2

OI?AA?NEOAO AIOO??OI?O NI?AA

AINO?IEIOOIA EAII?Ae AeIEO?IAE*

OAeE 340.15(477):796

O?CE*IA EOEUeOO?A A OE?A?I?

C *AN?A EE?ANUeEI? ?ON? AeI II*AOEO OO no.:

NIOe?AEUeII-II?IAOEAIEE ANIAEO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12.00.01 — Oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;

?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

OA?E?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia: A Oa?e?anueeiio Oi?aa?neoao? aioo??oi?o
ni?aa

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: ss?IEO Ieaenaiae? Iaca?iae/,

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie,

ia?oee i?i?aeoi? Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa ii iaoeia?e

?iaio?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Nao?iiiaa ?iana Iaae?aia,

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

i?ioani? Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii?

Aeaaeai?? ?i.ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai,

Aa?aeooa Ieoaeei Caoa?iae/,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaaeo/a i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e ?noi?eei-iie?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 27 ” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 12-00 aiae.
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.700.03 a Oi?aa?neoao?
aioo??oi?o ni?aa (310080, i.Oa?e?a, i?.50-??//y N?N?,27).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 26 » n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

e.th.i., aeioe. A.?.Ee?e/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A no/anieo oiiaao a Oe?a?i?
neeaaea?oueny iiaa eiioeaioe?y ?noi?eei-i?aaiai? iaoee, a ye?e iaia?
i?noey oae caaiei “cae?eoei” aai “iaoe?eaaei” oaiai. Aea/aiiy o?aaeeoe?e
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo c aeaai?o /an?a aei ii/aoeo OO
no. i?ae eooii ?icaeoeo i?aaa iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai ci?noo ? cia/aiiy.

Ii-ia?oa, aei nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy a?aenooi? ocaaaeueiai? ?iaioe c
aeaii? oaie, a o? i?aoe?, ui ? a ?icii?yaeaeaii? aeine?aeiee?a, ye
i?aaeei, iinyoue caaaeueii?in?enueeee oa?aeoa?. O ieo niaoeeo?ea
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ia aeaeue, ?ic/eiy?oueny o caaaeueii?in?enueeiio
iaoa??ae?, a aeai?, ui iia?aeiieythoueny, o?aaiaioa?i?. Iiaeaeueoa
aea/aiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa na?aae ia?oi/a?aiaeo
caaaeaiue noaaeoue aiae?c on?o aie?a oaeiai aaaaoia?aiiiai yaeua ye
eoeueoo?a oa ?? i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy. A iiai?e i??? oea noino?oueny ?
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, yea ? “aeaeii eoeueoo?u, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niaoeeoe/aneee ?acoeueoao /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, n?aaenoai e
niinia oece/aneiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey ethaeae, auiieiaiey eie naieo
nioeeaeueiuo iaycaoaeuenoa a iauanoaa”. E aii?ino ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoee a
oai?ee oece/aneie eoeueoo?u /A.I.Auae?ei, I.E.Iiiiia?aa, A.A.Aanoaoueaa
e ae?,// Oai?ey e i?aeoeea oece/aneie eoeueoo?u.-1987.-? 2.-N.25.

Ii-ae?oaa, caaino?aiiy i?iaeai caei?ia’y ethaeeie, ieoaiiy eiai
aeaeeaaiiy a oiiaao no/aniiai iia??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo oiia, aeieia?/ii?
e?ece i?eiooo? ?aoaeuei?oa i?eaeeaeyoeny aei aeina?aeo iiia?aaei?o
iieie?iue, aa/eoe a oeueiio ?aoe?iiaeuei? niiniae aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino?, aea??ai? a?eaie i?eeiie i?aeo?eiaiiy o?ce/iiai ?
ii?aeueiiai caei?ia’y. Iciaeiieaiiy ?c aeaea?aeaie ia?aeiio? a oiio, ui
oe?a?inueeee ia?iae c?iaea na?e aeinoieiee aianie o nea?aieoeth
?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e c oeueiai ieoaiiy.

Ii-o?ao?, caa?aaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?e caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy ? ci?oeiaiiy
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, ui ia?aoai?eeinue a iaeia c ia?oeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
caaaeaiue, iaiiaeeeai aac oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaeo ii?i, o oiio /ene?
ia aac? aeinyaiaiue iiia?aaei?o iieie?iue. Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an o
oeueiio ieai? aeeeeea? oae caaia “cae/a?aa i?aai”. “Onooiay i?aao
ienaiiio, a ioiioaiee no?ieiinoe e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iino?iaiey,
iieiiou e au?aceoaeueiinoe aai oi?i, — caoaaaeoaaa I.N.?oeiaiei,-
iau/iia i?aai, aoaeo/e ?acoeueoaoii aaeiauo oneeee

eieeaeoeaiie iunee, ia iiaeao ia i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?ana n oi/ee c?aiey
/enoi th?eaee/aneie. Ii ia a yoii ana aea aeaaiia aai cia/aiea. Ienaiia
i?aai — i?aai, iineoaeai eioi?iai yaeyaony ainoaea?noai, iineoaeai
iau/iiai i?aaa yaeyaony ia?iae: iii anaoeaei iieieony a ia?iaeiii
niciaiee”.Aoeiaiei I. Iau/iia i?aai oe?aeineiai ia?iaea//Oe?aeineee
ia?iae a aai i?ioeii e ianoiyuai.-Ia.,1916.-O.2.-N.648. Cae/a?aa i?aai
ye nenoaia ii?i, i?aaee iiaaae?iee, ui ?aaoeththoue noni?euei?
a?aeiioaiiy, aacoiiaii ia? a?aeiioaiiy aei oiai, ui nueiaiaei? ie
iaceaa?ii caei?iaei niiniaii aeeooy.

O e?aeiueiio ?ac?, oe?a?inueeee ia?iae iaa ? ia? iaiaei o?aaeeoe?e, ye?
ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeo?eieo caei?ia’y oa o?ce/ii? oi?ie. A, ye a?aeiii,
cae/a?aa i?aai oi?ioaaeinue naia ia iniia? cae/a?a, ui ?nioaaee c
aeaai?o /an?a. Ae?enii,aiai?eoe i?i oa, ui iaiao?aeii a?ae?iaeeoe an?
oe? oi?ie nueiaiaei?, aoei a iai?aaeeueii, aaeaea aea/aiiy oaeeo
o?aaeeoe?e, ciaeiinoai c ieie oe?ieeo ian ianaeaiiy, aac onyeiai
noii?ao, aoaeooue oi?ioaaoe iia? o?aaeeoe??, aaiaoe/ii ana ae iia’ycai?
c iiia?aaei?ie ? oeie, ui a?aeaeaathoue iaoe?iiaeuei? a?oeoeie
na?aeiiino?.

Ae?enii, ia iaio aaaeeeaei ? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?eueo ?icaeiaieo
th?eaee/ieo oi?i, ye? ni?eyee ioi?ii? caei?ia’y ?aaoethaaee ?icaeoie
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e. Ianiai oaeiai ?iaeo aeoe noaee c’yaeyoeny o
No?aei?e ?a?ii? c e?ioey XYIII no., a o XIX — ii/aoeo XX no. aiie aaea
iaee aeiaie?-oaee ?icai?iooo oi?io. Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui ?yae c ieo
ciaia’ycaiee nai?i aeieeiaiiyi oe?a?inueeei ae?y/ai (iai?eeeaae,
iaaeeeai), /e iaa iaeaea aeeeth/ia a?aeiioaiiy aei oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue (iieiaeaiiy i?i ii?nuee? ea?aioeie).

Ia’?eoii iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ii?ie ii?ae?, ei?ii?aoeai? ii?ie,
cae/a?, caeiiiaeaanoai c ieoaiue, ui ian caoe?eaaeee,- ana oa, ui
noai?thaaei ii?iaoeaia iiea ?icaeoeo o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, ii/eiath/e c aiioe Ee?anueei? ?on? ? aei ii/aoeo OO no.

?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie. sse oaea cacia/aeinue, i?aoe?, ye? aoee a
oe?eeii i?enay/ai? nioe?aeueii-ii?iaoeaiiio aniaeoo ?icaeoeo o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i? c aeaai?o /an?a aei OO no., o a?o/eciyi?e
?noi??ia?ao?? a?aenooi?. Aa?oi caoaaaeeoe, ui oae? nthaeaoe ia
?ic?iaeyeenue acaaae?.

Iaoa??ae i?i o?aaeeoe?? caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy ? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e
Ee?anueei? ?on? iiaeia ciaeoe a /eneaiieo niaoe?aeueieo ?iaioao,
i?enay/aieo oeueiio ia??iaeo, ye aei?aaiethoe?eiiai, oae ? ?aaeyinueeiai
/ano. Aei ?a/?, oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie oeeo ?ia?o noiniaii ?icaeyaeoaaii?
oaie ? iaiaaeai?noue eiea aeaea?ae, /anoi a?aenooi?no? iineeaiue ia
e?oa?aoo?o oa aeaea?aea, iiaa?oia?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeii
aeeeaaeaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo ieoaiue.

Ia?oith ni?iaith niaoe?aeueiiai aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e Ee?anueei?
?on? aoee noaoo? I.A.A?a/iaa, ye? noaee eiiaioa?yie aei a?aeiia?aeiiai
?icae?eo o?anoiiao?? a 1940 ?. I?iaeaie o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oeueiai
ia??iaeo aena?oeaii a o/aiaiio iin?aieeo “Enoi?ey oece/aneie eoeueoo?u
ia?iaeia NNN?” (1958 ?.) A?a/aa A.A. Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a a
aeioaiaeaeueiie ?one//Enoi?ey oece/aneie eoeueoo?u a NNN? n ae?aaiaeoeo
a?aiai aei eiioea XVIII a.: O?anoiiaoey.-E.;E.,1940; Ii aea. Oece/aneay
eoeueoo?a a yiioo oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe//Oai aea. O ae?oa?e
iieiaei? 50-70-o ?ie?a neooaoe?y ci?ieeanue iaiaaaaaoi. Iiaa/eee na?o
?yae noaoae, ui iaee iaoeiai-iiioey?iee oa?aeoa?. Iiainaeia I.E.,
Neieoeui N.Ae., Oa?aaoaa A.Ae. Enoi?ey oece/aneie eoeueoo?u ia?iaeia
NNN?.-I.,1953.-*.1. E?iaoeue 80-o — ii/aoie 90-o ??. aecia/eee iiaee
?oa?ae a ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui a oe?a?inuee?
e ?noi??ia?ao?? noaee i?aaaethaaoe iiaeyaee ia Ee?anueeo ?onue, ye ia
iaeei c i?aai?/ieo aoai?a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. O?eueee c oeeo
iiceoe?e noaee i?aeoiaeeoe aei ?noi??? o?ceoeueoo?e. Oa?aeoa?iith a
oeueiio ieai? ? ?iaioa ?.I.I?enooie oa A.N.I?eaoa. I?enooia ?.I., I?eao
A.N. O?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e.-Euea?a,1991.-*.1. Oi/a aeaeaei ia c on?ia iieiaeaiiyie oe???
?iaioe iiaeia iiaiaeeoeny. Aei oiai ae aiia, ye ? aaaaoi iiia?aaei?o
?ic?iaie, iaienaia a iaoeiai-iiioey?iiio aeai??. Aaaeeeaei aoaiii nooi
iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy ieoaiiy noaea aeena?oaoe?y A.I.Noa?eiaa, aea aia?oa
ia oe?ieiio eie? aeaea?ae o?ce/ia eoeueoo?a ?icaeyaea?oueny a on?o nai?o
ca’yceao ? noinoieao ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia aeaaiuei?onueei?
oeea?e?caoe??. Iaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-ii?iaoeaiiai aiaeoo
i?iaeaie ia i?aeiyeinue aeua ??aiy aea/aiiy cae/aeiiai i?aaa, ? a
?acoeueoao? aeaeyae aoa aeineoue o?aaiaioa?iee. ? oea c?icoi?ei, aaeaea
aaoi? iinoaaea ia?aae niaith caaaeaiiy nooi ?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia a e?auiio noai? aeyaeeinue aea/aiiy o?aaeeoe?e caei?iaiai niiniao
aeeooy aiioe Ee?anueei? ?on?. O? aaoi?e, ye? oi?eaeeny oeueiai ieoaiiy o
nai?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo (I.I.Aiaiyaeainueeee, A.I.?iiaiia oa ?i.) ?iiaiia
A.A. Ethaee e i?aau Ae?aaiae ?one.-E.,1947; Aiaiyaeaineee I.A. I
iaeioi?uo yeaiaioao aeaeaiu e naieoa?ee a auoo Ae?aaiae ?one//Aeaeaia e
naieoa?ey.-1948.-?3; Ii aea. Ae?aaia?onneia a?a/aaaiea a XI-XVII
aa..-I.,1960 e ae?., caa?oathoue oaaao ia ?ieue cae/a?a,
i?aee?aneththoue o?aaeeoe?ei?noue oeo /e ?ioeo yaeu. Aea ae
niaoe?aeueii? ?iaioe, ui i?enay/aia oaeiio c??co oaie, iiee ui a
oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? oaae iaia?.

Iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiith caeeoa?oueny ?noi??y o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e
eicaoeueeiai ia??iaeo. Ooiaeaiaioaeueia ?iaioa Ae.?.ssai?ieoeueeiai
“?noi??y caii??cueeeo eicae?a” ssai?ieoeueeee Ae.?. ?noi??y caii??cueeeo
eicae?a: A 3 o.-Euea?a,1990.-O.1., yea iaienaia noi ?ie?a oiio, aei
nueiaiaei?oiueiai

aeiy caeeoa?oueny aieiaiith “aioeeeeiiaae??th” ?noi??? oa aeeooy
eicaoeoaa, eiai o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, iiaooo. O? /eneaii? ?iaioe, ye?
aeoiaeeee i?ney ssai?ieoeueeiai, eeoa iaiaaaaaoi aeiiiaiththoue
aieiaiiai e?oiienoey oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. ?c niaoe?aeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui i?enay/ai? o?ce/i?e eoeueoo?? eicaoeoaa, iiaeia
iacaaoe eeoa ?iaioo I.I.*a?ii- ai?, *a?iiaa A.I. Oece/aneay iiaeaioiaea
oe?aeineiai eaca/anoaa a?aiai Inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu 1648-1654
aa.//Oai?ey e i?aeoeea oece/aneie eoeueoo?u.-1955.-O.18, aui.9. iaeiae ?
aiia ia a?ae??ciy?oueny iniaeeaith iiaeciith oa aeeaeiith aena?oeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo ieoaiue.

O?aaeeoe?? caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ye?
nyaathoue o aeeaeio a?e?a, aea/aeeny ? aea/athoueny aoiia?aoaie
E?aaaoeue I.I. N?iaeiee iiaoo ? cae/a? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.-E.,1966;
Nieieiaa A.I. Aanaiia-eaoiea eaeaiaea?iua ia?yaeu ?onneeo, oe?aeioeaa e
aaei?onnia XIX — ia/. XX a.-I.,1979; Aeaieethe A.A. Oe?a?inueea
oaoa.-E.,1991; Eoeueoo?a ? iiaoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.-E.,1991 e ae?. e
?noi?eeaie iaaeeoeeie Aieoa?iae/ C. Oe?a?inueea ia?iaeia
iaaeeoeeia.-E.,1994 oa ?i.. Aeniiaee, c?iaeai? a oeeo ?iaioao,
ni?eythoue ?icoi?iith i?ioeano cae??ieaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ia?aaea/?
oaeeo o?aaeeoe?e ?c iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy. Iaeiae, cacia/eii, ui
caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy eiiieaenii? i?aoe?, yea a ocaaaeueieea ana c?iaeaia,
caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiith ? nueiaiaei?.

Aeaui e?aua ?ic?iaeaia ?noi??y noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Oea ieoaiiy, ia iao iiaeyae, ia?
aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy aei oaie, ui aea/a?oueny. ? oi/a iiaa eaea i?i
caaaeueii?in?enueea caeiiiaeaanoai, eiai ae?? oi?eaeeny e oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue, a a ?ac? aeiaaee?a a?aeiia?aei? caeiie c’yaeyeeny i?ae aieeaii
ianoaaei, ui neeaeeny a Oe?a?i?. Na?aae ?ia?o oaeiai oeio — noaoo?
?.ss.Aaithiiaa, A.Ae.Iao?iaa, E.Ae.Aaneeue?aa ? ?.TH.Aieueaea, oa ?i.
Aaithiia ?.ss. E enoi?ee iaaeeei-naieoa?iiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a ?innee
a XVIII — ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a.//A?a/aaiia aeaei.-1952.-?.8; Iao?ia
A.Ae. I?ioeaiyieaeaie/aneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a ?innee aei 1861
a.//AEo?iae iee?iaeieiaee, yieaeaieieiaee e eiioiiaeieiaee.-1955.-? 7;
Aaneeueaa E.A., Aieueae Y.TH. Enoi?ey naieoa?ii-ea?aioeiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa//Niaaoneia cae?aaiio?aiaiea.-1976.-? 5.

Noaiiaeaiiy o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a a?i?? ? oeie? a XIX no. oaeiae aoei
iia’ycaia c ?icaeoeii eiai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy. O?aaeeoe?y iinooiiai
iinooiaeany i?noeai ??ciiiai?oiei ?ino?oeoe?yi, onoaaai.

Oia?oa oe? aniaeoe ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ?iaioao 1940-1950-o ??.
Caeeneii A.TH. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee oece/aneie eoeueoo?u a
NNN?.-I.;E.,1940; Neieoeui N.Ae. Aeiianoeea a ?onneie a?iee a ia?aie
iieiaeia XIX aaea//I/a?ee ii enoi?ee oece/aneie
eoeueoo?u.-I.;E.,1949;Ea?aeiai Ae.A. Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a a ?innee a XIX
aaea//I/a?ee ii enoi?ee oece/aneie eoeueoo?u.-I.,1950 Aeae? oae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeiaaeoaaeenue, iaeiae a?eueo-iaio ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
?ia?o aoei iaaaaaoi Aaai?eyi ?.A. Oece/aneia ainieoaiea a n?aaeiae
oeiea ?innee a ia?eiae ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia (n 80-o aiaeia XIX a. aei
1917 a.): Aaoi?ao.aeen…eaiae.iaae.iaoe.-E.,1975; Enoi?ey oece/aneie
eoeueoo?u e nii?oa: O/aa iiniaea.-I.,1983 e ae?.. Aei oiai ae, aiie eeoa
iia?aeii oi?eaeeny i?aaiaeo ieoaiue, o?aaiaioa?ii aena?oethaaeanue
?noi??y ?icaeoeo o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?.

O nai?e ?iaio? aaoi? nie?aany ? ia nooi ?noi?eei-th?eaee/i? i?aoe?,
ye? aoee eiai iaoiaeieia?/ieie i???ioe?aie. Na?aae ieo ?iaioe
A.Ae.Aii/a?aiea, I.?.Ao?ae?y, E.I.Caeoeaaa, A.?.?iaiaeeia,
?.I.Nao?iiiai?, I.I.No?aoiaa, ?.E.Oa/aoo?iaa, N.A.THoeiaa oa ?i. THoeia
N.A. Iauanoaaiii-iao?eioe/aneee no?ie e i?aai Eeaaneiai
ainoaea?noaa.-I.,1949; Oa/aoo?ia ?.E. Noaiiaeaiea i?aaa:(Ia iaoa?eaeao
Eeaaneie ?one).-Oaeeene,1968; Aii/a?aiei A.Ae., ?iaiaeei A.E., No?aoia
I.I. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa Oe?aeiu: O/aa.
iiniaea.-E.,1993.-Aui.1; Nao?iiiaa ?.I., Caeoeaa I.E. ?noi??y aea?aeaae
? i?aaa Oe?a?ie: Iaa/. iin?a.-E.,1993.-Aei.3; ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
Oe?a?ie.-*.1/Ca ?aae. A.?.?iaiaeeia.-O.,1993; Ao?ae?e I.?. I?aai a
Oe?a?inuee?e eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa? ae?. iie. XYII-XYIII no.-E.,1994 oa
?i.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaaeinoaoiy e?euee?noue niaoe?aeueii?
e?oa?aoo?e c oaie coiiaeea iniaeeao oaaao aaoi?a aei iaeiie/aiiy aeaieo
?c aeaea?aeueii? aace aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeey ia??iaeo Ee?anueei? ?on? oe? aeaea?aea iioae?eiaai? o “Iieiii
nia?aiee ?onneeo eaoiienae”, oa ?io? ienueiia? aeaea?aea (“Iio/aiea
Aeaaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa”, “Ecai?iee aaeeeiai eiycy Nayoineaaa ss?ineaae/a”,
“Eeaai-Ia/a?neee iaoa?ee” oa ?i.), iniiai? i?aaia? aeoe Aeaaiuei? ?on?:
“?onneay i?aaaea”, Eiyae? onoaae. ?ice?eoe ye eoeueo o?ce/ii? neee, oae
e ?io? aiee aeaaiuei?onueei? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e aeiiiiaaathoue aeeeie,
ye? a o?e /e ?io?e i??? a?aeoai?ththoue /ane Ee?anueei? ?on?. Ciao?aeea
1951 ?. a Iiaai?iae? ia?oi? aa?anoyii? a?aiioe a?aee?eea iiao a?oio
ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae, ye? oaae aeei?enoiaothoueny a ?iaio?. Oe?iiei
e?iaa?noe/iei iaoa??aeii ? neiaieee aeaaiuei?onueei? iiae, neiaieeiaee
ei?ion yeeo ioiieth? cia/io e?euee?noue oa?i?i?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
o?ce/io eoeueoo?o ? o?aaeeoe?? caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy. Iaaio ?ieue
a?ae?a?athoue a?oaieia?/i? aeai? i?i aeaaiuei?onueeo
o?ce/io eoeueoo?o, a oaeiae ?eiiia?ao?/iee iaoa??ae, cie?aia, o?anee
Nio?enueeiai niai?o o Ee?a?.

Aea/aiiy o?aaeeoe?e o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e i?ci?oa aoee iia’ycai?,
ia?aaeon?i, c aoiia?ao?/iei iaoa??aeii. C?a?ai?, caaaey/oth/e coneeeyi
oaeeo aoiia?ao?a ye I.A.?aaiia, I.A.Iaeneiiae/, I.I.*oaeinueeee oa
?io?., aiie iaee?aua oa?aeoa?ecothoue o?aaeeoe?eio eoeueoo?o ? ?
iniiaith aaaaoueio aeniiae?aAEeciue e e?anoueyi Eoiyineiai oacaea
Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?iee.-O.,oei. “Ia/ao.aeaei”, 1907.-216,IX.-(Na.OEOI;
Ei.17) oa ?i. Oe?aeiu: O/aa. iiniaea.-E.,1993.-Aui.1; Nao?iiiaa ?.I.,
Caeoeaa I.E. ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie: Iaa/.
iin?a.-E.,1993.-Aei.3; ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie.-*.1/Ca ?aae.
A.?.?iaiaeeia.-O.,1993; Ao?ae?e I.?. I?aai a Oe?a?inuee?e eicaoeuee?e
aea?aeaa? ae?. iie. XYII-XYIII no.-E.,1994 oa ?i.

AEeciue e iiaa?uey e?anoueyi Eoiyineiai oacaea Oa?ueeianeie
aoaa?iee.-O.,1907.-216,IX.-(Na.OEOI; Ei.17) oa ?i..

Na?eicia cia/aiiy o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ia? oieueeei?: i?ene?a’y, i?eeacee.
Oieueeei?i? ca??ee aeaeaaaeeny a aei?aaiethoe?eiee ? a ?aaeyinueeee
/ane, a iaoa??ae o ieo, ye i?aaeei, aii?yaeeiaaiee iano?eueee, ui iei
eaaei iiaeia nei?enoaoeny i?e ?icaeyae? ieoaiue, ye? aeine?aeaeothoueny
a aeai?e ?iaio?. Aeey aea/aiiy eicaoeueeiai ia??iaeo aaaeeeaei
?noi?e/iei aeaea?aeii aoee na?ae/aiiy ?iicaioe?a, cie?aia, A.Aei?ia ?
A.Aiieaia.

I?ci?oee ?icaeoie i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui c?iaea aaeeeee aieea ia o?ce/io
eoeueoo?o ? nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/i? oiiae aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
oaeiae aeine?aeaeo?oueny ia aac? eiiieaeno ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae. Ia?o
ca ana, oea i?aaia? aeoe, iioae?eiaai? a “Iieiii nia?aiee caeiiia
?inneeneie eiia?ee”, o?e aeaeaiiy yeeo i?noyoue o nia? aeoaea aaaaoee
iaoa??ae ia??iaeo XVII-XIX no. Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue “Naiaeu
caeiiiiieiaeaiee e ?anii?yaeaiee” ii a?aeiinoao I?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii?
ina?oe, “ii a?a/aaiie e naieoa?iie /anoe a eiia?ee”, ??ciiai ?iaeo
“iinoaiiaeaiey”, “?aaoeu” ? o.ae. Uia c’ynoaaoe ieoaiiy i?i aieea oeeo
aeo?a ia oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie, caeo/aeanue ae?eiae?iaie/a aeieoiaioaoe?y.
Inoaiiy aea/aeanue ia?aaaaeii a a?o?aieo caeeaaeao Ee?aa ? Oa?eiaa
(Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee a?o?a Oe?a?ie a i.Ee?a? ?
Aea?aeaaiee a?o?a Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?). A iniiaiiio oey aeieoiaioaoe?y
a?aeaeaa? neooaoe?th a nenoai? o/aiaeo caeeaae?a Ee?anueeiai oa
Oa?e?anueeiai o/aiaeo ie?oa?a, iinoathoue aieiaiei /eiii ye iaee//y
an??? nenoaie ina?oe a Oe?a?i? oiai /ano. Oe?iiei aeaea?aeii ? oaeiae
iioae?eiaaia aeieoiaioaoe?y: onoaae oa ca?oe i?i ae?yeuei?noue
nii?oeaieo oiaa?enoa Oe?a?ie. Aecia/eoe i?aaiaa iiea, a yeiio
?icaeaaeanue o?ce/ia eoeueoo?a a Oe?a?i? XIX — ii/aoeo XX no.,
aeiiiiaaa? ei?ion iioae?eiaaieo “?oeiaiaenoa” ? “Ianoaaeaiee”, ye?
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a a?i?? oa o/aiaeo caeeaaeao.

C’ynoaaoe noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei i?aaiaeo caoiae?a o aaeoc? o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e aeicaieythoue iaoa??aee ia??iaee/ii? i?ane ye o niaoe?aeueieo
aeaeaiiyo (oeio “?onneay oeiea”, “Aanoiee ainieoaoaey”, “O/eoaeue” oa
?i.), oae ?, iai?eeeaae, o aoaa?inueeeo aacaoao.

?icaeyaeath/e ??ci? ?noi?e/i? aeaea?aea, ui ?ice?eaathoue iinoaaeaio
i?iaeaio, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie: o?eueee eiiieaenia aea/aiiy an?o
oei?a aeaea?ae aea? iiaeeea?noue ioiieoe oaio ? noai?eoe iniiao aeey
aeinoia??ieo aeniiae?a.

Ie?aneai? ?noi??ia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca aeicaieythoue
ae?aci?oa aecia/eoe iaoo e caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ice?eooy i?aaiaeo iniia ?aaoethaaiiy o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e, a oaeiae caa?aaeaiiy e ?icaeoie o?aaeeoe?e caei?iaiai
niiniao aeeooy a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? c aeaai?o /an?a aei ii/aoeo
OO no.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa aecia/a? oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??:

1) ?icaeyiooe na?oiaeyaei? oa ii?aeuei? oe?iiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
? aeyaeoe ca’ycee c o?aaeeoe?yie caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy, c ?icaeoeii
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?, na?oiaeyaeieo oe?iiinoae oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo;

2) aecia/eoe nenoaio caa?aaeaiiy ? ?aaoeyoe?? iine?aeiaiino? o ni?aa?
o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy;

3) aea/eoe noaiiaeaiiy ??cieo i?aaiaeo ii?i, ye? aieeioee ia ci?io
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo ii?i ? noaio o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?;

4) aeyaeoe oaeiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy caaaeueii?in?enueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a
aaeoc? o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oa nii?oo ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ui
ciaoiaeeeenue o neeaae? ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy a cia/i?e i??? aecia/eee no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??,
yea aoaeo?oueny ca oaiaoe/ii-o?iiieia?/iei i?eioeeiii.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/o?oueny o?aaeeoe?yi caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy ?
noaiiaeaiith nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo ii?i a Oe?a?i? c aeiae Ee?anueei?
?on? aei ii/aoeo OO no.; ae?oaee oa o?ao?e — i?aaiaiio aniaeoo ?icaeoeo
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i? (a?aeiia?aeii c aeaai?o /an?a aei XYIII no.
? c XIX aei ii/aoeo XX no).

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? iaiaaeai? ia??iaeii a?ae /an?a
Ee?anueei? ?on? aei ii/aoeo OO no. (1917 ?.). Aea?? oaeiai aaeeeiai
ia??iaeo /ano coiiaeaiee ianooaai?noth iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue,
iaiao?aei?noth aea/aiiy ?en o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e, ui ? iiaeeeaei
o?eueee ia oe?ieiio o?iiieia?/iiio oii?.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee ?iaioe a iniiaiiio ioiieththoue caie? no/anii?
Oe?a?ie, iaeiae noiniaii aei ia??iaeo Ee?anueei? ?on? iiaa eaea oaeiae ?
i?i i?ai?/i?o? oa?eoi???, a eiee ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy i?i noaiiaeaiiy
oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ?icaeiaieo i?aaiaeo ii?i, ia?ii
ia oaac? ?in?enueea caeiiiaeaanoai ? oo /anoeio oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue,
ye? aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
eiie?aoii-i?iaeaiiiio ??ai? noaee i?eioeeie ? caniae, o a?aeiia?aeiino?
c yeeie o?ce/ia eoeueoo?a ? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith eoeueoo?e acaaae?, a
i?aai ye noeoii?noue caaaeueii iaia’yceiaeo i?aaee, caaacia/aieo
aea?aeaaith, oa?aeoa?eco? oei noni?euenoaa.

?c niaoe?aeueii iaoeiaeo iaoiae?a o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia?aaaaeii
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee, ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee,
?noi?eei-nenoaiiee iaoiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oei
eiiieaeniei aeine?aeaeaiiyi nioe?aeueii-ii?iaoeaiiai aniaeoo ?noi???
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i? (c /an?a Ee?anueei? ?on? aei ii/aoeo OO
no.). Aaoi?ii ?iaioe nenoaiaoeciaaii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii cia/iee iaoa??ae
?c ??cieo a?oi ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae, o oiio /ene? a?o?aiiai oa?aeoa?o, a
oaeiae ocaaaeueiai? o? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? aoee aeinyaioo? iiia?aaeieeaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaieie i?e /eoaii? aoc?anueeeo eo?n?a
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, ?noi??? aea?aeaae oa i?aaa Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio, i?e
iaienaii? i?ae?o/iee?a, o/aiaeo iin?aiee?a ? o?anoiiao?e c oe???
oaiaoeee. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee ?iaioe iiaeooue noaoe a iaaiae?
i?e aecia/aii? no/anii? iie?oeee e iiaoaeia? aeiaaino?ieiaeo i?ia?ai
?icaeoeo o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?, caa?aaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?e caei?iaiai
niiniao aeeooy ? noai?aiiy aeey oeueiai ni?eyoeeaiai i?aaiaiai i?inoi?o.
Aiie oaeiae iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie i?e i?iaaaeaii? i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, aooe aiaaiae? i?e aeoiaaii? iieiaeiai iieie?iiy
a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie ia e?aueo o?aaeeoe?yo naiai ia?iaeo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, aecia/ai? ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai?
iaoa e iniiai? caaaeaiiy, aena?oeai? iaoiaeieia?/i? e iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?
iniiae aeena?oaoe??, ?ice?eoa iaoeiaa iiaecia oa iieacai? iaea?eueo
cia/i? e iia? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee, ioa?aeoa?eciaai?
ai?iaaoe?y, ?aae?caoe?y oa ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — “O?aaeeoe?? caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy ? noaiiaeaiiy
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo ii?i a Oe?a?i? (c /an?a Ee?anueei? ?on? aei
ii/aoeo OO no.)” — i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo ii?i cae/a?aiai i?aaa oa
caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui noinothoueny caei?ia’y ? o?ce/ieo yeinoae ianaeaiiy.
?icae?e neeaaea?oueny ?c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a. O ia?oiio c ieo
“O?aaeeoe?? caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo c aiioe
Ee?anueei? ?on? aei ii/aoeo OO no.” ?icaeyioo? ia?iaei? cae/a? ?
o?aaeeoe?? c ieoaiiy, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny aaoi?ii. Iieacaii, ui a
aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia??iaeo, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny, aoei /eiaei
oaeeo o?aaeeoe?e, ye? iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ? ye iaaacia/i? aeey
caei?ia’y, aea ana-oaee ia aiie aecia/aee eiai iaaeeei-nai?oa?io
eoeueoo?o. Ia?aaaaeath/eie aoee o?aaeeoe?? caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy.
Aiie nie?aeeny ia aeeoo?aee aeina?ae, oaa?aei aa?eoee o na?oiaeyae
ia?iaeo e aoee inay/ai? a?eiaeie o?aaeeoe?yie, ye? ia??aeei iiai?noth
iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeya ii?i cae/a?aiai i?aaa.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e “Noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa oa eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a XVIII —
ii/. XX no.” i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea a iniiaiiio ca?iaeeeiny o XVIII no., aei e?ioey XIX
— ii/aoeo XX no. noaei aeineoue ?icaaeoaeaiei e ioiieei ??ci? noi?iie
aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Ii?ie cae/a?aiai i?aaa ? ii?ie eiaeeo?eiaai? ia i?inoi iine?aeiaii
cai?iyee iaeia iaeio, aea e ni?a?nioaaee, aca?iiaieeaaee, a ia
i?ioenoiyee. Ia?ao?ae aea a?ae iaei??? oi?ie aei ?ioi? aeeeooaaany
ia?o ca ana iiaei, a?eueo aenieei ??aiai nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe??,
i?aeneeaiiyi i?ioean?a o?aai?caoe??, i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ioaineaiino?
aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, ?inoii eoeueoo?e. Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai eoei
a iiao c ?in?enueeei, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a o ??oaii?
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo ieoaiue ? i?aeo?eiee caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy
iaa?oue aeia?aaeaeaei eiai.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “O?ce/i? ai?aae, ?a?e oa ciaaaiiy a ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo (c iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei XYIII no.): ii?ie
cae/a?aiai i?aaa” — iieacaii, ui iaienaia cae/a?aa i?aai, yea aeieeei
oeyoii noai?iai aeio?eiaiiy i?ioyaii a?e?a ia?iaeieo cae/a?a, caa?aaeiny
a ia?iaei?e iai’yo? o oi?i? iaaieo ineoieia?/ieo ia?aaeeaaiue, a?ae/oooy
i?aaaee e ona?aeiieaiiy iaia’yceo iiaiaeeoe naaa oae, a ia ?iaeoa. Oe?
ii?ie aeyaeyeenue o?eueee o a?aeiia?aei? iiiaioe, ye i?aaeei, aiie
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue cae/aeieie ia?yaeaie, ?ieue yeeo iieyaaea a oiio,
uia ca aeiiiiiaith ??ciiiai?oieo ciai?oi?o aeo?a cao?enoaaoe a ia?iaei?e
iai’yo? a?aeiia?aeio ii?io (i?aaeea iiaaae?iee caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o). C
/anii oe? ia?yaee iaaoaathoue oaeiae i?aaiaiai cia/aiiy, ye ? o? ii?ie
cae/a?aiai i?aaa, ye? aiie noi?iaiaeaeothoue ? aeeeoothoue, oiaoi
ia?aoai?ththoueny o i?aaia? neiaiee; ii?ooaiiy /e iaaeeiiaiiy ia?yae?a
aaaaea?oueny ii?ooaiiyi ii?i cae/a?aiai i?aaa. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
oe?a?inueeiai cae/a?aiai i?aaa ? eiai yne?aaa ia?yaeia?noue. O iiai?e
i??? neacaia noino?oueny ? aei i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy oiai, ui
nueiaiaei? ie iaceaa?ii oaeei i?noeei neiaii ye o?ce/ia eoeueoo?a.
O?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy noaei iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e
no?aeieo neia’yi oaea ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?o ?noi???. Iaoa??aee, ui
a?aeiinyoueny aei ia??iaeo Aeaaiuei? ?on?, ui aiae?cothoueny o ia?oiio
i?ae?icae?e? “O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a o aeeoo? no?aeieo neia’yi”,o?enothoue ia
o?eueee aaeeeo ?ieue o?ce/ieo ai?aa, o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaee, aea e
iieacothoue, ui oaeee aeae ae?yeueiino? /anoi caa??aaany oa ?icaeaaany,
aoaeo/e inay/aiee ii?iaie cae/a?aiai i?aaa. Neea, a?aeaaaa,
aeo?eaae?noue aenooiaee ye noni?eueii aaaeeea? oa?aeoa?enoeee, a
a?enueeiai-o?ce/i? caiyooy — i?aeaioiaea aei ai?iii? ni?aae — ye
i?ea?eae a?eueieo ? ciaoieo ethaeae.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? — “O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a
aiioo eicaoeoaa (XV-XVIII no.)” — a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ia o?eueee
i?aaiaee a?e o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aiioe eicaoeoaa,
aea e naia o?ce/ia eoeueoo?a aeine?aeaeaia ia nueiaiaei? iaaeinoaoiuei.
? oea i?e anueiio oiio, ui o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy caeiaei iaeia c aaaeeeaeo
i?noeue o eoeueoo?i?e o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, a oe?eiio aoei
iaiaaeaiith /anoeiith iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, ai o?ce/ia eoeueoo?a
aaaiii aieeaa? ? ia aeooiaiee na?o — na?o aiioe?e, anoaoe/ieo niae?a,
aoe/ieo ? na?oiaeyaeieo oyaeaiue.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a ? nii?o a Oe?a?i? XIX —
ii/aoeo XX no.: noaiiaeaiiy ?icaeiaieo i?aaiaeo ii?i”, yeee oaeiae
neeaaea?oueny ?c aeaio ia?aa?ao?a: “O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a a o/aiaeo
caeeaaeao oa a?i??” oa “Ae?yeuei?noue nii?oeaieo i?aai?caoe?e”
a?aecia/aii, ui XIX noie?ooy noaei ia?aeiiiei a ?noi??? o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e oa nii?oo. sse?ac o oeae /an o ca’yceo c aeeaieeie ci?iaie a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa (c?inoaiiy i?iieneiaino?
oa i?no, aaaii? c?ooaiiy a nioe?aeuei?e no?oeoo??), niinoa??aa?oueny
noaiiaeaiiy /?oei? nenoaie o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy (ia?o ca ana a a?i?? oa
o/aiaeo caeeaaeao), aeieeiaiiy ? iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy nii?oeaieo
i?aai?caoe?e ? oiaa?enoa. Caeo/aiiy o noa?o “eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy” oeo
aa?noa, ye? ?ai?oa aoee a?ae ieo a?aeae?eaieie noaiiaeie aa?’??aie,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?aaeeeaeueieo ci?i o iania?e na?aeiiino?. Aei /enea
inoaii?o a?aeianaii ? ci?io noaaeaiiy aei o?ce/ieo ai?aa. Oe? i?ioeane
a?aeaeeeny ? a i?aaiaeo ii?iao. O?aaeeoe?y iinooia?oueny i?noeai
?icaaeoaeaiiio caeiiiaeaanoao, ui ?aaeaiaioo? nii?o ? o?ce/io eoeueoo?o.
Aeieeathoue aaaaoi/eneaii? iieiaeaiiy, ?ino?oeoe??, ii?aaeieee,
iinoaiiae, onoaae oa ?io? aeieoiaioe, ye? o?enothoue noa?o o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e, ye iiai?noth naiino?eiee aeaiaio noni?eueiiai i?aai?cio. XIX
noie?ooy noaei ia??iaeii ca?iaeaeaiiy o?ce/iiai aeoiaaiiy ye neeaaeiai?
/anoeie ina?oiueiai i?ioeano a oeieao on?o nooiai?a, a?ae/oaoe ia nia?
neeueiee aieea a?i?enueei? o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaee, aei ona?aeiieaiiy
niaoeeo?ee caiyoue ?c o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a oeea?eueieo o/aiaeo caeeaaeao
?, ia?o ca ana, ii/aoeia?e oa na?aaei?e oeie?.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX no. ioi?ieth?oueny naiiae?yeueiee
nii?oeaii-a?iianoe/iee ?oo, yeee ciaeoia nai? aeyaeaiiy a ae?yeueiino?
oiaa?enoa. Ia caaaeath/e ia oa, ui a?i oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iia?euei?oeie
oaiiaie ?icaeoeo oa aoa iacia/iei ca e?euee?niei neeaaeii (o ii??aiyii?
c ?icaeiaieie e?a?iaie Cao?aeii? ?a?iie), cono??/aa ia nai?io oeyoo
/eiiaieoeueei-ath?ie?aoe/i? ia?aoeiaee, ia ii/aoeo OO no. a?i iaa
aeinoaoiuei ?icaeiai? oi?ie, ui ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aaiaiio
caaacia/aii? eiai ae?yeueiino?.

O aeniiaeao i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui i?ioyaii on??? ?noi??? a na?aeiiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aaaeeeaa i?noea caeia? oe?ii?noue o?ce/iiai
caei?ia’y, iiaeia neacaoe, aieiaea?thaaa ?aeaaeueiee ia?ac o?ce/ii
?icaeiaii? ethaeeie, yeee ?iiae? aenooiaa ye eoeueo o?ce/ii? neee.
O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a ia?iaeo, a oaeiae o?aaeeoe?? caei?iaiai niiniao aeeooy
ia??aeei inay/oaaeenue ii?iaie cae/a?aiai i?aaa. An? oe? o?aaeeoe?? o
aeaeyae? ia?yaeiaino? caa?aaeenue ? ia ii/aoeo OO no., oi/a iinooiiai,
ii/eiath/e c XYIII no., neea o?aaeeoe?e iinooia?oueny i?noeai nee?
caeiio. Ia e?iaoeue XIX no. cia/ia /anoeia eaeaiaea?ieo ia?yae?a ao?a/a?
nai? i?aaiaa cia/aiiy ? ia?aoai?th?oueny o cae/aei? ?icaaae, ?a?e. Ia
oeae aea /an neeaeinue aeineoue ?icaeiaia nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ia
caeiiiaeaanoai, a o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy noaei iaia’yceiaith /aoeiith
caaaeueii-ina?oiueiai i?ioeano a oeieao an?o nooiai?a ? i?aeeyaaei
?aaeaiaioaoe?? a oe?eiio ?yae? “?oeiaiaenoa”, “ianoaaeaiee” oa ?ioeo
aeieoiaioao, ioi?ieeanue i?aaiaa iniiaa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nii?oeaii-a?iianoe/ieo oiaa?enoa, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo aacoaaeanue ia
ca?a?no?iaaieo aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie onoaaao.

Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai, a e?aeiueiio ?ac? eiai iniiaia /anoeia, aoei
ciooaia ea?oaaoeny caaaeueii?in?enueeei caeiiiaeaanoaii o aaeoc?
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, a?a??ie e nai?oa???, eoei a iiao c ?in?enueeei, aea
ia o?eueee oiio, ui oe?a?inuee? caie? aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei?
?iia???, ? ia an?e oe?e oa?eoi??? ae?yee caaaeuei? ii?ie. Ca nooiaiai
naiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai aoei iiai?noth aioiaei aenooieoe
ia ??ai? aeiia naiai /ano, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a Oe?a?ia oiniaethaaea
niaith ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae ae??oaiiy ieoaiue o aaeoc? nai?oa??? oa
a?a??ie, o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e e nii?oo.

Aacnoii?aii, ii?ie cae/a?aiai i?aaa oa ii?ie eiaeeo?eiaai? ia i?inoi
cai?iyee iaeia iaeio , aea e ni?a?nioaaee. Ia?ao?ae a?ae iaei??? oi?ie
aei ?ioi? aeeeooaaany, ia?o ca ana, a?eueo aeuei ??aiai nioe?aeueii?
i?aai?caoe??, c?inoaiiyi i?ioean?a o?aai?caoe??, ?icaeoeii eoeueoo?e.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aino?ieiooia E.Ae. Onoaaiay e io/aoiay aeieoiaioaoeey nii?oeaiuo
iauanoa Oe?aeiu eiioea XIX -ia/aea XX aa. eae enoi/iee aeey eco/aiey
enoi?ee oeceoeueoo?iiai aeaeaeaiey//Iaoa?eaeu e oacenu iao/. eiio.,
iina. 30-eaoeth eaoaae?u enoi?eia?aoee, enoi/ieeiaaaeaiey e a?oaieiaee
OAO(Anoaoianeea /oaiey), 1-2 iiya.1994 a.-O.,1994.-N.81-82.

2. Aino?ieiooia E.Ae. Ii?iu iau/iiai i?aaa e o?aaeeoeee oece/aneie
eoeueoo?u e caei?iaiai ia?aca aeecie//?ieue aoc?a o ae??oaii? i?iaeai
aacia?a?aii? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?.-E.,1995.-O.4: Iiaeeeaino?
oa iio?aae caeeaae?a ia no/aniiio noai?.-N.74-75.

3. Aino?ieiooia E.Ae. Nii?oeaiua i?aaiecaoeee Oe?aeiu ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XIX — ia/aea XX aa.: i?aaiaie aniaeo
aeayoaeueiinoe//Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey ee/iinoe:Na. iao/.
o?oaeia.-O.,1995.-N.284-290.

4. Aino?ieiooia E.Ae. O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a a o/aiaeo caeeaaeao Oa?e?aueie
a XIX — ii/aoeo OO no.//Ia?o? Noioeianuee? /eoaiiy: Oace iaoe.eiio.,
i?enay/. 75-??//th Iocath Neia?ae.Oe?a?ie, 17-18 ea?o.1995
?.-O.,1995.-N.42-43.

5. Aino?ieiooia E.Ae. O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a ? nii?o o Oa?eia? iai?ee?ioe?
XIX — ia ii/aoeo OO no.: (Ca iaoa??aeaie aac. “Oa?ueeianeea aoaa?ineea
aaaeiiinoe”)//Oace Anaoe?. e?a?ciaa/i? eiio.,i?enay/. 70-??//th Anaoe?.
eii?oaoo e?a?ciaanoaa (28-29 /a?aiy 1995 ?.).-O.,1995.-N.13-14.

6. Aino?ieiooia E.Ae. Noaiiaeaiiy o?ce/ii? i?aeaioiaee a i?aaiao
aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie: (?no. aniaeo)//Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii?
iaoee a aeineae?aeaiiyo iieiaeeo o/aieo: Iaoa??aee iaoe. eiio. iieiaeeo
o/aieo Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??o. ni?aa, 15 eeno. 1996 ?.-O.,1996.-N.15-17.

7. Aino?ieiooia E. Aeayoaeueiinoue nii?oeaiuo i?aaiecaoeee a Oe?aeia a
eiioea XIX — ia/. XX aa.//Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo a/aieo :[Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue].-O.,1997.-Aei.3-4.-N.276-279.

8. Aino?ieiooia E. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie: Iaeia?aeii? ?iaia, iiae??,
oaeoe//??aeiee e?ae: (Ca. no.).-E.,1998.-Aei.4.-N.108-118.

9. Aino?ieiooia E.Ae. O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a a Oe?a?i? a?ae /an?a Ee?anueei?
?on? aei ii/aoeo OO no.: nioe?aeueii-ii?iaoeaiee aniaeo: (?noi??ia?.
neooaoe?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca)//A?ni.oi-oo aioo??o.
ni?aa.-O.,1998.-Aei.3-4.-N.137-143.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aino?ieiooia E.Ae. O?ce/ia eoeueoo?a a Oe?a?i? c /an?a Ee?anueei? ?on?
aei ii/aoeo OO no.: nioe?aeueii-ii?iaoeaiee aniaeo.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.01- Oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;
?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue.- Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia nioe?aeueii-ii?iaoeaiei ieoaiiyi ?icaeoeo
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?, yeei aei inoaiiueiai /ano ia i?eae?eyeinue
iaeaaeii? oaaae. O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaia ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa aaca
o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e, ii/eiath/e a?ae ii?i cae/a?aiai i?aaa aei ?icaeiaieo
oi?i cae/a?aiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. Aecia/ai? ??aaiue,
ianya ? niiniae i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? a aaeoc? o?ce/ii?
eoeueoo?e oa nii?oo. Iai?/ai? oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai iaoeiaiai iiooeo,
a?aecia/aii cia/aiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?th/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?ce/ia eoeueoo?a oa nii?o, cae/a?aa i?aai, caei?iaee
niin?a aeeooy, Oe?a?ia.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aino?ieiooia E.Ae. Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a a Oe?aeia ni a?aiai Eeaaneie
?one aei ia/aea OO a.: nioeeaeueii-ii?iaoeaiue aniaeo.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.01 — Oai?ey e enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa,
enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee.-Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo aeae,
Oa?ueeia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia nioeeaeueii-ii?iaoeaiui aii?inai ?aacaeoey
oece/aneie eoeueoo?u a Oe?aeia, eioi?ui aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie ia
oaeaeyeinue aeieaeiiai aieiaiey. A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaia
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaay aaca oece/aneie eoeueoo?u, ia/eiay io ii?i iau/iiai
i?aaa, aei ?acaeouo oi?i ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia/aea OO
aaea. Ii?aaeaeaiu o?iaaiue, iauai e niiniau i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaie
aeayoaeueiinoe a iaeanoe oece/aneie eoeueoo?u e nii?oa. Iaia/aiu iooe
aeaeueiaeoaai iao/iiai iienea, ioia/aii cia/aiea enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa
aeey oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oece/aneay eoeueoo?a e nii?o, iau/iia i?aai, caei?iaue
ia?ac aeecie, Oe?aeia.

Abstract

L.D.Vostroknutov. Physical training in Ukraine from age of Kyiv Rus to
the beginning of the XXth century: social and normative aspects.-
Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree with the specialization 12.00.01 —
Theory and history of state

The thesis is dedicated to social and normative aspects of development
of physical training in Ukraine,to which not much attantion was paid
before. The legal base of physical training from ordinary legislation to
higly developed forms of state legislation in the beginning of the XX
century is analyzed in the thesis. The level, amount and methods of
legal regulations of physical training and sport activities are
examined. The directions for future research are outlined. Importance of
the historical experience for improvement of current legislation is
marked.

Key words: Physical training and sports, ordinary legislation, Helthy
way of living, Ukraine.

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