4

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

AIEUeOAEIAA IA??ss IEAEN??AIA

OAeE 581.143.01./.07

O?oiai?iiie oa no?oeoo?a eenoe?a aea?aaieo aeae?a, aaeaioiaaieo aei
??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiia

03.00.12 — o?c?ieia?y ?ineei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aioai?ee ?i. I.A. Oieiaeiiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ionaoaiei
Ethaeieea ?aai?aia, ?inoeooo aioai?ee ?i.I.A. Oieiaeiiai IAIO, caa.
a?aeae?eii o?oiai?iiiieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, ssai?nueea A?eoi??y
Eaceie??aia, ?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee, caa. a?aeae?eii

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Neoiyinueea I?ii?ea Iaae?aia, Oeaio?aeueiee
aioai?/iee naae ?i. I.I. A?eoea IAIO, no.iaoe. ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa- Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 25 o?aaiy 1999?. i 14 aiaeei? ia ca?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.001.24 Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: Ee?a, i?. Aeooeiaa,2, ei?ion
12(a?ioae), aoae.215; Iiooiaa aae?ana:252033, aoe. Aieiaeeiie?nueea 64.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aoe, Aieiaeeie?nueea,58

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 25 ea?oiy 1999?

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
/A?aeii I.A./

Anooi

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Aea/aiiy o?c?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ?ineei,
i?enoiniaaieo aei ae?? aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua, ia? aaeeea
cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy, ye iai?yie?a aaiethoe?eiiai i?ioeano, oae ?
iaoai?ci?a aaeaioaoe??, ye? iiaeooue i?iyaeyoeny ia no?oeoo?iiio oa
o?c?ieia?/iiio ??aiyo i?aai?caoe??.

Aeey aiae?co iniaeeainoae ci?i a ieai? ye ?aa?iiaeueiiai, oae ?
aeiaaeueiiai oeyo?a aaeaioeaii? aeeaa?aaioe?? ( Iaai, 1994; 1996) o
aea?aaieo aeae?a a ??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiiaao c?o/iith iiaeaeeth iiaea
aooe «Aaiethoe?eiee eaiueeii» a?eii 3 — 5 iei. ?ie?a (Eiaa? Iaoae I?ai,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee ia?e Iaoio Ea?iaeue), yeee ? /anoeiith a??nueei?
oa?eoi??? Ea?iaeue a ieieeoeyo i. Oaeoa (?c?a?eue (3243 N; 3458 A).
Eiai i?ioeeaaei? noeee ?icoaoiaai? ia a?aenoai? 200 i iaeei a?ae
iaeiiai, aea cia/ii eiio?anoothoue i?ae niaith a cayceo c ?noi?e/ii
neeaaeaieie i?e?iee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie. Noeee i?ai?/iee (“?a?iiaenueeee”)
oa i?aaeaiiee (“ao?eeainueeee”) iathoue iaeiaeiao aaiiyeiao i?e?iaeo,
aea ??cei a?ae??ciythoueny ii e?eueeino? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??, yea ia
i?aaeaiiiio noee? ia 300% aeua, i?ae ia i?ai?/iiio. A?eueo?noue
aea?aaieo aeae?a eaiueeiio iaeaaeaoue aei neea?io?oieo ?ineei c ??cieie
no?aoaa?yie aaeaioaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a i?enoinoaaiiy ?o eenoe?a aei
iinooeeaeo oiia.

Ine?eueee aeai?, noiniaii iaoai?ci?a, ui eaaeaoue a iniia? i?enoinoaaiiy
?ineeiieo i?aai?ci?a aei oiia ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, aeineoue
iaiaaeai? ? ?ic??ciai?, a ?iaio? aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa ioe?ieoe ai?no
o?oiai?iii?a a eenoeao ?ineei ??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiia c?inoaiiy, ye?
iathoue iaiaeiaeia? aaeaioeai? no?aoaa??, oa ni?anoaaeoe io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe c iieacieeaie ii?oi-aiaoii?/ii? aoaeiae.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeaioaoe?eieo ci?i eenoe?a na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo
ena?io?oieo aeae?a aea?aaieo ?ineei ??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiia c?inoaiiy.
aeey aeinyaiaiiy ?? noaaeeenue oae? caaaeaiiy:

· i?iaiae?coaaoe aiaoii?/i? iciaee eenoe?a aea?aaieo ena?io?o?a ??cieo
aeieia?/ieo oiia c?inoaiiy;

· aeine?aeeoe ci?ie aeoeaiino?, ye?niiai ? e?euee?niiai neeaaeo
o?oiai?iii?a i?ae aieeaii aa?ioe/ieo /eiiee?a;

· aea/eoe aeaeiniaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?ii? aaeaioaoe?? eenoe?a;

· ii??aiyoe eiiiiiaioiee neeaae o?oiai?iii?a eenoe?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeaeiaeo iniaeeainoae ? a?ae aieeao aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?eoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?ii? oa
o?c?ieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? aea?aaieo aeae?a aei ??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiia (
?ioaineai?noue ?inieyoe??, aieiai- oa aoionicaaania/aiiino?). Aia?oa
i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ai?a o?oiai?iii?a o neea?io?oieo
aeae?a ?ineei, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ca no?aoaa??th aaeaioaoe?? aei
aeao?oeeoo aieiae. Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i cia/io
aeaeiniaoeeo?/io aaeaioaoe?eio ieanoe/i?noue no?oeoo?e oa
o?oiai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaeno eenoe?a, a oaeiae i?i caeaaei?noue ?o a?ae
i?e?iee?iaoe/iiai aieeao aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ioe?iee ae?aiaciio
oiea?aioiino? aeae?a, a oaeiae aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy ?o iiaaae?iee a
a?eaeieo oiiaao ?nioaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ni?eyoeiooue iiaeeaeaiith oyaeaiue i?i
iaoai?cie aaeaioaoe?? ?ineei aei ae?? ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a oa ?ic?iaoe?
iaoeiaeo caoiae?a ioi?iie i?e?iaeieo aeinenoai ? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a i?ia?aiao eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a «No?ee?noue ?ineei» oa
«Aeieia?y» ? i?e aeeiiaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o a aaeoc?
i?iaiicoaaiiy aaeaioaoe?eii? caeaoiino? oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeaioeaieo
no?aoaa?e ?ineei.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie, ieaiaie, i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioo aeeiiaii
a ?aieao oaiaoeee a?aeae?eo o?oiai?iiiieia?? («Ai?iiiaeueia ?aaoeyoe?y
i?ioean?a ?inoo oa ?icaeoeo ieae/eo ? aeueo ?ineei oa a?ea?a»,
«Aaeaioeaia ?ieue i?e?iaeieo ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo ?ineei») oa i?aeia?iaeii?
i?ia?aie «Aea/aiiy a?i??ciiiai?oiino? aaiioiiaeo ?ineei (a o./.
aiaei?inoae, eeoaeiee?a, iio?a) ? a?ea?a a??nueeeo aeinenoai Oe?a?ie ?
i?ai?/iiai ?c?a?eth oa ?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo caoiae?a ?o ioi?iie».

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaio iniaenoi i?i?iaeea a?aeiia?aeio
e?oa?aoo?o oa iaieiae?ea iaiao?aeieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiue, a?aea
o/anoue o ieaioaaii? aenia?eiaio?a, i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??ae?a aei ae?oeo.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, ye? i?eaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?,
iaea?aeai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? caeiaoaa/ai naiino?eii.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

1. No?oeoo?ia aaeaioaoe?y eenoe?a caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy
?ineei ? ?o aeaeiai? i?eiaeaaeiino?.

2. Oi?iaoeaiee aoaeo, aeeeeeaiee i?aeaeuaiith ?inieyoe??th oa
iiieaeaiith aieiai- oa aoionicaaacia/ai?noth, i?iyaey?oueny o aea?aaieo
ii??ae o ?aaeoeoe?? anei?eyoe?eii? iiaa?oi? eenoe?a, yea eiiiaino?oueny
ca?eueoaiiyi oiaueie eenoeiai? ieanoeiee ca ?aooiie ee?oei iacio?eo.

3. Iai?aaeai?noue ci?i ai?iiiaeueiiai neeaaeo eenoe?a aea?aaieo ii??ae,
aaeaioiaaieo aei ??cieo aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a, caeaaeeoue ye a?ae i?e?iaee
oa ?ioaineaiino? ?o ae??, oae ? a?ae aeaeiaeo iniaeeainoae ?ineei.

4. Aa?ioe/i? oaeoi?e /a?ac ci?ie ??ai?a o?oiai?iii?a aieeaathoue ia
i?enoinoaaiiy aeae?a aei oiia ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe Iaoa??aee, ye? aeeeaaeai? o aeena?oaoe??,
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao a?aeae?eo o?oiai?iiiieia??
?inoeoooo aioai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie; ia O? Iieiae?aei?e eiioa?aioe??
aioai?e?a a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c? (1997); ia O c?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai
aioai?/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Iieoaaa, 1997); ia O ceiia?e oeie? nooaeaio?a oa
ani??aio?a “Aeieiaey ?anoeoaeueiie eeaoee” (Ioueii, 1998); ia
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iioiaaiac ?ineei a i?e?iaeiiio oa
o?ainoi?iiaaiiio na?aaeiaeu?” (Euea?a, 1998); ia O? eiia?an? Oaaea?aoe??
?a?iiaenueeeo Oiaa?enoa O?c?ieia?a ?ineei (FESPP) (Aa?ia, Aieaa??y,
1998); ia eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo “?ioaa?aoeai?noue ooieoe?e
?ineeiiiai i?aai?cio” (Ee?a,1998); ia 1 Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Aeieia?/iee no?an ? aaeaioaoe?y a a?ieia?/ieo nenoaiao»
(Oa?iii?eue, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe?? Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeue, c yeeo 4 noaoo? o oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao oa 6 oac.

No?oeoo?a oa ia»?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 145 noi?.
ae?oea?nueeiai oaenoo. Aiia i?noeoue 9 oaaeeoeue, ?ethno?iaaia 29
?enoieaie. Nienie oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 310 iaeiaioaaiue.

IA?EOE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Ia?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ?iaeeiaa aea?aai (Ceraton?a s?l?qua L.),
ianeeia Olea europeae L., aeoa (Quercus call?pr?nos Webb.), o?noaoea
(P?stac?a lent?scus L.) ??cieo i?noeue c?inoaiiy a oiiaao
“Aaiethoe?eiiai eaiueeiio”. Eenoee cae?aeenue ia i?aaeaiiiio oa
i?ai?/iiio noeeao eaiueeiio ? a ?aeii? oaeueaaao ( ?en.1) iaeii/anii ia
7-ie ae?eyieao. Iaoa??ae o?enoaaee a?ae?aco ae i?ney cai?o aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e a 2%-iiio ?ic/ei? aeooa?iaiai aeueaeaa?aeo ?
ia?aoi?iaeueaeaa?aeo oa nooei eueiaeii aeey aecia/aiiy o?oiai?iii?a.

?en. 1. Noaia ?icoaooaaiiy ae?eyiie eaiueeiio.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e eenoe?a. C eiaeii? ae?eyiee eaiueeiio
aeine?aeaeoaaee 8 -10 aea?aa, ?c no?aeii? oa cao?aeii? noi?iie yeeo
cae?aee ii 20 eenoe?a aeey aea/aiiy ii?oieiai-aiaoii?/ieo iciae. C
na?aaeiuei? /anoeie eenoeiai? ieanoeiee ?iaeee aen?/ee ae?aiao?ii 1 ni,
ciaaiaeaeoaaee o na??? nie?o?a c?inoath/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? ? caeeth/aee a
ia?ao?i. Iiia?a/i? c??ce oiaueiith 10 iei oa?aoaaee iaoeeaiiaei aieoaei
? caeeth/aee a aaeuecai. Aiae?c i?aia?ao?a i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith
i?e?ineiia NU-2.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy o?oiai?iii?a. Aeae?eaiiy, i/enoeo, e?euee?niee
aiae?c ai?noo ?IE (?iaeie?eioeoiai? eeneioe), OeOE (oeeoie?i?i?a) oa
aanoeeciai? eeneioe (AAE) aeeiioaaee iaoiaeii AA?O, aecia/aiiy ?o oa AI?
a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? ca (Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, 1988;
Naaeinueeee, 1991).

Noaoenoe/ia ii?aoethaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?oiai?iii?a i?iaiaeeee a o?ueio a?ieia?/ieo ? o?ueio
aiae?oe/ieo iiaoi?iinoyo, aiaoii?/i? o 10-oe aeey eiaeiiai e?euee?niiai
iieacieea. Iaea?aeai? aeai? ia?iaeyee ca aeiiiiiaith iaeaoo i?ia?ai
ANOVA (prog. GLM; SAS ?nst?tute 1996).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

Ii?oieia?y oa aiaoii?y na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo aeae?a a ??cieo aeieia?/ieo
oiiaao

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaa?oono aea?aaieo ii??ae aeieia?/ii ??cieo oiia ae?eyiie
«Aaiethoe?eiiai eaiueeiio» iieacaei cia/io ??cieoeth ?o aenioe oa oe?eie
e?iie caeaaeii a?ae i?noeac?inoaiiy aea?aa. Oae, oe?eia e?iie ? aenioa
?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa, yea ca ?ici??aie cia/ii ia?aaeuo? aea?aaa ?ioeo
aeae?a, aoea iaeneiaeueiith a ?aeii? oaeueaaao. C i?aeeiiii ??aiy
c?inoaiiy ?ici?? aea?aa oeueiai aeaeo ciaiooaaany aei i?i?iaeueiiai ia
aa?oi?o ae?eyieao noeeo. Aea?aaa ianeeie, ye? c?inoaee ia ae?eyieao
i?ai?/iiai noeeo, oi?ioaaee a?eueo ?icaeiaio e?iio ii??aiyii c
i?aaeaiieie. O?noaoea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?aeiinii noaa?eueiei ?ici??ii
aea?aa, iacaeaaeii a?ae i?noey c?inoaiiy a eaiueeii?, ca aeiyoeii
aa?oiuei? ae?eyiee i?aaeaiiiai noeeo c iaeneiaeueiith ?inieyoe??th oa
aeao?oeeoii aieiae, aea aenioa aea?aa i?eaeecii a 1,5 ?ace a?eueoa a?ae
?ioeo. Oe?eia e?iie aea?aa o?noaoee ia i?aaeaiiiio noee? cai?ioii
ei?aeth? c ?o aenioith. O ?ioeo aeae?a niinoa??aaeanue iiceoeaia
ei?aeyoe?y i?ae aenioith aea?aa oa oe?eiith ?o e?iie. Ii??aiyiiy
?ici???a e?iie aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a ? ieiu? eenoe?a na?ae/eoue i?i
iayai?noue aeineoue /?oei? i?yii? ei?aeyoeaii? caeaaeiino? i?ae oeeie
iieacieeaie. I/aaeaeii, a?eueo ni?eyoeea? oiiae c?inoaiiy iaoiiaeththoue
iioeiaeueio ?aae?caoe?th iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae i?aai?cio, ui
i?iyaey?oueny a ca?eueoaii? aaa?oono e?iie ? ieiu? eenoeiaiai aia?aoo.
Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui na?aaecaiiiii?nuee? neea?io?oi? aeaee
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??cieie aaeaioeaieie no?aoaa?yie, ia iao iiaeyae,
ianeeio oa o?noaoeo iiaeia a?aeianoe aei ?ineei c S- no?aoaa??th,
aeaeeaaiiy yeeo iaoiiaeth?oueny i?eioeeiii aeo?eaaeino? oa no?eeino?.
Aiie aeineoue iia?eueii ooai?ththoue a?iiano, aea caeaoi? ?inoe i?ioyaii
onueiai ?ieo. ?iaeeiaa aea?aai oa aeoa ?c naciiiei ?inoii ? a?eueoith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth, a ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?ie, aei?a/ii a?aeianoe aei E-
no?aoaa?a. C aaeaioeaieie no?aoaa?yie aeae?a aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny
aeai? ?o ii?oieia?? (?en.2). O?noaoea oa ianeeia oi?iothoue cia/ii iaio?
ca ?ici??aie eenoee, ia?aaeon?i ia aa?oi?o ae?eyieao c a?eueo
iinooeeaeie oiiaaie i?aaeaiiiai noeeo, a aeoa oa ?iaeeiaa aea?aai
?ioaineaii aaaaoothoue a ni?eyoeeaee aeey ?inoo ia??iae, oi?ioth/e
a?eueo? ca ?ici??aie eenoee, iniaeeai ia ieaei?o, iaea?eueo cao?iaieo oa
caaacia/aieo aieiaith ae?eyieao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaoii?/ieo iniaeeainoae iieacothoue, ui ye eenoee
ie?aieo aeae?a, oae ? eenoee eiaeiiai aeaeo ia ??cieo ae?eyieao
eaiueeiio nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny ca oiaueiith eenoeiai? ieanoeiee
(?en.3). Ia?ao?ae c?inoaiiy ?ineei a?ae oiia iaea?eueoiai aiaei- oa
aoionicaaacia/aiiy i?e aeao?oeeo? ?inieyoe?? aei ?? iaeaeuiai ??aiy
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iinooiiaei ca?eueoaiiyi oiaueie eenoe?a o aeoaa ia
iaio noeeao oa o ianeeie ia i?aaeaiiiio — i?e iiae?aiiio ciaioaii? — ia
i?ai?/iiio noee?. E?ea? ci?ie oiaueie eenoe?a i?e iioe?aii? ?iaeeiaiai
aea?aaa a?ae i?eeaaeeo aei oaeueaaao ae?eyiie aei aa?oiuei? /anoeie aeey
i?ioeeaaeieo noee?a iathoue aeca?eaeueiee oa?aeoa?, a o o?noaoee — aiie
iiae?ai? aeey iaio noee?a. Iaea?eueoa oiaueia eenoea oa?aeoa?ia ?ineeiai
o?noaoee oa ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa, ye? ?inoooue a ?aeii? oaeueaaao oa
i?eeaaeeo aei iueiai ieaei?o ae?eyiie iaio noee?a, a oaeiae ianeeie ia
aa?oei? «ao?eeainueeiai» noeeo oa o?noaoee — ia aa?oei?
«?a?iiaenueeiai». A oe?eiio ae ?ineeie i?aaeaiiiai noeeo
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueoith oiaueiith eenoe?a ii??aiyii c i?ai?/iei.
Ca?eueoaiiy oiaueie eenoeiai? ieanoeiee, ye na?ae/aoue iaea?aeai? aeai?,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaaaeii ca ?aooiie a?eueo ?ioaineaiiai ?icaeoeo ??
iniiaii? anei?eyoe?eii? oeaieie — iacio?eo. Aeineoue /?oea caeaaei?noue
niinoa??aaeanue i?ae oiaueiith eenoea ? oiaueiith oeaiei iacio?eo
-iae?naaeii? oa aoa/anoi?. Cia/iee ?icaeoie iae?naaeii? ia?aio?ie iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye i?enoinoaaiiy aei aenieiai ??aiy ina?oeaiiy. A?eueoa
e?euee?noue oa??a iae?naaee, aai a?eueoa ?? u?euei?noue aei iaaii? i??e
eiiiaino? ciaioaio anei?eyoe?eio iiaa?oith eenoea. Aoa/anoa ia?aio?ia
aoea aeia?a ae?aaeaia o?eueee o ?ineei, ui ?inee ia ieaei?e ae?eyioe?
i?ai?/iiai noeeo oa a ?aeii? oaeueaaao. A eenoeao ?ineei c ?ioeo
ae?eyiie ee?oeie aoa/anoi? oeaieie iathoue noiaa/anoo no?oeoo?o, a
iiaeaeoaee eeno iaaoaa? yaii ae?aaeaii? ?cieaoa?aeueii? aoaeiae.

Aaeaioaoe?ei? ci?ie a aoaeia? eenoea noi?iaiaeaeothoueny o?c?ieia?/ieie.
Na?aae ieo aiaoii?/iei iaoiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeaeiny aeyaeoe oae?, ye
iaeiie/aiiy a ai?aea?i? oa iaeeaaeoe? i?ia?aeiiai io/ea neecenoeo
?a/iaei, iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy a oeaieiao eenoea aeoaeeueieo, ie??noeo oa
e?enoae?/ieo ?a/iaei. O ianeeie oa aeoaa a oeaieiao eenoea anoaiiaeaii
?icaeoie neea?a?aeieo ooai?aiue, a o o?noaoee oa ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa —
iioiauaiiy e?ai?o?eiaaieo iaieiiie ia?aio?ie oa ai?aea?ie (?en. 4).

Oaeei /eiii, io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i cia/io ii?oi-aiaoii?/io
ieanoe/i?noue oa aaeaioaoe?eio ni?iiiaei?noue eenoe?a a?/iicaeaieo
na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo aeae?a c ??ciith no?aoaa??th aaeaioaoe?? aei
iaeiaeiaeo oiia ?nioaaiiy. Oe?ieee niaeo? aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a eaiueeiio,
a naia — oiia ?inieyoe?? aieiai- oa aoionicaaacia/aiino? ie?aieo
ae?eyiie i?eaiaeeoue aei ??ciiiai?oieo aaeaioaoe?eieo ci?i no?oeoo?e
eenoeiaiai aia?aoo ena?io?oieo aeae?a.

O?oiai?iiie eenoe?a i?e ci?i? aeieia?/ieo oiia.

sseui, ye a?aeiii, aaa?oon, ??no, aiaoiii-ii?oieia?/i? iciaee ?ineeie
aecia/athoueny e?euee?noth, ?ici??aie, oi?iith ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th
ee?oei, oi o cae?eniaii? i?ioean?a iiae?eo, ?icoyaoaaiiy,
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? ee?oei, ye?
a?aeaeaathoue ?aaaoaaiiy ?ineeiieo i?aai?ci?a ia ae?th ciai?oi?o
oaeoi??a, aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? nenoaia ai?iiiaeueii? ?aaoeyoe??.

Aoeneie — aa?ooue o/anoue o ??ciiiai?oieo o?c?ieia?/ieo i?ioeanao, a
iaeaaaeeea?oee i?e?iaeiee i?aaenoaaiee ?o — ?IE ia?o ca ana iiaycaia c
ai?eaeueiei aeii?ioaaiiyi, ?icoyaoaaiiyi ee?oei, aeoeaoaaiiyi
ae?yeueiino? eaia?th, ooai?aiiyi eneeaie oa oeiaie oa oi?ioaaiiyi
aaa?oono ?ineei. Aea/aiiy ai?noo ?IE iieacaei, ui a eenoeao an?o aeae?a
aiia i?enooiy a iacia/ieo, ?iiae? ne?aeiaeo e?eueeinoyo. Iecuee? ??aaiue
oa a?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue ?IE iaaii iiaycai? ye ?c cieaeaiiyi ooieoe?e
oeueiai o?oiai?iiio o noi?iiaaieo eenoe?a, oae ? c ?oei?aiith ae??th ia
aoeneie OO — ?aae?aoe?? (Eaoae?, 1994), yeith caaaa/aia niiy/ia na?oei
aeaiiai ?aa?iio. Ae??th oeeo oaeoi??a, i/aaeaeii, iiaeia iiynieoe
ia?aaaaeaiiy e?eueeino? ?IE o eenoe?a ianeeie oa aeoaa ia i?ai?/iiio
noee? eaiueeiio (?en.5). Iaeiie/aiiy ?IE ?iiae? iia’ycothoue c ??
aieeaii ia ciaioaiiy ai?noo e?ai?io. Ine?eueee eenoee neea?io?eueieo
aeae?a iathoue aeia?a ae?aaeaio e?ai?o?eaoe?th ee?oei, iiaeeeai,
iecueeee ??aaiue a?eueii? oi?ie ?IE — oea ?o aaeaioeaia iniaeea?noue.

A?aa?ae?iiiiae?ai? ?a/iaeie, ye a?aeiii, aieeaathoue ia i?ioeane iiae?eo
oa ?icoyaoaaiiy ee?oei, ni?eythoue iiaeiaaeaiith iaaii?a oa oi?ioaaiith
aaa?oono ?ineei, eiio?ieththoue ii/aoie ? o?eaae?noue oa?i?io
aaaaoaoe??, aecia/athoue oi?io e?iie o aea?aa ? no?ee?noue aei
iani?eyoeeaeo oiia.

Aea/aiiy a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? AI? c eenoe?a ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa,
ianeeie oa aeoaa iieacaei a?aei?iiino? ?o ye?niiai oa e?euee?niiai
neeaaeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo, a aeey ?ineei eiaeiiai aeaeo — a?ae
i?noeac?inoaiiy a ??cieo oiiaao eaiueeiio (?en.6). Ca?eueoaiiy
aeoeaiino? AI? ei?aethaaei a eenoeao aeoaa c? ci?iith aenioe eaiueeiio,
/iai ia iiaeia neacaoe i?i a?aa?ae?iiiiae?ai? ?a/iaeie c eenoe?a
ianeeie. sse?niee neeaae AI? oeeo aeaio aeae?a ?noioii ci?ithaaany a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?eyiee eaiueeiio. Ciie aethao?a c o?iiaoia?ai, ye?
aoee aeoeai? o ?ineei c i?aaeaiiiai noeeo, aeyaeyee iacia/io aeoeai?noue
o i?ai?/ieo ?ineei. A?aa?aeiaa aeoeai?noue eenoe?a ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa
a?ae??ciyeanue ca nai?ie ye?nieie oa e?euee?nieie iieacieeaie a?ae ?ioeo
aeae?a. Aiia aoea iaioith, aea ?iciiae?eyeanue i?aeoe/ii ii an?o ciiao
o?iiaoia?ai, ui na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueoee niaeo? a?aa?ae?i?a oeueiai
aeaeo. sse?nieo ci?i AI? i?ae aieeaii aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a o oeueiai
aeaeo ia aeyaeaii. O?aaa cacia/eoe, ui a aeoeaieo ciiao o?iiaoia?ai AI?,
aeae?eaieo c eenoe?a ianeeie aoei ?aeaioeo?eiaaii AE7, ia aeyaeaio o
?ioeo aeae?a, o aeoaa — AE9, a o ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa — AE3 . Cia/iee
?ioa?an yaeythoue io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?i iayai?noue N-19
3-ienea?aa?ae?i?a (i?aaenoaaieeii yeeo ? AE7) o ianeeie, a oaeiae ?o
yaia iaoaaie?caoe?y i?ae ae??th neeueii? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??.

Oeeoie?i?ie, aeeiioth/e ie?aii ? a eiiieaen? c ?ioeie o?oiai?iiiaie ?yae
aaaeeeaeo ooieoe?e a ?ineeiiiio i?aai?ci?, iniaeeao

?ieue a?ae?a?athoue a eenoeao o ca’yceo c i?ioeanaie ?o noa??iiy,
cao?eioth/e eiai oeyoii noeioeyoe?? a?ineioaoe/ieo i?ioean?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo oeeoie?i?i?a a eenoeao na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo
aea?aaieo aeae?a iieacaei ??cieoeth a ?o e?euee?niiio oa ye?niiio
neeaae? a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?noey c?inoaiiy oa a?ae aeaeiai?
niaoeeo?/iino? ?ineei ( ?en. 7). Aeuee ai?no oeeoie?i?i?a aeyaeaiee a
eenoeao, ye? iathoue aeia?a ?icaeiooee i?aeee?oeiiee i?ino??. Eenoee
ianeeie iaee iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue oeeoie?i?i?a ia aa?oi?e ae?eyioe?
(120 i aenioith) i?ai?/iiai noeeo eaiueeiio, a iaeiaioo — ia oiio ae
aenioiiio ??ai?, aea i?aaeaiiiai noeeo. O oeueiai aeaeo aoee aeyaeai? ye
caaoei, oae ? caaoei?eaiceae, aea iieaeoey?ia oi?ia oeeoie?i?io
caeaaeaea a?ae i?noeac?inoaiiy aea?aaa ia eaiueeii?: ia oeo ae?eyieao
eaiueeiio, aea a eenoeao ?inoo/eo oai aea?aa aeyaeaii caaoei, ia aoei
aecia/aii caaoei?eaiceaeo. A eenoeao aeoaa aeyaeaii caaoei?eaiceae. Eiai
ai?no ia caeaaeaa a?ae ?icoaooaaiiy ?ineei ia noeeao, ? aoa iaeaea
iaeiaeiaei aeey ?ineei an?o ae?eyiie. O ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa ia aeyaeaii
caaoei?eaiceaeo, a iaea?eueoee ??aaiue aecia/aiiai caaoeio aoa o ?ineei
oaeueaaao ? aeaio i?eeaaeeo aei iueiai ae?eyiie i?ioeeaaeieo noee?a c
iaea?eueoith aieiai- oa aoionicaaacia/aii?noth. Aa??thaaiiy ??ai?a
oeeoie?i?i?a a eenoeao ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa, iiaeeeai, iiaycaii c
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi ai?aea?ie o aeaiiai aeaeo, oiaoi c ?icaeoeii
iioiauaieo, aea aeanoe/ieo ee?oeiieo iaieiiie.

Aanoeeciaa eeneioa ia? oe?ieee niaeo? o?c?ieia?/ii? ae?? a eenoeao,
a?ae?a?ath/e aaaeeeao ?ieue a ?aaoeyoe?? aiaeiiai ?aaeeio o ?ineei /a?ac
aieea ia nooi?iue a?aee?eoino? i?iaeeo?a oa aaciaee iai?i. Ii??aiyeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy (Salleo, 1996) iieaciee?a aiaeiiai ?aaeeio neea?io?eueieo
?ineei Na?aaecaiiiii?y aeyaeee ??cieoeth a no?aoaa?yo ?o o?c?ieia?/ieo
aaeaioaoe?e aei aeao?oeeoo aieiae. ?iaeeiaa aea?aai iiaea o?eiaoe
i?iaeeoe a?aee?eoeie i?ioyaii oe?eiai aeiy ? aeoeaii aeia?iaoaaoe aiaeo,
a oie /an ye ianeeia cae?eaa? ?o i?ae /an iinooe. Oe? aeaee iathoue
??ci? oeie neea?io?e??. Ianeeia ia? ae?enio neea?io?e?th ye ?acoeueoao
cia/ii? e?eueeino? neea?aio?iieo ooai?aiue, a ?iaeeiaa aea?aai
inaaaeiena?io?e?th, yea iiaycaia c iayai?noth ia?aio?iieo ee?oei c
aei?noeeie, aea aeanoe/ieie iaieiieaie. Ae?enia neea?io?e?y aeicaiey?
caa??aaoe aiaeo a neea?a?aeao, a inaaaeineea?io?e?y aea? ciiao ?ineeiai
oieeaoe aiaeiiai no?ano oeyoii ?icaeoeo aeanoe/iino? iaieiiie. ?ineeie c
ae?enii neea?aio?iieie eenoeaie iiaeooue ?inoe aanue ??e, a oie /an ye
inaaaeineea?io?ee ?inoooue 5- 6 i?n. ia ??e. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo oa
a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? AAE ( ?en.8 ) iieacaei, ui ai?no a?eueii? AAE a
eenoeao ianeeie oa aeoaa aoa iaea?eueoei o ?ineei ia aa?oi?o ae?eyieao
i?ioeeaaeieo noee?a eaiueeiio, oi/ ?? ??aaiue a eenoeao ?ineei
i?ai?/iiai noeeo aeaui iinooia?oueny i?aaeaiiiio. Ii??aiyii iaaenie?
??ai? AAE aeyaeai? ia ?ioeo ae?eyieao. O C. s?l?qua AAE aeyaeaia eeoa a
?aeii? oaeueaaao.

O ianeeie, aeey yei? oa?aeoa?ii iiaia cae?eooy i?iaeeo?a a oiiaao
aiaeiiai aeao?oeeoo, aeyaeaii aenieee ??aaiue AAE, i?enooi?noue yei? ?
iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey ii?iaeueiiai aiaeiiai?io. Ine?eueee ?iaeeiaa
aea?aai, ia a?aei?io a?ae ianeeie ? aeoaa, iiaea o?eiaoe i?iaeeoe
a?aee?eoeie ia i?ioyc? anueiai aeiy, oiiae oaeueaaao eaiueeiio,
iiaeeeai, ? aeey oeueiai aeaeo iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaeie.

C iaoith ii??aiyiiy aieeao ??cieo i?noeue ?icoaooaaiiy eenoea ia
e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?oiai?iii?a aoei i?iaaaeaii noaoenoe/ia
ii?aoethaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie NESTED, yea iieacaei
iayai?noue e?euee?nieo ci?i o?oiai?iii?a ( ?IE, AAE oa oeeoie?i?ie) o
an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a ?ineei i?ae aieeaii ??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiia
ae?eyiie eaiueeiio. A oie aea /an iacia/ia i?ieea?noue e?eueeino?
o?oiai?iii?a a eenoeao aea?aa niinoa??aaeanue a iaaeao ie?aii? ae?eyiee
aai a eenoeao iaeiiai aeaeo aea?aaa.

Oaaeeoey1.I?ieea?noue e?eueeino? o?oiai?iii?a caeaaeii a?ae ?icoaooaaiiy
eenoe?a.

O?oiai?iii

Eenoee a iaaeao:Ci?ia a?aeiinii? /anoee aa??aine (2) a %Olea
europeaaCeraton?a s?l?quaQuercus call?pr?nos?IEnoee?a
eaiueeiio92.986.090.5ae?eyiie eaiueeiio6.412.18.4aea?aaa iaeiiai
aeaeo0.71.91.1AAEnoee?a eaiueeiio98.6-98.2ae?eyiie
eaiueeiio0.5-1.4aea?aaa iaeiiai aeaeo0.9-0.4Oeeoie?i?ienoee?a
eaiueeiio95.796.438.9ae?eyiie eaiueeiio2.72.846.6aea?aaa iaeiiai
aeaeo1.70.814.5Ine?eueee a?eueo?noue aoaeo?a i?iyaey?oueny eeoa i?e
aca?iiae?? ai?iiiaeueieo ?a/iaei noeioeyoi?ii? oa ?ia?a?oi?ii? ae??,
aeine?aeaeaiiy anueiai eiiieaeno o?oiai?iii?a aea? iiaeeea?noue
c’ynoaaoe ?o ?ieue a i?ioeanao i?enoinoaaiiy ?ineeiiiai i?aai?cio aei
??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiia ?nioaaiiy. ?ic?aooiie eiao?oe??ioo aaeaino
o?oiai?iii?a (Naaeinueeee,1991)iieacaa, ui o ianeeie ia aa?oi?o
ae?eyieao i?ioeeaaeieo noee?a, aea iaeaeuee ??aaiue ?inieyoe?? oa
iaeiaioa aieiai- oa aoionicaaacia/aii?noue a oaeiae ia na?aaei?e
ae?eyioe? i?aaeaiiiai noeeo (2-e) oa a ?aeii? oaeueaaao (4-e), aaeain
o?oiai?iii?a ia? ?ia?a?oi?iee oa?aeoa?, ia ?ioeo ae?eyieao eaiueeiio a
eenoeao ia?aaaaeathoue noeioeyoi?e ?inoo. A eenoeao aeoaa ai?iiiaeueiee
aaeain ci?uaii a a?e AAE eeoa o ?ineei aa?oiuei? oa na?aaeiuei? ae?eyiie
i?aaeaiiiai noeeo. Aeey ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa aaeain ai?iii?a ia an?o
ae?eyieao ci?uaii a a?e noeioeyoi??a. Uii?aaaea, ia aa?oi?o ae?eyieao
i?aaeaiiiai noeeo (1-e, 2-e) oa a ?aeii? oaeueaaao (4-e) eiao?oe??io
aaeaino ai?iii?a cia/ii ieae/ee, i?ae ia ?ioeo.

Oaaeeoey 2. Eiao?oe?aio aaeaino aiaeiaaiieo o?oiai?iii?a.

Ae?eyiee eaiueeiioAeaeOlea europeaeCeraton?a s?l?quaQuercus
call?pr?nos10,1510,60,320,710,80,431,265,21,340,81,92,151,039,31,161,448
,42,370,7251,11,4I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue ocaaaeueieoe
io?eiai? aeai? noiniaii ie?aieo aeae?a aea?aaieo neea?io?oieo ?ineei
Na?aaecaiiiii?’y ??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiia c?inoaiiy. Iieacaii, ui
?aaeoe?y ?ineei ia ci?io oaeoi??a ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua i?iyaey?oueny
a cia/i?e ieanoe/iino? eenoeiaiai aia?aoo ia o?c?ieia?/iiio oa
no?oeoo?iiio ??aiyo. Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i o?niee caycie i?ae
ai?noii o?oiai?iii?a, oaeoi?aie aeiae?eey ? iniaeeainoyie aaeaioaoe??
ie?aieo aeae?a.

Olea europeae L. ??cieoey o ai?no? o?oiai?iii?a o ianeeie
niinoa??aa?oueny ye o ?ineei, ui ?inoooue ia i?ioeeaaeieo noeeao
eaiueeiio,

oae ? o oeo, ye? ?inoooue ia ??cieo ae?eyieao iaeiiai noeeo. Ai?no
aanoeeciai? eeneioe o oeueiai aeaeo a?eueoa caeaaeeoue a?ae aenioe
noeeo, i?ae a?ae eiai aaia?ao?/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy, ? iaeaeuee a?i ia
aa?oi?o ae?eyieao. Iieacieee e?eueeino? oeeoie?i?i?a oa ?iaeie?eioeoiai?
eeneioe aeu? o ?ineei, ye? c?inoathoue ia i?ai?/iiio noee? eaiueeiio
ii??aiyii c i?aaeaiiei. ??aaiue a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino?
a?aa?ae?iiiiae?aieo ?a/iaei ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?icoaooaaiiy ?ineei ia
eaiueeii?, aea ?o ye?niee neeaae i?e oeueiio ci?ith?oueny. Aeey oeueiai
aeaeo oa?aeoa?i? oae? ei?aeyoeai? caycee: i?yi? ei?aeyoe?? : i?ae
oiaueiith ai?aea?ie oa e?euee?noth AAE; i?ae
e?euee?noth oeeoie?i?i?a oa ?IE; cai?ioi? ei?aeyoe?? : i?ae oe?eiith
e?iie, ieiuath eenoe?a oa aeoeai?noth AI?; i?ae aenioith ee?oei
iae?naaee oa e?euee?noth ?IE; i?ae oiaueiith oeaiei iacio?eo oa
aenioith aea?aaa; i?ae oiaueiith ieaeiuei? ai?aea?ie ? aoa/anoi?
ia?aio?ie ? e?euee?noth oeeoie?i?i?a.

Ceraton?a s?l?qua L. A eenoeao ?ineei ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa, ye? ?inoooue
ia i?ioeeaaeieo noeeao eaiueeiio ia aeyaeaii cia/ii? ??cieoe? a ??aiyo
aeine?aeaeoaaieo o?oiai?iii?a. A oie aea /an niinoa??aaeanue ??cieoey o
?o ai?noo a eenoeao ?ineei, ui c?inoaee ia ??cieo ae?eyieao iaeiiai
noeeo, oiaoi ??aaiue o?oiai?iii?a aoa a?eueo caeaaeiei a?ae aenioe
?icoaooaaiiy ae?eyiee. Oae, ??aaiue oeeoie?i?i?a cia/ii aeuee ia
ae?eyieao c aenioith 40 oa 60 iao??a ii??aiyii c ?ioeie. E?euee?noue
?iaeie?eioeoiai? eeneioe ia?aaaaea? o ?ineei, ui ?inoooue ia aenio? 90
oa 120 iao??a. Aeey oeueiai aeaeo oa?aeoa?i? oae? ei?aeyoeai? caycee:
i?yi? ei?aeyoe?? : i?ae oe?eiith e?iie oa aeoeai?noth AI?; i?ae aenioith
aea?aaa oa oe?eiith eiai e?iie oa e?euee?noth AAE; i?ae oiaueiith
eenoea oa oeaiei iacio?eo ? e?euee?noth ?IE; i?ae aenioith aea?aaa oa
oiaueiith aa?oiuei? ai?aea?ie; cai?ioi? ei?aeyoe?? : i?ae ieiuath oa
oiaueiith eenoe?a ? e?euee?noth oeeoie?i?i?a.

Quercus cocc?fera var. call?pr?nos ( Webb.). O oeueiai aeaeo aeinoia??ia
??cieoey ??ai?a o?oiai?iii?a iieacaia o ?ineei, ui c?inoathoue ia
i?ioeeaaeieo ae?eyieao noee?a ? anoaiiaeaia aeey AAE, AI? oa ?IE. Aeuee
??aaiue aanoeeciai? eeneioe niinoa??aa?oueny o ?ineei i?aaeaiiiai noeeo,
?iaeie?eioeoiai? eeneioe oa a?aa?ae?iiiiae?aieo ?a/iaei o oeo, ui
?inoooue ia i?ai?/iiio noee?. ??aaiue oeeoie?i?i?i?a ci?ith?oueny a
iaaeao iiieeee aeine?aeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?eyiee eaiueeiio.
Ei?aeyoeai? caycee, oa?aeoa?i? aeey aeoaa : i?yi? ei?aeyoe?? : i?ae
an?ia aiaoii?/ieie iieacieeaie oa ??aiai AI? oa AAE; cai?ioiy ei?aeyoe?y
: i?ae ??aiai ?IE oa OeOE.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee i?inoaaeeoe ?yae
iiceoeaieo oa iaaaoeaieo ei?aeyoe?e aiaeiaaiiiai ai?noo ai?iii?a c
aiaoiii- ii?oieia?/ieie iieacieeaie. Caeaoi?noue ?ineei i?aeo?eioaaoe
iaaiee ai?iiiaeueiee oii iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a i/aaeaeii iiaycaia c ?o
aaeaioeaieie no?aoaa?yie. Oeie aaeaioeaieo no?aoaa?e aecia/athoueny ye
caaaeuei? caniae aeaeeaaiiy ?ineei a aeinenoaiao. A?aeiii 3 oeie
aaeaioeaieo no?aoaa?e: E, R, S. ?ineeie, ui ? E — no?aoaaaie,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny caeaoi?noth caoiiethaaoe ? oo?eioaaoe ?ano?ne ca
?aooiie i?eai?/aiiy ?ioeo ?ineei. R — no?aoaae oaeaeei iaieiae?aathoue
oa?eoi???th, aea e oae naii eaaei onoaathoueny c ia? /a?ac ?o iecueeo
eiieo?aioio ni?iiiaei?noue. S — no?aoaae a ai?iouea? ca ?nioaaiiy ia
ia?oee ieai aenoaathoue aeo?eaae?noue, a ia aia?a?th aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.
Ianeeio oa aeoa iiaeia a?aeianoe aei ?ineei c S- no?aoaa??th. ?o
ai?iiiaeueiee aaeain ni?ey? i?enoinoaaiith aei aeno?aiaeueieo oiia
na?aaeiaeua. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?iee iia?eueiee ??no c iecueeith
?ioaineai?noth iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a i?ioyaii oe?eiai ?ieo. ?iaeeiaa
aea?aai aei?a/ii a?aeianoe aei E — no?aoaa?a a cayceo c eiai ii??aiyii
a?eueoith i?iaeoeoeai?noth, yea ? iane?aeeii ?ioaineaiiai i?io?eaiiy
iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a.

AENIIAEE:

1. Aeao?oeeo aieiae oa ?ioaineaia ?inieyoe?y iaoiiaeththoue ??cio
no?aoaa?th no?oeoo?ii — ii?oieia?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? eenoe?a, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ciaioaiiyi ?o ?ici???a oa iaaoooyi iniaeeaeo
aeaeiniaoeeo?/ieo aiaoii?/ieo ia?aaoaeia:

· eenoee ianeeie oa aeoaa oa?aeoa?ecothoueny «eeane/iei» oeiii ?aaeoe??
— c?inoaiiyi oiaueie eenoeiai? ieanoeiee, i?aeaeuaiiyi iae?naaeiino?,
ca?eueoaiiyi ee?oei iacio?eo oa ai?aea?ie;

· eenoee o?noaoee ci?iththoue no?oeoo?o ee?oei aoa/anoi? ia?aio?ie, ye?
iaaoaathoue aeaeiaaeaii? oi?ie. Oiaueia eenoeiai? ieanoeiee ia ? aeey
oeueiai aeaeo aecia/aeueiith iciaeith;

· aeey eenoe?a ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa iniiai? aiaoii?/i? ci?ie a i?ioean?
aaeaioaoe?? noinoaaeenue aoaeiae ieaeiuei? ai?aea?ie, cie?aia a oiiaao
a?eueoi? aieiaicaaacia/aiino? c’yaeythoueny aeiaeaoeia?
noaai?aea?iaeuei? oa?e ee?oei.

2. Oi?iaoeaiee aoaeo o aea?aaieo ii??ae, aaeaioiaaieo aei ??cieo
aa?ioe/ieo /eiiee?a, aeeeeeaiee i?aeaeuaiith OO-?aae?aoe??th oa
iiieaeaiith aieiai- oa aoionicaaacia/ai?noth, i?iyaey?oueny o ?aaeoeoe??
anei?eyoe?eii? iiaa?oi? eenoeiai? ieanoeiee, yea eiiiaino?oueny
ca?eueoaiiyi ?? oiaueie ca ?aooiie ee?oei iacio?eo.

3. Iai?aaeai?noue ci?i ai?iiiaeueiiai neeaaeo eenoe?a aea?aaieo ii??ae,
aaeaioiaaieo aei eiio?anoieo aa?ioe/ieo oiia caeaaeeoue ye a?ae i?e?iaee
oa ?ioaineaiino? ae?? oaeoi??a, oae ? a?ae aeaeiaeo iniaeeainoae ?ineei.

4. Ii??aiyeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo o?oiai?iii?a a eenoeao aeae?a c
??ciith no?aoaa??th ?aaoeyoe?? aiaeiiai ?aaeeio (Olea ? Ceraton?a)
aeicaieeei c’ynoaaoe, ui ?o aaeaioeaia iniaeea?noue i?iyaey?oueny o
a?aeiinii iecueeiio ??ai? ?IE a eenoeao iaio aeae?a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith e?ai?o?eaoe??th oeaiei.

5. A oiiaao aeniei? ?inieyoe?? aaaioii, i?aaethth/ei ?? aaeuei?aiee
aieea ia ??no ?ineei, iiaeeeai, aenooiathoue AI?, aeaeiniaoeeo?/i?noue
eiiiiiaioiiai neeaaeo yeeo i?iyaey?oueny o iayaiino? a eenoeao
?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa AE3 , ianeeie — AE7, aeoaa — AE9.

6. Ae?y aenieiai ??aiy i?e?iaeii? OO-?aae?aoe?? i?eaiaeeea aei cieaeaiiy
a eenoeao ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa ??aiy oeeoie?i?i?a, yeee ei?aeth? c
oiaueiith ai?aea?iaeueii? oeaieie, ui na?ae/eoue i?i o/anoue ia?o ca ana
caaoeio o ooieoe?iioaaii? oe??? oeaieie.

7. Iaea?eueo aenieee ??aaiue AAE, iio??aiee aeey ii?iaeueiiai
aiaeiiai?io eenoe?a, anoaiiaeaii o ianeeie, ye?e aeanoeaa iiaia cae?eooy
i?iaeeo?a, a i?noeyo c?inoaiiy c aiaeiei aeao?oeeoii oa ?ioaineaiith
?inieyoe??th. Iaaiaee, iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue AAE a eenoeao ?iaeeiaiai
aea?aaa, o yeiai i?iaeeoe iiaeooue aooe a?aee?eoeie ia i?ioyc? anueiai
aeiy, ciaeaeaia i?e eiai c?inoaii? a i?e?iee?iaoe/ieo oiiaao oaeueaaao.

8. Iacaeaaeii a?ae aeaeo ?ineei ci?ie ai?noo ie?aieo o?oiai?iii?a a
oiiaao aieeao ??cieo aa?ioe/ieo oaeoi??a aeyaeyeenue a iine?aeiaiino?
AAE Oeeoie?i?ie ?IE

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E .

1. Aieueoaeiaa I.I., Ionaoaiei E.?., Ia?oei A.A., Iaai A., Neoiee E.I.
No?oeoo?ia aaeaioaoe?y eenoe?a Ceratonia siligua L., Olea europeae L.,
Pistacia lentiscus L., Quercus calliprinos (Webb.) aei oiia ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua // Oe?. Aioai. aeo?i. — 1997.- 54, ?4. — N.348-351.

2. Aieueoaeiaa I.A., Ionaoaiei E.E. Ii?oi-oeceieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe
eenoueaa ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia, i?iec?anoathueo a eiio?anoiuo yeieiae/aneeo
oneiaeyo // Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?. — 1998. — ?12. — N. 184-187.

3. Bolshakova M.A., Musatenko L.I., Sytnik K.M.,.Nevo E, Pavlicek T.,
Beharav A. Environment abiotic factors affects on the phytohormonal
level in leaves of some woody plants // Oe?. Aioai. aeo?i. — 1998.- ?6.
— N. 578-584.

4. Aieueoaeiaa I.A., Ionaoaiei E.E., Iaai Y., Nuoiee E.I. Oeoiai?iiiu a
eenoueyo ae?aaaniuo ?anoaiee, aaeaioe?iaaiiuo e ?acee/iui oneiaeyi
«Yaiethoeeiiiiai eaiueiia» (Ec?aeeue) // Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?. — 1998. —
?5. — N. 196-199.

5. Aieueoaeiaa I.I., Ionaoaiei E.?., Ia?oei A.A., Iaai A., Neoiee E.I.
Aaeaioaoe?y eenoe?a Ceratonia siligua L., Olea europeae L., Pistacia
lentiscus L., Quercus calliprinos (Webb.) aei oiia ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua // I?iaeaie aioai?ee ? i?eieia?? ia ii?ic? o?aoueiai
oeny/ie?ooy: iaoa??aee O c?caeo Oe?. Aioai. oiaa?enoaa ( Iieoaaa, 22-23
o?aaiy, 1997). — Ee?a, 1997. — N. 117.

6. Aieueoaeiaa I.I., Ionaoaiei E.?. Aanoeeciaa eeneioa oa oeeoie?i?ie
ena?io?oieo aeae?a // Iioiaaiac ?ineei a i?e?iaeiueiio oa
o?ainoi?iiaaiiiio na?aaeiaeu?: iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaei. eiio. ( Euea?a, 1-
4 eeiiy, 1998 ). — Euea?a : “Niieii”, 1998. — N. 190-191.

7. Aieueoaeiaa I.A., Ia?oui A.E., Ionaoaiei E.E., Iaai Y. ?ieue
aeaaa?aeeeiia a aaeaioaoeee iaeioi?uo ae?aaaniuo aeaeia e oneiaeyi
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu // O1 Iieiae?aeiay eiioa?aioeey aioaieeia: Oac.
aeiee. ( Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 12-16 iay 1997). — Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a — 1997. —
N. 42-43.

8. M.A. Bolshakova, L.I. Musatenko, G.I. Martyn Peculiarities of the
leaf adaptation of some woody species to contrast ecological
conditions// Bulgarian Juorn. Plant Physiol. Special issue. — 1998. —
P.250.

9. Aieueoaeiaa I.I Ai?no o?oiai?iii?a ? no?oeoo?a eenoe?a aeayeeo
aea?aaieo aeae?a. // ?ioaa?aoeai?noue ooieoe?e a ?ineeiiio i?aai?ci?:
ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iaoeia-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo. –
Ee?a — 1998. – N. 5-7.

10. Aieueoaeiaa I.I., Ionaoaiei E.?., Ia?oei A.A. Aieea eiio?anoieo
aeieia?/ieo oiia ia ai?no o?oiai?iii?a ? no?oeoo?o eenoe?a aea?aaieo
aeae?a // 1 Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y “Aeieia?/iee no?an ?
aaeaioaoe?y a a?ieia?/ieo nenoaiao: Iaoa??aee eiio.(Oa?iii?eue, 27-29
aeiaoiy,1998 ). — Oa?iii?eue, 1998. — N. 39 — 42.

Aieueoaeiaa I.I. “O?oiai?iiie oa no?oeoo?a eenoe?a aeayeeo aea?aaieo
aeae?a a ??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiiaao”. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.12 — o?c?ieia?y ?ineei. Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?ieeaino? no?oeoo?e ? ??aiae
aiaeiaaieo o?oiai?iii?a eenoe?a aea?aaieo na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo ?ineei,
ye? ?inoooue a ??cieo i?e?iee?iaoe/ieo oiiaao. Io?eiaii iia? aeai?, ia
i?aenoaa? yeeo anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?ii? oa o?c?ieia?/ii?
aaeaioaoe?? eenoe?a. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ai?a
o?oiai?iii?a o aea?aaieo ?ineei, ui a?ae??ciythoueny ca no?aoaa?yie
aaeaioaoe?e aei aeao?oeeoo aieiae. Iieacaii, ui i?enoinoaaiiy eenoe?a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeae?a aei ae?? ??cieo aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a i?ioiaeeoue
oeyoii ci?ie aaeaino o?oiai?iii?a oa aeaeiniaoeeo?/ii? i?ieeaino?
no?oeoo?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eenoie, aiaoii?y, o?oiai?iiie, eaiueeii, aaeaioaoe?y.

Aieueoaeiaa I.A. “Oeoiai?iiiu e no?oeoo?a eenoueaa ae?aaaniuo aeaeia,
aaeaioe?iaaiiuo e ?acee/iui yeieiae/aneei oneiaeyi”. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.12 — oeceieiaey ?anoaiee. — Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieyi eciai/eainoe no?oeoo?u e o?iaiae
yiaeiaaiiuo oeoiai?iiiia eenoueaa ae?aaaniuo n?aaeecaiiiii?neeo aeaeia,
eioi?ua i?iec?anoatho a ?acee/iuo iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou aeaee aiciiaeiinoue onoaiiaeoue caeiiiia?iinoe
no?oeoo?iie e oeceieiae/aneie aaeaioaoeee eenoueaa ae?aaaniuo aeaeia e
?aciui yeieiae/aneei oneiaeyi. Aia?aua i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniia
enneaaeiaaiea niaea?aeaiey oeoiai?iiiia o ena?ioeoiuo aeaeia ?anoaiee,
?acee/athueony no?aoaaeyie aaeaioaoeee e aeaoeoeeoo aiaeu. Iieo/aiiua
?acoeueoaou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i cia/eoaeueiie aeaeiniaoeeoe/iie
ieanoe/iinoe no?oeoo?u eenoueaa e oeoiai?iiiaeueiiai eiiieaena e
caaeneiinoue eo io iee?ieeeiaoe/aneiai aeeyiey oaeoi?ia. Aeaiiua iiaoo
auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey ioeaiee aeeaiaciia oiea?aioiinoe aeaeia, a
oaeaea aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey eo iiaaaeaiey a a?eaeiuo oneiaeyo
nouanoaiaaiey. Aeaoeoeeo aiaeu e eioaineaiay einieyoeey iaoneiaeeaatho
?acee/ioth no?aoaaeth no?oeoo?ii-ii?oieiae/aneie aaeaioaoeee eenoueaa,
eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoaony oiaiueoaieai eo ?acia?ia e i?eia?aoaieai
aeaeiniaoeeoe/iuo aiaoiie/aneeo ia?ano?iae. Eenouey ianeeiu e aeoaa
oa?aeoa?ecothony «eeanne/aneei» oeiii ?aaeoeee — oaaee/aieai oieueiu
eenoiaie ieanoeiee, aa iaeenaaeiinoe, oaaee/aieai ?acia?ia eeaoie
iacioeeo e yieaea?iu. Eenouey oenoaoee eciaiytho no?oeoo?o eeaoie
aoa/aoie ia?aioeiu, eioi?ua noaiiayony aieaa auoyiooie oi?iu. Oieueia
eenoa ia yaeyaony aeey yoiai aeaea ii?aaeaeythuei iieacaoaeai. Aeey
?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa iniiaiua aiaoiie/aneea eciaiaiey a i?ioeanna
aaeaioaoeee eanaeenue no?iaiey ieaeiae yieaea?iu, a /anoiinoe, a
oneiaeyo oaeueaaaa eaiueiia e naaa?iiai aai neeiia iiyaeythony
aeiiieieoaeueiua noayieaea?iaeueiua neie. Oi?iaoeaiue yooaeo, aucaaiiue
iiauoaiiie OO- ?aaeeaoeeae e iiieaeaiiie aeaai- e
aoioniiaania/aiiinoueth, o ae?aaaniuo ii?iae, aaeaioe?iaaiiuo e
?acee/iui yeieiae/aneei oneiaeyi, i?iyaeyaony a ?aaeoeoeee
aneieeyoeeiiiie

iiaa?oiinoe, eioi?ay eiiiaine?oaony oaaee/aieai oieueiu eenoiaie
ieanoeiee ca n/ao eeaoie iacioeea.

Iai?aaeaiiinoue eciaiaiee ai?iiiaeueiiai ninoaaa eenoueaa ae?aaaniuo
ii?iae, aaeaioe?iaaiiuo e eiio?anoiui aaeioe/aneei oaeoi?ai eaiueiia
caaeneo eae io i?e?iaeu e eioaineaiinoe aeaenoaey oaeoi?a, oae e io
aeaeiauo iniaaiiinoae ?anoaiee. N?aaieoaeueiia eco/aiea niaea?aeaiey
oeoiai?iiiia a eenoueyo aeaeia n ?acee/iie no?aoaaeae ?aaoeyoeee
aiaeiiai ?aaeei (Olea e Ceratonia) iicaieeei auynieoue, /oi eo
aaeaioeaiay iniaaiiinoue i?iyaeyaony a ioiineoaeueii ieceii o?iaia EOE a
eenoueyo iaieo aeaeia, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony cia/ieoaeueiie
eeaieoeeaoeeae oeaiae. A oneiaeyo aunieie einieyoeee aaaioii,
ieaaee?o?othuei ?? oi?iicyuaa aeeyiea ia ?ino ?anoaiee, aiciiaeii,
aunooiatho AIA, aeaeiniaoeeoe/iinoue eiiiiiaioiiai ninoaaa eioi?uo
i?iyaeyaony a iayaiinoe a eenoueyo ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa AE3 , ianeeiu —
AE7, aeoaa — AE9. Iaeaieaa aunieee o?iaaiue AAE, onoaiiaeai o ianeeiu a
oneiaeyo iiieaeaiiie aeaaiiaania/aiiinoe. Iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai AAE a
eenoueyo ?iaeeiaiai aea?aaa ii?aaeaeaii a iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo
oaeueaaaa. Iacaaeneii io aeaea ?anoaiee eciaiai/eainoue niaea?aeaiey
ioaeaeueiuo oeoiai?iiiia a oneiaeyo aeeyiey aaeioe/aneeo oaeoi?ia
iaaethaeaeanue a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe AAE Oeeoieeieiu EOE .

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeno, aiaoiiey, oeoiai?iiiu, eaiueii, aaeaioaoeey.

Bolshakova M.O.“Phytohormones and leaf structure in woody species under
contrasting ecological conditions”. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate of biological sciences degree, speciality
03.00.12 — plant physiology, Taras Shevchenko Kiov University, 1999.

Thesis devoted investigation of structure and phytohormones levels
variabily of Mediterranian woody species which growing in different
microclimatic conditions. Peculiarity of leaves structural and
physiological adaptation determined on the basis new data receipted.
Firstly was conducted complete studying of phytohormonal levels in woody
plants have differ strategy of adaptation to water deficit. It was been
shown that studied plant leaves adaptation to effects of extreme abiotic
factors occurs by way of changes in phytohormones levels and species
specifity variabily of the structure.

Key words: leaf, anatomy, phytohormones, canyon, adaptation.

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