I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AEIIII?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

O?eea? ?inoeneaa ?ee?/

OAeE 336.717; 336. 719

O?IAINIAA NO?EE?NOUe EIIA?Oe?EIIAI AAIEO OA OEssOE ?? CI?OeIAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.04.01 — o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo

AAOI?AOA?AO

AeENA?OAOe?? IA CAeIAOOOss IAOEIAIAI NOOIAIss EAIAeEAeAOA AEIIII?*IEO
IAOE

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?iain?a Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee —

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith o?iain?a Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Oaaeinia A?eoi? Ieoaeeiae/,

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a aea?aeaae iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
o?iainiaiai ?inoeoooo i?e I?i?noa?noa? o?iain?a Oe?a?ie Iieicaiei
Aeieo?i Aaneeueiae/

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aaie?anueei? ni?aae
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Ie?oi Ieeiea
?aaiiae/,

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa,

eaoaae?a o?iain?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 5 “ aa?aciy 1999?. i 16-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.006.02 i?e Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252057, i.Ee?a,
i?.Ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoae. 214.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i?.Ia?aiiae, 54/1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 3 “ ethoiai 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.I.Iiaeae??ueia?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Noaiiaeaiiy eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a Oe?a?ie ni?aiaei c
caaino?aiiyi e?eciaeo yaeu a aeiiii?oe?, ye? iaoiiaeththoue a oe?eiio ?o
neaaeee o?iainiaee noai. O?eueee i»yoa /anoeia eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ia?
e?ea?aei? aeoeae. Iaeaea oaea ae /anoeia aaie?a ? iecueeie?ea?aeieie ?
iae?ea?aeieie. Ieoiia aaaa e?aaeeoiiai ii?ooaey a caaaeuei?e noi?
aeoea?a noaiiaeoue 42 %, i?ino?i/ai? e i?ieiiaiaai? e?aaeeoe
neeaaeathoue 22 %. Eiia?oe?ei? aaiee ia iathoue iiaeeeaino? aoaeoeaii
aeeaaeaoe e?aaeeoi? eiooe o ae?iaieoeoai a ca»yceo c eiai iecueeith
?aioaaaeuei?noth oa aaie?oonoaii aaaaoueio noa»?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. Oaea iiaeeea?noue eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a
i?ae?eaa?oueny ? e?aaeeoiith iie?oeeith, yea ia a iiai?e i???
a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aea?aeaae. A ?iee a?ia??ioeyoe?? i?ioeaioi? noaaee ii ei?ioeino?ieiaiio
e?aaeeoo neeaaeaee 220-250%. Oea ia?aaeuoaaei ??/i? ii?ie i?eaooeo
ae?iaie/eo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa a 4-10 ?ac?a, ui ni?eyei
ia?aeeao e?aaeeoieo ?ano?n?a c ae?iaie/i? noa?e a noa?o eiia?oe?eiiai
ae??aiioiaa?iiai iai?ioo ? iaeaea iiai?e e?ea?aeaoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
e?aaeeoo. Iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaaeenue ia e?aaeeoieo a?aeiioaiiyo ? iaaei??i?
iae?eia? noaaee IAO, ye? canoiniaoaaeenue a aaie?anuee?e i?aeoeoe? a
1991-1998 ?.?.

?aii?oaaiiy iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aeaea?aeii iice/eiaiai i?ioeaioa ?
aeiaeaoeiaa aa?o?noue, ui noai?th?oueny a i?ioean? i?iaeoeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iice/eiaiai eai?oaeo, ia iiaei iaaaoeaii ia a?aeaeoenue ia
o?iainiaiio noai? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. Ca ia??iae 1991-1998 ?.?.
ui??/ii aeieeaee caeoeia? aaiee, caeoee neeaaeaee aeanyoee i?eueeii?a
a?eaaiue, ia cieeaee iaiie?eo? caeoee ieioeeo ?ie?a.

E?eciaee noai aaie?a coiiaeaiee oaeiae oei, ui aiie ia i?eae?eyee
iaeaaeii? oaaae aiae?co oi?ioaaiiy e aeei?enoaiiy nai?o o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a. Oea ia aeicaieyei ?i iia?aoeaii e iaa?oioiaaii i?eeiaoe
iaiaaeaea?nuee? ??oaiiy ii iie?ioaiith naiai o?iainiaiai noaio, a oie
/an ye oaeee aiae?c ? ii?iith a ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a
e?a?iao c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith. A oeeo oiiaao
?noioiiai ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ae??oaiiy iaoeiai?
caaea/? ci?oeiaiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

Ieoaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iniia o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a
ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ?iaioao cao?aeieo a/aieo — Aea Eiaie O.,
Oaeee E., ?ioca I.N., Oaeoeiaa Ae.I., ?in?enueeeo aeine?aeiee?a -Ai?a
I.3., Ai?ii?ia Ae. A., ?aaiiaa E. I., ?aaiiaa A. A., Ianea/aieiaa TH.N.,
Eaa?ooeia 0.1., Iaiiai? A.N., Ooe?ia A.A., *a?eaniaa A.A., Ue??inueei?
A. A.

A iaoeiaeo eieao Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie iaeoee nai?
i?noea a ?iaioao Aa?aneiiae/a A.I., Aeaieeue/aiea E.I., Aecyaethea I.
A., Ca?oae I.Ae., Ii?ica A.I., Ie?oia I.?., Iieicaiea Ae.A., Naaeoea
I.?., THuaiea A.A.

Uiaei c?iaeaieo cao?aeieie a/aieie aeine?aeaeaiue o?iainiaiai noaio
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a cacia/eii, ui aiie nie?athoueny ia a?aei?iio a?ae
oe?a?inueei? caeiiiaeaa/o aaco, a?aeiia?aeathoue ?aae?yi ?icaeiooiai
aeiiii?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, canoiniaothoue no/ani? aaie?anuee? oaoiieia??
oiui. Oiio aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o a no/ani?e a?o/eciyi?e aaie?anuee?e
i?aeoeoe? iaiao?aeii, aea c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae no/aniiai noaio
?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. C oeeo iiceoe?e
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ? ?in?enueeeo aaoi??a a a?eueo?e i???
a?aeiia?aeathoue iaoei aeiiaai, ai aiie ?icaeyaeathoue i?eioeeie
oi?ioaaiiy o?iainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, niiniae ? i?eeiie o?iainiaiai
aiae?co iaae?eiino?, ieaoini?iiiaeiino?, e?ea?aeiino? ? ?io? ieoaiiy
ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?ee.

Aecia/ath/e oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue c?iaeaieo
oe?a?inueeeie aaoi?aie aeine?aeaeaiue, ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui aiie aaeaei
caii/aoeoaaee ?icaeyae iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy
aeaio??aiaai? aaie?anueei? nenoaie a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?ee. Aea naia ae?aeaeoeea oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iiai? iiaeae?
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aenoaa? iei? ? aoaea aacia?a/ii aenoaaoe a
iaeaooiueiio oae? ieoaiiy, ae??oaiiy yeeo ye a oai?aoe/iiio, oae ? a
i?aeoe/iiio ieai? aoei a aaeaeaaoiei iei?oi?i oiiaai oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. Oea iiai?noth a?aeiineoueny ? aei iiaeaeueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aea?aiee
iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith eiiieaenii? iaoeiai?
oaie «Oai??y oa i?aeoeea oi?aae?iiy o?iainaie a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee» (?0196U1700709), yea aeeiio?oueny ia eaoaae?? o?iain?a
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?n?oaoo.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino? oe?a?inueeeo eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a, ye iniiae caa?aaeaiiy eiieo?aioieo iiceoe?e ia e?aaeeoiiio
?eieo, aeyaeaiiy oeyo?a ci?oeiaiiy ?o o?iainiaiai noaio. Caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— anoaiiaeoe o?iainia? aca?iica’ycee a ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? aca?iiae?y yeeo aecia/a? ?o o?iainiaee noai ?
o?iainiao no?ee?noue;

— aeine?aeeoe ? aaeineiiaeeoe no/ani? iaoiaee aiae?co e ioe?iee
o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ye iniiae aeey i?eeiyooy
aoaeoeaieo iaiaaeaea?nueeeo ??oaiue ii iiia?aaeaeaiith eiai aaie?oonoaa;

— aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy aeanieo ?ano?n?a aaieo aeey
caaacia/aiiy eiai o?iainiai? no?eeino?;

— ?ice?eoe aieea caeo/aieo e caiice/aieo ?ano?n?a eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ia
eiai o?iainiao noaa?euei?noue;

-iaa?oiooaaoe iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aeioiaeaie ? aeo?aoaie eiia?oe?eiiai
aaieo a oiiaao noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ? cieaeaiiy ?ioeyoe??;

— c’ynoaaoe i?noea ? ?ieue ieaoini?iiiaeiino? e e?ea?aeiino?
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo a nenoai? caoiae?a ii aeinyaiaiith e ci?oeiaiith
eiai o?iainiai? no?eeino?.

I?aaeiao oa ia»?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?iainia?
a?aeiineie, ui iiina?aaeeiaothoue oi?ioaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy ? ?oo oiiae?a
a?ioiaeo ?ano?n?a a i?ioean? ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.
Ia»?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue eiia?oe?ei? aaiee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— a?aoiaioiaaiee ci?no ? aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy a
oai?aoe/iiio aiae?c? e i?aeoeoe? iiiyoue, «no?ee?noue aaieo ii
eai?oaeo», «eiia?oe?eia no?ee?noue», «ooieoe?iiaeueia no?ee?noue»,
«i?aai?caoe?eia no?ee?noue», «o?iainiaa no?ee?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo»,
aecia/ai? ?o a?aei?iiino? ? oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia ieo;

-ooi/iai? e eeaneo?eiaai? iieacieee, ui iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey aiae?co e ioe?iee o?iainiai? no?eeino?
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ? anoaiiaeai? iiaeeea? ??ai? oaei? ioe?iee;

-aaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy e?aaeeoiiai iioaioe?aeo eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a, cie?aia eiai iniaeeaino? a oiiaao noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee ?
iaaeniei? ?ioeyoe??;

— eiie?aoeciaai? ?aca?ae c?inoaiiy aeio?aeii? aace aaie?a ? nei?i/aiiy
aeo?ao c iaoith ci?oeiaiiy ?o o?iainiai? no?eeino?;

— ?ice?eo? a?aei?iiino? ieaoini?iiiaeiino? e e?ea?aeiino? eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a a ?o aieea? ia o?iainiao no?ee?noue;

— aia?oa iaa?oioiaaiee ci?no ? oeyoe i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy
?ic?iaeaii? aaoi?ii aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy iioi/iith
e?ea?aei?noth eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo, iiaoaeiaaii? ia ocaiaeaeaii? a /an? ?
ii ianyaao eiai a?ioiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue oa ieaoaae?a.

Noaoenoe/io ? oaeoieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue
caeiiiaeaa/? ? ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ui ?aaoeththoue ae?yeuei?noue
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, iaoa??aee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo, eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a, I?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa Oe?a?ie, iiiia?ao?/ia ? ia??iaee/ia
e?oa?aoo?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noaiiaeoue ae?aeaeoe/iee
iaoiae i?ciaiiy, yeee caaacia/ea aiae?c o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei a
eiia?oe?eieo aaieao a ?o ?icaeoeo, aca?iica’yceo oa aca?iicaeaaeiino?.
Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee aeinyaiaiiy ca?oa?aeii? ?
a?o/eciyii? o?iainiai? iaoee c ieoaiue oai??? ? i?aeoeee ooieoe?iioaaiiy
o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei ? aaie?a. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?eeiie aiae?co oa neioaco, a?oioaaiiy,
oei?caoe?y, ii??aiyiiy, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy oa
a?ao?/ia i?aaenoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee
i?aeoe/ieo caoiae?a ii ci?oeiaiith o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a. Ie?ai? oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe?? ?iaioe aeiaaaeai? aei
??aiy i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? aeei?enoai?, cie?aia, i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iniiaieo aeaiaio?a iaoiaeeee aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
iioi/iith e?ea?aei?noth eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo (Aeia?aeea ? 12 a?ae 18
n?/iy 1997 ?.).

Ie?ai? ocaaaeueiaiiy, oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee ? i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe??
aeei?enoiaothoueny a o/aiaiio i?ioean? a Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio
aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ii?eethaeiai? ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e o?iain?a Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:
«?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee» (i.Eooeuee,
22-23 o?aaiy 1997 ?.), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «O?iaine Oe?a?ie»
(I.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 3 /a?aiy 1997 ?.), Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe??
«Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie ?iiaaoe?eii? oa ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee
aea?aeaae» (i.Ee?a, 5-6- /a?aiy 1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii iiiia?ao?th oa i»youe
noaoae caaaeueiei ianyaii 11,6 ae?.a?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe,
caaaeaiiy oa eia?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?a ?iaioe neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, i»yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e. ?iaioa i?noeoue 168
noi??iie, a oiio /ene? 27 oaaeeoeue, 7 ?enoie?a. Aeiaeaoee — ia 6
noi??ieao. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e neeaaea? 226 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «Eiia?oe?ei? aaiee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee» — aeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeiiii?/iiai
na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio aeieeee ? ooieoe?iiothoue eiia?oe?ei? aaiee
Oe?a?ie, aena?oeai? iieiaeaiiy i?i ia»?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue a?eueo
oaeaeeiai ?icaeoeo aaie?anueeiai naeoi?o, aaeaeaaoiiai oa?aeoa?o ?
??aith ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Iieacaii, ui i?e ae??oaii? i?iaeaie o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a ia no/aniiio aoai? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe e?eciaee noai
ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie ? o? caaaeueiia?aeii? iaaaoeai? yaeua a aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie, iiyaa ? ?nioaaiiy yeeo iaoiiaeai? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iith
e?ecith. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iiaeaeueo? aeeoo?caeaoi?noue ? ?icaeoie
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ?o o?iainiaa no?ee?noue iiai?noth caeaaeaoue a?ae
oni?o?a ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee, aaeineiiaeaiiy
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoiiai iaoai?cio a iai?yieo aeiaea?aeaiiy aeiia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia»?eoeaieo aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a, cie?aia oaeeo ye caeii
aa?oino? ? caeii a?ioiaiai ia?ao. A oeueiio ca»yceo aeena?oaio
aeneiaeth? nai? aeoiee uiaei oeyo?a iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ?
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a aeiiii?/iiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
Oe?a?ie.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «O?iainiaa no?ee?noue ? ?? cia/aiiy a aaie?anuee?e
ae?yeueiino?» — ?icaeyioo? aeaa aoceiaeo ieoaiiy: ?ice?eo? i?noea, ?ieue
oa ci?no o?iainiai? no?eeino? a ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo; aeaia
anaa?/ia ioe?iea o?iainiai? no?eeino? ye aaaeeeai? oiiae aoaeoeaiiai
aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.

I?iaaaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c iieaco?, ui o?iainiaa no?ee?noue
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ? iaeaaaeeea?oei no?oeoo?iei aeaiaioii eiai
caaaeueii? no?eeino?. No?oeoo?a inoaiiuei? aeeth/a? ?yae aeaiaio?a,
aca?iica’ycie i?ae yeeie aeine?aeaeaiee a ?iaio?. A aeena?oaoe??
a?aoiaioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy a oai?aoe/iiio aiae?c? e
i?aeoeoe? iiiyoue «no?ee?noue aaieo ii eai?oaeo», «eiia?oe?eia
no?ee?noue aaieo», «i?aai?caoe?eia no?ee?noue aaieo», «ooieoe?iiaeueia
no?ee?noue aaieo», «o?iainiaa no?ee?noue aaieo».

Iniiao no?eeino? aaieo ii eai?oaeo neeaaea? ianya aeaniiai eai?oaeo
aaieo. Eiia?oe?eia no?ee?noue aaieo aecia/a? ??aaiue eiai ca»yce?a c
?ioeie noa»?eoaie ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ?icaeioo?noue ?
i?oei?noue aca?iia?aeiinei c oi?aae?inueeeie no?oeoo?aie aea?aeaae,
aeeth/aiiy a nenoaio i?aeaaie?anueeeo a?aeiinei, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c
ee??ioaie aaieo

oiui. I?aai?caoe?eia no?ee?noue aaieo aecia/a?oueny ia?o ca ana ??aiai ?
ye?noth ooieoe?iiaeueii-oaoiieia?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??, ui ?aaeaiaioo? an?
aniaeoe eiai ae?yeueiino?, ye? noinothoueny i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e ?
niaoeeo?/ieo aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e. A iniiao ooieoe?iiaeueii?
no?eeino? aaieo iieeaaeaii aai ae eiai niaoe?ae?caoe?th uiaei niaeo?a
aaie?anueeeo iineoa ? i?iaeoeo?a, aai ae oi?aa?nae?caoe?th aaieo,
?icoe?aiiy eiea eiai iia?aoe?e.

O?iainiaa no?ee?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ae?aaea? ocaaaeueithth/o
?acoeueoaoeai?noue an?o neeaaeiaeo eiai no?eeino? ? aei??th?oueny
nenoaiith iieaciee?a, ianaiia?aae, ianyaii ? no?oeoo?ith aeanieo
?ano?n?a, ??aiai i?eaooeiaino?, ii?iith i?eaooeo ia aeaniee eai?oae,
anoaiiaeaieie iieacieeaie e?ea?aeiino?, ioeueoeie?eaoeaiith
aoaeoeai?noth aeaniiai eai?oaeo, ianyaii noai?aii? aeiaeaii? aa?oino?
oiui.

Ia o?iainiao no?ee?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo aieeaathoue ye iae?i- ?
i?e?iaeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e, oae ? oaeoi?e iaaeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o. A
aeena?oaoe?? aiie anoaiiaeai?, i?ae ieie aeyaeai? i?yi? ? cai?ioi?
ca»ycee. Aeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y ??cieo oaeoi??a (aeea. ?en.1).

?en.1. Oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia no?ee?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo

A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaai? aeae?eueea o?iainiaeo iieaciee?a, ui
a?aeia?aaeathoue ??ci? aniaeoe o?iainiai? no?eeino? aaieo. Aeiaaaeaii,
ui iaea?eueo ocaaaeueithth/ei iieacieeii o?iainiai? no?eeino? ?
iaaeeeoie /e aeao?oeeo aeanieo ?ano?n?a aaieo (EON1). Aeaia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaia’yceiai a?eueoa ioey, a eiai ci?ia a a?e ca?eueoaiiy
na?ae/eoue i?i oe?eani?yiiaaio iie?oeeo aaieo ia iie?ioaiiy eiai
o?iainiaiai noaio. ?, iaaiaee, ??ce? ci?ie iieaciee?a a ia??iaeao, ui
aiae?cothoueny, na?ae/aoue i?i iacaaa?oai?noue oi?ioaaiiy inoaoi/iiai
oeio aaieo (oi?aa?naeueiee, aaeocaaee, ?iaanoeoe?eiee, niaoe?ae?ciaaiee
oiui) ? i?i eiai aeineoue neeueio caeaaei?noue a?ae ci?ie ?eieiai?
eii’thieoo?e.

Aeiaeaoeiaei ioe?ii/iei iieacieeii a??iino? c?iaeaiiai aeniiaeo ii EON ?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeanieo ?ano?n?a aaieo iaooi ? a?oooi (EON2). Oeae
iieaciee iaia’yceiai a?eueoee 0. Eiai ioeueiaa cia/aiiy na?ae/eoue i?i
iaiia?euei?noue ae?e aaieo o aeiaaeeo aeieeiaiiy aaie?anueeiai ?eceeo.
Ii?yae c no?oeoo?ith aeanieo ?ano?n?a ia caaaeueio iia?euei?noue aaieo
aieeaa? oa?aeoa? ?ici?uaiiy caeo/aieo ?ano?n?a, ni?yiiaai?noue ia
iiaeeea?noue iaiaa?o (iia?euei?noue aaieo) o aeiaaeeo aeieeiaiiy
iaia?aaeaa/aieo neooaoe?e.

Ioe?iea no?eeino? ii a?aeiioaiith aei eii’thieoo?ieo c?ooaiue ia ?eieo
cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iieacieea, ui ae?aaea? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aeanieo ? caeo/aieo eioo?a (EON3). Eiai aeeiai?ea na?ae/eoue i?i
i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? i?e c?inoaii? iieacieea ? i?i ?? cieaeaiiy o
aeiaaeeo ciaioaiiy iieacieea. Eiai a?eoi?y coiiaeth? ?ecee ao?ao o
i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy no?eeino? ?ano?nii? aace aaieo ? aenooia? ye iciaea
caaino?aiiy i?iaeaie iioi/ii? e?ea?aeiino?.

?ecee iacaaeainiaaii? no?eeino? aaieo aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiith
aeiaaino?ieiaeo aeaiiceo?a a neeaae? caeo/aieo ?ano?n?a (EON4). Eiai
ca?eueoaiiy na?ae/eoue i?i caaeainiaaia oi?aae?iiy aeoeaieie ?
ianeaieie iia?aoe?yie ii no?ieai, ianyaai caeo/aiiy ? ?ici?uaiiy
a?ioiaeo ?ano?n?a aaieo. Cieaeaiiy aai a?aenooi?noue eiai neaiae?co? i?i
a?aceea?noue aaieo aeey aoaeue-yeeo ci?i ia e?aaeeoiiio ?eieo.

I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy caaacia/aiino? aeanieie eiooaie caeo/aieo aaieii
?ano?n?a (EON5) a?aeia?aaea? ci?oeiaiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino?. A oie aea
/an aiii iaiaaeo? aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? aaieo ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy
a?aeaea/? a?ae o?iainiaiai e?aa??aeaeo. Cieaeaiiy EON5 ia i?ioyc?
ia??iae?a, ui aiae?cothoueny, iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i aa?aneaio e?aaeeoio
iie?oeeo ? iioaioe?ei? e?aaeeoi? ?eceee.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeanieie ?ano?naie aaieo ? aieiaieie no?oeoo?ieie
aeaiaioaie caeo/aieo e caiice/aieo eioo?a neeaaea?oueny, ianaiia?aae,
i?ae aieeaii eiie?aoieo oiia, a yeeo a?i ae??: oi?aa?nae?caoe?? /e
niaoe?ae?caoe??, iniaeeainoae e?aaeeoii? e aeaiiceoii? oaeoeee ?
no?aoaa??, ianyao iineoa, ye? iaaeathoueny aaieii oiui. Aea ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe ? oa, ui, iacaeaaeii a?ae oeueiai, cia/ia ia?aaeuaiiy ianyao
caeo/aieo ? caiice/aieo eioo?a iaae aeaniei eai?oaeii iiaea
neaiae?coaaoe i?i iia??oaiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ?
coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue iia?aoeaiiai e ae?eiaiai ?aaaoaaiiy ia c aieo
ea??aieoeoaa. Iieacieee o?iainiai? no?eeino? aaieo iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 2.

?en. 2. Iieacieee o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo.

No?oeoo?a ?ano?n?a eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ?noioii a?ae??ciy?oueny ? ca
ieoiiith aaaith ??cieo aeaiaio?a caeo/aieo eioo?a a /enoeo ianeaao,
cia/ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aeanoeaa aaieai ? uiaei ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aeaiiceoieo eioo?a ee??io?a, i?aeaaie?anueeeo e?aaeeo?a a noi? c
aeeaaeaie ? ianyaii /enoeo ianea?a. Aiae?c iieacaa, ui cacia/aia
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a a?eueo?e i??? aeanoeaa ni?aa?aeiioaiith noie
aeaiiceo?a ? aeeaae?a c /enoeie ianeaaie, i?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiith noie
aeaiiceoieo eioo?a ee??io?a, i?aeaaie?anueeeo e?aaeeo?a ? aeeaae?a. Oea
icia/a?, ui aeaye? c aaie?a cian?i ia caa?oathoueny aei caiice/aiiy
i?aeaaie?anueeeo e?aaeeo?a (aeineoue «aei?iaeo» ?ano?n?a), a ?io? oea
?iaeyoue a iacia/i?e i???.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «Aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy ?ano?n?a eiia?oe?eiiai
aaieo aeey caaacia/aiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino?» — aeine?aeaeai? o?e
aoceiaeo ieoaiiy: no?oeoo?a ?ano?n?a aaie?a ? no?aooaaiiy ?o ?ici?uaiiy;
aieea aeaniiai eai?oaeo ia o?iainiaee noai eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo; iaoiaee
iioei?caoe?? caeo/aieo e caiice/aieo eioo?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy o?iainiai?
no?eeino? aaieo.

A ?iaio? iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?a ?ano?n?a aaieo ?noioii aieeaa? ia
aeinoaoi?noue eiai eai?oaeo. Aeoeae aaieo caeaa?eueoiai neeaaeathoueny c
iice/ie ? o?iainiaeo aeeaaeaiue. Ioe?iea aeinoaoiino? eai?oaeo ca
aeiiiiiaith i?i?iaeueiiai eiao?oe??ioa ?eceeiaino? aeoea?a aaco?oueny ia
iieiaeaii?, ui aeaye? aeoeae aaieo a?eueo ?eceeia?, i?ae ?io?, ? oiio
oeae a?eueoee ?ecee ne?ae ieeuei?oa eiio?iethaaoe. No?oeoo?a
aaie?anueeiai eai?oaeo ia? aooe caeaoiith aeo?eiaoe ?ecee ao?ao
aoaeue-yeeo aeoea?a.

A?ae ?eceeiaino? iicee caeaaeaoue ? noaaee a?ae?aooaaiiy eioo?a a ?aca?a
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. sseui aeyaeoueny eiai iaaeinoaoi?noue, aiie iathoue
iie?eaaoe iaea?aeai? o ca?oiiio ?ioe? caeoee a?ae e?aaeeoii?
ae?yeueiino? ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy ?ioeo nai?o oiiae?a. Aeaniee eai?oae
ia? ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy e?ea?aeiino? e
ieaoini?iiiaeiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ? acaaae? o?iainiai? no?eeino?. A
ca’yceo c oeei a aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeai? caoenia, iia?aoeaia e
?aaoethth/a ooieoe?? aeaniiai eai?oaeo, anoaiiaeai? o? aeaiaioe
iniiaiiai, aeiaeaoeiaiai eai?oaeo ? a?ae?aooaaiue, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei
caaacia/othoue aeeiiaiiy cacia/aieo ooieoe?e.

Eiia?oe?ei? aaiee noai?ththoue no?aoia? oiiaee ii an?o aeaeaieo
e?aaeeoao, ye? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey iie?eooy iaiiaaoaii?
e?aaeeoi?nueei? caai?aiaaiino?. Oea caaacia/o? o?iainiao no?ee?noue
aaieo. Aea anoaiiaeai? IAO ?ici??e a?ae?aooaaiue a no?aoia? oiiaee, ia
iaoo aeoieo, aeaui caaeuai?, ai aei no?aooaaiiy a?aeianai? ia o?eueee
?eceeia? aeoeae aaieo, aea e o?, ye? ?aaeueii ia i?noyoue i?yei? caa?ice
aeey aaie?anueei? e?ea?aeiino? ? iaae?eiino?.

A no?oeoo?? ianea?a eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a cia/ia /anoeia caeo/aieo e
caiice/aieo ?ano?n?a a?aeiineoueny aei ieaoieo. Oiio a?ae iioei?caoe??
ieaoieo ianea?a aaieo a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue aeeiiaiiy iei
ciaia’ycaiue ia?aae ?o aeanieeaie, a oaeiae ? iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo (a
?acoeueoao? ia?aaeuaiiy aeioiae?a a?ae ?ici?uaiiy ieaoieo ianea?a iaae
noiith, iaiao?aeiith aeey iiaaoaiiy nai?o ciaia’ycaiue ii aeieao?
i?ioeaio?a). Aeey iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e aeeaaeaiue aaieo iaiao?aeia ?o
?iciaaeoaaiiy, iiaeeea? i?aeoiaee aei yeiai ?ice?eo? a ?iaio?,
aeae?eaiiy ??cieo aeae?a i?iaeaiieo aeeaaeaiue. Iaiao?aeii e ie?aii
aiae?coaaoe eiaeiee iai?yiie caeo/aiiy ieaoieo ianea?a, ca?oioaaaoe ?o
ca ??aiai aeaiiceoii? i?ioeaioii? noaaee.

Aeey aeio?eiaiiy e ci?oeiaiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo
aaaeeeai caaacia/oaaoe nai?/ania ? a iiaiiio ianyc? iie?eooy aeo?ao, ui
cae?enith?oueny a a?ioia?e oi?i?, aeioiaeaie a?ae i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e
oa iaaeaiiy aaie?anueeeo iineoa. C oe??th iaoith a aeena?oaoe??
cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo a?aeiia?aeieo aioo??aaie?anueeeo
ii?iaoea?a ? ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae ieie. Na?aae ieo aeae?eai?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae noiith aeio?aeieo aeoea?a, aeaoaaeo aeeaaeaiue,
i?iaeaiieo aeeaaeaiue ? caaaeueiei ianyaii aeeaaeaiue; i?ae aaee/eiith
caeo/aieo ? caiice/aieo eioo?a ? ieaoieo ianea?a; i?ae aeioiaeaie ?
noiith e?aaeeoiaeo iai?io?a; i?ae aeo?aoaie ? noiith aeaaaoiaeo
iai?io?a.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — «A?ioia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ? ieaoaae? a i?ioean?
ci?oeiaiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino? aaieo» — aeine?aeaeai? aeaa aoceiaeo
ieoaiiy: aeio?aeia aaca aaieo ? aeei?enoaiiy oaeoi??a i?aeaeuaiiy eiai
i?eaooeiaino?; aaie?anuee? aeo?aoe oa iiaeeeaino? ?o nei?i/aiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeai? aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo
aaieo, oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia ieo. Iniiaia i?noea a no?oeoo??
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo aaieo caeiathoue aeioiaee a?ae iice/eiaeo iia?aoe?e.

Noaaee i?ioeaio?a ii aaie?anueeeo iiceeao ?noioii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae
?ioeo ciaia’ycaiue a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiai ?eieo, ai aiie aecia/athoueny ye
eiai noaiii, oae ? a i?ioean? ia?aaiai??a i?ae aaieii e ee??ioii. A
aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoee aca?iica’ycie ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo
oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia noaaeo aaie?anueeiai i?ioeaioa, iaa?oioiaai?
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei a?aooaaiiy ?o a e?aaeeoi?e iie?oeoe? aaieo.

E??i i?ioeaioieo aeioiae?a, aaaeeeaa i?noea a no?oeoo?? aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a iiaeooue caeiaoe iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ii oe?iieo
iaia?ao. Aaee/eia aeioiaeo c oeueiai aeaea?aea caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici??o e
no?oeoo?e ii?ooaey ?iaanoeoe?e e aeio?aeiino? ??cieo aeae?a oe?iieo
iaia??a. Caa?iooa oaaaa ia oa, ui a i?ioean? aiae?co aeioiae?a
aeioe?eueii iino?eii ni?anoaaeyoe iiaeeeaino? io?eiaiiy aeioiae?a a?ae
oe?iieo iaia??a c iioi/iith iio?aaith a caaacia/aii? e?ea?aeiino? e
o?iainiai? no?eeino? aaieo.

A ?iaio? ?ice?eoi, ui i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee caa?aaeaiith e?ea?aeiino?
oa?aeoa? ?iaanoeoe?eieo iia?aoe?e eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo oneeaaeith?
oi?aae?iiy ieie ? iineeth? ia??aiii??i?noue iaea?aeaiiy aeioiae?a a?ae
oe?iieo iaia??a a ??ci? ia??iaee. Ua cia/i?o? o?oaeiiu? a aiae?c? oaeeo
aeioiae?a coiiaeai? oei, ui aiie aenooiathoue a e?eueeio oi?iao:
i?ioeaioe a?ae iae?aaoe?e; aeea?aeaiaee a?ae aeoe?e; i?e??no aa?oino?
aeoea?a (c?icoi?ei, a?i iiaea aooe e iaaaoeaiei).

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaai? ?aca?ae ca?eueoaiiy aeioiae?a
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo a?ae ?ic?aooieiai-eaniaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ee??io?a,
a?ae o?anoiaeo, oaeoi??iaiaeo, e?c?iaiaeo iia?aoe?e, aeioiae?a a?ae
iia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. C?inoaiiy aaie?anueeeo aeo?ao, yea ia
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ca?eueoaiiyi eiai i?eaooeo, iiaea ?noioii iia??oeoe
o?iainiaee noai iaa?oue e?oiiiai eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo. Oiio ?o
iaiaaeaeiaio caeia? /?eueia i?noea a ?ic?iaoe? oaeoeee e no?aoaa??
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?.

C iaoith canoinoaaiiy aei eiaeiiai aeaeo aeo?ao niaoeeo?/ieo i?eeii?a
oi?aae?iiy a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaia ?o a?oioaaiiy, cai?iiiiiaai? oeyoe
ciaioaiiy ye i?ioeaioieo, oae ? iai?ioeaioieo aeo?ao, ui
aecia/athoueny ia iniia? ?o aiae?co. A?aoiaioiaaia iine?aeiai?noue
iioaeoi?iiai aiae?co i?ioeaioieo aeo?ao.

A i»yoiio ?icae?e? — «Ieaoini?iiiaei?noue ? e?ea?aei?noue
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo a iaoai?ci? ci?oeiaiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino?» —
aeine?aeaeai? aeaa aoceiaeo ieoaiiy: ieaoini?iiiaei?noue oa ?? aieea ia
o?iainiaee noai aaieo; aaie?anueea e?ea?aei?noue ye oaeoi? caaacia/aiiy
o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo.

A aeena?oaoe?? a?aoiaioiaaii, ui aeey eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai aaieo ?noioia
cia/aiiy aeey ci?oeiaiiy eiai o?iainiai? no?eeino? ia? ae??oaiiy
ieoaiiy: a ye?e i?iii?oe?? ?eceee iathoue oi?ioaaoenue ca ?aooiie
aeaniiai eai?oaeo? Aaee/eia iieacieea ieaoini?iiiaeiino? aaieo
icia/a? aaee/eio ?eceeo, yeee aa?a ia naaa eai?oae aaieo, a ?ioo /anoeio
— caeo/aiee eai?oae eiai e?aaeeoi??a.

I?e caaacia/aii? o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo, ye
a?aoiaioiaaii a ?iaio?, ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeea?noue, yea c oi/ee ci?o
iie?eooy ?ecee?a aeanoeaa a?aeiineiai i?ae aaieii ? eiai e?aaeeoi?aie a
neeaae? i?aei?e?inoa, ui iathoue a iueiio ?ic?aooieia?, iioi/i? e
aeaiiceoi? ?aooiee. Cacia/ai? th?eaee/i? iniae iae/ano?oa ? ia eeoa
e?aaeeoi?aie, a e ai?aeieeaie aaieo. I?e oae?e ianoaaei? ?eceee
iice/eiaeo iia?aoe?e aaieo aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeaoue a?ae ?eceeo eiai
e?aaeeoi??a. Oiio, ia ia?oee iiaeyae, ?aoe?iiaeueiei aoei a ?icae?eeoe
ii??aio iaoa??aeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aaie?anuee? ?eceee i?ae
aaieii oa eiai e?aaeeoi?aie c /enea th?eaee/ieo in?a. Aea e o aeiaaeeo
iaaei?aaaeaiiai ?eceeo a e?aaeeooaaii?, eiee iiceea ia iiaaoa?oueny
ai?aeieeii, a?i, ye i?aaeei, ia?anoa? aooe e?aaeeoi?ii, ai ia eiai
?aooieao iaia? eioo?a. A oae?e neooaoe?? aoei a iai?aaii??ii ae?eeoe
ii??aio iaoa??aeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?eceee i?ae aaieaie ?
i?aei?e?inoaaie, ye? aei oeeo ?ecee?a i?yiiai a?aeiioaiiy ia iathoue.
Iaeiae, i?aei?e?inoaa-e?aaeeoi?e aaieo o?nii iia’ycai? c aaie?anueeeie
?eceeaie, oiaoi iiaeieaiiy oeeo ?ecee?a i?eiineoue aeio?ae, a caeoee
coiiaeththoue oeiaeo ia eeoa aaieai, aea e e?aaeeoi?ai.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaiee aeniiaie, ui i?e caaacia/aii? o?iainiai?
no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ca e?eoa??e ?iciiae?eo iaoa??aeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca aaie?anuee? ?eceee i?ae aaieii ? eiai
e?aaeeoi?aie iiaeia aaaaeaoe aaee/eio aeioiaeo a?ae aaie?anueeeo
iia?aoe?e. Aiaeia?/iei /eiii ?ecee ii aeoeaiei aaie?anueeei iia?aoe?yi,
ii noo?, ? ni?eueiei ?eceeii aaieo ? eiai e?aaeeoi??a, a aeioiaee aaieo
oaeoe/ii ? ?o ni?eueieie aeioiaeaie. C aeioiae?a aaieo aeiea/othoueny
e?aaeeoi?ai i?ioeaioe ii ?o aeeaaeao, a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeioiae?a aaieo
? aeioiae?a eiai e?aaeeoi??a a?ae aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e ia’?eoeaii
aecia/a? oo i?iii?oe?th, a ye?e ?eceee ae?eyoueny i?ae ieie. Ca?aene
aeo?ea?, ui ii?iaoea aeinoaoiino? iai?ioiiai eai?oaeo aaieo aeey
iie?eooy caaaeaieo ?ecee?a aecia/a?oueny ieoiiith aaaith aeioiae?a aaieo
? eiai e?aaeeoi??a a?ae aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e.

Ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui, c iaeiiai aieo, /ei ieae/a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
eai?oaeii aaieo ? aeoeaaie, oei aeuee i?eaooie ia eai?oae, oiaoi, eiaeia
iaeeieoey a?ioae, ?iaanoiaaia aeanieeaie aeoe?e, iiaa?oa?oueny c
a?eueoei i?e?inoii. Oea iineeth? iaiaaaiiy aaie?a cieaeoaaoe
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeaniee eai?oae/aeoeae. Aea, c ?ioiai aieo, /ei ieae/a
oey i?iii?oe?y, oei a?eueoa a?aceea?noue aaieo a ca’yceo c iiaeeeaeie
caeoeaie. Iane?aeeii oeueiai noa? ?eceeia?noue aaaeaiiy ni?aa c iei. I?e
aeoaea iecueeiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? aeaniiai eai?oaeo ? aeoea?a
o?iainiaee noai aaieo iaa?yae /e iiaeia ioe?ithaaoe ye iaae?eiee. Ia
e?auei aa??aioii iiaea aooe ? iaaei??ii aeniea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ai aiii
icia/a?, ui aaie ia ci?a aeei?enoaoe iayai? iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo ?
ao?a/a? iioaioe?eiee i?eaooie.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue ?ic??ciyoe iiiyooy
«e?ea?aei?noue aaieo» ? «ieaoini?iiiaei?noue aaieo». Ieaoini?iiiaei?noue
? iniiaith, aieiaiith no?oeoo?iith neeaaeiaith e?ea?aeiino?
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo. Iia??oaiiy eiai e?ea?aeiino? ciaoiaeeoue na?e
ae?ac, ianaiia?aae, o iiai?e /e /anoeia?e ao?ao? eiai caeaoiino?
iaaeaaaoe e?aaeeoe nai?i ee??ioai, a oaeiae cae?enithaaoe aeaye? ?io?
iia?aoe?? ii aeoeaao, ui aeo?eathoue c ciaia’ycaiue aaieo. A
aeena?oaoe?? a?aoiaioiaaii, ui aaie, yeee ia iiaea ?icaeiooe nai?
aeoeai? iia?aoe??, aaea ia aoaea a iiaiiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai iiiyooy
e?ea?aeiei. A oie aea /an oaeee aaie iiaea caeeoaoenue ieaoini?iiiaeiei.
E?ea?aei?noue aaieo ia?aaeaa/a? ? iaaiee ??aaiue eiai iaae?eiino?, oiaoi
caeaoi?noue caa?aaoe aac ao?ao eiooe, ye? aeia??ai? eiio aeeaaeieeaie.
I?e ?ic?aooieo ii?iaoea?a e?ea?aeiino? iniaeeao oaaao, ye iieacaei
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ne?ae i?eae?eyoe ia i?inoi e?ea?aeiei aeoeaai aaie?a,
aea, ianaiia?aae, oei aeoeaai, ?aae?caoe?y yeeo i?eaaaea aei ?aaeueiiai
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a ia ei?aniiiaeaionueeee ?aooiie aaieo.

A naith /a?ao na?aae ciaia’ycaiue aaieo (c oi/ee ci?o
e?ea?aeiino?) iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy iathoue o? c ieo, ye? ia iiaeooue aooe
iiaaoai? oeyoii aca?iicae?eo, a iiaeii? i?eaanoe aei a?aeoieo eioo?a c
ei?aniiiaeaionueeiai ?aooieo aai c eane aaieo. A e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo
aeey ioe?iee e?ea?aeiino? aaieo aaaeeeaa ia aaeainiaa aa?o?noue oeo /e
?ioeo e?ea?aeieo aeoea?a, a oa noia a?ioiaeo eioo?a, yea iiaea iaae?eoe
ia ei?aniiiaeaionueeee ?aooiie aaieo i?e ?aae?caoe?? aeoeao, ui ?
iaei??th c oiia ci?oeiaiiy eiai o?iainiai? no?eeino?.

Eiio?ieue ca aeio?eiaiiyi iioi/ii? e?ea?aeiino? aeicaiey? nai?/anii
anoaiiaeoe neiioiie iia??oaiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino? aaieo ? i?eeiyoe
iia?aoeai? ??oaiiy uiaei caiia?aaiiy ?icaeoeo oe??? oaiaeaioe??. Iaeiae,
aeey ae??oaiiy caaea/? oi?aae?iiy iioi/iith e?ea?aei?noth iaiao?aeii
caae?yoe cia/io e?euee?noue i?aoe?aiee?a. C iaoith ciaioaiiy
aaie?anueeeo aeo?ao i?e oeueiio a aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue
?ic?iaee a eiaeiiio aaieo niaoe?aeueii? aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy iioi/iith e?ea?aei?noth, ?? iniiao neeaaeathoue no?oeoo?i?
aeaiaioe (i?ia?aie) ? i?aei?ia?aie, ci?no yeeo, ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino? ? ?ieue ?ice?eo? a aeena?oaoe??.

Na?aae i?ia?ai aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy iioi/iith
e?ea?aei?noth iniiaia i?noea caeia? i?ia?aia «Iia?aoe?eiee aeaiue», yea
ia? ca iaoo iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aeaieo i?i iaeiiaeaii? iai?ioe e caeeoee ia
iniaenoeo ? aaeainiaeo ?aooieao, iaiao?aeieo aeey neeaaeaiiy aaeaino
aaieo ia e?iaoeue ?iai/iai aeiy. Ia?aeiia ?ioi?iaoe?y a oeth i?ia?aio
aaiaeeoueny ca aeaieie ?ic?aooieiaeo aeieoiaio?a, ui iaae?eoee a aaie, a
oaeiae iaii??aeueieo i?aea??a. Uiaeaiii a i?ia?aio aaiaeyoueny
a?aeiia?aei? aaie?anuee? ciaia’ycaiiy ? aeiiae aei ia?oia??a; i?eaeaai?
/e aeiouai? aaieii ai?aia? oe?ii? iaia?e; ?ic?aooieiai-ieao?aei?
aeieoiaioe, ui iaae?eoee a aaie ca aeaiue oiui.

A iniiao ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ia?aie «?ic?aooiie ii?iaoea?a» iieeaaeaii
ia/eneaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ii?iaoea?a ae?yeueiino? aaieo ia i?aenoaa?
iaea?aeoaaieo c i?ia?aie «Iia?aoe?eiee aeaiue» aeaieo i?i caeeoee ia
aaeainiaeo ?aooieao. Oea aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe iino?eiee uiaeaiiee
eiio?ieue ca ??aiai aeio?eiaiiy an?o iieaciee?a e?ea?aeiino?.

O?e i?ia?aie — «Aeaiiceoe», «I?aeaaie?anuee? e?aaeeoe iaea?aeai?» ?
«Oe?ii? iaia?e» neeaaeathoue i?aenenoaio «?ano?ne» ? aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeey iae?eo, a?aeiia?aeii, no?ieiaeo aeaiiceo?a th?eaee/ieo in?a,
i?aeaaie?anueeeo caeo/aieo ?ano?n?a, eioo?a a?ae i?iaeaaeo ai?aiaeo
ciaia’ycaiue aaieo. Aeai? i?i caeo/ai? aaieii aeaiiceoe iaaeoiaeyoue o
a?aeiia?aei? aeiee i?aenenoaie «?ano?ne» i?ney a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?o o
i?ia?ai? «Iia?aoe?eiee aeaiue». Eiaeia neeaaeiaa i?aenenoaie «?ano?ne»
aeeth/a? anth ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei iniiaieo ?aea?ceo?a caeo/aieo ?ano?n?a.
Ca aeiiiiiaith oe??? ?ioi?iaoe?? cae?enith?oueny ?ic?aooiie ianya?a ?
oa?i?iiaino? aeieaoe i?ioeaio?a, aecia/athoueny no?iee iiaa?iaiiy
iniiaieo noi iaea?aeaieo aeaiiceo?a ? eioo?a a?ae i?iaeaaeo ai?aiaeo
ciaia’ycaiue aaieo. Oea caaacia/o? ia/eneaiiy a aaoiiaoe/iiio ?aaeei?
caaaeueii? noie aaie?anueeeo ieaoaae?a ii a?aeiia?aeieo
ciaia’ycaiiyo ia eiaeiee aeaiue o iaaeao i?iaiiciaaiiai ia??iaeo, a
oaeiae aaee/ei a?ioiaeo eioo?a, ye? iaeaaeeoue aeieaoeoe eiaeiiio
aeeaaeieeo.

I?ia?aia «I?aeaaie?anuee? e?aaeeoe iaea?aeai?» aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
ioe?iee aaee/eie ciaia’ycaiue aaieo ii iaea?aeaieo i?aeaaie?anueeeo
e?aaeeoieo ?ano?nao. A oeth i?ia?aio iaaeoiaeyoue aeai? c i?ia?aie
«Iia?aoe?eiee aeaiue» i?i uiaeaii? aeaaaoia? iai?ioe ii aaeainiaeo
?aooieao 829 («E?aaeeoe, io?eiai? eiia?oe?eiei aaieii a?ae ?ioeo
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a») ? 169 («Ei?aniiiaeaionuee? ?aooiee
aaie?a-?aceaeaio?a»), ye? cae?eniai? ia i?ioyc? oeaeiy, ui ia?aaeoaaa
oeaeith neeaaeaiiy i?iaiico.

A?aeiia?aei? ?ic?aooiee na?aaeiuei aeaiii? aaee/eie iai?ioo ii
iiaa?iaiith i?aeaaie?anueeeo e?aaeeo?a ca iiia?aaei?e oeaeaeaiue
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe iiia?aaei?e i?iaiic aaee/eie ieaoaae?a ii
iiaaoaiith caeo/aiiy i?aeaaie?anueeeo e?aaeeo?a ia eiaeiee ianooiiee
aeaiue oeaeiy, ui i?iaiico?oueny.

Iacaeaaeii ae?th/? i?ia?aie «Ei?ii?aoeai? e?aaeeoe» ? «I?aeaaie?anuee?
e?aaeeoe aeaeai?» neeaaeathoue i?aenenoaio «E?aaeeoe». Ca aeiiiiiaith
i?ia?aie «Ei?ii?aoeai? e?aaeeoe» cae?enith?oueny ia?aooaaiiy i?ioeaio?a,
?o iae?e, eiio?ieue ca aeei?enoaiiyi ? iiaaoaiiyi iicee, aeaeaieo
th?eaee/iei iniaai. I?ia?aia «I?aeaaie?anuee? e?aaeeoe aeaeai?»
ci???ioiaaia ia cae?eniaiiy iae?eo e eiio?ieth ca iiceeaie, iaaeaieie
?ioei aaieai. Iaeaea? i?ia?aie iathoue iaeiaeia? iniiai? ?aea?ceoe, a
iaiao?aei? aeai? iaaeoiaeyoue c i?ia?aie «Iia?aoe?eiee aeaiue». Iacaai?
i?ia?aie aeathoue ciiao cae?enithaaoe ?ic?aooiee a?ao?ea iaaeoiaeaeaiue
e?ea?aeieo ?ano?n?a, ui aeeth/athoue iniiai? ai?ae e i?ioeaioe, ye?
iiaa?oathoueny ai?aeieeaie. Aiie oaeiae aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i no?oeoo?o iaaeaieo ?ano?n?a ii iiceeiiaea?aeoaa/ao ?
no?ieao, i?i caaaeueiee ianya caai?aiaaiino? aaieo ia aoaeue-yeo aeaoo.

Ca aeaieie, ye? iaaeoiaeyoue c i?ia?aie «Iia?aoe?eiee aeaiue», i?ia?aia
«Oe?ii? iaia?e eoieai?» aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe ?ic?aooiee ianya?a ?
no?ie?a iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a aaie e?ea?aeieo ?ano?n?a ii ai?aiaeo oe?iieo
iaia?ao. O i?ia?ai? «Iioi/i? ianeae», yea oaeiae a?oioo?oueny ia
?ioi?iaoe?? ?c i?ia?aie «Iia?aoe?eiee aeaiue», noiothoueny an? uiaeaii?
aeaaaoia? iai?ioe, ui iaee i?noea ca inoaii?e i?nyoeue. Oea aea? ciiao a
aaoiiaoe/iiio ?aaeei? ?ic?aooaaoe ianya ieaoaae?a c ?ic?aooieiaeo ?
iioi/ieo ?aooie?a ee??io?a ca eiaeiee aeaiue iaeaeeae/iai
aeanyoeaeaiiiai ia??iaeo.

?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii aaoiiaoeciaaia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy iioi/iith
e?ea?aei?noth i?ieoea ai?iaaoe?th a eiia?oe?eiiio aaieo.

AENIIAEE OA I?IIICEOe??

1. Iaa?oioiaaii iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui o?iainiaa no?ee?noue eiia?oe?eiiai
aaieo ? iaeaaaeeea?oei no?oeoo?iei aeaiaioii eiai caaaeueii? no?eeino?.
Ia ia? aieeaathoue ye aioo??oi? iaiaaeaea?nuee? ??oaiiy, a oe?eiio
aaie?anueeee iaiaaeaeiaio, oae ? caaaeueiee noai aeiiii?ee ? o?iain?a,
aaie?anueeiai naeoi?o e?a?ie. Iiaeaeueoa aeeoo?caeaoi?noue ?
?icaeoie eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ?o o?iainiaa ae?yeuei?noue iiai?noth
caeaaeaoue a?ae oni?o?a ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, a
oiiaao yei? aiie aeieeee ? ooieoe?iiothoue.

2. A?aoiaioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy a oai??? ? i?aeoeoe?
iiiyoue «no?ee?noue aaieo ii eai?oaeo», «eiia?oe?eia no?ee?noue aaieo»,
«i?aai?caoe?eia no?ee?noue aaieo», «ooieoe?iiaeueia no?ee?noue aaieo»,
«o?iainiaa no?ee?noue aaieo». Cai?iiiiiaaia ? iaa?oioiaaia nenoaia
iieaciee?a, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue aieiai? aniaeoe o?iainiai? no?eeino?
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo.

3. Aecia/ai? ? ie?aneai? no?aoaa?/i? ? oaeoe/i? ae?? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo
ii i?aeaeuaiith eiai iaae?eiino?, e?ea?aeiino?, ieaoini?iiiaeiino? ?
i?eaooeiaino?, aeinyaiaiiy ae?aeaeoe/iiai aca?iica’yceo i?ae yeeie ?
iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith caaacia/aiiy aeniei? o?iainiai? no?eeino?
aaieo.

4. C iaoith noai?aiiy a?eueo ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey ci?oeiaiiy o?iainiai?
no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ?aeiiaiaeiaaii cae?enieoe ne?aeoth/?
caeiiiaeaa/i-ii?iaoeai? ? i?aai?caoe?ei? caoiaee:

— c iaoith caoenoo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a oa iaaeiiouaiiy iaaeaiiy
e?aaeeo?a iaaeia?iaeinia?niei ? iaieaoicaeaoiei ee??ioai noai?eoe aaie
aeaieo iice/aeueiee?a eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, a yeiio a cae?aeanue
?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ?o e?aaeeoini?iiiaei?noue, iaeii, ui iiaea aooe acyoi
i?ae canoaao. ?i?oe?aoeao i?i noai?aiiy oaeiai aaieo aeaieo iiaea a
acyoe ia naaa Anioe?aoe?y oe?a?inueeeo aaie?a. An? aeaeaoee ii
noai?aiith ? ooieoe?iioaaiith oeueiai aaieo aeaieo iiaeii? acyoe ia
naaa eiia?oe?ei? aaiee oeyoii a?aeiia?aeieo a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae nai?o
aeioiae?a;

— c o?aooaaiiyi aeina?aeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith
a?eueo /?oei aecia/eoenue c ia?ae?eii iaeia, yea iiaea aooe acyoa aaieii
i?ae canoaao i?e e?aaeeooaaii?. Oa aeeneon?y, yea nueiaiaei?
a?aeaoaa?oueny o ian c i?eaiaeo canoaae ia?ooiiiai iaeia i?e noai?aii?
?iioa/iiai aaieo o?eueee i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaaeineiiae?noue Caeiio Oe?a?ie
«I?i canoaao»;

— noai?eoe o an?o eiia?oe?eieo aaieao i?ae?icae?ee ii oi?aae?iith
e?aaeeoieie ?eceeaie;

— a?eueo aeoeaii i?iaiaeeoe aeeaa?neo?eaoe?th aeoea?a ? ianea?a
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. Aeoiaeeoe c oiai, ui ?ici?? iaeneiaeueiiai ?eceeo
ia iaeiiai iice/aeueieea ia iiaeiai ?aaeueii ia?aaeuoaaoe 10 % aeanieo
eioo?a aaieo. ?icoe?thaaoe eiei aeeaaeiee?a, ia aeiioneath/e
eiioeaio?aoe?? caeeoe?a eioo?a ia aeaiiceoieo ? aeeaaeieo ?aooieao a
iaiaaeaii? e?eueeino? aeeaaeiee?a;

— aianoe ci?ie a ii?iaoeaio aaco uiaei iiaeeeaino? a?aee?eooy eiaeiei
aaieii ie?aiiai noaei?aniiiaeaionueeiai ?aooieo, ia yeiio a aoee
neiioeaio?iaai? eeoa aeani? eiooe aaieo. Iiaeeea? ??oaiiy a?a?o?aaeieo
noae?a i?i noyaiaiiy iaaieo noi ia ei?enoue iiceaa/?a iiaeii? aooe
a?aeianai? o?eueee ii a?aeiioaiith aei aeanieo eioo?a aaieo, ui
aeeeth/eoue aeiaaeee aeieoaaiiy eioo?a an?o ee??io?a aaieo;

— onoiooe caeiiiaeaa/? iaiaaeaiiy o/ano? aaie?a a noai?aii? ?ioeo
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo ?inoeooo?a oa i?iieneiai-o?iainiaeo a?oi oeyoii
ceeooy aaie?anueeiai oa i?iieneiaiai eai?oae?a, noai?aiiy aeia??/eo
aaie?a. Oea aoaea ni?eyoe ci?oeiaiith o?iainiai? no?eeino? aaie?anueeiai
naeoi?o, i?enei?aiith ?icaeoeo ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a oa i?aeaeuaiith
caoe?eaaeaiino? aaie?a uiaei o/ano? a naiaoe?? ?ioeo
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo onoaiia ? noa»?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

— ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe eiia?oe?eiei aaieai Oe?a?ie cai?iaaaeeoe a nai?e
ae?yeueiino? ?ic?iaeaio aaoi?ii aaoiiaoeciaaio nenoaio oi?aae?iiy
iioi/iith e?ea?aei?noth aaieo, iiaoaeiaaio ia ocaiaeaeaii? a /an? ? ii
ianyaao eiai a?ioiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue ? ieaoaae?a, yea a aeeth/aea
no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe-i?ia?aie: «Iia?aoe?eiee aeaiue», «?ic?aooiie
ii?iaoea?a», «Aeaiiceo», «I?aeaaie?anuee? e?aaeeoe iaea?aeai?», «Oe?ii?
iaia?e aaieo», «Ei?ii?aoeai? e?aaeeoe», «I?aeaaie?anuee? e?aaeeoe
aeaeai?», «Iioi/i? ianeae» oiui;

— caaacia/eoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy o an?o aaieao aioo??oiueiai aoaeeoo,
aeei?enoiaoth/e eiai aeniiaee a iioi/iiio ? no?aoaa?/iiio oi?aae?ii?
o?iainiaith no?ee?noth.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. O?eea? ?.?. O?iainiaa no?ee?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo oa oeyoe ??
ci?oeiaiiy. Iiiia?ao?y.- E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1998, 10,0 ae?.a?e.

2. O?eea? ?.?. Aieea iecueei? ?ioeyoe?? ia o?iainiao no?ee?noue aaie?a.
//O?iaine Oe?a?ie.- 1997.- ? 1.- N.92-92.- 0,5 ae?.a?e.

3. Ca?oaa I., O?eea? ?. O?iainiaa no?ee?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo:
niiniae aecia/aiiy .//A?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie.- 1997.-? 7.-
N.33-36. — 0,5 ae?.a?e. (iniaenoi aaoi?ii — 0,2 ae?oe.a?e., iaa?oioiaai?
i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co ? ioe?iee o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai
aaieo).

4. Nayoei N.A., O?eea? ?.?. Aiae?c ? ioe?iea o?iainiai?
no?eeino? aaieo ye iaiao?aeia oiiaa aoaeoeaiiai aaie?anueeiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo //O?iaine Oe?a?ie.- 1997.- ? 8.- N.48-54.- 0,5 ae?.a?e.
(iniaenoi aaoi?ii — 0,3 ae?.a?e., iaa?oioiaai? iieacieee o?iainiai?
no?eeino? aaieo).

5. O?eea? ?.?. Iioei?caoe?y caeo/aieo ? caiice/aieo eioo?a aeey
aeinyaiaiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino? aaie?a //O?iaine O e?a?ie.-1997.-?
12.- N.47-53. — 0,4 ae?.a?e.

6. O?eea? ?.?. Aecia/aiiy o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a
//?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. 36 iaoe.
i?aoeue.- Eooeuee, aeae-ai AAeO ?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee, 1997.- N. 316-319.
-0,2 ae?.a?e.

AIIOAOe??

O?eea? ?.?. O?iainiaa no?ee?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo oa oeyoe ??
ci?oeiaiiy.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoeo ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.04.01 — O?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo. —
Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi o?iainiai? no?eeino? eiia?oe?eiiai
aaieo, iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiae?a ?? ioe?iee e aiae?co, aeyaeaiiy ?aca?a?a
?? ci?oeiaiiy. Aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?aooieo a eiaeiiio aaieo
nenoaie iieaciee?a o?iainiai? no?eeino?. Aeyaeai? oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy
no?oeoo?e aaie?anueeeo ?ano?n?a, iineeaiiy aieeao aeaniiai eai?oaeo ia

o?iainiao no?ee?noue, iioei?caoe?? ianea?a. C’yniaai? iiaeeeaino?
?icoe?aiiy aeio?aeii? aace eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo, i?aeaeuaiiy eiai
i?eaooeiaino?, nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao. Anoaiiaeaiee aieea
ieaoini?iiiaeiino? e e?ea?aeiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ia eiai o?iainiao
no?ee?noue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?iainiaa no?ee?noue aaieo; iieacieee o?iainiai?
no?eeino?; iioei?caoe?y aaie?anueeeo ?ano?n?a; aeio?aeia aaca aaieo;
oaeoi?e i?eaooeiaino? aaieo; ieaoini?iiiaei?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo;
e?ea?aei?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo.

Oeeea? ?.E. Oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue eiiia?/aneiai aaiea e iooe aa
oe?aieaiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.04.01 — Oeiainu, aeaiaaeiia
ia?auaiea e e?aaeeo. — Eeaaneee Iaoeeiiaeueiue ceiiiie/aneee
oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe
eiiia?/aneiai aaiea, iainiiaaiey iaoiaeia aa ioeaiee e aiaeeca,
auyaeaiey ?aca?aia aa oe?aieaiey. Aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea yeiiiie/aneie
n?aaeu, a eioi?ie aicieeee e ooieoeeiie?otho eiiia?/aneea aaiee
Oe?aeiu a oiaea ?uii/iie o?ainoi?iaoeee aa yeiiiieee. Iieacaii, /oi i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee o?iaiy oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe aaiea iaiaoiaeeii i?eieiaoue
ai aieiaiea iauaa e?eceniia ninoiyiea yeiiiieee no?aiu, iaueai
iaieaoaaeae e acaeiica/aoia, ninoiyiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey,
eioeyoeeiiiia aeeyiea ia e?aaeeoiee ?uiie. A coie nayce
auneacuaaaony ?yae i?aaeeiaeaiee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee Oe?aeiu ia nia?aiaiiii coaia
oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee.

Enneaaeiaaiea oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe aaieia cao?iioei oaeaea oaeea
oceiaua aii?inu eae iainiiaaiea niaea?aeaiey oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe
aaiea; iaoiaee aa ioeaiee e aiaeeca; no?oeoo?a aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia aaiea
e eo no?aoiaaiea; aeeyiea nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea ia oeiainiaia ninoiyiea
aaiea; iaoiaeu iioeiecaoeee i?eaea/aiiuo e caaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa
aeey aeinoeaeaiey aai oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe. Enneaaeiaaiu aeioiaeiay
aaca aaiea e oaeoi?u iiauoaiey aai i?eaueueiinoe, a oaeaea
aaieianeea ?anoiaeu e aiciiaeiinoe eo nie?auaiey; ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue e
aa aeeyiea ia oeiainiaia ninoiyiea aaiea; oi?aaeaiea aaieianeie
eeeaeaeiinoueth.

A oiaea ?anniio?aiey coeo aii?inia a?aoiaioe?oaony niaea?aeaiea e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey a oai?aoe/aneii aiaeeca e i?aeoeea iiiyoee
«onoie/eainoue aaiea ii eaieoaeo», «eiiia?/aneay onoie/eainoue»,
«ooieoeeiiaeueiay onoie/eainoue», «i?aaiecaoeeiiiay onoie/eainoue»,
«oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue eiiia?/aneiai aaiea», ii?aaeaeythony ioee/ey e
oaeoi?u, eioi?ua ec ieo auoaeatho. Aeieacuaaaony, /oi i?e aiaeeca
oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe aaiea iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeyoue eaieoaeueioth,
eiiia?/aneoth, i?aaiecaoeeiiioth, ooieoeeiiaeueioth onoie/eainoue,
eioi?ue?a a eoiaa ii?aaeaeytho aai oeiainiaoth onoie/eainoue. Aeey
i?aeoe/aneiai ii?aaeaeaiey oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe ?aeiiaiaeiaai ?yae
ioeaii/iuo iieacaoaeae, aeai?eoie eo ?an/aoa. Iainiiauaaaony iaoiae
ii?aaeaeaiey ?aioaaaeueiinoe aaiea.

Ioia/aaony, /oi niioiioaiea iaaeaeo nianoaaiiui eaieoaeii aaiea e
iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie i?eaea/aiiuo e caaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa
neeaaeuaaaony iiae aeeyieai eiie?aoieo oneiaee aai aeayoaeueiinoe,
oieaa?naeecaoeee, e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee e no?aoaaee, iiceoeee ia
aaieianeii ?uiea, anni?oeiaioa aaieianeeo oneoa. ?anniio?aiu
iniaaiiinoe ?aciiaeaeiinoae i?eaea/aiiuo e caaiiuo ieaoiuo ?ano?nia eae
a iiaeaoeeaoeeyo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aaieianeeo oneoa, oae e a nicaeaiee aeey
eeeaioia iiauo aaieianeeo i?iaeoeoia.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec aeioiaeiie aacu e aiciiaeiinoae nie?auaiey ?anoiaeia
aaiea. N?aaee ?aca?aia oaaee/aiey aai aeioiaeiie aacu oeacuaaaony ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acaeoey iaeaieaa aeioiaeiuo ?an/aoii-eanniauo,
o?anoiauo, oaeoi?eiaiauo, eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. Iainiiauaaaony
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?anoe?aiey anni?oeiaioa ieaoiuo oneoa e ae?oaeo iiea
/oi iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeey ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeee iia?aoeee. Eceaaathony
?acee/iua iaoiaeu aiaeeca aeeiaieee i?eaueueiinoe aaiea. ?ane?uou
oi?iu oi?aaeaiey aaieianeeie ?anoiaeaie.

Iieacaii, /oi ia ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue aaiea aeeyao ia oieueei
eeeaeaeiinoue, ii e eiua yeiiiie/aneea e iayeiiiie/aneea
oaeoi?u, eioi?ua iiaeeaaeao aeaoaeueiiio aiaeeco ioaeaeueii e a
niaieoiiinoe, a eo aeeiaieea, i?iaiice?iaaiee aiciiaeiuo oaiaeaioeee.
?ane?uoa iaoiaeeea oaeiai aiaeeca. A oeaeyo iiauoaiey cooaeoeaiinoe
iia?aoeaiiai eiio?iey ca oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoueth aeieacuaaaony
oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiaiaiey a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii aaiea
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoueth,
iino?iaiiie ia niaeaniaaiiinoe ai a?aiaie e ii iauaiai aai aeaiaaeiuo
iinooieaiee e ieaoaaeae. Oaeay aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoueth, ?ac?aaioaiiay e ioa?aeoa?eciaaiiay
aeenna?oaioii, aiaae?aia e oniaoii ooieoeeiie?oao a iaeiii ec
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue aaiea; iieacaoaee oeiainiaie
onoie/eainoe; iioeiecaoeey aaieianeeo ?ano?nia; aeioiaeiay aaca aaiea;
oaeoi?u i?eaueueiinoe aaiea; ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue eiiia?/aneiai
aaiea; eeeaeaeiinoue eiiia?/aneiai aaiea.

Schiller R.?. Financial stability of commercial bank and ways of its
strengthening. – Manuscript. Thesis for competition in scientific degree
of candidate of economical sciences under expertise 08.04.01 – finance,
monetary circulation and credit – National Economic University, Kiev,
1999.

20

The thesis is devoted to issues of opening of essence of financial
stability of commercial bank, substantiation of methods its assessment
and analysis, finding reserves for its strengthening.

The necessity of calculation of a system of financial stability indices
in every bank had been proved. The ways of improvement of the structure
of bank’s resources, increase of influence of internal capital on
financial stability and optimisation of liabilities had been found. The
possibility of expansion of profit basis of commercial bank, of increase
of its profitability and cost reduction had been clarified. The
influence of solvency and liquidity of commercial bank on its financial
standing.

Key words: financial stability of bank, financial stability indices,
optimisation of bank’s resources, bank’s profit base, bank’s
profitability factors, commercial bank’s solvency, commercial bank’s
liquidity.

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