i?enayoea naaa nii?oniai. sse i?aaeei, aanue eiiieaen o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aaeaiooaaany ?iaeea?aeoaeueii aei eiaeiiai iaoe??ioa, a caeaaeiino? a?ae noaae?? ?icaeoeo i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico oa aoaio cae?eniaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe??. C on??? ??ciiiai?oiino? i?eeii?a iaioaeueii? oa?ai??, ianaaeo oa ?ic?iaeaieo iaie ai?aa e?eoaaeueii? a?iianoeee aeae?aeeny iaeaaeaeaaoi?o? i?iyaai inoaioiiae?ico, ye? aoee o eiie?aoiiai nii?oniaia. A aeiiaoi?o oiiaao iaoe??ioai ?aeiiaiaeoaaee ?aeiiaiaeoaaee niaoe ia aei?neiio e?aeeo, nenoaiaoe/ii caeiaoeny e?eoaaeueiith a?iianoeeith, ieaaaiiyi, iaiaaeoaaoe i?yiiaeni? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia o?aaao. Ia oeueiio aoai? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? canoiniaoaaany eiiieaen ai?aa ci?oaiiai oeio, ui caaacia/oaaa i?io?eaeoeeo a?aeiiaeaiiy i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico. 5. Aieea ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ia ee?i?ei-ooieoe?ei? iieacieee o nii?oniai?a c inoaioiiae?icii o?aaoa Aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy i?ia?aie o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ioe?ithaaeany ca noa'?eoeaieie ioe?ieaie iaoe??io?a, ia'?eoeaieie ee?i?/ieie iciaeaie oa ?acoeueoaoaie ?ino?oiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeey aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oe?iei canoiniaoaaeinue aieaooaaiiy, ui caaacia/eei io?eiaiiy eaoaiianoe/ieo aeaieo i?e iaiiaeeeaino? i?yiiai eiioaeoo c iaoe??ioaie (ciaoiaeaeaiiy ia iiiaio o?aooaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ia o?aioaaeueieo cai?ao, ciaaaiiyo oiui). Anueiai iaoei iaoe??ioai aoei aeeiiaii 162 naaine ?aaa?e?oaoe??, cie?aia 5 nii?oniaiai — 1, 11 — 2, 20 — 3, 8 — 4, 5 — 5 ? 3 — 6 naain?a. Aa?ieo ?acoeueoao?a aoei aeinyaiaii o 42 (80,8 %) nii?oniai?a ? caaeia?eueieo o 10 (19,2 %). Iacaaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a o iaoeo iaoe??io?a a?aecia/aii ia aoei. Oaeei /eiii aeey onoiaiiy i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa aeey 70% nii?oniai?a aeyaeeeny aeinoaoi?ie 2–3 naaine ?aaa?e?oaoe??. O iaoeo nii?oniai?a aaea i?ae /an naiiai i?ioeano ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aecia/aeany iiceoeaia aeeiai?ea ee?i?/iiai noaio. Oae, i?ney ia?oiai-ae?oaiai naain?a iaioaeueii? oa?ai?? cia/ii ciaiooaaeeny aieueia? a?ae/oooy e a?ae/oooy neooino? o niei?, ca?eueooaaany ia'?i ?oo?a ooeoaa e aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie. Aei e?ioey eo?no ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ye cacia/ai? nea?ae, oae ? ia'?eoeai? ee?i?/i? iciaee o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa o a?eueoino? iaoe??io?a i?aeoe/ii cieeee. I?ney caaa?oaiiy eo?no ?aaa?e?oaoe?? a?ae/oooy aoiie oa neoo?noue o niei? oo?aoaaee eeoa i'youe (9,6 %) nii?oniai?a; cia/ii ciaioeeany /anoioa ciaoiaeaeaiiy aieueiaeo a?ae/ooo?a o a?oaeiiio a?aeae?e? o?aaoa — aiie i?iaeiaaeoaaee oo?aoaaoe eeoa o?ueio (5,8 %) iaoe??io?a. A?eue ca oiaeii i?ae?aaa?ieo i?ii?aee?a ? a ae?eyioe? na?oey, a oaeiae a?eue ? a?ae/oooy caoa?iiaiiy a ?oeao i?ney ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ia niinoa??aaeenue. A?/iee cnoa a?notheiaiai a?ae?inoea a?ae na?aaeiuei? e?i?? oa a ia?aaeiuei-caaeiueiio iai?yieao, eiai aieth/?noue, a oaeiae "i'yciaee aaeie" ? oe??iee /a?aiiee aea?iiµ?ao?ci i?ney iaeueiaoe?? caeeoeeenue eeoa o i'yoe iaoe??io?a ?c caaeia?eueieie iane?aeeaie ?aaa?e?oaoe?? (9,6 %), iaeiae ?o ae?aaeai?noue oaeiae cia/ii ciaioeeanue. ?acoeueoaoe ?ino?oiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeeee ae?aaeaiee iiceoeaiee aieea canoiniaaii? i?ia?aie o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??. Oae, ieanoe/iee oiion eieio?aaoiaeo i'yc?a ye ia a?oaeiiio oae ? ia oeeiiio ??aiyo cieaeoaaany aaea aei e?ioey eo?no iaioaeueii? oa?ai?? c ianaaeai, ui ee?i?/ii ii?aeioaaeiny c onoiaiiyi “i'yciaiai aaeea” oa cieaeaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? /a?aiiiai aea?iiµ?ao?cio. Ia i?ioiiinaeniia?aiao oea a?aeaeaaeiny i?aeaeuaiiyi ?iaeaeno aei?noeino? (IF) oa /anoioe eieeaaiue i'yc?a o noai? ?ciiao?e/iiai oa ?cioii?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy (Fi-F?) e i?aeaeuaiiyi ?iaeaeno aeaiioa?iino? (IQ), aeeiai?ea yeeo ia ??ai? o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa c aieo i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico aoea aeinoaoiuei ae?aaeaiith (?en.1), oi/a ii?iaeueieo cia/aiue aei oeueiai oa?i?io niinoa?aaeaiiy cacia/ai? iieacieee ua ia aeinyaaee (0,1 > P > 0,05). C i?ioeeaaeiiai aieo oa ia noi?aeiiio ??ai? aei??thaaiiy
aiie i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae ii?iaeueieo cia/aiue (P > 0,1).

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Ia iiiaio caaa?oaiiy anueiai eo?no ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a o
nii?oniai?a c aa?ieie iane?aeeaie ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iieacieee
i?ioiiinaeniiiao??? i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae ii?ie. I?e
caaeia?eueieo iane?aeeao aiie caeeoaeeny aeaui ci?iaieie, aea oe?
caeeoeia? ci?ie aoee noaoenoe/ii iaaeinoia??ieie (P > 0,05).

Iienaia aeeiai?ea i?ioiiinaeniiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a o ii?aeiaii? c
ia’?eoeaieie ee?i?/ieie iciaeaie na?ae/eea i?i i?aeaeuaiiy
nei?i/oaaeueii? caeaoiino? oa neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee eieio?aaoiaeo i’yc?a
(iiooaeiino? nei?i/oaaeueiiai i?ioeano) a ii?aeiaii? c onoiaiiyi ye
i?noeaai?, oae ? ?iciianthaeaeaii? i?io?enaoe??, oiaoi i?i oni?oia
?icaeieoaaiiy o?aaoiaeo ?ooiaeo naµiaio?a, ye? aaea ia iio?aaoaaee
?aoeaeoi?ii? noaa?e?caoe??, ui e aoei aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi cae?eniaii?
?aaa?e?oaoe??.

O ia?oo /a?ao ia iiiaio caaa?oaiiy eo?no iaioaeueii? oa?ai?? c ianaaeai
onoaa?oueny ?iciianthaeaeaia i?io?enaoe?y (yea ? oa?aeoa?i?oith aeey
a?oaeiiai inoaioiiae?ico) oa cia/ii ciaioo?oueny i?noeaaa i?io?enaoe?y.
I?ney caaa?oaiiy anueiai eo?no ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a o nii?oniai?a c
?? aa?ieie iane?aeeaie onoaa?oueny e i?noeaaa i?io?enaoe?y, a i?e
caaeia?eueieo iane?aeeao ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ae?aaeai?noue i?noeaai?
i?io?enaoe?? cia/ii ciaioo?oueny.

Ia?eoa??eiee e?iaiia?a o aa?oi?o e?ioe?aeao o nii?oniai?a c oeeiei
inoaioiiae?icii i?ae aieeaii cae?eniaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oaeiae
ii?iae?coaaany, i?e /iio i?e iaeiia?/iiio oa?aeoa?? o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa e
aa?ieo iane?aeeao ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ia iiiaio caaa?oaiiy eo?no iaioaeueii?
oa?ai?? c ianaaeai aoei a?aecia/aii ae?aaeaia (0,1 > P > 0,05) cieaeaiiy
a?aeiiniiai aiie?ooaeiiai iieacieea aei 84,2±3,6 % ca ?aooiie
i?aeaeuaiiy aiie?ooaee ?AI-oaee? (A?A) ia aiiieaoa?aeueiiio ia?aaeie?//?
e aeayeiai cieaeaiiy oeueiai iieacieea ia iaeii?iaiiiio iea/?, yea
aeinyaei ??aiy noaoenoe/ii? aeinoia??iino? ia iiiaio caaa?oaiiy anueiai
eo?no ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a (?en.2).

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Iienaia aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a ?aiaacia?ao?? aoea oa?aeoa?iith aeey
iaoe??io?a ye ?c aa?ieie, oae ? c caaeia?eueieie iane?aeeaie
?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa ii?aeioaaeany c iiaiei onoiaiiyi o ieo aieueiaeo
a?ae/ooo?a ? a?ae/oooy caoa?iiaiiy a ?oeao i?ney ?aaa?e?oaoe??.
E?ea?aeaoe?y ia?eoa??eiiai niacio noaeei ia?aaeie?//y i?ae aieeaii
cae?enithaaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ? iiceoeaiei /eiieeii, yeee caaacia/o?
iiaiioe?iia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaaeeeaeo o i?ioan?eiiio a?aeiioaii?
i’yciaeo a?oi o nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a ? iiaea ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith ?o
nii?oeaii? ?acoeueoaoeaiino?.

?acoeueoaoe noaa?eia?ao??, aeeiiaii? i?ney cae?eniaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe?? o
nii?oniai?a c iaeiia?/ieie i?iyaaie oeeiiai inoaioiiae?ico ui
ciaoiaeeeeny i?ae iaoei niinoa?aaeaiiyi, oaeiae na?ae/eee i?i
ii?iae?caoe?th ooieoe?? ??aiiaaae (?en.3). Aaea ia iiiaio cae?i/aiiy
eo?no iaioaeueii? oa?ai?? c ianaaeai a?aecia/aeiny nooo?aa (0,1 > P >
0,05) cieaeaiiy aiie?ooaee eieeaaiue (A max.) ye inueiaeo, oae ? aaeoi?a
oeaio?o aaae a ii??aiyii? c aeno?aeieie aeaieie. Oe? ae iieacieee ia
iiiaio caaa?oaiiy anueiai eo?no ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a i?aeoe/ii
ii?iae?coaaeeny (P > 0,05). Ieai?iao?e/ii noaa?eia?aie oeeo iaoe??io?a
iiaa?oaeeny aei ii?iaeueiiai oee?eoey?iiai aeaeyaeo. Nooo?ai? ??cieoe? a
aeeiai?oe? iieaciee?a noaa?eia?ao?? i?ae i?aea?oiaie iaoe??io?a c
aa?ieie e caaeia?eueieie iane?aeeaie ?aaa?e?oaoe?? aeyaeaii ia aoei.

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???7???uoy???????en.3. Aeeiai?ea iieaciee?a noaa?eia?ao?? o
ianoaaeaieo nii?oniai?a

o ??ci? ia??iaee ?aaa?e?oaoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, iane?aeee ai?iaaoe?? ?ic?iaeaiiai iaie eiiieaeno
?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a aeicaieeee c?iaeoe i?aenoiie, ui a?i ?
aoaeoeaiei caniaii ?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa o
nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe??. Aeei?enoaiiy ciaiue i?i
i?eioeeie canoinoaaiiy oa niaoeeo?eo ae?? o?ce/ieo /eiiee?a aeicaieeei
iai cai?iiiioaaoe aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? i?ia?aie o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa e ae?aaeaiino? i?iya?a
inoaioiiae?ico oa a iiaeaeueoiio aeiaanoe aoaeoeai?noue oaeiai iaoiaeo.

A E N I I A E E

1. Inoaioiiae?ic o?aaoa o nii?oniai?a, ca aeaieie aiae?co no/anieo
aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?aii?i ii/aoeii, oaeaeeei
ia?aa?aii ? cia/iith ae?aaeai?noth i?iya?a, /iio ni?eythoue i?aeaeuai?
o?ce/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?i? aeey no/aniiai nii?oo, aiane?aeie /iai
onoiaiiy caaaeaieo ii?ooaiue iio?aao? /?oeiai ocaiaeaeaiiy
?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a iaoiaeaie e?iac?oa?ai?? c iniaeeainoyie
i?iaaaeaiiy o?aioaaeueiiai oa ciaaaeueiiai i?ioean?a o eiaeiiio
eiie?aoiiio aeae? nii?oo.

2. O nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? c inoaioiiae?icii
a?oaeiiai oa oeeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa niinoa??aa?oueny oe?ieee niaeo?
i?iya?a oe??? iaoieia?? o aeaeyae? aieueiaeo ? aaaaoaoeaieo neiae?ii?a,
?ooiaeo ? /ooo?aeo ii?ooaiue o ciiao ?ia?aaoe?? o?aaeaieo nieiiiiiceiaeo
ei??ioe?a, i?e /iio ?o iniaeea?noth o iaoiai eiioeiaaioo iaoe??io?a aoei
oa, ui ea?ae?aeµ?/i? i?iyae iaoiiaeai? ia no?eueee ea?ae?iiao??th,
ne?eueee niaoeeo?/ii eieae?ciaaiei i?ae?aaa?iei i?ia?aeieeiaei aieueiaei
neiae?iiii, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ii?iaeueieie aeaieie aeine?aeaeaiue
oeaio?aeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iaoiaeii ?aiea?ae?ia?ao?? c a?aenooi?noth ?o
aeeiai?ee a i?ioean? ?aaa?e?oaoe??.

3. Aeyaeaii? ci?ie noa’?eoeaieo ? ia’?eoeaieo ee?i?/ieo iciae
ooieoe?eiiai noaio o?aaoa e iieaciee?a ?ino?oiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
o ianoaaeaieo nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a c i?iyaaie inoaioiiae?ico a?oaeiiai
oa oeeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa aecia/athoue iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee
eiiieaeno iaoiae?a o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oeeo i?iya?a, ui aeicaieeoue
i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa nei?ioeoe oa?i?ie a?aeiiaeaiiy
ii?iaeueii? nii?oeaii? aeoeaiino? iaoe??io?a.

4. Aeey cae?eniaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico o
nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a, c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?/iino? ae?? o?ce/ieo
/eiiee?a, ?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia iaoiaeeea o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a iaioaeueii? oa?ai??, aaeaioiaaieo aeey
nii?oniai?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? c aenieeie neeiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
eieio?aaoiaeo i’yc?a, ianaaeo oa e?eoaaeueii? a?iianoeee c ii?aeiaiiyi
noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo ai?aa, yea µ?oioo?oueny ia canaaeao
eiiieaeniino? canoinoaaiiy cacia/aieo iaoiae?a, ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia??iaeo ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai
i?ioeano, eieae?caoe?? iaoieia?? o?aaoa e aeeiai?ee noaio iaoe??ioa, a
oaeiae niaaeei?iiino? eiiieaen?a e?eoaaeueii? a?iianoeee ia i?ioyc?
i?iaaaeaiiy eo?no ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a ? i?ney eiai cae?i/aiiy.

5. O nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a c a?oaeiei ? oeeiei inoaioiiae?icii
?icaeaa?oueny i?noeaaa e ?iciianthaeaeaia i?io?enaoe?y eieio?aaoiaeo
i’yc?a aiane?aeie iiae?aciaiiy nieiiiiiceiaeo ei??ioe?a, ui
a?aeaeaa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi ?o ieanoe/iiai oiiono, yeee aecia/a?oueny
iaoiaeii i?ioiiinaeniiiao???, i?e /iio i?e a?oaeiiio inoaioiiae?ic?
ae?aaeaia ?iciianthaeaeaia i?io?enaoe?y ia ??ai? oeeiiai a?aeae?eo
o?aaoa, oiae? ye i?e oeeiiio inoaioiiae?ic? ae?aaeai?noue i?io?enaoe??
ia a?oaeiiio ??ai? nooo?ai iaioa; ie??i oiai i?e oeeiiio inoaioiiae?ic?
aeieea? noaeeiiee niaci o cii? ?ia?aaoe?? o?aaeaieo nieiiiiiceiaeo
ei??ioe?a, yeee a?aeaeaa?oueny cieaeaiiyi aiie?ooaee ?AI-oaeeue ia
ia?aaeie?//? ia 31,3±3,6 % (P < 0,05 o ii??aiyii? c ii?iaeueieie cia/aiiyie) c ?? i?aeaeuaiiyi ia iea/? ia 11,0±3,9 % e ii?ooo?oueny noaa?euei?noue o?ea o i?yiiaeniiio iieiaeaii?, ui a?aeaeaa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi aiie?ooaee eieeaaiue oeaio?a aaae o?ea ii iicaii?e ieiuei? ia 127–190 % c? ci?iith oi?ie noaa?eia?ai c ii?iaeueii? oee?eoey?ii? ia iaaeueio. 6. Cae?eniaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai eiiieaeno ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caoiae?a ni?ey? onoiaiith noa'?eoeaieo oa ia'?eoeaieo ee?i?/ieo iciae inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa o nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a c iaeii/aniith ii?iae?caoe??th iieaciee?a ?ino?oiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui a?aeaeaa?oueny cieeiaiiyi ye i?noeaai?, oae ? ?iciianthaeaeaii? i?io?enaoe?? eieio?aaoiaeo i'yc?a ca ?aooiie ii?iae?caoe?? ?o ieanoe/iiai oiiono, a?aeiiaeaiiyi ii?iaeueiiai e?iaiia?ao o aa?oi?o e?ioe?aeao ? noaa?eueiino? iieiaeaiiy o?ea o i?yiiaeniiio iieiaeaii?. 7. Eiiieaen ia'?eoeaieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, ui ioiiethaaa aeine?aeaeaiiy i'yciaiai oiiono, e?iaiia?ao aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie ? noaa?eueiino? o?ea ii i?yiiaeni?e in?, caaacia/o? io?eiaiiy aeaieo, ye? aeicaieythoue ia'?eoeaii ioe?ieoe aeno?aeiee ooieoe?eiee noai nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? c i?iyaaie inoaioiiae?ico a?oaeiiai oa oeeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa oa eiai aeeiai?eo a i?ioean? ?aaa?e?oaoe??, i?e /iio iae?ioi?iaoeai?o? iieacieee i?e a?oaeiiio inoaioiiae?ic? caaacia/o? i?ioiiinaeniiiao??y, oiae? ye i?e oeeiiio inoaioiiae?ic? — ?aiaacia?ao?y aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie ? noaa?eia?ao?y, i?e oeueiio ?aiea?ae?ia?ao?y aeey ae?aaiinoeee cacia/aieo ia?aiao??a ? eiio?ieth ca ?o aeeiai?eith aeyaeeanue iaeiaio ?ioi?iaoeaiith. 8. Eiiieaen iaoiae?a o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? c aeieo/aiiyi iaioaeueii? oa?ai??, ianaaeo oa e?eoaaeueii? a?iianoeee ? aoaeoeaiei caniaii onoiaiiy i?iya?a a?oaeiiai oa oeeiiai inoaioiiae?ico o?aaoa o nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe??, caaacia/oth/e aeinyaiaiiy iiceoeaieo iane?aee?a o 100 % aeiaaee?a (?c ieo aa?ieo iane?aee?a — o 80,8 % aeiaaee?a). NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Aeue Oaie E. Oece/aneay ?aaaeeeoaoeey nii?oniaiia-ea?iaeeia n oaeii-a?oaeiui inoaioiiae?icii: A?ioth?a.— E.: III "Iaaeaeoia?. oei. aaaionoai", 1998.— 23 n. 2. Aa?e/ A.A., Eeeiaiei N.E., Aeue Oaie E., Oaaeaee Aae N. Oece/aneay ?aaaeeeoaoeey i?e inoaioiiae?ica: A?ioth?a.— E.: "Ieeiieeneay eeoa?aoo?a", 1998.— 26 n. 3. Eeeiaiei N.E., Iaea?iaa A.A., Eeeiaiei A.A., Aeue Oai? ?. E?iac?oa?ai?y o i?io?eaeoeoe? inoaioiiae?ico o nii?oniai?a ?a?iaeo aeae?a nii?oo // O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, nii?o oa caei?ia'y: Ca. iaoe. ?ia?o.— Oa?e?a, 1997.— N.225—227. 4. Eeeiaiei N.E., Eeeiaiei A.A., Aeue Oaie E. ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey aeey nii?oniaiia-aaiaeaieenoia n inoaioiiae?icii oaeiiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea // Nia?ai. i?iaeaiu oec. eoeueoo?u e nii?oa / Na. iao/. o?oaeia.— Aaeai?iae, 1997.— N.487—489. 5. Aeue Oai? ?. Aeeiai?ea i'ycaaiai oiiona oa ??aiiaaae o?ea a i?ioean? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a ?c i?iyaaie inoaioiiae?ico oeeii-a?oaeiiai a?aeae?eo o?aaoa // Iieiaea nii?oeaia iaoea Oe?a?ie: Iaoa?. 2-? Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?. ani??aio?a oa iaoeiai-i?aeo. nai?ia?o “Iniaeeaino? i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c o?ce/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??”.— Euea?a: EAe?OE, 1998.— N.182–187. 6. Eeeiaiei N.E., Aeue Oaie E. Eeeie/aneea i?eciaee oaeiiai inoaioiiae?ica o nii?oniaiia ?acee/iuo niaoeeaeueiinoae // Iaioaeueiay oa?aiey a eiiieaeniii ea/aiee aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?ioe/aneeo caaieaaaiee iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa: Iaoa?. iaaeaeoia?. eiioa?aioeee.— E., 1997.— N.30. 7. Eeeiaiei N.E., Aeue Oaie E. Eeiace- e aaeueiaioa?aiey oaeiuo inoaioiiae?icia // Iaioaeueiay oa?aiey a eiiieaeniii ea/aiee aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?ioe/aneeo caaieaaaiee iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa: Iaoa?. iaaeaeoia?. eiioa?aioeee.— E., 1997.— N.75—76. 8. Eeeiaiei N.E., Aeue Oaie E. ?aaaeeeoaoeey nii?oniaiia-aaiaeaieenoia n inoaioiiae?icii oaeiiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea // Iaioaeueiay oa?aiey a eiiieaeniii ea/aiee aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeeno?ioe/aneeo caaieaaaiee iii?ii-aeaeaaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa: Iaoa?. iaaeaeoia?. eiioa?aioeee.— E., 1997.— N.76—77. Aeue Oai? ?a?aa?i O?ce/ia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a c inoaioiiae?icii oeeii-a?oaeiiai a?aeae?eo o?aaoa — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oa nii?oo ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 24.00.02 – O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a, o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nii?oo Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999. Caoeua?oueny nenoaia ?aaa?e?oaoe?? i?iya?a inoaioiiae?ico a?oaeiiai oa oeeiiai a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa o nii?oniai?a-?a?iaee?a aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe??, yea ioiieth? iaioaeueio oa?ai?th, ianaae oa e?eoaaeueio o?ceoeueoo?o, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe ?ino?oiaioaeueiiai aeyaeaiiy iacaaieo ii?ooaiue ? eiio?ieth aoaeoeaiino? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iaoiaeaie i?ioiiiiao???, ?aiµ?ao?? oa noaa?eiµ?ao??. Eeth/ia? neiaa: Inoaioiiae?ic o?aaoa, nii?oniaie-?a?iaeee, ?aaa?e?oaoe?y, iaioaeueia oa?ai?y, ianaae, e?eoaaeueia o?ceoeueoo?a, i?ioiiiiao??y, ?aiµ?ao?y, noaa?eiµ?ao?y. Aeue Oaie Ea?aaei Oece/aneay ?aaaeeeoaoeey nii?oniaiia-ea?iaeeia n inoaioiiae?icii oaeii-a?oaeiiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea — ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe ii oece/aneiio ainieoaieth e nii?oo ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 24.00.02 – Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a, oece/aneia ainieoaiea ?aciuo a?oii ianaeaiey. Iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao oece/aneiai ainieoaiey e nii?oa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999. Caueuaaony nenoaia ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee i?iyaeaiee inoaioiiae?ica a?oaeiiai e oaeiiai ioaeaeia iicaiii/ieea o nii?oniaiia-ea?iaeeia aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee, aeeth/athuay iaioaeueioth oa?aieth, iannaae e eiiieaenu ea/aaiie oeceoeueoo?u, a oaeaea ?acoeueoaou eino?oiaioaeueiiai auyaeaiey oeacaiiuo ia?ooaiee e eiio?iey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaaeeeoaoeee. Auee ianeaaeiaaiu 52 nii?oniaia (ianoa?a nii?oa e eaiaeeaeaou a ianoa?a nii?oa) a aic?anoa 16–35 eao (27 thiioae e 25 aeaaooae) n i?iyaeaieyie oaeiiai e a?oaeiiai inoaioiiae?ica. Ei auei auiieiaii eeeie/aneia enneaaeiaaiea noauaeoeaiuo i?iyaeaiee iaoieiaee, a oaeaea i?iaaaeaiu iauaeoeaiua eino?oiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ninoiyiey ieanoe/aneiai oiiona ia?aaa?oa?aaeueiuo iuooe, oeaio?aeueiie e ia?eoa?e/aneie aaiiaeeiaieee aa?oieo eiia/iinoae e noaaeeueiinoe oaea a enoiaeiii ninoiyiee e iinea auiieiaiey ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee iaoiaeaie ieioiiiiao?ee, ?aia?aoee e noaaeeia?aoee. E?iia oiai, eino?oiaioaeueiuie iaoiaeaie auee ianeaaeiaaiu 26 i?aeoe/anee caei?iauo nii?oniaia aiaeiae/iiai aic?anoa e nii?oeaiie eaaeeoeeaoeee, ninoaaeaoea eiio?ieueioth a?oiio. O ianeaaeiaaiiuo nii?oniaiia n inoaioiiae?icii eeeie/anee aue auyaeai oe?ieee niaeo? i?iyaeaiee aeaiiie iaoieiaee a aeaea aieaauo e aaaaoaoeaiuo neiae?iiia, aeaeaaoaeueiuo e /oanoaeoaeueiuo ia?ooaiee a ciiao eiia?aaoeee ii?aaeaiiuo nieiiiiicaiauo ei?aoeia, eae i?aaeei, ni/aoaaoeony a ?acee/iuo eiiaeiaoeeyo. I?e yoii auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ea?aeeaeae/aneea i?iyaeaiey iaoneiaeaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii niaoeeoe/anee eieaeecothueiny iaae?aaa?iui i?iaiaeieeiaui aieaaui neiae?iiii, oae eae nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee iieacaoaeae ?aiea?aeeia?aoee e eo aeeiaieee a i?ioeanna ?aaaeeeoaoeee auyaeaii ia auei. Ii aeaiiui eino?oiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?iyaeaiey inoaioiiae?ica aaaeoo e ?acaeoeth ianoiie e ?ani?ino?aiaiiie ieioeenaoeee, i?iyaeythuaeny iiauoaieai oiiona ia?aaa?oaa?aeueiuo iuooe. I?e yoii i?e a?oaeiii inoaioiiae?ica au?aaeaiiie auea eae ianoiay (ia o?iaia ii?aaeaiiiai naaiaioa iicaiii/ieea), oae e ?ani?ino?aiaiiay (a oaeiii ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea) ieioeenaoeey, oiaaea eae i?e oaeiii inoaioiiae?ica ieioeenaoeey i?iyaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii ia naaiaioa?iii o?iaia oaeiiai ioaeaea. Nouanoaaiiuo ia?ooaiee ia?eoa?e/aneiai e?iaiia?auaiey aa?oieo eiia/iinoae e ?aaiiaaney oaea i?e a?oaeiii inoaioiiae?ica auyaeaii ia auei. I?e oaeiii inoaioiiae?ica ioia/aeinue ?aoeaeoi?iia ia?ooaiea ia?eoa?e/aneie aaiiaeeiaieee aa?oieo eiia/iinoae, i?iyaeythuaany a?oa?eaeueiui niaciii a ciia eiia?aaoeee e??eoe?iaaiiuo nieiiiiicaiauo ei?aoeia ni nieaeaieai ninoaeenoiai oiiona a ninaaeieo naaiaioao eiia/iinoe. E?iia oiai, i?e oaeiii inoaioiiae?ica iaaethaeaeinue ia?ooaiea noaaeeueiinoe oaea a aeaea oaaee/aiey aiieeooaeu eieaaaiee i?iaeoeee oeaio?a oyaeanoe oaea ia ai?eciioaeueioth ieineinoue, i?iyaeyaoaany oaeaea iaaeueiie oi?iie noaaeeia?aii. I?iaaaeaiiay ?aaaeeeoaoeey, aeeth/aaoay iaoiaeu iaioaeueiie oa?aiee, iannaae e ea/aaioth aeiianoeeo, ninoiyuoth ec oi?aaeiaiee aeeiaie/aneiai e noaoe/aneiai oeia, iaania/eaaea ono?aiaiea eae noauaeoeaiuo, oae e iauaeoeaiuo i?iyaeaiee inoaioiiae?ica. Iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou aeinoeaioou o anao nii?oniaiia, a oii /enea oi?ioea (iieiay e aeeeoaeueiay ?aienney i?iyaeaiee iaoieiaee) - a 80,8 % neo/aaa. ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue ?aaaeeeoaoeee eiaea au?aaeaiioth ei??aeyoeeth n aeeeoaeueiinoueth nouanoaiaaiey i?iyaeaiee inoaioiiae?ica aei aa ia/aea. Oae, i?e aa ?aiiai ia/aea aeinoaoi/ii auei 1–3 naainia iaioaeueiie oa?aiee n iieiui ono?aiaieai i?iyaeaiee iaoieiaee, oiaaea eae o nii?oniaiia n aeeeoaeueiui nouanoaiaaieai i?iyaeaiee inoaioiiae?ica o?aaiaaeinue io 4 aei 6 naainia iaioaeueiie oa?aiee, a /anoioa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuo enoiaeia auea auoa. Iinea auiieiaiey ?aaaeeeoaoeee iaaethaeaeinue ono?aiaiea eae eeeie/aneeo noauaeoeaiuo i?iyaeaiee, oae e ii?iaeecaoeey aeaiiuo eino?oiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee. Ioia/aeinue ono?aiaiea yaeaiee ieioeenaoeee, aia/aea ?ani?ino?aiaiiie, a iinea caaa?oaiey anaai eo?na ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee — e ianoiie; ii?iaeecaoeey ia?eoa?e/aneiai e?iaiia?auaiey a aa?oieo eiia/iinoyo n ono?aiaieai ninoaeenoiai niacia a ciia eiia?aaoeee e??eoe?iaaiiuo ei?aoeia; ainnoaiiaeaiea ?aaiiaaney oaea, /oi i?iyaeyeinue nouanoaaiiui nieaeaieai aiieeooaeu eieaaaiee i?iaeoeee oeaio?a oyaeanoe ia ai?eciioaeueioth ieineinoue e ainnoaiiaeaieai ii?iaeueiie oee?eoey?iie oi?iu oaeeo eieaaaiee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: Inoaioiiae?ic iicaiii/ieea, nii?oniaiu-ea?iaeee, ?aaaeeeoaoeey, iaioaeueiay oa?aiey, iannaae, ea/aaiay oeceoeueoo?a, ieioiiiiao?ey, ?aia?aoey, noaaeeia?aoey. Al Hami Ibrahim Physical rehabilitation of sportsmen-players with thoracal and neck osteochondrosis — manuscript. The thesis on receiving of a scientific degree of the Candidate of Sciences on physical education and sports on a speciality 24.00.02 – Physical Culture, Physical Education for various groups of the population. National University of Physical Education and Sports of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999. There is defended the rehabilitation system for the manifestations of the thoracic and neck osteochondrosis in sportsmen-players of high qualification, that includes the manual therapy, massage, and physical training, as well as the results of investigations of the named disturbances and the rehabilitation efficiency with the methods of myotonometry, rheocardiography, rheovasography, stabilography. Key words: Spinal osteochondrosis, sportsmen-players, rehabilitation, manual therapy, massage, physical training, myotonometry, rheography, stabilography.

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