EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

E?NI?*AIEI NA?A?E IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE 347.73:339.727.22.

O?IAINIAI — I?AAIAA ?AAOETHAAIIss ?IICAIIIAI ?IAANOOAAIIss A OE?A?I?

(ca caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie oa e?a?i ?N ? NOA)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12.00.07 – oai??y oi?aae?iiy; aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?aai ?
i?ioean; o?iainiaa i?aai, aaie?anueea i?aai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

Aeena?oaoe?th aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – Eoci?oeiaa Aaeaioeia Oaaei??aia, caneoaeaiee th?eno
Oe?a?ie, eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eo/a?yaaiei Ieeiea Iao?iae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith Oa?e?anueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??
?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, ?na?aa Iaoae?y Ea?e?aia, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?iai? A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH.
Oaaeueeiae/a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_9_ “ _ea?oiy_ 1999_ ?. i ___ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.04 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe
i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252017, i. Ee?a,
aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_06_” __aa?aciy__ 1999_?.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252017, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64).

A/aiee nae?aoa? Aia?iaiee N.A.

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy

I?iaeaia caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a aeiiii?eo Oe?a?iei ?
inoaii?i /anii /e ia iaea?eueo aeooaeueiei ieoaiiyi ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. Aiia iaoiiaeaia ia?o ca ana a?aeii aioo??oi?o
eai?oaeueieo eioo?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae
ia?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

?icaeoie caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a
ca ia??iae 1991-1997 ?.?. aeyaea ?ioo, ia iaio aaaeeeao i?iaeaio,-
i?iaeaio a?aenooiino? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeieo?eie caeo/aiiy ciai?oiueiai
eai?oaeo oa o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a ?? ?aae?caoe??.

Ca oeae ia??iae caeiiiaeaanoai, ui ?aaoeth? ae?yeuei?noue ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a ci?ieeinue 6 ?ac?a. Iayaiei ? aino?ee aeao?oeeo o a?oioiaieo
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ye? a aeaee ciiao caeiiiaeaaoeth oa O?yaeo
i?iaiaeeoe iine?aeiaio ? i?iaeoiaio iie?oeeo, ui a?aeiia?aea? ?ioa?anai
iiaeieaiiy e?ece aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ?? ?ioaa?aoe?? a nenoaio na?oiaeo
o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueeeo aca?iia?aeiinei ? ianaiia?aae ?a?iiaenueeeo
aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?.

Iaei??th c i?e/ei oaeiai noaiiaeua oa iacaaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a a
ieoaii? caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo ? a?aenooi?noue caeiiiaeaa/i
aecia/aiiai ? aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaiiai iiiyooy «?iicaiii? ?iaanoeoe??»,
yea a iiai?noth a?aeiia?aeaea iio?aaai ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee.

sse caeiiiaeaaaoeue oae ? O?yae Oe?a?ie o nai?o ??oaiiyo ii?iaoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o ii a?aaoethaaiith ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a iia?othoue
o?eueee e?euee?niei iieacieeii, eeoath/e iica oaaaith ye?niee- i?aaeiao
oa ia’?eo ?iaanooaaiiy.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a ia?o ca ana iio??aii caeiiiaeaa/i aecia/eoenue, ye?
nai? ?iaanoeoe?? ? oaoiieia?? iio??ai? aeey iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie: eai?oaeueia noa?a, no/ani? aia?aicaa??aath/? oaoiieia?? oa
iaeaaeiaiiy /e io?nia iaeaaeiaiiy, aaoiiia?e? «second hand», ye?
caaicyoueny ca?ac a Oe?a?io ye ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe??.

Aieiaiith iiieeeith caeiiiaeaaoey i?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? aoei
canoinoaaiiy ?inoeoooo iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea aeey ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a aac
o?aooaaiiy ye?nii? noi?iie ?o ae?yeueiino? ? iaiaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoeee
ae?yeueiino? inoaii?o o?eueee e?euee?niei e?eoa???i- ?ici??ii
eaae?o?eaoe?eii? ?iaanoeoe?? (i.3 no.32 Caeiio I?i ?iicaii?
?iaanoeoe??»).

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aea?aeaaa iaaeaaaea i?aeo?eieo an?i ?iicaioeyi,
ye? i?aeiaaeaee i?ae aecia/aiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanoi?a aac iiaeyaeo ia
ye?nio noi?iio eiai ae?yeueiino? oa ?? noni?eueii-ei?eniiai cia/aiiy
aeey aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ?? a?aeiia?aeiino? iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai.

Oaeei /eiii aaiethoe?y caeiiiaeaa/iai i?ioeano ?aaoethaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a iinoaaeei ieoaiiy a?aenooiino?
oai?aoe/ii? eiioeaioe?? iiiyooy ?iicaiii? ?iaanoeoe??, eiea noa’?eo?a
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i cae?eniaiiy
inoaiiuei? a Oe?a?i? ye ? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaiaeo oa o?neaeueieo
aaaeae?a noeioethaaiiy caeo/aiiy ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo o i?ei?eoaoi? noa?e
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

I?ioe?a/ia ii?iaoeaia aaca oa “caeiiioai?/a” ae?yeuei?noue i?i?noa?noa
? a?aeiinoa, i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee noai?ththoue oie
“aaciaaeieo eaioetha ooo/ieo aa?’???a iiaeieaiiy yeeo iio?aao?
aaeaoainueeeo coneeue”1 (Aenooi I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie 23 aa?aciy 1997 ?.
ia?aae ia?eaiaioii) ? noai?th? ni?eyoeeaee a?oio aeey i?ioea?oaiiy
ei?oiiiaaiino? aea?aeaia?aoo.

Aeaeaei ia aaniethoecoth/e ?ie? oa cia/aiiy ?iicaiieo
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue a icaei?iaeaii? oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee ana ae
iiaeeeai eiinoaooaaoe oa, ui oey i?iaeaia caeeoeoueny iaaaeiith ua
aeiaaee /an ? aoaea neeaaeaoe iaeia c no?aoaa?/ieo caaaeaiue O?yaeo ?
Aea?aeaae a oe?eiio.

Ine?eueee i?iaaaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i a Oe?a?i? ia? ca iaoo
noai?aiiy ?eieiai? iiaeae? aeiiii?ee oi iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue
ia?ao?aeiiai aoaio ? iiooe oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo i?aaiaeo oi?i
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ? cie?aia ?iicaiieo. Noaa?eueia oa
eoe?aoeaia ii a?aeiioaiith aei aonioaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a caeiiiaeaa/a
aaca, iii??eiaaia o?neaeueii-iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea, iaeiaeiaee c
?aceaeaioaie ainiiaea?nueei-i?aaiaee ?aaeei i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? aieiaieie neeaaeiaeie /anoeiaie oni?oii? ?iaanoeoe?eii?
iie?oeee ca o/anoth ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo.

Aac iiooeo iiaeo oi?i i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy,
ye? a a iaea?eueo iiai?e i??? a?aeiia?aeaee ?nioth/ei aeiiii?/iei oiiaai
oa ?ioa?anai no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee oa aea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai
aoaeue-yea ?iaanoeoe?eia iie?oeea i?e?a/aia ia i?iaae.

Aeacai? ianoaaeie ?iaeyoue aeooaeueii aaaeeeaei ? nai?/aniei iaoeia? ?
oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiiyooy “?iicaiii? ?iaanoeoe??”, eiai ci?noo,
th?eaee/ii-i?aaiai? nooiino?, ?ie? oa cia/aiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a
ia?aaoaeia? aeiiii?ee e?a?ie, aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ca o/anoth ?iicaiieo noa`?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a?aeie?aieaiiy ?? a?ae ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? inoaii?o a Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/iaith i?iaeaiith a oeueiio ieoaii? ? i?aai?/ia ii?aeiaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo caoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia i?ioean ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy c canoinoaaiiyi o?iainiaeo noeioe?a ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i?. Naia c iiaeyaeo ia aaaeeea?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue
oe??? i?iaeaie oaiith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii o?iainiai-i?aaiaee
aniaeo ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?i?.

Nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie aeena?oaoe??

Ia aeaeue ieoaiiy iaoeiaiai aiae?co i?iaeai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?aaa
caeeoa?oueny o a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiei. Oea iia`ycaii
ianaiia?aae c aeieo?eiith, ui iaioaaea ca /an?a ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco ?
ia?aaeaa/aea aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie aeeeth/ii ca ?aooiie aioo??oi?o
?aca?a?a oa ?aeaieia?/iiai ciaaaiiy i?ae aeaiia noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieie
oi?iaoe?yie eai?oae?ciii ? nioe?ae?ciii, yea a?aeeeaeaea ?iicaiia
?iaanooaaiiy ye can?a ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

Ca inoaii? ?iee a Oe?a?i? iaienaii aeae?eueea ?ia?o c i?iaeai
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?aaa, aea i?aaeiaoii oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoea aieiaiei
/eiii ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue ?iicaiieo noa`?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?2.

Aea/aiiy o?iainiai? noo? oa aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaiai? i?e?iaee
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy
?nioth/iai aeina?aeo oa aecia/aiiy iniiaieo i?eioeei?a caeo/aiiy
?iicaiieo eai?oae?a, iiee ui ia ooi o nenoaiaoeciaaiiio aeaeyae? ia
i?iaiaeea. Oeueiio ieoaiith cia/ii a?eueoa oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny
i?ia?aeieie cao?aeieie aeiiii?noaie ? th?enoaie, iaoeia? ?ic?iaee yeeo

____________________________________________________________________

1”Aiein Oe?a?ie” a?ae 25.03.1997 ?. ? 52 (1552)

2Eoooe Aiooiaii ? Aenaeue C?aeaiaa?a. C?ooaiiy aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
(?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?: iiaeyae cna?aaeeie). “Oai?en”, Ee?a – 1997.

aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aaoi?ii oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy: Aao?noa E.I.,
Aeth?aiae-Aa?oa? I., Aeiaaa?o E., Iaei?eai N.A., Iaeee A?aiae, Eoooe
Aiooiai, Aenaeue C?aeaiaa?a, Aenai Ieeaaoo, Oeue??o O?nnai, Oeue??o
Aae?ieoa?. Cia/ia i?noea a ?iaio? iin?ee i?aeoe/ii-oai?aoe/i? ?iaioe
?in?enueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo o aaeoc? o?iainiaiai i?aaa: Ai?iiiai?
E.E., Oaioo/aiea TH.N., Aoeaoiaa I.N., I?ua?yeiai? I.A., Iiaeue/aiea
A.?..

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaioa nie?a?oueny ia aeaniee 10-??/iee i?aeoe/iee
aeina?ae o noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei oa 5- ??/iee aeina?ae
i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe o I?aaenoaaieoe? i?iaoeueei? Aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?ie ii
ae??oaiith i?iaeai, c yeeie noeeathoueny i?iaoeuee? ?iaanoi?e a Oe?a?i?
i?e ?aae?caoe?? nai?o i?iaeo?a. ?aea? ? i?iiiceoe??, ui aenoaathoueny o
oe?e iaoeia?e ?ic?iaoe? nie?athoueny ia aeoieo oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
i?ia?aeieo ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo th?eno?a, oao?aoe?a o aaeoc?
o?iainiaiai ? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?aaoethaaii? ii?iaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa o?iainiai-i?aaia? a?aeiineie, ui
aeieeathoue i?ae i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ? ?iicaiieie ?iaanoi?aie a
i?ioean? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? inoaii?o a Oe?a?i? oa ae?iaeaiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo
i?aeoiae?a aeey ?ic?iaee caeiiiaeaa/i? iiaeae? (oi?ie) caeo/aiiy
?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e, yea a caaacia/eea o?iainia? iio?aae no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae
i?ciaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a a noni?euenoa?, ui aecia/a?
no?aoaa?th aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai caaaeueio ni?yiiaai?noue oa aiae?c
i?aaeiaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy o eiai aca?iica’yceo c ?ioeie noni?eueieie
yaeuaie.

Naia ca oe??? i?e/eie a aeena?oaoe?? aieiaia i?noea iin?aea? iaoiae
aiae?co ae?th/i? a Oe?a?i? caeiiiaeaa/i-i?aaiai? aace c ?aaoethaaiiy
a?aeiinei i?ae ?iicaiieie noa’?eoaie ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
noa’?eoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oe??th ae?yeuei?noth. Aiae?c i?ioeano
caeiiioai?aiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny o ia?ic?eaiiio aca?iica’yceo c
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieie yaeuaie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i? oa ia
na?oiaeo ?eieao a?eueieo eai?oae?a. Cia/ia aeei?enoaiiy o oe?e ?iaio?
ciaeoia oaeiae iaoiae ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?nioth/iai aeina?aeo oa
i?aeoeee caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a
e?a?iao c ?eieiaith iiaeaeeth aeiiii?ee.

Aaeeeo oaaao a aeena?oaoe?? aoei i?eae?eaii aea/aiith oa e?eoe/iiai
aiae?co aeina?aeo iiaeaoeiaeo

?aoi?i o e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie oa NOA oa ?o aieea ia iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie ?eie?a eai?oae?a oa ae?eiao aeoeai?noue eai?oaeiaeeaaeiee?a.
Oea iia’ycaii cie?aia c oei, ui Oe?a?ia iaiaaa?oueny ca?ac aeoiaeeoe ia

na?oia? oiiaeia? ?eiee oa aeoeaii i?aoethaaoe c i?aeia?iaeieie
e?aaeeoii-o?iainiaeie ?inoeoooe?yie. Ia iaio aaaeeeaei a?aoiaioii o
aeine?aeaeaii? iiaeaoeiaeo ?aoi?i, oa o?neaeueii-iiaeaoeiaeo iaoiae?a
noeioethaaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue ?iicaiieo eai?oae?a a ?anioae?eo ? oa, ui
Oe?a?ia cae?enith? aaea o?aoth iiaeaoeiao ?aoi?io ? ia aeaeue c i?yii
i?ioeeaaeieie ?acoeueoaoaie.

Aea/aiiy i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy o eiai ia?ic?eaiiio ?icaeoeo ia
iiaeeeaa aac canoinoaaiiy ?noi?e/iiai iaoiaeo, oiaoi ?icaeyaeo yaeua o
eiai aeeiai?oe? o i?inoi?? ? /an?. Oea aeicaieeei aeae?eeoe iniiai?
aoaie ?icaeoeo o?iainiai-i?aaiai? aace c ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i?, iniaeeaino? i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio ?iicaiieo
eai?oae?a, oaiaeaioe?? oa aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a caeiiiaeaaoey c ieoaiiy
niinia?a oa iaoiae?a caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo eai?oae?a a iaoe?iiaeueio
aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie, ?ieue ? cia/aiiy ?iicaiieo eai?oae?a o ae??oaii?
aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ia?aaoaeiaith ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno.

Eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy cacia/aieo iaoiae?a aeicaieeei i?e ?iaio? iaae
oaiith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ae??oeoe oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i?
caaaeaiiy, ye? aaoi? noaaea ia?aae niaith.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caeiiiaeaa/? ii?ie, ye?
neeaaeathoue i?aaiaee ?aaeei ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ?
aecia/athoue neeaae o/aniee?a (noa’?eo?a) ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
?o i?aaa oa iaia`ycee, i?aaia? canaaee ?iicaiieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue a
iaoe?iiaeueio aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie, ui ?aaoeththoue oeea?eueii-i?aaia?
a?aeiineie i?ae ?iicaiieie noa’?eoaie ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
noa’?eoaie

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Iniaeeaa oaaaa o oe?e ?iaio? i?eae?eaia
o?iainiaiio aniaeoo ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiiy, yeee ia aeoieo aaoi?a ?
iaea?eueo nooo?aei aeaiaioii ?aaeeio ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, ine?eueee
o?iainiai-i?aaia? canaaee aaciina?aaeiuei ca/?iathoue aieiaiee iioea
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?- i?eaooie.

Oeei iiynith?oueny cie?aia ? oa ianoaaeia, ui naia a oe?e aaeoc?
caeiiioai?aiiy ? iayaieie aeeaie? i?ioe??//y i?ae ia’?eoeaieie iio?aaaie
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?yo oa a?aenooi?noth /?oei
aecia/aii? caeiiiaeaa/i? aeieo?eie o oeueiio ieoaii?.

Iniiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoei cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeniiai
th?eaee/iiai aiae?co o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo canaae ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? ca o/anoth ?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a, i?aaiaeo ii?i, ye?
neeaaeathoue iaoe?iiaeueiee ?aaeei ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, aecia/aiiy
iiiyooy ?iicaiii? ?iaanoeoe?? oa ?aieiaeo oiia ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?
?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. I?e oeueiio,
aeoiaey/e c i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue
aiae?co iiaeaoeiai-o?neaeueii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, ?? ii??aiyiiy c
aiaeia?/ieie nenoaiaie o e?a?iao ?N oa NOA, a oaeiae
aaethoii-aaie?anueeiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?ooo ?iicaiieo eai?oae?a ia i?aaeiao
?o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?iaanoeoe?eiei iio?aaai aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Aeey oeueiai aaoi? noaaea ia?aae niaith ianooii? a?oie caaaeaiue
i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o:

-i?iaiae?coaaoe ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie caeiiiaeaa/i? aace
o?iainiai-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae ?iicaiieie noa’?eoaie
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa noa’?eoaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a
Oe?a?i?;

-aecia/eoe i?e/eiiee aca?iica’ycie i?ae i?aaiaith oi?iith oa o?iainiaith
noooth ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? ? ia oe?e aac? anoaiiaeoe aoaeoeai?noue oeo
caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aeoiae?a, ui ?o aeio?eio?oueny caeiiiaeaaaoeue o ieoaii?
caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo eai?oae?a;

-?icaeyiooe iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? aaea iayaiiai aeina?aeo
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i a o./. EI? oa iooi?ieo cii a oiiaao Oe?a?ie aeey
iiooeo iaea?eueo iioeiaeueii? caeiiiaeaa/i? iiaeae? ?aaoethaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a.

-aeaoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c caeiiiaeaanoaa e?a?i ?N, NOA c /eiiith
caeiiiaeaa/ith aacith Oe?a?ie ia i?aaeiao ii??aiyiiy aoaeoeaiino?
noeioethaaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue ?iicaiieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue oa iiooeo
iaea?eueo iioeiaeueieo i?aeoiae?a o ieoaii? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooe?a
?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a.

-?ice?eoe o?neaeueiee iaoai?ci aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao o??? /e ?ioi?
iiaeaoeiai? iiaeae? ia aeoeai?noue ?iicaiieo eai?oae?a a Oe?a?io, noa?e
iaaeoiaeaeaiue oa canoinoaaiiy ia?aceaeaioiiai eai?oaeo;

-?ic?iaeoe ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?th/i? ii?iaoeaii? aace c ieoaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i?, aeyaeoe iayai? i?ioe??//y
oa iaocaiaeaeaiino? i?ae /eiieie ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie oa i?aeia?iaeiith
i?eeiyoeie cae/ayie ? o?iainiai-i?aaiaeie ocainaie c iaoith ??
i?eaaaeaiiy o a?aeiia?aei?noue c iio?aaaie /ano.

?ioi?iaoe?eia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c /eiii? Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie, ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa c ieoaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a
Oe?a?i?, ii?iaoeaii? aace IAO, I?i?noa?noa oa Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? Oe?a?ie, iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?iicaiieo oao?aoe?a o
aaeoc? o?iainiaiai i?aaa, iiaeaoeiaeo nenoai ?icaeiooeo e?a?i na?oo,
iaoeiaeo noaoae a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a c i?iaeai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa?:

a eiiieaeniiio i?aeoiae? aei i?iaeaie ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?;

aeine?aeaeaii? noa’?eoeaii-i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a ?ooo i?aeia?iaeieo
eai?oae?a, ye? noaiiaeyoue iniiao ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ia no/aniiio
aoai? ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie;

?noi?e/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? ?icaeoeo o?iainiai-i?aaiai? iiaeae?
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i? oa eiiieaeniiio
aiae?c?, aeieeath/eo a oeueiio i?ioean? i?iaeai;

anoaiiaeaii? ia’?eoeaiiai aca?iica’yceo i?ae i?aaiaith oi?iith oa
o?iainiaei ci?noii iioeaaoe?? ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a
Oe?a?i?;

ii??aiyeueiiio aiae?c? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy
Oe?a?ie c aiaeia?/ieie o?iainiai-i?aaiaeie nenoaiaie Cao?aeieo e?a?i,
aeine?aeaeaii? i?aeoe/ieo i?iya?a caeiiiaeaa/i? iiaeae? oa ?o aieeao ia
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?iicaiieo eai?oae?a aai a?aeoieo a?o/eciyieo eai?oae?a
iao?iiie??;

aeaoaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iooi?ieo nenoai oa iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy
oe??? iiaeae? a Oe?a?ie c a?aooaaiiyi an?o eiiieaenieo oaeoi??a;

aiae?c? ii?iioai?/i? ae?yeueiino? a?aeiinoa ? i?i?noa?noa oa ?nioth/i?
ii?iaoeaii? aace c ieoaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i?;

?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue, a naia iiiyooy ?iicaiii? ?iaanoeoe??,
ia’?eo?a ? oi?i ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy c iiaeyaeo ia
nioe?aeueii-ei?eniee aoaeo oa caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee a ?iicaiieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiyo.

aea/aii? aeina?aeo oa i?iaeai canoinoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea,
ye o?iainiai-o?neaeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a
iaoe?iiaeueio aeiiii?eo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooii? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?aaeei ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ? caeiiiaeaa/ith oi?iith,
aa?aioiaaiiai Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie a?ae 28 /a?aiy 1996 ?. i?aaa ia
cae?eniaiiy a Oe?a?i? ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieie noa’?eoaie
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?;

?iaanoeoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue ?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a i?io?ea? a caeiiiaeaa/i
a?aaoeueiaai?e noa?? oa ? ia’?eoii aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aieeao (ao?o/aiiy)
noa’?eo?a caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee ? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy;

?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy iia’ycaia c aeai?ii iaaii? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiai?
oi?ie, aieiaiee ci?no yei? noaiiaeoue o?iainiaee aniaeo ae?yeueiino?
?iicaiiiai noa’?eoa. Nooue i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiai? oi?ie ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy iieyaa? o th?eaee/iiio caaacia/aii? aeinyaiaiiy aeaio
iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo noa’?eoeaiiai iioeao oaei? ae?yeueiino?:

aa?aiooaaii? aaciaee ?iaanoiaaieo eioo?a;

aeinyaiaii? iaea?eueo iiaeeeai? ca ?nioth/eo ?aieiaeo oiia a Oe?a?i?
i?eaooeiaino? (?aioaaaeueiino?) cae?eniaieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue;

Iniiao iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy noaiiaeyoue, c
iiaeyaeo ia aeuaaeeeaaeai? iieiaeaiiy, o?iainiai-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, oeaio?aeueiei iiiaioii yeiai noaiiaeoue
?nioth/ee ??aaiue oa noaa?euei?noue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooe?a ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a, a ??aii ye iayai?noue iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea.

Canoinoaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea ? iaeiei ?c iaeaoaeoeai?oeo ? a iaeii/an
aeiooaieo cania?a noeioethaaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a
Oe?a?io. Iaeiae iiaeaoeia? i?eueae ?iicaiiei ?iaanoi?ai iiaeii?
ocaiaeaeoaaoenue c iaoe?iiaeueiei ?aaeeiii ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy oa
athaeaeaoii oi?ioth/eie i?ioeanaie. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue cie?aia i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a eiiieaen? iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai a?o/eciyii?
aeiiii?ee oa o?iainiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i
aeaoa?i?ioth/o ? iioeaoth/o ?ieue ?inoeoooo o?iainiaiai i?aaa o
caaaeueiiio eiiieaen? i?aaiaeo i?iaeai c ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e ? ia yeiio ne?ae cina?aaeeoe aieiaio oaaao caeiiiaeaaoeth.

O i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii? o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? i?eeiathoue o/anoue ??ci? noa’?eoe
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy: IAO, Aea?aeaaia iiaeaoeiaa neoaeaa Oe?a?ie,
Aea?aeaaia eii?n?y Oe?a?ie c oe?iieo iaia??a ? oiiaeiaiai ?eieo,
Aea?aeaaia ieoia neoaeaa Oe?a?ie, ICACoi?a Oe?a?ie oa ?io? aaeocaa?
i?i?noa?noaa oa a?aeiinoaa. Ana oea, ye iieacothoue ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeeea? iio?aao o a?aaoethaaii? i?iaeaie ocaiaeaeaiino?
oa nenoaiaoecaoe?? ii?iaoeaii? aace oeeo a?aeiinoa c ieoaiiy ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy.

Aeena?oaio aiineoue i?iiiceoe?? c:

-aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, ye? ?aaoeththoue ae?yeuei?noue
?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaeiao
?iaanooaaiiy inoaii?ie eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue a ia’?eoe
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie;

— ii ci?noo Caeiio Oe?a?ie a?ae 19 aa?aciy 1996 ?. “I?i ?aaeei
?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy”, yeee aeiaaa? i?eaaaeaiiy o a?aeiia?aei?noue c
ae?enieie iio?aaaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee a ?iicaiieo
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiyo

-eiiieaeni?e oe?eueia?e ocaiaeaeaiino? a?aeii/i? ii?iaoeaii? aace
noa’?eo?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue a
Oe?a?i?.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieyaa? eiai aacoaaii? ia i?aeoe/iiio iaoa??ae? aaoi?a, yeee a?aa
aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o eiie?aoieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeoao oa
aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeai ?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a O?I oa NOA a
Oe?a?i?, i?aeaioiaoe? i?iaeoo oeiiaiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai caeiiii?iaeoo,
aea/aii? aeina?aeo ? ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? oaeeo
o?iainiaeo ?inoeoooe?e ye “Kreditanstalt fuer Wiederaufbau”, “Hermes AG”
oa ?ic?iaoe? ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a AeIA (Iaeac AeIA a?ae 16.01.1998 ?. ? 23
“I?i aianaiiy ci?i aei Iieiaeaiiy i?i ii?yaeie ?a?no?aoe?? oa iae?eo
iino?eieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa ia?aceaeaio?a ye ieaoiee?a iiaeaoeo ia
i?eaooie” ca?a?no?iaaii a I?ithno? Oe?a?ie 03.02.1998 ?. ca ? 62/2503),
i?iiiceoe?e aei ae?th/eo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a (Caeiio Oe?a?ie a?ae
03.04.1997 ?. ? 168 “I?i iiaeaoie ia aeiaaaeaio aa?o?noue”) c i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy i?iaeai ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy.

Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy eiai aeniiae?a, ye o iiaeaeueo?e
i?aeaioiaoe? ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a o oe?e aaeoc? oae ? o/aiaiio i?ioean? —
aeeeaaeaii? ii?iaoeaiiai eo?no “O?iainiaa i?aai”, o iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo oa oaeineiiaeaii? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? i?aeoeee
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy c i?eaiaeo ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?io, a?eueo /?oeiai ?
i?aaeeueiiai ?icoi?iiy noo? oa oa?aeoa?o oeueiai i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai
o?iainiaiai yaeua.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ioe?iee, aeniiaee, i?iiiceoe??, io?eiai? a
?acoeueoao? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue iineoaeeoe iniiaith
aeey iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo iiooe?a o aaeoc? o?iainiaiai i?aaa oa eiai
i?aea?eie iiaeaoeiaiai oa aaethoiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ye? noaiiaeyoue o
naith /a?ao o?iainiai- i?aaia? canaaee ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a
Oe?a?i?.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiai
?acoeueoao?a.

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o oanoe ioae?eaoe?yo oa aianaii? i?iiiceoe?e i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? ? i?eeiyoo? ci?i oa aeiiiaiaiue aei ae?th/eo caeii?a c
ieoaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy (Caeii Oe?a?ie a?ae 12 a?oaeiy 1997 ?. “I?i
aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei no. 5 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i iiaeaoie ia
aeiaaaeaio aa?o?noue”4 ) oa ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a I?i?noa?noaa ciai?oi?o
aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a ? oi?a?ae? Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? Oe?a?ie (Iaeac AeIAO a?ae 16.01.1998 ?. ? 23 “I?i
aianaiiy ci?i aei Ii?yaeeo ?a?no?aoe?? oa iae?eo iino?eieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa ia?aceaeaio?a ye ieaoiee?a iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie
i?aei?e?inoa”5, ca?a?no?iaaii a I?ithno? Oe?a?ie 3 ethoiai 1998 ?. ca ?
63/2503, Iaeac AeIAO a?ae 16.01.1998 ?. ? 29 “I?i aianaiiy ci?i aei
Ii?yaeeo neeaaeaiiy ?ic?aooieo iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie ia?aceaeaioa, ui
cae?enith? ae?yeuei?noue ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie /a?ac iino?eia
i?aaenoaaieoeoai», ca?a?no?iaaii a I?ithno? Oe?a?ie 25 ethoiai 1998 ?.
ca ? 136/2576).

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai,
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oa aaie?anueeiai i?aaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia ci?noii iaoeiai? i?iaeaie ? ia? ca
iaoo oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo aaoi?a o noa??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa 5 ??/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
ae?yeueiino? i?iaoeueeeo o??i a Oe?a?i?. Iaoeiaa ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
2-o ?icae?e?a, iiae?eaieo ia 6 i?ae?icae?e?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oa i?eeeaaeia oe?ii?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy o ia??iae o?ii?/iiai aeao?oeeoo ?iicaiieo eai?oaeueieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue a iaoe?iiaeueio aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie, aecia/ai? i?aaeiao oa
ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoa ? eiai aieiai? caaaeaiiy, aeiaaaeaia iaoeiaa
iiaecia aeaii? iaoeiai? ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaaia iaaeinoaoiy oai?aoe/ia
aeine?aeaeai?noue i?iaeaie ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy,
ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

?icae?e I. Oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy oa i?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia?aceaeaio?a a Oe?a?i?
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a: oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy iiiyooy
«?iicaiii? ?iaanoeoe??», ?icaeoie caeiiiaeaa/i? aace oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? oi?ie, oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
ii?ooaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?i?.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? c?iaeaii th?eaee/ii-i?aaiaee aiae?c iiiyooy
“?iaanoeoe??” ? “?iicaiii? ?iaanoeoe??” ye iaei??? ?c ?? neeaaeiaeo
/anoei. O iniiao aiae?co iieeaaeaii a?aeiia?aei?noue
th?eaee/ii-aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo iiiyooy “?iaanoeoe??” acaaae? eiai
i?aaia?e oi?i?.

Ci?no iiiyooy “?iaanoeoe??” ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?noi?e/ia eaoaai??y o
eiai ae?aeaeoe/iiio ?icaeoeo ye i?iaeoeo ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee o??? /e ?ioi? e?a?ie. “?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy” o o?e
oi?i?, yeo ie ia?ii ca?ac, aeieeei i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie. Ieai
“Ia?oaea” aeey ?a?iie aoa ii noo? ia?oith ianooaaiith aeoe??th c
?iaanooaaiiy aeiiii?ee ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i. sse o ?a?ii? oae ? a
Oeoiieaainueeiio ?aa?ii? ?iaanooaaiiy cae?enithaaeinue o aeaeyae?
eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue o noa?o ae?iaieoeoaa: iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,
?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee, oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e, oiaoi aeniei oaoiieia?/ieo oa
?ioaeaeooaeueii i?noeeo aeae?a ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ae?th/a caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie o aaeoc? ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e oa ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? acaaae? aecia/a? ?iaanoeoe?th
/a?ac ?iaeiaa iiiyooy “oe?iiinoae”. Oiaoi o oeueiio aeiaaeeo o yeino?

iaeaeeae/iai ?iaeiaiai iiiyooy acyoi eaoaai??th iaoa??aeueieo
oe?iiinoae, ui ia ? oaeei, ine?eueee oea

iiiyooy ia? eaoaai??aeueiee oa?aeoa? ? ioiieth? iaaeoi aaeeea eiei
cania?a o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueeiai ia?ao, ye? ia iathoue i?yeiai
a?aeiioaiiy aei ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

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4 A?aeiiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, 1997 ?., N 21, no. 156

5 A?cian a?ae 23.02.1998 ?. ? 7 (266)

?iaanoeoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue ? iaeiei ?c aeae?a o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? oiio i?e aecia/aii? iiiyooy “?iicaiii? ?iaanoeoe??”
i?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? oi/ia anoaiiaeaiiy iaeaeeae/iai
?iaeiaiai iiiyooy oa aeaeiai? iciaee. O aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “?iaanoeoe??” o ??cieo
aeaea?aeao cie?aia Aaeee?e ?aaeyinuee?e aioeeeeiiaae??, Caeii? Oe?a?ie
a?ae 18 aa?aniy 1991 ?. “I?i ?iaanoeoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue”, Caeii?
Oe?a?ie a?ae 19 aa?aniy 1996 ?. “I?i ?aaeei ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy” oa
?io.

A?eueo?noue aaoi??a aeathoue aecia/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?? /a?ac ?iaeiaa
iiiyooy eai?oaeueieo aeeaae?a o noa?o noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa c iaoith
io?eiaiiy i?eaooeo (aeioiaeo). Aei aeaeiaeo iciae ?iaanoeoe??
a?aeiinyoueny ?o eai?oaeueiee ? aeiaaino?ieiaee oa?aeoa?, noni?eueii
ei?eniee oa?aeoa?, a oaeiae ?aaeuei?noue.

Inoaiiy iciaea oa?aeoa?eco? aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy i?aaeiaoo
?iaanoeoe?? aei ia’?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy oa eai?oaeueiee oa?aeoa?e
inoaiiueiai, a ia iiina?aaeeiaai?noue ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ia’?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy oa noni?eueii-ei?eniiai aoaeoo
?acoeueoaoo oaeiai ?iaanooaaiiy.

O aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii aiae?c no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a iiiyooy ?iaanoeoe??
? cie?aia c?iaeaii aeoeaio ia ?icaeyae? i?yieo ?iaanoeoe?e. I?yi?
?iaanoeoe??, caaaeyee nai?io iaiiina?aaeeiaaiiio a?aeiioaiith aei
ia’?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy, iathoue eai?oaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? iia’ycai? c
?aaeueiei aeeaaeaiiyi a aeiiii?eo aaethoieo eioo?a, oaoiieia?/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy aai i?aa i?iieneiai? oa ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?. Aiie
ia’?eoeaii iia’ycai? c noai?aiiyi iaiao?aeieo ia?aaeoiia aeey
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae ia’?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy ? caeaoi? ca nai?i
noni?eueii-ei?eniei aoaeoii aieeiooe ia ?icaeoie oe?eeo aaeocae
aeiiii?ee e?a?ie.

Oa?aeoa? ?iaanooaaiiy caeaaeeoue ia a inoaiith /a?ao a?ae i?aaiaiai
noaoono noa’?eoa ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy oa eiai iioeaaoe??, yea ?
aecia/a? a e?ioeaaiio cia/aii? noa?o i?eeeaaeaiiy eai?oaeo oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiao oi?io cae?eniaiiy oe??? ae?yeueiino?.

O aeaiiio iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?eaaaeaia noaia no?oeoo?e
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa iieacai? ia’?eoeai? aca?iica’ycee i?ae
an?ia ?? no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie, i?eaaaeaia aeao?i?oe?y ?iicaiii?
?iaanoeoe?? yea a iaea?eueo iiai?e i??? a?aeiia?aea? iioi/iei iio?aaai
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee o ciai?oi?o eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiyo oa no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae eeth/iaeo aaeocae ia?iaeii- ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

Iniaeeaee iaaiein c?iaeaii ia oae?e aeaeia?e iciaoe? iiiyooy ?iicaiii?
?iaanoeoe?? ye oaoiieia?/i?noue. Oaoiieia?/iee oa?aeoa? ?iaanoeoe??
a?aeie?aieth? ?iaanoeoe?th a?ae ?ioeo aeae?a eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue oa
ii?aeueii ? o?ce/ii canoa??eiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ye? ia iathoue aoaeoii
i?aai?caoe?th a Oe?a?i? ia?aaeiaeo ae?iaieoeoa, caeaoieo ae?iaeyoe
eiieo?aioiicaeaoio i?iaeoeoe?th oa aieeiooe ia ?icaeoie ?ioeo noi?aeieo
aaeocae. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, o aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii aeniiaie uiaei
iaiao?aeiino? ci?uaiiy aeoeaioo o caeiiiaeaa/iio ?aaoethaaii? ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy ia ye?nieo eaae?o?eaoe?eieo iciaeao i?aaeiaoo ?iaanoeoe??,
a ia ia e?euee?ni?e noi?ii? inoaiiuei?, ine?eueee ye aeaeii c c?iaeaiiai
aiae?co eai?oaeuei?noue ?iaanoeoe?? iieyaa? o ?? e?euee?ni?e noi?ii?, ui
ia? caeaoi?noue aei ye?nieo ia?aoai?aiue a o./. ioeueoeie?eaoe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o.

I?aaiaee noaoon noa’?eoa ?iaanooaaiiy, iayai? o iueiai caniae
?iaanooaaiiy aeaoa?i?iothoue a iaai?e i??? ? aea?? o??? /e ?ioi?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiai? oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? aieiaiiai iioeao
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? — io?eiaiiy i?eaooeo (aeioiaeo).
I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaa oi?ia ia? iio?aeiee oa?aeoa? a?ae aeaeo
?iaanoeoe?? ? ciaoiaeeoueny o i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaiio ca’yceo c ia?oei.

O i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia?e oi?i? aecia/a?oueny noa`?eoeaii-i?e/eiia
a?aeiioaiiy noa’?eoa ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? aei i?aai?caoe??
i?ioeano aeinyaiaiiy iniiaii? iaoe c aeei?enoaiiyi ?iaanoeoe?eieo
cania?a, eiai o/ano? o aeei?enoaii? ?acoeueoao?a ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, nooiai? noaa?eueiino? eiai ?iaanoeoe?eii? iioeaaoe?? ?
a?aoo? eiai aioiaiino? acyoe ia naaa iaaiee ?iaanoeoe?eiee ?ecee.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeai? c?iaeaii
i?iiiceoe?th uiaei aecia/aiiy ?iicaiii? ?iaanoeoe?? /a?ac ?iaeiaa
iiiyooy eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue oa aecia/ai? aeaeia? iciaee ye- “an?
aeaee eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue o noa?o iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ye?
cae?eniththoueny ?iicaiieie noa’?eoaie i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? o
aeaeyae? aeniei oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy, cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa,
aaethoieo eioo?a, i?aa i?iieneiai? ? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?, ca
?aooiie yeeo aeinyaa?oueny noni?eueii-ei?eniee aoaeo aeey ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie oa noai?th?oueny i?eaooie”.

I?eaaaeaia o iaoeia?e ?iaio? eeaneo?eaoe?y aeaeiaeo iciae oa oi?i
cae?eniaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e a?aeiia?aea? ia aeoieo aaoi?a ?aaeueiei iio?aaai
Oe?a?ie o eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiiyo ? aeicaiey? a?aeie?aieoe ?aaeueieo
?iaanoi??a a?ae cae/aeieo ?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ye? cae?eniththoue a Oe?a?i? ciai?oiuei oi?a?aaeuei? oa
ainiiaea?nuee? iia?aoe??.

Cia/io oaaao i?e ?icaeyae? cania?a ?iaanooaaiiy i?eae?eaii oaeiae
iiina?aaeeiaaiei caniaai eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue, a naia oae caaiei
ii?ooaeueiei ?iaanoeoe?yi, ine?eueee ?aaeuei? ?iaanoeoe??
cae?eniththoueny o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?c caeo/aiiyi ciai?oi?o eioo?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2 — ?icaeoie caeiiiaeaa/i? aace, i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia?
oi?ie. aeine?aeaeaii ?icaeoie caeiiiaeaa/i? aace c o?iainiai-i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? (?iaanoi??a) a Oe?a?i? oa ?ice?eoi ci?no
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i oaei? ae?yeueiino?, aca?iiae?th noa’?eo?a
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?aaia?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue o i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy
oaei? ae?yeueiino?. Aieiaia oaaaa o oe?e /anoei? iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eae?eaia aiae?co aieiaieo /eiiee?a ianoaa?eueiino?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? oa iiooeo ia
oe?e iniia? ?nioth/iai aca?iica’yceo i?ae o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iei ci?noii
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? c i?aai?caoe?eii- i?aaiaith oi?iith
cae?eniaiiy inoaiiuei?.

Aaoi?, cie?aia ia iiae?ey? aeoiee aeayeeo cao?aeieo oao?aoe?a i?i
iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? oeiiaiai Caeiio c ?aaoethaaiiy
?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e, ine?eueee ye ca nai?th oi?iith oae ? th?eaee/iei
ci?noii a?i ia a?aeiia?aea? iio?aaai noeioethaaiiy ?iicaiieo
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue a i??i?eoaoi? aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.
Oai?aoe/ia eiioeaioe?y iaaeaiiy ?iicaiiei ?iaanoi?ai ??aieo c
?aceaeaioaie oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui iieeaaeaia a iniiao oeueiai
caeiio ia ia? i?ae niaith oai?aoe/ii-iaoeiai? aace ? ye iane?aeie oeae
Caeii ia i?aoeth? ia i?aeoeoe?, ui ? ?noeiith o inoaii?e ?inoaioe??.

Caaaeath/e ia oaio oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaio oaaao i?e ?icaeyae?
i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a eiia?oe?eii-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo
noa’?eo?a a Oe?a?i? i?eae?eaii ?iieaiaioaoe?? noa’?eoeaii? iioeaaoe??
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia?e oi?i? oa aieeao
inoaiiuei? ia ?aae?caoe?th ?iaanoeoe?eieo iai???a ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a
Oe?a?i?.

O oe?e /anoei? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeine?aeaeaii ? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii iaaeinoaoi?noue iayaieo a Oe?a?i? oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo
cania?a oa iaaeineiiae?noue ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa aeey caaacia/aiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoaeoeaii? nenoaie caeo/aiiy ciai?oi?o o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a a oe?a?inueeo aeiiii?eo.

Aaoi?ii c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ae?th/i? o?iainiai-i?aaiai?
nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i? c
aiaeia?/ieie nenoaiaie e?a?i ?iaeono??aeueii? n?iee, ia aeieth yeeo
i?eiaaea? eaaiaa /anoea na?oiaiai ?eieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo eai?oae?a. Ia
iniia? oeueiai aiae?co ?ic?iaeaia iecea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii aecia/aiith
aieiaieo iai?yi?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy ae?th/i? caeiiiaeaa/i? aace oa
cai?iiiiiaai? eiie?aoi? oeyoe ? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? oi?ie ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai “?iaanoeoe?eiiai aieiaeo”.

Ia eiie?aoieo i?eeeaaeao c iniaenoi? i?aeoeee aaoi?a i?iaeaiiino?iaaii
aieea aeayeeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ??oaiue O?yaeo oa Ia?eaiaioo Oe?a?ie ia
aeoeai?noue oa ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa c ?iicaiieie
?iaanoeoe?yie a Oe?a?i?.

Iniaeeao oaaao o oeueiio ?icae?e? i?eae?eaii ieoaiith no?oeoo?iiai
?icaeoeo noa’?eo?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a a
Oe?a?i?. I?e oeueiio, aeae?eythoueny caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiee ??aaiue
aeeiiaa/i? aa?oeeae? ? i?noeaaee ??aaiue i?aaia?aeiinei i?ae noa’?eoaie
?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ? i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Aaoi?
iiae?ey? aeoieo oeo aaoi??a, ye? aeacothoue ia iaaei??ia
aaei?i?no?aoeaia ao?o/aiiy c aieo aea?aeaaieo noa’?eo?a o noa?o
i?eaaoiiai a?ciano, yeee noaiiaeoue aieiaiee ia’?eo aeey ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?. O ?iaio?, ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co,
iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue caeiiiaeaa/i? oi?iae?caoe?? i?aaeiaoo oa
i?eaiaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?aaia?aeiinei.

Ie?aii, a oe?e /anoei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icaeyioo?
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaia? oi?ie ni?eueii? c ?aceaeaioaie ae?yeueiino?
?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i?, aeine?aeaeaii iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy
oaeeo niaoeeo?/ieo ? iao?aaeeoe?eieo o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a ye
a?euei? aeiiii?/i? ciie oa “iooi?i?” ciie, iiaeaoeia? i?eueae.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e?- oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
ii?ooaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?i? anoaiiaeaii, ui ?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy
a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? ae?iaie/eo
i?ioean?a a?aeaoaa?oueny aieiaiee /eiii o i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?iao
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. Noai?aiiy o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo canaae a?eueiiai ia?ao
o?iainiaeo eioo?a oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anieo cania?a oaeiai ia?ao ?
iaeiei ?c i?ei?eoaoieo caaaeaiue caeiiiaeaaoey a Oe?a?i?.

Caiice/aiiy eioo?a ia ciai?oiueiio oa aioo??oiueiio ?eieo c i?aaiai?
oi/ee ci?o ? oiiaeiaei ?inoeoooii, yeee ?noi?e/ii neeaany ye can?a
aeoiaeo c e?eciaeo neooaoe?e, iia’ycaieo c a?aeii o?iainiaeo eioo?a aeey
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aai a?aeaoaeiae ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno. Iniaeea?noth no/aniiai aoaio canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iaoai?cio a
Oe?a?i? ? oa, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaei?o /an?a, eiee caa?aaeaiiy
a?iiaaeyi aeeo/aeenue aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?eioniaei iaoiaeii, ca?ac oeae
i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny o ua iacae/ieo ?eieiaeo oi?iao.

Aaenaey, aeoe??, iae?aaoe?? aioo??oiuei? (ciai?oiuei?) iiceee,
aea?aeaai? eacia/aenuee? ciaia’ycaiiy ana a?eueo aeoeaii caeo/athoueny
aei oeea?eueii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ia?ao. I?aaiaa i?e?iaea ?eieo
ciaia`ycaiue, oa ?inoeoooo aeia??/eo oiaa?enoa, ?iaanoeoe?eieo oiiae?a
o?nii iia’ycaia c i?ioeanaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? oi?i aeaniino?
(i?eaaoecaoe??), ye? ca?ac a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?.

Caeiiiaeaa/? canaaee ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aeiiiai ? aoi?eiiiai ?eie?a
oe?iieo iaia??a ca o/anoth ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo a Oe?a?i? aoee caeeaaeai?
Caeiiii Oe?a?ie a?ae 18 /a?aiy 1991 ?. “I?i oe?ii? iaia?e oa oiiaeiao
a??aeo”, Caeiiii Oe?a?ie a?ae 18 aa?aniy 1991 ?. “I?i ?iaanoeoe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue”, yeeie oe?ii? iaia?e aoei aeciaii caniaii ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy.

Iniaeea?noth no/aniiai aoaio ?icaeoeo oiiaeiaiai ?eieo a Oe?a?i? ?
iayai?noue o ia?ao i?eaaoecaoe?eieo na?oeo?eao?a (aao/a??a) oa
eiiiainaoe?eieo na?oeo?eao?a ianaeaiiy ia caaacia/aieo ?aaeueieie
eiooaie. Oaeei /eiii, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?icaeiooeo e?a?i Caoiaeo, aea
ia?a oe?iieo iaia??a a?oioo?oueny ia ?aaeueieo o?iainiaeo eiooao ? ?
caniaii caeo/aiiy aei ainiiaea?nueeiai ia?ao a?eueieo eioo?a a Oe?a?i?
oiiaeiaee ?eiie ia??aeei noa? caniaii aeeo/aiiy eioo?a c eaaaeueiiai
ia?ao.

Caieioo?noue oiiaeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie ? ianaiia?aae iane?aeeii
ia?ao?aeiiai noaio aeiiii?ee oa i?aaaethaaiiy o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo oi?i
caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy oeueiai ?eieo.

Ia aeaiee iiiaio ia?aeiiee oa aoi?eiiee ?eiie ? ia aeinoaoiuei
a?aee?eoeie aeey ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a ye c oi/ee ci?o iayaiino? ??aieo c
?aceaeaioaie iiaeeeainoae o/ano? o i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioeanao oae ? c
iiaeyaeo ia th?eaee/ii-i?aaia? aa?aio?? caoenoo nai?o iaeiiaeo i?aa.
Oaea noaiiaeua aeeeeea? aea? i?yii i?ioeeaaei? oi/ee ci?o ia aeinooi
ia?aceaeaio?a aei oiiaeiaiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie, a ??aii ye ciai?oi?o
caiice/aiue ca aeiiiiiaith aea?aeaaieo aiiae?a (o.c. “?a?iaiiaee”).
Inoaii? iiae?? ia i?aeia?iaeieo oiiaeiaeo ?eieao i?ae?a??ee oeth
oai?aoe/io aeeneon?th.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a o oeueiio ieoaii? iaiao?aeii aeciaoe, ui caieioo?noue
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie ? iane?aeeii iaioth/i? ca /an?a N?N?
aea?aeaaii? aeieo?eie iii?e ia aeani? ?ano?ne. Inoaiiy iie?aeanue ia
a?aeiia?aeio i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiio aaco, ui /anoe/ii ?iei?ii?iaaia o
ae?th/a caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie. I?aeia?iaeia eiiia?aoe?y, a ??aii ye ?
caeo/aiiy (caiice/aiiy) iaiao?aeieo o?iainiaeo eioo?a ia ciai?oi?o
?eieao ia iiaeeea? aac a?aee?eoino? oiiaeiaiai ?eieo aeey ia?aceaeaio?a.

I?aaiaa aaca ?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ia?aceaeaio?a ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo
Oe?a?ie iiaeiia noeioethaaoe ia?aceaeaio?a i?aoethaaoe ia?o ca ia ?eieo
ei?ii?aoeaieo iaia??a- c aeoe?yie i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa. O naith
/a?ao oea aeiaaa? e?aa?ae?caoe?? o?iainiai-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia?ao
oe?iieo iaia??a o /anoei? aeiioneo aeoe?e ?iicaiieo eiiiai?e a Oe?a?i? ?
iaaiaee a?aee?eooy aeiioneo ?aceaeaioieo aeoe?e ia i?aeia?iaei? ?eiee.

Aeeeth/ii aaaeeeao ?ieue o o?iainiai-i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii? oiiaeiaiai
?eieo iathoue anoaiiaeaiiy ?aeeieo ? i?ici?eo i?aaee a?e oa
neii?aeeiiaai? ae?? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oi?aae?ii?: IAO, I?io?io Oe?a?ie
oa Aea?aeaaii? eii?n?? Oe?a?ie c oe?iieo iaia??a. I?eeiyooy Caeiio
Oe?a?ie a?ae 15 aa?aniy 1997 ?. “I?i aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo
oe?iieo iaia??a” noai?eee caeiiiaeaa/? canaaee aeey o?iainiai-i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a oiiaeiaiai ?eieo, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?inoeoooo ?a?no?aoi??a oe?iieo ei?ii?aoeaieo iaia??a, ui ? iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaei c iiaeyaeo caaacia/aiiy i?aa ia?aceaeaio?a, ye? i?eaeaathoue
ei?ii?aoeai? iaia?e oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaaeie?eii ?nioth/i? i?aeoeee i?eaeaaiiy ia?aceaeaioaie ei?ii?aoeaieo
iaia??a oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ? oa, ui aiie iiina?aaeeiaothoueny
o?iainiaeie iina?aaeieeai (?iaanoeoe?eieie oiiaeaie) aai aaieaie, ye?
?aae?cothoue oe? iaia?e ia?aceaeaioa. Ca oaeeo oiia ?iaanoeoe?ei? eiooe
in?aeathoue a aaieao oa ?iaanoeoe?eieo oiiaeao, a e?ioeaaee niiaeeaa/,
ai?oaio aeoe?e caeeoa?oueny aac ?iaanoi?a, ??aii ye ? ?iaanoi? aac
i?eaooeo.

Iaaei?aaaeaiith ia aeoieo aaoi?a ? oaeiae ? athaeaeaoii-aeao?oeaioia
ni?yiiaai?noue aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iie?oeee O?yaeo, ui i?iaiaeeoueny
I?io?iii ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo. C?iaeaia noaaea ia iae?aaoe?? aioo??oiuei?
iiceee i?ecaaea aei noeioethaaiiy aeoeaiino? a Oe?a?i? i?aeia?iaeiiai
aaie?anueei-niaeoethoeaiiai eai?oaeo oa c?inoaiiy ciai?oiueiai ai?ao
Oe?a?ie. Iiaeeea? iane?aeee oaei? ae?yeueiino? oe??? eaoaai???
“?iaanoi??a” i?iaeaiiino?oaaea o aa?aci? oa na?ii? oeueiai ?ieo ?in?y,
yea ca iaeio i?/ aoea iinoaaeaia ia iaaeo o?iainiai? e?ece. Iaaaea/a c
oe?a?inueeeie ?a?iaiiaeaie ? oiio ua iaeiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi.

Ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oiiaeiaei ?eieii oa
ae?yeuei?noue ia iueiio ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a- ia?aceaeaio?a iiaeiia iaoe
?iaanoeoe?eii-ae?iaie/o ni?yiiaai?noue ? caaacia/oaaoe iio?aae
ae?iaie/i? noa?e, a ia aaie?anueei?. Ae?yeuei?noue Aea?aeaaii? eii?n??
Oe?a?ie c oe?iieo iaia??a oa oiiaeiaiai ?eieo ? oaeei /eiii aeeeth/ii
aaaeeeaith oi?iith o?iainiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ioean?a a
Oe?a?i?.

?icae?e ??. O?iainiai-i?aaia? ieoaiiy ?aaeeio ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy.
Neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?: iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooe?a ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a, aaethoia ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
aaie?anueea ianeoaiaoaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i?.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo- iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooe?a
?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a aeine?aeaeothoueny iniiai? caeiiiaeaa/? canaaee
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo, yeee io?eio?oueny a ?acoeueoao? cae?eniaiiy
??cieo aeae?a eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue a Oe?a?i?, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?ici??
caaaeueieo aeieao o nioe?aeuei? oiiaee, c?iaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
aiaeia?/ieo o?neaeueieo nenoai o e?a?iao Caoiaeo. Cie?aia iayaia
caeiiiaeaa/a aaca iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie ? aeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaiith
? ca e?euee?noth oa aeaeaie iiaeaoe?a Oe?a?ia ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
a?eueoino? ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii aoee aeyaeai? oa aeine?aeaeai? iniiai?
/eiieee ianoaa?eueiino? ae?th/i? nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ?? aieea ia
aeoeai?noue ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo a Oe?a?i?, iieacaii ia’?eoeaiee
aca?iica’ycie o?iainiai-o?neaeueieo aca?iia?aeiinei c aaei?i?no?aoeaiei
?aaeeiii ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy. Aieiaiei iaaeie?eii ae?th/i? a Oe?a?i?
nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? iaaeineiiaeee iaoai?ci canoinoaaiiy iai?yieo
iiaeaoe?a, a naia IAeA oa aenieee ??aaiue noaaee oeueiai iiaeaoeo o
ii??aiyii? c ?a?iiaenueeeie na?aaeiuei caaaeaieie noaaeaie.

Iane?aeeii oeueiai yaeua ? oa, ui o i?aei?e?inoa aeeo/athoueny ia?aia?
eiooe ? oea aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaa? ia ??aaiue eai?oae?caoe?? i?eaooe?a
o ae?iaie/?e noa??. Ca oaei? neooaoe?? cae?eniaiiy i?yieo ?iaanoeoe?e o
aeiiii?eo ? ae?ae ia?aioaaaeueiith ? ?eceeiaaiith ni?aaith.

Caaaeath/e ia aeiaie? aei?noe? oiiae ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eieo, cia/io oaaao
a aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?eaii iaoeiaiio aiae?co i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo cania?a noeioethaaiiy aeoeaiino? ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a ia i?noeaaiio ?eieo.

Cie?aia, oea noino?oueny oaeiai ia iaeiicia/iiai ?ino?oiaioo, ye
?inoeoooo iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea, ui eiai aoei aia?oa ai?iaaaeaeaii o 1992
?. Caeiiii Oe?a?ie a?ae 13 aa?aciy 1992 ?. “I?i ?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy”.
A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii i?aaiaee iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? oeueiai
?ino?oiaioo c athaeaeaoieie i?ioeanaie oa eiai caeiiiaeaa/o aaiethoe?th.

Ia eiie?aoieo ?acoeueoaoao oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii ieceo
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e noiniaii canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iaoai?cio
?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? oeueiai ?icae?eo aeena?oaoe??- aaethoia
?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ?icaeyiooi ia iaio aaaeeeaee
i?aaiaee aniaeo ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo, a naia nenoaio aaethoiiai
?aaoethaaiiy oa aaie?anueeiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo iia?aoe?e
ia?aceaeaio?a-?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a.

?iicaiia ?iaanooaaiiy ? iaeiei ?c ??ciiaeae?a i?aeia?iaeiiai ?iciiae?eo
i?aoe? ? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? oiio ia iaio i?eioeeiiaei
iioeaii ?? cae?eniaiiy ? aaethoia caeiiiaeaanoai e?a?ie i?eeeaaeaiiy
eai?oae?a.

Aaethoiee ?aaeei noino?oueny ia?o ca ana eiiaa?oiaaiino? iaoe?iiaeueii?
a?ioiai? iaeeieoe?, iiaeeeaino? i?aeia?iaeieo ?ic?aooie?a ii
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiei ? aioo??oi?i ainiiaea?nueeei iia?aoe?yi,
a?eueiiai ia?aeaco aaethoieo eioo?a caei?aeii, noaaee o?ainoa?oieo
iiaeaoe?a oa i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy e?aaeeoieo a?aeiineie.

Iniiaiei ii?iaoeaiei aeoii, ui ?aaoeth? aaethoiee ?eiie oa a?aeiineie
i?ae eiai noa`?eoaie oa i?aaiaie aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth a Oe?a?i? ?
Aeae?ao EIO a?ae 19 ethoiai 1993 ?. ? 15 “I?i nenoaio aaethoiiai
?aaoethaaiiy oa aaethoiiai eiio?ieth”.

Oa?aeoa?ieie iiiaioaie nenoaie aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy Oe?a?ie ?:

-E?oeaicoaaiiy aaethoieo iia?aoe?e ia?aceaeaio?a ? ?aceaeaio?a;

-iaia`yceiaa aeaeea?oaaiiy ?aceaeaioaie aaethoieo oe?iiinoae, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny iica iaaeaie Oe?a?ie (no.9);

-cae?eniaiiy ?ic?aooie?a i?ae ?aceaeaioaie ? ia?aceaeaioaie a ?aieao
oi?a?aaeueiiai ia?ao aeeeth/ii a ?iicaii?e aaetho? ? a aacaio?aeia?e
oi?i?;

— e?oeaic?eiee ii?yaeie a?aee?eooy ia?aceaeaioaie ?ic?aooieiaeo oa
iioi/ieo ?aooie?a (oeio “I” ? oeio “I”) a UAH;

— Iaia’yceiaa ca?oi?noue ii aaethoiei iia?aoe?yi ?aceaeaio?a ?
ia?aceaeaio?a;

— 90 aeaiiee oa?i?i cae?eniaiiy ?ic?aooie?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho?*;

15% iiaeaoie ia ?aiao??aoe?th eai?oaeo;

— cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieth ca aaethoieie iia?aoe?yie ?aceaeaio?a ?
ia?aceaeaio?a c aieo oiiaiiaaaeaieo aaie?a, ca aeei?enoaiiyi
ia?aceaeaioaie aaethoieo eioo?a a Oe?a?i? (?aooiie ? 55- “aaethoia
eana”) c aieo iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a;

Aeaeea?aoe?eii-aeica?eueiee ii?yaeie ia?ai?uaiiy ?iicaiii? aaethoe a
aio?aeia?e oi?i? /a?ac ieoiee ei?aeii Oe?a?ie oa cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieth c
aieo Aea?aeaaiiai ieoiiai eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie;

Iaia’yceiaee i?iaeaae 50% aaethoieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue ia aaethoi? ?aooiee
?aceaeaio?a;

— e?oeaic?eiee ii?yaeie io?eiaiiy ?aceaeaioaie e?aaeeo?a a?ae
ia?aceaeaio?a (a iaaeao e?i?oo ciai?oiueiai ai?ao Oe?a?ie, ui
caoaa?aeaeo?oueny A? Oe?a?ie);

-e?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ii?ooaiiy aaethoiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa;

Iieaoa i?aoe? i?noeaaei ?ia?oieeai ?iaioiaeaaoeyie-ia?aceaeaioaie
o?eueee a iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaetho?;

Oaeei /eiii, iacaaaeath/e ia aeaye? caoiaee IAO c e?aa?ae?caoe??
aaethoiiai ?aaeeio ye oi:

— oi?o?eaoe?y aaethoiiai eo?no iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ioiai? iaeeieoe?;

— noai?aiiy oiia aeey eoi?ae? ?iicaiii? aaethoe ia i?aeaaie?anueeiio
aaethoiiio ?eieo;

— iiaeeea?noue, i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a ?aooieai oeio EI?I aeey
ia?aceaeaio?a a oaeiae a?aee?eooy ia ?aceaeaioaie ?ic?aooieiaeo ?aooie?a
a UAH;

— aaaaeaiiy ?inoeoooo aiii?iieo aaethoieo ?aooie?a;

nenoaia aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a Oe?a?i? caeeoa?oueny aaei?i?no?aoeaii
aei?noeith, ui a oiiaao eiieo?aioe?? ia ?iaanoeoe?eiiio ?eieo ia’?eoeaii
no?eio? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?io a?eueieo aaethoieo eioo?a ?iicaiiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy.

Ia?iaiaioiee aea?c aaethoieo eioo?a caei?aeii na?ae/eoue i?i ioeueiao
aoaeoeai?noue ae?th/iai aaethoiiai eiio?ieth. I?ioa i?ae i?an
aea?aeaaiiai ? aaie?anueeiai eiio?ieth i?aeiaaeathoue ?iicaii? o??ie, ui
iathoue iai?? i?aoethaaoe ia oe?a?inueeiio ?eieo, ? ye? caeeee
i?aoethaaoe a oiiaao a?eueiiai aaethoiiai ia?ao. Aeey ii??aiyiiy a NOA,
Eaiaae? ? Aaeeeia?eoai?? a?aenooi? aoaeue-ye? aaethoi? iaiaaeaiiy .

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aii ieoaiith aaie?anueeiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i?. Aac no/anii? aaie?anueei?
nenoaie caeaoii? iaiao?aeiiio ??ai? caaacia/oaaoe ae?th/? oi?ie
i?aeia?iaeii? ? ae?iaie/i? ? oi?aiai? eiiia?aoe?? oa aeeiioaaoe naith
iniiaio nioe?aeueio ooieoe?th e?aaeeooaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa, aoaeoeaia
caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?? ? ia?aaeueiei.

No?eioth/ei oaeoi?ii o noa?? aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie ?
a?aenooi?noue aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? e?aaeeoii e?ea?aeieo aaie?a
caeaoieo o?iainoaaoe ?iaanoeoe?ei? i?iaeoe ca o/anoth ?iicaiiiai
eai?oaeo.

Cie?aia o oe?e /anoei? aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii ? oai?aoe/ii
aeiaaaeaii, ui aeoeai?noue ?iicaiiiai eai?oaeo caaaeaee ? aaee/eiith
i?yii i?iii?oe?eiith eieeaaiith aaethoii? eii`theoo?e oa e?ea?aeiino?
oe?a?inueeeo aaie?a, ?o caeaoiino? ianeoaiaoaaoe e?aaeeoi? e?i??.

C iiaeyaeo ia ?iaanoeoe?eio i?eaaaeea?noue oiai /e ?ioiai ?eieo
i?eeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo eai?oae?a, ?icaeioo?noue i?noeaai? aaie?anueei?
?io?ano?oeoo?e ? iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith ae?yeueiino? ?iicaiieo
?iaanoi??a, ine?eueee o?eueee oaea aaie?anueea nenoaia caeaoia
cai?iiiioaaoe iiaiee iaeao no/anieo aaie?anueeeo iineoa oa caaacia/eoe
o?iainoaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a.

Oa?aeoa?ieie iaaeie?eaie aaie?anueei? nenoaie a Oe?a?ie ? aaeeea
e?euee?noue iae?ea?aeieo aaie?a (220), iacaeaoieo aei aoaeue-yeeo
aaaiieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo aeeaaeaiue o a?o/eciyio aeiiii?eo. Oaea
iaaoaeoeaia nenoaia a?aeaie?ea? o?iainiai-a?ioia? ?ano?ne ? ia aea?
iiaeeeaino? iaeiie/eoe oa neiioeaio?oaaoe iaiao?aei? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy.

A aeene?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii oai?aoe/io oaco noiniaii iaiao?aeiino?
i?eaaaeaiiy noaoooiiai eai?oaeo noa’?eo?a aaie?anueeiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie
aei caaaeueii i?eeiyoeo na?oiaeo ii?iaoea?a- 3 iei. AETH oa i?aeaeuaiiy
oeea?eueii-i?ioeanoaeueieo cania?a caaacia/aiiy iaoa??aeueieo i?aa
?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i? i?e aeei?enoaii? ieie iineoa i?noeaai?
aaie?anueei? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

Cie?aia a oe?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii i?iaeaio i?aaiaiai caoenoo
?iaanoeoe?eieo aeeaae?a ?iicaiieo noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a oe?a?inueeeo eiia?oe?eieo aaieao a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy
ieie ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a.

O aeniiaeao, ui caaa?oothoue aeena?oaoe?th, i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa iaa?oioiaothoueny aeine?aeaeai? ? noi?ioeueiaai?
oai?aoe/i? oace c ieoaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio ?iicaiiiai
?iaanooaaiiy oa oi?ioeththoueny ia oe?e iniia? i?iiiceoe?? ii
aaeineiiaeaiith ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. E?ni?/aiei N.I. Aeaye? aniaeoe canoinoaaiiy iiaeaoeo ia aeiaaaeaio
aa?o?noue i?e iiiaeaoeoaaii? ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?i? //Iaoeiaee
a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeione 4-5. – I?aaiaciaanoai.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.- *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, — 1996. — N. 284-373.

2. E?ni?/aiei N.I. O?iainiai- i?aaia? aa?aio?? caoenoo iaeiiaeo i?aa
?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a oe?a?inueeeo eiia?oe?eieo aaieao // A?/a/10 (79)
1998, Ee?a, 1998 — N.124-133.

3. E?ni?/aiei N.I. Canoinoaaiiy iiaeaoeo ia aeiaaaeaio aa?o?noue i?e
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a Oe?a?i?// «I?aai Oe?a?ie».-1998.-
?12.- N.51-57.

4. E?ni?/aiei N.I. I?iaeaia o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e caoenoo iaeiiaeo
i?aa ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a a oe?a?inueeeo eiia?oe?eieo aaieao// Ciai?oiy
oi?a?aey, Anaoe?a?inueeee aeiiii?/iee aeo?iae.- 1998.- ? 1.- N.100-104.

5. E?ni?/aiei N.I. Aeaye? i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy aaenaey i?e ioi?ieaii?
o?iainiaeo ciaia’ycaiue noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
//I?aaia? i?iaeaie o?iainiaiai i?aaa. I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y.
*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeoi?aa?neoao. Aeione 2 — *a?i?aoe?: ?ooa,- 1996.-
N.268-279.

6. E?ni?/aiei N.I. O?iaine aeey aei??a, ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
o?iainoaaiiy aaoiaei?iaeiueiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? oa caei?aeiiii//
“Eiiiaiueeii” .- 1999.-? 4(104).- N.34-36.

E?ni?/aiei N.I. O?iainiai-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy
a Oe?a?i? (ca caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie, ?N oa NOA).

Aeena?oaoe?y o oi?i? ?oeiieno ia caeiaoooy a/aii? nooiai? eaiaeeaeaoa
eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.07 – oai??y
oi?aae?iiy; aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?aai ? i?ioean; o?iainiaa i?aai,
aaie?anueea i?aai, Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O. Oaa/aiei, Ee?a, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiaeeoueny eiiieaenia oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aaia?aeiinei, a?aaoeueiaaieo ae?th/ei caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie, ui
aeieeathoue i?ae aea?aeaaieie aaei?i?no?aoeaieie i?aaiaie oa ?iicaiieie
?iaanoi?aie, a ??aii ye ? o?iainia? iniiae oa ?aieia? oiiae cae?eniaiiy
ia?aceaeaioaie i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?.

O aeena?oaoe?? ? aeaye? i?iiiceoe?? c aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a,
ye? ?aaoeththoue ?iicaii? ?iaanoeoe?? a Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?iaanoeoe??, o?iainiai-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy, o?iainia?
iniiae, ia?aceaeaioe.

Eenie/aiei N.I. Oeiainiai-i?aaiaua iniiau eiino?aiiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey a
Oe?aeia ( ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao Oe?aeiu, AN e NOA).

Aeenna?oaoeey a oi?ia ?oeiiene ia nieneaiea o/aiiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
o/aiiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
12.00.07 – oai?ey oi?aaeaiey; aaeieieno?aoeaiia i?aai e i?ioeann;
oeiainiaia i?aai, aaieianeia i?aai, Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao ei. O.
Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeeony eiiieaeniia oai?aoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea
i?aaiioiioaiee, o?aaoee?iaaiiuo aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
Oe?aeiu, aicieeathueo iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaiiuie aaeieieno?aoeaiuie
i?aaiaie e eiino?aiiuie eiaanoi?aie, a ?aaii eae oeiainiaua iniiau e
?aii/iua oneiaey inouanoaeaiey ia?aceaeaioaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe a Oe?aeia.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo iaeioi?ua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth
ii?iaoeiuo aeoia, ?aaoee?othueo eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee a Oe?aeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiaanoeoeee, oeiainiai-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea,
oeiainiaua iniiau, ia?aceaeaiou.

Lisnitchenko S.M. Financial and Legal Regulation of the foreign
investments in Ukraine (according to the legislation of Ukraine and EU,
the USA ).

Dissertation is a manuscript and submitted for a candidate’s degree in
Law, specialty 12.00.07 – theory of management; administrative Law and
proceedings; financial Law, banking Law in Kyiv Shevchenko University,
Kyiv, 1998.

The main thesis of this theoretical research is relationships regulated
by actual Ukrainian legislation between the state administrative bodies
and foreign investors as well as the financial grounds and frameworks
for the carrying on the entrepreneur’s activities by the non residents
in Ukraine.

The dissertation includes a certain number of proposals on improvement
of current legislation relating to the regulation of foreign investments
in Ukraine.

Under the actual conditions in Ukrainian national economy the problem of
stimulating the foreign investments ranks a key position in the legal
regulation of activities of non residential capital in this Republic.

The central point of above mentioned issue is the financial-legal
aspects of investment’s activities of foreign companies on Ukrainian
capital markets. In this dissertation was analyzed the current
development of Ukrainian legislation to this problem as well as was
given a definition of the conception ”foreign investment”.

As in was proved in this scientific research under the definition of
”foreign investment” is to understand all kinds of placement of funds
into the sphere of material production throw the foreign subjects of
entrepreneur’s activities in the form of high technological equipment,
means of production, foreign currency, industrial and intellectual
property rights at those expense will be reached a social-giving effect
for the national economy of Ukraine and produced profit.

The special attention was given to the financial and legal regulation
of so called portfolio investment in Ukraine and activities of non
residents on Ukrainian stock markets because the main foreign capitals
come to the new markets specially throw this way. Is was analyzed that
Ukrainian stock market posses the same stock means as the western stock
exchange: bills, shares, government bonds and so on. But the main
mistake of legislator in this field was predomination of government
bonds in the stock exchange and financing throw this way the budget
deficit. This policy lead to financial collapse in the last year.

Another key issue of financial-legal regulation, that has been explored
in this dissertation, is the taxation of foreign investors in Ukraine
and the actual tax system of this Land. It was given also the scientific
comparison with the similar tax systems of industrial countries. The
main lack of taxation system of Ukraine, as it was indicated in this
research, implies in the predominating of indirect taxes like VAT (Value
added Tax). Such kind of situation causes the withdrawal from
circulation of assets of foreign investors as well as their Ukrainian
contra parts. This makes their investment risky and uneconomic.

Under this point of view there has been done the analyze of modern
legal forms of legalization of foreign companies in Ukraine and the
actual legal field for their activities in this Land. Particularly were
regarded such financial-legal tools as off shore zones and free economic
zones and financial-industrial groups.

By the comparing of world-known off shore zones in Gibraltar, Malta and
others it was argumented, that off shore scheme doesn’t suit to the
current situation in Ukrainian economy and doesn’t conform with the
drastic strict tax system of Ukraine and will lead only to the budget’s
loses. The more acceptable financial-legal forms are the free economic
zone and financial and industrial groups.

The tax preferences has been also the subject of this exploration
(research). The insufficient results of government’s policy directed to
the tax privileges for the foreign investors brought to the immense
budget loses. The main reason for such kind of phenomenon was and still
remains the lack of understanding by the legislator the difference
between business and investment’s activities of foreign companies in
Ukraine. All kind of investment are business activity but not all
business activities are the object for investments. In the dissertation
was made an emphasis on the necessarily of telling the difference
between the common businessmen and investors.

Nevertheless the tax preferences remains to be one of the most
effective financial-legal means to attract the foreign capitals into the
national economy of Ukraine.

Special emphasis was laid on the questions concerning the banking
system of Ukraine. It was fitted that the modern bank system is an
essential part of foreign investments regime. But in Ukraine falls short
the necessary number of high liquid banks capable to credit the
production sphere of national economy of Ukraine. Currency regulation of
Ukraine doesn’t fit the interests of attraction of foreign capitals in
this Land. Firstly it applies to the actual order of opening of accounts
in Ukrainian banks and procedure of negotiating foreign credit by
residents. Mainly concerns this the licensing practice of Ukrainian
National Bank and financial authorities of Ukraine in this field. Tough
interference of State into the free market processes brings to the
steadily same result- outflow of capitals and substitution of the free
market relationships throw administrative regulation. This makes the
activities of foreign banks very risky and non lucrative. A large number
of non liquid bank in Ukraine take to the consequence the dispersion of
financing coming in Ukraine and doesn’t permit to concentrate them on
the demanded level.

In this research has been made a conclusion about the necessity of
increasing the authorized capital of Ukrainian banks to the world
standards- 3 millions ECU as it was recommended by the Basil committee.

Key words: Investments, financial-legal regulation, financial basis,
non residents.

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