3

?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?iai? A.N. NEIAI?IAeE

IAOe?IIAEUeII? AEAAeAI?? IAOE OE?A?IE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

NOAIEEI Ieoaeei Oeiio?eiae/

OAeE 301 : 394

O?EINIONUeEI-IAOIAeIEIA?*IEE AIAE?C

NOAIIAEAIIss OA AOOOss

AOIIIAOe?IIAEUeIEO NI?EUeIIO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.03. –

nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y ?noi???

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe,
i?ioani?, Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

I. I. IIEEssE, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? ?inoeoooo o?einio??

?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: —
aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

I.?. IEOAEUe*AIEI aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo nioe?iei-

a?? IAI Oe?a?ie;


aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

A. N. E?ENA*AIEI, i?ia?aeiee iao-

eiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo

o?einio??
IAI Oe?a?ie;


aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

A.?. EANUessI, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

o?einio?? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y —
Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo no?aoaa?/ieo

aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaee iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee

? iai?iie Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny _9 ea?oiy__ 1999 ?ieo i _14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.161.02 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?? ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa) iaoe a ?inoeooo?
o?einio?? ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, i.Ee?a,
aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
o?einio?? ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (Ee?a-1,
aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «__6__» __aa?aciy_ 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee
E.A.Neoie/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeaoo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?,
yeee niinoa??aa?oueny a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y ye o cao?aeieo e?a?iao, oae
? ia oa?ai? aoaoiai N?N?, iaaecae/aeii aeooae?co?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia “i?i/eoaiiy” oaiiiaio aoi?/iino?, ui ia
ae/a?iaa nai?o iioaioe?e ? ia ceai? aeaio oeny/ie?oue. Iaoaoai?aoe/ia
eiai inieneaiiy ?aae?co?oueny nueiaiaei? ca aeiiiiiaith aeaio iniiaieo
i?aeoiae?a: a?ieia?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai. ?icai?iooee aeeeaae ia?oiai
aeaa a?aeiiee ?in?enueeee aoiieia E.Aoi?eueia.

Ca?aeii eiai eiioeaioe?? aoiin – nooi a?ieia?/ia yaeua, yea
?icaeaa?oueny ca caeiiaie i?e?iaee ? oa?aeoa?ia aeey an?o aoai?a
?icaeoeo ethaenoaa. ? ye anyea o?ce/ia ?aaeuei?noue, aecia/aia caeiiii
caa?aaeaiiy aia?a??, – ia? iaai? oace naiai ?icaeoeo: i?aeianaiiy,
?ia?oe?ei?noue ? caiaiaae. Oiaoi ??ci? aoiine iathoue ??ciee “ca?yae”
ian?iia?iino?. A oey ianoaaeia ia? ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy
nai???aeiino? aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai oa iie?oe/iiai iinooio
ia?iae?a. I?ioa oaeee a?iaia?aaoe/iee ?aaeoeoe?ii?ci eeoa? ethaeeio
aeanii? ?noi???, caia?a/o? nioe?aeuei? oi?ie ?? aeeooy.

C ?ioiai aieo a ?aaeyinueeiio noni?euenoaiciaanoa? a iniiao eiioeaioe?e
aoiiaaiaco aoea iieeaaeaia noe?aioenueee i??aioiaaia nioe?ieia?caoi?nea
ia?aaeeaia, oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith yei?, aoei inieneaiiy
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oi?i ?nioaaiiy ethaenoaa /a?ac i?ecio aoooy iaoe??. Ia
aeoieo TH.A?iieay, iaea?eueo a?aeiiiai oai?aoeea oeueiai iai?yieo,
iioiaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie aoiino aecia/a?oueny i?ia?aneaieie caeiiaie
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ca i?eioeeiii noiaeaeaiiy a?i ieae/iai aei aeuiai.
Oiaoi a ?aaeyinuee?e o?einio?? iienaiiy oa inieneaiiy aoi?/ieo i?ioean?a
o?aaeeoe?eii cae?enithaaeiny ca aeiiiiiaith iiiyo?eii-eiioeaiooaeueiiai
aia?aoo ?noi?e/iiai iaoa??ae?cio oa eiioeaioe?? i?ia?ano.

I? a eiai ia aeeeeea? noii?ao oa ianoaaeia, ui anyeee aoiin, ye ? ie?aia
ethaeeia, ia? naith i?inoi?iao oa /aniao ne?i/aii?noue. I?iaeaia o?eueee
a oai?aoe/iiio aeie?aieaii? oa iiina?aaeeoaaii? o??? ?aaeueiino?, yea
aeaoa?i?io? aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue oa iinooi nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ni?eueiio.
Nueiaiaei? oaea i/aaeaeia iaaeinoaoi?noue aeey oe??? ooeoe?? ye oeo
/eiiee?a, ye? eiio?ieththoueny na?aeii?noth ? aieath ethaeeie, oae ?
oaeeo yaeu ye “iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?”, “iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay”,
“iaoe?iiaeueia naiina?aeii?noue”, “aoi?/ia iaioaeuei?noue” oiui. sse
ieoooue cao?aei? aeine?aeieee I.Eioe oa N. Ne?eaia?,
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineoieia?/i? a?aei?iiino? i?ae ethaeueie i?iyaeythoueny
neeuei?oa, i?ei?oi?oa, i?ae aoi?/i?.

Oiio a eiioeaioe?? aoiiaaiaco o?aaa aeoiaeeoe c ia?aeiiino? i?aeoe/ieo
ae?e, ?aaeueii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, a?aoiaoth/e oo ianoaaeio, ui
?noi?e/iee iinooi ethaenoaa ?icai?oa?oueny ye iaaiee noni?eueiee niin?a
ca’yceo c ae?eni?noth. Oiaoi ?noi?eei-aoi?/ia aeaoa?i?iaoe?y, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, ia? ye a?ieia?/i? oa na?aeii? /eiieee, oae ? “aacnoa’?eoio”
?aaeuei?noue, ?ioa??i??caoe?y yei? ia ??ai? iniae ? noeo?eiei,
niiioaiiei, iaeiio?ieueiaaiei i?ioeanii. Ooai?aiiy oe??? ?aaeueiino?
iiiaaeathoue o noa?o i?aena?aeiiiai iniae ? cae??ieththoueny ooo ye
ia?aoeaeniaaiee aeina?ae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. A iiaeaeueoiio eiai i?iyae
aeoeoia/othoueny ye i?e?iaei?, a?ieia?/i?, aaiaoe/ii iane?aeoaai?
ooai?aiiy.

Eaoaai??y aeina?aeo ?icaeyaeaeanue a ?aaeyinuee?e o?einio?? ia?aaaaeii a
aiinaieia?/iiio ieai?. Iacao?aaoaaiei (ca aeeeth/aiiyi ooaeiaeiuei?
e?oa?aoo?e) ? ia inieneaiei iiee ui a oai?aoeei-eiioeaiooaeueiiio ieai?
?, ia iao iiaeyae, oie ieano eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? ?aaeueiino?, yeee
iia’ycaiee c? niiniaaie ae??oaiiy noni?eueieo i?iaeai a oeiiaeo
neooaoe?yo, noa’?eoii yeiai ? aanue ia?iae-aoiin ye i?aai?/ia
oe?e?ni?noue (a ia o?eueee eiai /anoeia, iaa?oue ? iaea?eueo ina?/aia).

Aea/aiiy aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo naiai ia?iaeo aeyaey? ?aaeuei? ? aeeaie?
?ciii?o?cie c ieioeei ia c oi/ee ci?o iaoiai ?nioaaiiy ye iaoa??aeueii
caaiaaaeiaaieo ?iaeea?ae?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei oe?eeii eiie?aoieo (?
iaa?oue ?noi?e/ii oi?eaeueieo) nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?oi, a a
neooaoe?yo aeai?o oiai /e ?ioiai ??oaiiy. Oiaoi a aei??? ethaenueeiai
aeina?aeo aeyaey?oueny, ui ?noi??y ia?iaeo eoaee a?eueo ?aeeia, /ei o
aei??ao iaoa??aeueieo ?ioa?an?a, a??oaaiue, cae/a?a, ii?aeueieo ii?i,
nioe?aeueieo i??e, iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? – aiie a?eueo eiie?aoi? aeey
nai?? aiioe.

Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy niiniao aoooy ia?iaeo iiaeooue ii?iaeaeoaaoe ye
cia/i? ?iioeuene aei e?eoeee anyeeo noai ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano, oae ?
aeyaeyoe iniiaiiieiaei? eiai canaaee aoiiaaiaco. Iniaeeaa aeooaeuei?noue
oeueiai ieoaiiy aeey Oe?a?ie – o?eueee ca?ac aeieea? iiaeeea?noue
aeie?aieoe ?? noni?eueiee oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee iinooi c eiioaeno?a
/oaeeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e ? iiaeyiooe ia nueiaiaeaiiy c oi/ee ci?o
ieioaoeie.

I?aeoe/ia aeooaeuei?noue aea/aiiy oa ?icoi?iiy aeina?aeo aeeooy ia?iae?a
Oe?a?ie ?i?oe?th?oueny nueiaiaei? aeey iaoi? aea?aeaae iiooeii
nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e aeiiii?/ieo, noni?eueieo oa iie?oe/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue. A aaaaoia?eiaa i?aeoeea ethaenueeiai aoooy (a oiio /ene? ?
iaoa a?o/eciyia) i?iiiio? iai ia o?eueee ? ia no?eueee ?noeie i?ciaiiy,
aea e aeina?ae – ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae aoi?/ii? ae??. Ie ia aa/eii a
ieioeiio, ye ie ioneii aoaeoaaoe nai? aeeooy, aea ie aa/eii oai, ye
uinue noaeinue, ? oea “uinue” iinoa? aeey ian o?ieii oiai, ye ?c iaoeo
aeanieo ia?aaeiineeaiue iiaeooue aeo?eaoe iao? aeani? iane?aeee. Oiaoi
aeeoo?aee aeina?ae ia?iaeo ye iaaia ?ioa?noa’?eoeaia ?aaeuei?noue iana a
nia? yne?aai ae?aaeai? ?ene naii?aoeaen?? ye oiiae aeinyaiaiiy (/a?ac
ei?aeoe?th aea?aieo ia?niaeoea) i?aai?/iino? ?icaeoeo.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, oaeei /eiii aeieeaa? c iio?aae
?ic?iaee oaei? iiaeae? aoiiaaiaco, a ?aieao yei? iiaeia aoei a
?ioa?i?aooaaoe aaeaeaaoii noni?eueiei ?aae?yi ye iiae?? ieioeiai ?
nueiaiaeaiiy, oae ? ie?aneeoe eiioo?e iaeaooiueiai.

Nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie. Iaoiaeieia?y ye ca?oa?aeieo oae ?
a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoiiaaiaco ?icai?oaeanue ia?aaaaeii o
eiioaeno? niaoe?aeueieo iaoe. I?ioa ?niothoue oai???, ye? neioaoe/ii
?icaeyaeathoue iinoaiiy ia?iaeo (aoiino), eiai ?icaeoie oa niaoeeo?/iee
aianie a ?noi??th ethaenoaa, yeee ia iiaeia ?aaeoeoaaoe i? aei
a?oaieia?/ieo, i? aoiia?ao?/ieo caeiaooe?a. Cie?aia, oaeeie ? oai??y
Aeae.A?ei i?i aeieeiaiiy oa oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo ia?iae?a (1725),
nioe?aeueii-i?ia?anenonueea eiioeaioe?y E.Ii?aaia (1877) oa oai??y
aoiiaaiaco ye i?e?iaeiiai aio?ii?eiiai i?ioeano E.Aoi?eueiaa (1979)
oiui.

A ?aaeyinuee?e aoiieia?? oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo aoiin?a
cina?aaeaeoaaeenue, aieiaiei /eiii, iaaeiei i?iaeai iaa?oiooaaiiy
nioe?aeueii? nooiino? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio, ieoaiue
iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, aoiiiie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
ia?iaeaie, i?e/ei eiioe?eo?a ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?, i?iaeai
oi?ioaaiiy iiai? ?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiino? ethaeae – ?aaeyinueeiai ia?iaeo.
Oea ciaoiaeeei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aoeyo ?.Aiioe?ia, A.Aaa?aiiaa,
AE.Aieioa?ia, N.Eaeoao/yia, I.Eoe?/aiea, I.Oaaein??aa, ?.Oieiiai?iaa,
I.*aa/aaaaeca, O.Oe?iaoiai?, ?. Aaaeoeao?iiaa, I.Aaaeaeaiiaa,
A.Aaeia?ia, O.Ai?ianueeiai, I.Aeaeoioniaa, A.Iaaeo?aa, A.Ieoaeeiaa,
N.A?oothiiaa, TH.A?iieay, I.Aoaaaeiai, A.O?oeiaa, I.A?ie?oa, I.?i?aeaia,
A.Ia?ia, ss.?aaaia, I.ss?iuoea oa ?ioeo. Ni?eueiith iaoiaeieia?/iith
canaaeith ?aaeyinueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoiiaaiaco aoei aeyaeaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoiinioe?aeueieo oi?iiooai?aiue c oi?iaoe?eieie aoaiaie
?icaeoeo ethaenoaa. Ca?aeii oaei? noaie ieai’y iiai?noth caeaaeaei a?ae
aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa,
ia?iaei?noue – ?aaiaeanieoeueeiai ? oaiaeaeueiiai,
iaoe?y–eai?oae?noe/iiai ? nioe?ae?noe/iiai. I?e/iio oa?aeoa? aiioe,
eiie?aoii ?noi?e/i? oiiae ?nioaaiiy ni?eueiio ia?aaaaeaee ?o caaaeuei?
?iaiaioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Iai?eeeaae : ao?aeoaci? aai nioe?ae?noe/i?
iaoe??, iaoe?? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a?ae eai?oae?cio aei nioe?ae?cio ?,
ia?aoo?, eiioi?noe/i? iaoe??, a eio?? iinooiiai ia?aoai?ththoueny iaoe??
i?ae /an ia?aoiaeo a?ae nioe?ae?cio aei eiioi?cio.

E??i oiai aen?iiith ia?enecio aoa ?icaeyae aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei,
aoi?/ieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a iio?aeieie, ao?eaooeaieie a?ae aca?iei
i?ae eeanaie. A?aeiia oi?ioea E.Ia?ena, ui ?acii c aioaaii?noe/ieie
a?aeiineiaie i?ae eeanaie, aiaaeooue ai?iae? a?aeiineie i?ae iaoe?yie.
I?ae oei ye iieaco? any noni?eueia i?aeoeea aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie
? noanoaioe?eieie a iaeaea an?e ?noi??? ethaenoaa, ui aeaoa?i?io?oueny
i?eiaoii iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? iaae an?ia ?? aeaeaie: noaoaaith,
?iaeiaith, oa?eoi??aeueiith, eeaniaith, ?ae?a?e-iith ? o.ae.

Iaeiinoaei?noue a iiaeyaeao ia aoiiaaiac aoea iaoiiaeaia
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iei caaaeaiiyi oi?ioaaiiy a iaaeao
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae ?aeeiiai nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
i?aai?cio. I?e oeueiio e?eoeeoaaeeny ? a?aeeeaeaeeny ye inaaaeiiaoeia?
i?aeoiaee a yeeo ieth?ae?ci aeoiie, eiioeaioe?e oa oai??e aoa
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iaiaeiicia/ii? noia?a/eeai? noo? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
i?ioean?a.

A oe?a?inuee?e aoiieia?? a?aeaoeany aeiei??iia ci?ia
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? ia?aaeeaie, a iaaeao yei? aeine?aeieee
iaiaaathoueny c?icoi?oe nooi?noue caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
aeoiaey/e c ?aae?e noni?eueii-?noi?e/ii? i?aeoeee. Iaoiaeieia?/ieie
i?aeaaeeiaie ?icaeoeo oeueiai iai?yieo iaoeiaiai iiooeo ? ?iaioe
Ae.Aei?ioaiea, A.Eeieinueeiai, N.Oiiaoe?anueeiai, A.Ei/oanueeiai,
I.Iaca?oea, A.E?oiieoeueeiai, I.A?ooaanueeiai, I.I?oiianueeiai,
Ae.Aeiioeiaa, I.Ai/eianueeiai, TH.Eeie, N.?oaeieoeueeiai,
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ?.O?aiea, I.Oaiiaaea. Iaea?eueo ?aeueaoii nueiaiaei?
aeiaethao?oueny iai?yiie iaoe?ieia?/iiai aa/aiiy i?iaeai aoiiaaiaco, ?o
aoiiiie?oe/iee c??c, iaoe?inionueea ?icoi?iiy aea?aeaaieoeueeeo oa
aoi?/ieo i?iaeai (TH.?eia?aiei, I.Iaeai?iaea, ?.Aa?ca?, I.Ooeueaa,
A.?aooo, E.Oeey?, A.Iai?aoaeueeanea, A. ?aaeieeiaiei, I.Ea?ooiia,
A.?aiaoia, I.A?a/a?ee oa ?i.).

?acii c oei i?iaeiaaeo?oueny iiooe oaeeo eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae oa
eaoaai??aeueii-iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiiaoe?iiaeueieo
i?ioean?a, ye? aoee a aaeaeaaoieie inyaiooe ?ioaa?aoe?ei? aai ?oei?ai?
iaoai?cie ethaenueei? noni?eueiino?, aeoiaey/e c i??i??oaoii?
noa’?eoiino? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aoiin?a, a ia aaciiniaiaeo aeiiii?/ieo
(E.Ia?en) /e ?ioeo a?aeiinei (O.Eaiae, ?.Aeno?eoeueeee, A.E?ena/aiei,
A.Iiiia, I.Eenaeueia, I.Iaeueaa, ?.Noa?iaieo, I.Caaoaeei oa ?i).

A ?aieao oeueiai i?aeoiaeo aeena?oaio ?ic?iaey? iia? eiioeaiooaeuei?
ia?aaeeaie inieneaiiy neeaaeieo oa noia?a/eeaeo i?ioean?a
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aca?iei, aeoiaey/e c o?aeooaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
?aaeueiino? ye na?oo aeeooy. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aea? iiaeeea?noue aeaoaeueii
i?iaiae?coaaoe oaeo nioe?ieoeueoo?io ?aaeuei?noue ye aeina?ae
ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, yeee ?acii c iaoe?iiaeueiith
na?aeii?noth, iaoe?iiaeueiith ?aea?th, aoi?/iith iaioaeuei?noth oiui, ?
aaaeeeaith aeaoa?i?iaioith noaiiaeaiiy oa aoooy an?o ia?iae?a. Ia iniia?
oeeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo ianoaiia aiae?co?oueny nai???aei?noue
oeea?e?caoe?eiiai iinooio Oe?a?ie a ieioeiio oa nueiaiaeaii?,
ie?aneththoueny iiaeeea? ia?niaeoeae ?? eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nueeiai
iaeaoooy.

Iniiaith oaeiai aiae?co ? iaaeaaiiy “o?einio?? aeeooy”,
aecenoaioe?ae?cio, o?einionueei? aio?iiieia??, oaiiiaiieia?/ii?
nioe?ieia??, cao?aeii?a?iiaenei? eoeueoo?ieia?? oa aoiieia??,
aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeii iaoiaeieia?? oa o?einio?? eoeueoo?e A.?aaiiaa,
I.Iiiiae/a, ?.Ae/ei, I.Aoeaoiaa, I.Eieiia, N.E?einueeiai, A.Iaeaoiaa,
A.Iieca?nueeiai, A.Ia?aoiinueeiai, A.I?oaei?ia, A.Noueii?ia,
A.Oaaa/eianueeiai, A.Oae?ueiaa, A.Oeiea?oea, A.I?/ee, A.Iacaiea,
C.Iaia?aeaoa?e?, A.Eiy, A.Eaeoi?nueeiai, A.Eyoa ?.Iaaeieue-
iiai oa ?i.

Anaa?/iiio ? eiino?oeoeaiiio aiae?co aeena?oaoe?eii? i?iaeaiaoeee
ni?eyee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi?ee?a o?einio?? oa ?iaioe c nioe?aeueii?
o?einio?? A.Aniona, A.Ai?nueeiai, I.Aeieo???aa, A.Ai?ooieaey, Ca?/aiei,
?.Caoa?e, A.?aaiuei, TH.?uaiea, ss.?na?ae/a, I.Eaooae, TH.Eooaeiaa,
A.Aeoooiaa, A.Aiae?thuaiea, ?.Aie/aiea, I.Aoeaaeiaa, A.Aeoaneaaoeaaa,
E.Aaaeae??aa, A.Ao?aae/a, TH.Aeaaeaeiaa, ?.?eue?ia, A.E?aiaiy,
N.Eo?aethiiaa, I.Einnueeiai, I.Ii?na?aa, I.Iieeyea, I.Ieoaeue/aiea,
A.Iaia??ia, Ae.Nieiaeiaa, N.O?aiea oa ?i.

Cia/iee aianie a ?ic?iaeo i?iaeaie aca?iica’yceo ieioeiai ? nueiaiaeaiiy
aianee aeine?aeieee ?aeaeiiai iaaeaaiiy ieioeeo iieie?iue a onue?o
noa?ao ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?. Ia?ae?e ?iai o/aieo, ye?
i?aaenoaaeythoue oeae iai?yi iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?, iio?aaoaaaae ia
iaeio noi??ieo. ?nio? oaeiae a?ia?ao?/iee aiae?c ae?yeueiino? aeaeaoieo
ae?y/ea ieioaoaia ye ??ciiaeae ?noi?eee-o?einionueeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
cia/iith i??ith ?icaeiooee o aei?aaiethoe?ei?e ?in?? ? oaeoe/ii
cai?iooee a ?aaeyinuee?e o?einio?? aiane?aeie aeii?ioaaiy
aano?aeoii-?aoe?iiae?noe/ieo noai iiyniaiiy noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo.
Iaaiei aeiyoeii ooo ? o?aa ui i?aoe? I.Aeaeaeueiaia, I.Eaaaae?aa,
?.Ie?iaea, TH.Ei?ye?ia, ?.Iaio?ia, I.Aieiae?ia, A.Nieiaeiaa, I.Aaeaeaiei
oa ?i.

?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaeieia?/ia iiea ?iaioe caniiaoaaeinue oaeiae ia
oai?/ino? i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e: I.Eoeue/eoeueeiai,
?.Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai, ?.Iaeaithea, ?.I??/oea, ?.Ia??iea,
I.Oeaieaae/a, A.ssi?aa, N.ss?iony.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiue ca’ycaiee c oaiaie, ye? ?ic?iaeyeeny o ?inoeooo?
o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee:

– ieaiiai? oaie a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? “Ae?aeaeoeea
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiai a no/aniiio nioe?oi?”;

– ieaiiai? oaie a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? “Iniiae
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iaoe??: “Niaaeei?ii?noue oa ?iiiaaoe??”;

– ieaiiai? oaie a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? “Iaoe?iiaeueia aoooy a
noa?? iie?oeee, ?aeaieia?? aeooiaiino?”;

– ieaiiai? oaie a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? “Aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei?
iaoai?cie o?ainoi?iaoe?? nioe?oi?a Oe?a?ie;

– ieaiiai? oaie a?ae?eo o?einionueeeo i?iaeai i?e?iaeiciaanoaa oa
aeieia?? “?ioa?noa’?eoeai? /eiieee ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?”.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaiiiai aoi?/iino? ye
nioe?ieoeueoo?ia ?aaeuei?noue.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aoi?/ia aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue, noaiiaeaiiy oa
aooooy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio ocaaaeueiaiiy /iai aeaei
iiaeeea?noue noi?ioethaaoe iniiai? canaaee eoeueoo?ieia?/ii? iiaeae?
iinooio aoiin?a.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iniiaieo
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae eoeueoo?ieiae/ii? eiioeaioe??
aoiiaaiaco, oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoiiai ?e iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo, a?aoiaoth/e
?ic??ciai?noue oa o?aaiaioa?i?noue ciaiue i?i nooi?noue aoiiaaiaco oa
iniiai? /eiieee aoooy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeenao?aoe?? ae??oothoueny oae?
aeine?aeieoeuee? caaea/? :

– ?icaeyaea?oueny noeoii?noue /eiiee?a, yea aeaoa?i?io? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nioe?oio ye neeaaeii? aaaaoi??aiaai? nenoaie niaoeeo?/ieo aca?iei i?ae
ethaeueie;

– aeie?aieththoueny aa?enoe/i? iiaeeeaino? oeo o?einionueeeo,
ineoieia?/ieo oa nioe?ieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
anie?eoaaoe iinooeaoe iinoiaieeane/ii? iaoiaeieia?? iaoee ia iiyniaiiy
oa ?icoi?iiy noaiiaeaiiy ? aoooy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio;

– aeine?aeaeo?oueny eoeueoo?a ye niin?a aoooy ia?iaeo, yeee ?
neioaoe/iei iieacieeii ?o aoiiiaoe?iiaoe?iiaeueii? nai???aeiino?;

– ?ice?eaathoueny iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy aeina?aeo ethaenueeiai aeeooy ye
aeaoa?i?iaioii? aoiiciaeiai? ?aaeueiino?, aiae?cothoueny i?e/eie
aa??aaaeueiiai canai?iiy cia/aiue aoi?/ii? eoeueoo?e;

– iieno?oueny aaaaoi??aiaaa no?oeoo?a aoi?/iiai aoooy oa
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, aea?oueny anie?eaoe?y iniiaieo iiiyoue, ye? ?o
?ice?eaathoue;

– aea/a?oueny yaeua aoi?/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??,
?ice?eaathoueny iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy aoi?/ieo oei?a iniae;

– aeine?aeaeothoueny iaoai?cie oa aoi?/i? iane?aeee i?aeeoeueoo?ii?
aca?iiae?? ia?iae?a;

– ?ic?iaeaia oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue aoiiaaiaco canoiniao?oueny aei aiae?co
iniaeeainoae aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai iinooio oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
ia?niaeoea eiai eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo;

Iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui o i?e ?ic?iaeaia
eoeueoo?ieia?/ia eiioeaioe?y aoiiaaiaco, a ye?e aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e
aoiieia??, aeina?ae ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aiae?co?oueny ye
aecia/aeueia aoi?/ia ?aaeuei?noue. A ?? ?aieao iaea?aeai? oae? iia?
iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe:

1. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoa??aeueii-ae?iaie/a iiaeaeue nioe?oi ia ioiieth?
an? aeaee ethaenueei? aeoeaiino? ? ?ai?acaioo? eeoa oie oei noi?eueieo
ca’yce?a ? aoai ?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe??, yeee aecia/a?oueny ae?yeuei?noth
? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ooieoe?iiaeueieie a?aeiineiaie i?ae ethaeueie. Oiio
iioieia?y noni?euenoaa ye neeaaeii? aaoa?iaaiii? nenoaie ia? aeeth/aoe
aea/aiiy ? a?ae/oaeaieo a?aeiinei i?ae ethaeueie, i?aaenoaaeaieo
?inoeoooe?iiaeueieie nenoaiaie (aeiiii?eith, i?aaii, iie?oeeith,
iaoeith, oa ?i.), ? a?aeiinei caniiaaieo ia iniaenoiio aeina?ae?,
?ioaa?iaaiino? a iaoai?cie o?aaeeoe??, ioe?ithaaiiy ca i?eioeeiii “na?e
– /oaeee”. Inoaii? ? noa?ith aeeooy, a yeiio ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-o?eania
?nioaaiiy ethaeeie ciaoiaeeoue nai? caaa?oaiiy a eoeueoo?? ye niinia?
aoooy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio. Aoi?/i? ca’ycee ? canaaeie/ai oeiii
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui iaea?eueo aeeaieei oeiii
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ethaeeie ? ?? eoeueoo?ia aecia/ai?noue.

2. Iieacaii, ui eoeueoo?ieia?/iee aiae?c aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a –
oea ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue ye?niiai aa/aiiy ae?eniino?, aen?ieia?/ia
noaaeaiiy aei ae?yeuei?niiai ia?aaoaaiiy ethaeeie o na?o? ia iniia?
oi?aa?naeueieo aei???a ethaenueeiai aeeooy, ia i?ioeaaao o?e
?ioaeaeooaeuei?e ia?aaeeai?, yea ooaa?aeaeo? e?euee?ni?,
ia/enethaaeuei?, eaeueeoeueiaai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ethaenueeiai noaaeaiiy
aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo. I?eeiyooy eoeueoo?ieia?/ii? iiaeae? aoiiaaiaco
icia/a? ye a?aeiiao a?ae ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ?aaeoeoe?? ?noi?e/ieo
noni?eueieo ooai?aiue aei ?o aeueo oeea?e?caoe?eieo oi?i –
iaoe?iiaeueieo (ui, ia aeaeue, iaea?eueo a?ae/ooii o no/anieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo), oae ? aeciaiiy i?aaeiaoii-aa?enoe/ii? cia/eiino? an?o
noi??i aoooy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio.

3. Ia iniia? canaae iinoiaieeane/ii? iaoiaeieia?? iaoee aeie?aieai?
iniaeeaino? noa’?eo-ia’?eoieo eiioi?eaoe?e a i?ioean? i?ciaiiy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo yaeu. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?o inyaiaiiy ? a a?eueo?e i???
ii?iaeaeaiiyi niene?a (a?aeiia?aeiee ?noi?eei-o?einionueeee aei?iaie
aa?aoueny ye a?ia?oaeno), i?ae iiooeii ia?oii?e/ei, canaae,
iniiaiiieiaeieo i?eioeei?a, aeyaeaiiy cia/aiue oiui. Oea aeaei
iiaeeea?noue neiino?othaaoe oae? nieneia? oaiiiaie, ci?no yeeo
aaciina?aaeiuei a?aenooi?e a ?nioth/eo aoiieia?/i?o eiioeaioe?yo.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e, cie?aia, iai?aoethaaiiy “o?einio?? aeeooy”,
aecenoaioe?ae?cio, aa?iaiaaoeee, o?einionueei? aio?iiieia?? oa ?i.
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia na?aaeiaeua o?aeoo?oueny ye noeo?y aeeooy. Ca?aene
iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie, ui ii?aeuei? ii?ie ni?aaeeooy, noa?aioeie
iiaaae?iee oa ae?yeueiino? iaeiiai aoiino ?io?iaa?oi? ii a?aeiioaiith
aei iiae?aieo ooai?aiue ?ioiai.

4. Iaa?oioiaaii iioieia?/io cia/ou?noue aaciina?aaeiuei? ae?eniino?, ui
? iaaiith aeueoa?iaoeaith ae?yeuei?ni?e eiioeaioe?? aoiiaaiaco. Ca?aeii
inoaiiuei?, aeoiaeeei, ui ia?a?niiiaueii?e oi?iaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaee oae?
aoi?/i? ooai?aiiy, ye ??ae ? ieai’y, a ia?iaei?noue – oaiaeaeuei?e oa
?aaiaeanieoeuee?e oi?iaoe??. “Aeiaa” ?nioaaiiy iaoe?? i?eiaaeaea ia
ia??iae ooieoe?iioaaiiy eai?oae?cio, a iaeaooi? aaceeaniaa noni?euenoai
– oea noni?euenoai ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?aonoaa ia?iae?a. I?e oaeiio
i?aeoiae? ae??oaiiy i?iaeai aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ia? nai?th
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ?o ae?yeuei?nia “ciyooy” ca ?aooiie ?icaeoeo
oa oi?o?eaoe?? inoaiiuei?. I?ioa ?aae?? OO noi??//y ? iniaeeai
inoaiiuei? eiai /aa?o? (a iaaaaeaee, ui yeith a aeeaieith ia aoea
ae?yeuei?nia ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?y ethaenoaa, aiii, ye ?ai?oa,
neeaaea?oueny c ??cieo ia?iae?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?? ia?aaeeaia
a?aoiao? ia o?eueee niaoeeo?eo i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/ii? aeoeaiino?
ethaeeie, aea e ea?aeeiaeuei? o?ainoi?iaoe?? niiniao aoooy ia?iae?a, ye?
aeaoa?i?iothoueny an??th noeoii?noth nioe?i-i?e?iaeieo /eiiee?a
aeeoo?ae?eueiino?. Ia oe?e iniia? cai?iiiiiaiii aeanio eeaneo?eaoe?th
aoai?a aoiiaaiaco. I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaei a oe?e eiioeaioe?? ? oa, ui
aiia aeeth/a? a naaa ?icoi?iiy aoiiaaiaco ye i?e?iaeiiai ? noni?eueiiai
i?ioean?a, c iaeiiai aieo, oa aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iicaia?a/aiiy aoooy oa
ae?yeueiino? – c ?ioiai.

5. Aeoiaey/e ?c niaoeeo?ee noa’?eo-ia’?eoiiai iieeaaeaiiy, a noaiiaeaii?
oa aooo? ia?iae?a aeae?eaii oa i?iaiae?ciaaii oae? ye?nii ??ci? aoaie
aoiiaaiaco: aeiae?yeuei?niee (no?eaeiai ? ia?icae?eai?noue ethaeeie ?
i?e?iaee, aieiaiei ?ano?nii – iaaeieeoi? i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua,
aecia/aeueiith ?enith – aeieeaniaa no?oeoo?a noni?euenoaa),
i?aaeiaoii-ae?yeuei?niee (no?eaeiai ? ethaeeia, aieiaiei ?ano?nii –
?iai/a neea, aecia/aeueiith ?enith – eeaniaa no?oeoo?a noni?euenoaa), oa
no/aniee – ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiioi?eaoeaiee (no?eaeiai ? aaoiiiii?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, aieiaiei ?ano?nii – ioi?iaoe?y, aecia/aeueiith
?enith–iinoeeaniaa no?oeoo?a noni?euenoaa). Iieacaii, ui nae?ae?caoe?y
ethaenoaii i?aaeiaoii-ae?yeuei?nii? ia?aaeeaie ?nioaaiiy iiaea aooe eiai
oeyoii ye a o?ce/ia oae ? eoeueoo?ia iaaoooy. I?ae inoaii?i ia?oueny ia
oaac? caaaeaiiy anueiai ??ciiia?ooy oi?i aeeoo?oai?aiiy, ii?iaeaeaia
?nioaaiiyi ??cieo aoiin?a, aei iaaieo oi?aanae?e, ui caoaeo? (aai ?
cae?eaa?) ?noi?e/io ia?niaeoeao ethaenoaa. Iniiaiiieiaeiith canaaeith
iiaeieaiiy oaei? ia?niaeoeae ? ooaa?aeaeaiiy ethaenueei?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ia o?eueee a iiaeaeueiino? “ss ae?th”, a ? a
iiaeaeue- iino? “ss ?”.

6. Iieacaii, ui iiiyooy “iie?oe/ia iaoe?y” oa “aoi?/ia (eoeueoo?ia)
iaoe?y” ia ? oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ??ciiai oeio iaoe?e, a a?aeia?aaeothoue
eeoa niaoeeo?eo eiinoeoothaaiiy (cao?aeio oa no?aeio) iaei??? c oi?i (ia
nueiaiaei? aeui?) nioe?ioeea?e?caoe?eii? c??eino? ia?iae?a. C oe???
oi/ee ci?o iaoe?y – oea nioe?ioeea?e?caoe?eia ooai?aiiy, ii?yae c
?iaeii, ieai’yi, ia?iaei?noth, yea ia? aeiiii?/iee, iie?oe/iee,
?noi?e/iee, nioe?aeueiee oa ?io? noi?iie naiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ye? o
nai???aeiino? naiai aca?iica’yceo ooai?ththoue iaiiaoi?iee niin?a aoooy
ia?iaeo aai ia?iae?a ye eoeueoo?o. Oiio aoi?/i?noue oea ia yeeenue
ie?aiee aoai ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ieo ni?eueiino, aai iaaiee ?noi?e/iee ?o
??ciiaeae, a ye?nia nai???aei?noue eoeueoo?e, yea a a?eueo?e aai
iaiueo?e i??? i?eoaiaiiy an?i ?noi?e/iei ni?eueiinoyi ethaeae. Ia??iaeii
?nioaaiiy iaoe?? aoiiaaiac ia “ae/a?io?oueny”, iiaeeea? ? ?io? noaae??
nioe?ioeea?e?caoe?eii? c??eino? ethaenoaa ia iniia? ni?eueieo
eoeueoo?ieo ?en aai “ni??aeiaiino? eoeueoo?”.

7. Ia iniia? aiae?co ?noi?eei-o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe?? oeoia/aiiy
aeina?aeo aeie?aieaii eiai iioieia?/iee noaoon. Aeine?aeaeaii
aoiiciaeia? ooieoe?? aeina?aeo ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, yeee
?acii c iaoe?iiaeueiith na?aeii?noth, iaoe?iiaeueiith ?aea?th, aoi?/iith
iaioaeuei?noth, ?ioeie /eiieeaie ? aaaeeeaith aeaoa?i?iaioith
noaiiaeaiiy oa aoooy an?o ia?iae?a. Ia iniia? niaoeeo?ee canai?iiy
noni?eueii-?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo aecia/aii oeie aoi?/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
ethaeeie. I?aee?aneaii, ui oeae i?ioean aecia/a?oueny ia eeoa na?aeiieie
coneeeyie noa’?eo?a ?noi?e/ii? ae?? oa ?inoeoooe?eieo iaoiae?a
aeoiaaiiy, a ? niiniaii aoooy ia?iaeo. Iieeaaeaiiy aeina?aeo
ethaenueeiai aoooy a iniiao iiyniaiiy noni?eueieo i?ioean?a “?aaa?e?oo?”
oi?aa?naeueio i?e?iaeo ethaeeie (ethaeeia ? ?nioaaiiy, ui ia?aaeo?
nooiino?), yeo no/ania oeea?e?caoe?y caiaeeoue aei ?ieueiai? ooieoe??.
“Ae?iaieoeoai” noni?euenoaii “iaeiii??ieo” ethaeae, in?a c a?ae/oaeaiei
oa?aeoa?ii, eio?? iathoue “iai?ioeyoeaiee ?ioaeaeo” ? i???ioiaai?
o?eueee ia aieiae?iiy eeoa? oeea?e?caoe?th aa??aoeaiino? ?icaeoeo, ui ?
iaiaei?iiith oiiaith noaa?eueiino? neeaaeieo nenoai.

8. Iaa?oioiaaii iioieia?/iee noaoon oaiiiaio “aeina?ae aeeooy” ye
aioeoace “oai???” oa “i?aeoeee”. Aeina?ae aeeooy ? ia?aaeo? i?aeoeoe?, ?
oi?io?oueny a eiioaeno? ?? aca?iiae?? c oai???th, ? niiieiinoeooth?oueny
(oiaoi “aeiaa?oo?oueny” ) ia iaai?e a?aenoai? a?ae ieo iaio. Oiio iiaeia
aiai?eoe i?i “aeina?ae aeeooy” ye ?aei?noue “i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo”
(“aeina?aeo i?aeoe/ii? ae??”) oa “oai?aoe/iiai aeina?aeo” (“aeina?aeo
oai?aoe/iiai ieneaiiy”). Eeoa ca oaeiai i?aeoiaeo noa? c?icoi?eei, ui
aeina?ae ? a) noiith cae?aiinoae oa caeaoiinoae ethaeae ae?iaeyoe
neooaoeaii-i?iaeaii? (aaeaeaaoi? iiiaioia?, iio?aaai, ?ioa?anai ?
caaaeaiiyi) oai?aoe/i? eiioeaioe??, oai?aoeei-i?aeoe/i? i?ia?aie oa
?aaeuei? onoaiiaee aei ae??; a) neioacii ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie
ethaeae ieneeoe ? ae?yoe ii-iiaiio; a) i?ioeanii aii??e/iiai
canai?iiy ethaeeiith na?oo ? ?acoeueoaoii oeueiai canai?iiy; a)
nea?aieoeath, nai???aeiei oacao?onii iaecaaaeuei?oeo oiiaeaiae?a ?
o?ie?a, ui ?o aeaiaeyoue ethaee ?c oai?aoe/ieo ?icaeoi?a oa aiae?co
i?aeoeee. Ci?no aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo ethaeeie aecia/athoueny oei
niiniaii, yeei oiiae ?? aoooy iaaoaathoue aeey ia? yeino?
aaciina?aaeiuei? ?aaeueiino?. Iaoai?ciii, yeee Oi?io? ae aioo??oi?e
niene aeeooy, a ia eiai ciai?oith noni?eueii-?noi?e/io ia?niaeoeao oaeee
oaiiiai ye ia?aaeeaaiiy. Iine?eueee ia?aaeeaaiiy a?aeiiaeth? ?aei?noue
i?aeoe/iiai ? oai?aoe/iiai aniaeo?a aeeooy, na?oo ? ethaeeie aiii ? ia
no?eueee ciaiiy i?i ia’?eo, ne?eueee oioiaei?noue c iei, ae?aaeaiiy
oe?e?nii? noa’?eoeaii-ia’?eoeaii? ?noeie aeeooy. Inoaii? neeaaeathoue
nieneiaa iiea anyei? aoi?/ii? eoeueoo?e.

9. I?iaiae?ciaaii aoiiciaeiao ooieoe?th aeina?aeo aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.
A?aoiaoth/e canaaeie/ee oa?aeoa? aeina?aeo aeeooy, ia iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe
iica/aniai, ?ene oiai /e ?ioiai ia?iaeo (?.I??/oe, Ae.*eaeaanueeee),
na?oiaeyaei? yeino? iaoe?? (I.TH?eaae/), iaioaeuei?noue oa
ii?aeueii-aoe/i? iniaeeaino? aoiin?a (I.Eoeue/eoeueeee, I.Eoe?o) , ye ia
iiaeia aecia/aoe oie /e ?ioee ia?iae /e ye oe?ai?ianueeee, /e oi ye
?iaeono??aeueiee, /e ye oi?aae?inueeee, ui iaiaaaany ?iaeoe, iai?eeeaae,
A.Eeieinueeee. A on?o oeeo aeiaaeeao ie ia?ii ni?aao c
?aoe?iiae?noe/iith ?aaeoeoe??th aoi?/ii? eoeueoo?e aei yeiainue iaeiiai
?? neeaaeieea, iaoae iaa?oue aei iaeaaaeeea?oiai, aeciaiiy eiai
aecia/aeueii? ?ie? a aooo? oa noaiiaeaii? o??? aai ?ioi? ni?eueiioe.
O?eueee a i?ioean? “noni?eueiiai a?a?o?aaeo” ??ciini?yiiaaieo i?aaiaiue
ethaeae /anii /a?ac noia?a/iino? oa eiioe?eoe aeieeathoue ye nai???aeia
“anacaaaeueia aeaai c aeina?aeo”, oae ? ?icoi?iiy noni?eueieo oa
aoi?/ieo ?aae?e ye neeaaeiiai ia?aieaoaiiy ??cieo oai??e, eiioeaioe?e oa
ia?aaeeai.

10. Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeieia?? aeine?aeaeaii ?noi?e/i?
iniaeeaino? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai iinooio Oe?a?ie. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
aiane?aeie iani?eyoeeaino? aaiiie?oe/ieo /eiiee?a (“caa?ica cieuaiiy”,
“a?aiue nia?o?”, “aeiaaeeia?noue”, “?noi?e/iee oain”, “iacaoeuai?noue”
oa ?io?) , ?noi??ioai?/a ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeiai aoiino
cina?aaeaeoaaeanue aai o niaoeeo?/ieo ooai?aiiyo (eicaoeoai, a?aonoaa),
aai o ieciaeo nioe?aeueieo ee?oeiao (n?i’y, n?euenueea a?iiaaea), ui
iaea nai?i iane?aeeii oaea ?ica’ycaiiy noia?a/iino? i?ae iniaenoeie oa
noni?eueieie ?ioa?anaie, yea aaeueioaaei ?o aoi?/io aecia/ai?noue,
eiinoeoothaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? ye noa’?eoa na?oiai? iie?oeee. Oiio
“?noi?e/i?noue” oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? caaacia/oaaea ia ae?yeuei?noue
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe, a ia?iaeia eoeueoo?a, yea ia iaaieo ?noi?e/ieo
aoaiao neoaoaaea eiina?aaoe?? “iaeiai” na?oo, a?aeaeeeeo noni?eueieo
oi?i, “i?ecaieaiiyi” caaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oa iio?aa, ia?aoeiaeaeaea
ia?aoiaeo ia ye?nii iia? uaae? noni?eueiiai aoooy. Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a
iiaeiia ua i?ieoe oie aoai noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ia yeiio a ?ioa?ane
iaoe?? aoee aacoiiaiei noni?eueiei i??i?eoaoii.

11. Aeiaaaeaii, ui nueiaiaei?oi? i?iaeaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie aei??iai? a ?noi?e/iiio aeina?ae? aoooy ia?iaeo, yeee
aeaoa?i?io? ? eiai nueiaiaeaiiy, ? ia?niaeoeae
eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo: ??cio ii ?aa?iiao ? noni?eueieo
no?aoao nooi?iue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy eieaeoea?nonueeeo aai
?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ieo i???ioaoe?e a?aeiinii aeaniino?, noa?aioei?a
c??aiye?aee, a?aeiioaiiy aei aaaaoeo, aioiaiino? aai iaaioiaiino?
a?aenoithaaoe aeanio aeiiii?/io naiaiaeo, ni?eeiyooy i?aaa ia aeoeaio
ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue, i?aei?e?iieoeoai, ??ci? oeie ni?eeiyooy
iaoa??aeueii-noaoonii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, caaaeueiee ??aaiue eoeueoo?e
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? iiaooo, aeenoeeie?ie i?aoe?, i?ioan?iiae?cio oa
i?ioan?eii? /ano? ? o.ae. A oe?eiio o?oaeiiu? noni?eueieo
o?ainoi?iaoe?e a Oe?a?i? iia’ycai? c oei, ui an? cae/i? ?
“iai?aoeueiaai?” o?aaeeoe?eiith oa ?aaeyinueeith eoeueoo?ith oe?iiino?
oa a?aeiineie anooiathoue a noia?a/i?noue c a?aeiineiaie, ye?
noi?ioaaeenue ia aac? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Oiio aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o
na?oiao ni?eueiioo iia’ycaii c oi?ioaaiiyi oaei? nenoaie oe?iiinoae, yea
a i?aai?/ii ii?aeioaaea o nia? o?aaeeoe?? aeaniiai niiniao aoooy oa
aeinyaiaiiy no/anii? oeea?e?caoe??. C oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui ia’?eoii
caiice/aiiy iiaeiia aooe ia eoeueoo?a a oe?eiio, a eeoa aeinyaiaiiy a
ie?aieo noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?: iaooe?, oaoi?oe?, oaoiieia?yo oiui.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aiie:

– ?ic?iaeythoue iiaee iai?yiie aoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia iniia?
aeie?aieaiiy oeo /eiiee?a nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa, ye?
aoee iiee ui iica oaaaith a?eueoino? aeine?aeiee?a;

– ni?eythoue caaaa/aiith eaoaai??aeueii-iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo nioe?aeueii?
oeeinio??, ia?iaeiciaanoaa, o?einio?? ?noi???, oe?a?iiciaanoaa;

– ni?eythoue ?icoe?aiith aieeao iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae iiniaieeane/ii?
iaoieia?? iaoee ia iia? noa?e ethaenueeiai aoooy;

– iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? noa’?eoaie noni?eueiiai aeeooy aeey ?ic?iaee
iaoe?iiaeueii? oa i?aeia?iaeii? iie?oeee Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae,
noaiiaeaiiy ?? ye ye iiaiii?aaiiai /eaia na?oiai? ni?eueiioe;

– iiaeooue aooe canoiniaaieie i?e i?aeaioiaoe? ii?iaoeaiiai eo?no c
ia?iaeiciaanoaa, nioe?aeueii? o?einio??, o?einionueei? aio?iiieia??,
o?einio?? ?noi???, oe?a?iiciaanoaa;

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?ic?iaeai? aeena?oaioii iieiaeaiiy
oa aeniiaee eiioeaioe?? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a iioae?eiaai? a
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e oa eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?yo, noaooyo, a oieiae
aeaieioai? a aeiiia?aeyo ? iia?aeiieaiiyo ia oaeeo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, «e?oaeeo noieao»: i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
«Aoiia?ao?/ia niaaeueia ? iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy» (1992 ?.
i.Ee?a); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie ae?aaiinooaaiiy ?
i?iaiicoaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo neooaoe?e» ( 1992 ?., i.E?eaee
??a), iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iaoe?iiaeueiee i?ia?an Oe?a?ie: nooi?noue,
aei??e, ia?niaeoeae» (1993 ?. i.Ee?a); i?aeia?iaeiiio oai?aoe/iiio
nai?ia?? «Aeieia?y ethaeeie» (1993 ?. i.Eooeuee); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Ethaeeie ? aoiin: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue» ( 1994 ?. i.
Naaanoiiieue); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «No/ania aoiai?oa?ia
ina?oa: noai ? ia?niaeoeae» ( 1996 ?. i.*a?i?aoe?); i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa: oaeoi? na?oiai?
?ioaa?aoe??» ( 1997 ?. i.*a?i?aoe?); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«Niuneu eoeueoo?u» ( 1997 ?. i.Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Eiioeaiooaeuei? i?iaeaie iiaea?i?caoe?? aeui? ina?oe (1998
?., i.Aeiiaoeuee); III a?inoa?ieo /eoaiiyo «Aeiae?eey ? ie» (1998 ?.,
i.Eooeuee). Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieeaaeai? a iniiao
i?iaaaeaieo naeoi?ii o?einio?? ? nioe?ieia?? aoiino oa iaoe?? ?inoeoooo
o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee nioe?ieia?/ieo (ianiaeo ?
aenia?oieo) aeine?aeaeaiue ii aeyaeaiith noaio oa ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee
eiai eia?eo oa no?oeoo?o. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a (a iaaeao yeeo aeae?eaii 10 i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 387
noi??iiie, c ieo 363 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo ? 24 noi??iee nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, yeee iae?/o? 303 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? noi?ioethaai? iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe:
iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeai?o oaie, ?ice?eoi ?? ca»ycie c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie, aecia/aii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, aeacaii
yeei niiniaii ii?eethaeiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ?icae?e? 1 «Eoeueoo?ieia?/iee eiioaeno aoooy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
ni?eueiio» aeie?aieaii ??ci? no?oeoo?i? ??ai? nioe?oio, i?iaiae?ciaaii
niaoeeo?eo nioe?aeueieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei, iaa?oioiaaii
«??aiicia/i?noue» on?o noa? aoooy a aoiiaaiac?, aeine?aeaeaii
aoiieia?/i? iiaeeeaino? iia?oi?o o?einionueeeo a/aiue, ye
iaoiaeieia?/ii? aace eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai iiina?aaeeoaaiiy ?noi?e/iiai
iinooio ethaenoaa. Cie?aia iieacaii, ui eia?/iei iane?aeeii iaioth/iai
?icoi?iiy ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ye ?aaeueiino?, ui aeaoa?i?io?oueny
yeeiinue iniiaiiieiaeiei i?eioeeiii, ? eiinoaoaoe?y ?aeaioe/iino? ?
oioiaeiino? an?o ??ai?a nioe?oio, ?o iiaieeai? «i?ici?ino?» aeey
i?ciaiiy aiane?aeie oiai, ui nai i?ioean i?ciaiiy aeyaey?oueny i?inoi
?icai?oaiiyi anueiai ci?noo a?iioace, iieeaaeaii? a iniiao oeueiai
i?eioeeio. Caaaeaiiy eeoa a oiio, uia c?iaeoe oeth eiioeaioe?th
eia?/iith e oi?iaeueii ianoia?a/eeaith. Aeey Aaaaey, iai?eeeaae, oeeei
i?eioeeiii aoa aioo??oi?e aeoo, E.Ia?ena – niin?a ae?iaieoeoaa, yeee
aecia/a? an? noi?iie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae.

Iiaia ?aae?caoe?y iaaiiai i?eioeeio a noni?eueiiio aooo? ii?iaeaeo?
oyaeaiiy i?i e?iaoeue ?noi???. I?aeoe/ii an? aeaeaoi? ?noi?eee,
?noi??inioe Iiaiai /ano na?aeiii /e iaona?aeiieaii aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui
ethaenoai ia? caaa?oaiiy, e?iaoeue; eeoa a oaeiio aeiaaeeo aiii ia?
niene. sseui ae i?eionoeoe, ui ?noi??y ?icaeaaoeiaoueny iane?i/aiii, oi
oea icia/a? «iiaaio iane?i/aii?noue», yea ia ia? nieneo: ?noi??y
?ooaoeiaoueny a i?eoaee; oea — /aniaa iane?i/aiii-iiaaia ?icai?oaiiy.
Oiio-oi Aaaaeue, iai?eeeaae, aaaaea?, ui ethaenoai aeinyaa? nieneo
(iaoe) a ?aeaaeueiiio ao?aeoaciiio noni?euenoa? ? a oaeee niin?a
caaa?oo? na?e ?icaeoie. Oaeoe/ii oaeeo aeniiae?a aeioiaeeoue ? E.Ia?en.
C eiai iiceoe??, ao?aeoacia noni?euenoai ? eeoa iaeiei ?c aoai?a o
?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe?? ? c iaieio/?noth ia?aeaea a iiaa eiioi?noe/ia
noni?euenoai, a yeiio aoaeooue ae??oai? an? iniiai? aeeoo?a? i?iaeaie
ethaeeie ? ethaenoaa: caaeiaieai? an? iio?aae, anoaiiaeaia nioe?aeueia
ni?aaaaeeea?noue ? ??ai?noue, noai?ai? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo an?o
nooi?nieo nee eiaeiiai ?iaeea?aea oiui. Aea ae oea oaeoe/ii icia/a?, ui
?noi??y ?icaeoeo ethaeeie i?eeoea aei naiai eia?/iiai e?ioey, iine?eueee
an? ne?eueee-iaaoaeue nooo?a? ethaenuee? caaaeaiiy ae??oaii.

sse aa/eii inieneaiiy noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie ? oeea?e?caoe?? ia
iiaea aacoaaoenue eeoa ia ?aoe?iiae?noe/ieo eiioeaioe?yo, a iniia? yeeo
— ?icai?oaiiy canaaeie/iai i?eioeeio, ui aeaoa?i?io? an? noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie. O?oaeiiu? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
aaaaoueio e?a?i coiiaeai? naia iioe?aiiyi i?eioeeio ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaei??? c? noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa ia aanue nioe?aeueiee
i?aai?ci. Aeey ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco oa ?ioeo e?a?i nioe?ae?noe/ii?
nenoaie oaeei anai?iieeath/ei i?eioeeiii aoea ?aeay ??aiino?.
Caaacia/oth/e ii??aiyii aa?aioiaaia ?nioaaiiy aeey an?o /eai?a
noni?euenoaa iacaeaaeii a?ae ?oiuei? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, oiaoi
aoaeoeaii a?aeoai?thth/e aanue niaeo? oeo a?aeiinei, ye? o aocueeiio
cia/aii? neiaa ? iathoue aeania iacao «nioe?aeuei?», i?eioeei ??aiino?,
iioe?aiee oaea ? ia noa?o aeiiii?ee, noaa /e ia iaea?eueoei aaeueiii ??
?icaeoeo. Oea e aeaoa?i?ioaaei iiyao nii/aoeo oaeiai oaiiiaia ye
«ia?aaoaeiaa», a iio?i ? ?iciaae N?N? ye aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, caniiaaii?
ia iaaeanoeaeo aeey ia? i?eioeeiao ooieoe?iioaaiiy. sse ae?oao
e?aei?noue iiaeia iaaanoe i?eeeaae ?icaeoeo eai?oae?noe/ieo e?a?i aei
ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a OO noi??//y, aea anaioiiiei i?eioeeiii
ooieoe?iioaaiiy noni?euenoaa aoea aeioe?euei?noue, ianaiia?aae —
aeiiii?/ia.

Ia aeiaaeeiai iaei??th c iniiaieo nooi?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, i?i yea oae aaaaoi nueiaiaei? eaaeooue ?
ieoooue, a?aeiiee aiae?enueeee eoeueoo?ieia A.Aaeeia? iaceaa?
anoaiiaeaiiy iaaii? ??aiiaaae i?ae nioe?aeueiith ? aeiiii?/iith noa?ith.

Aei oiai ae caiia oeea?e?caoe?y i?eiee ia aoea /eiinue anaioiiiei.
?aaeueii ?nioaaee e ?niothoue ie?ai? noni?euenoaa, ye? nooo?ai
a?ae??ciythoueny iaeia a?ae iaeiiai nai?i nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei
ono?i?i, iie?oe/iei eaaeii, eoeueoo?ith, aeooiai?noth oiui (? ye? ia
iiaeia iiynieoe yeeiinue iaeiei i?eioeeiii, ia aiaaeath/e a aano?aeoia
oai?aoecoaaiiy ? ia ca?aeithth/e i?ciaiiy).

Oaeei /eiii ye iieacaea noni?eueii-?no?e/ia i?aeoeea,
aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae oa noni?euenoa i?eiee ia aeeaaea?oueny a
?aiee oe?ea?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo. ?noi??y ethaenueeeo a?aae?a,
iiioeyoe?e ?icai?oa?oueny o e?eueeio ??aiicia/ieo «iaaeieeoi?o»
na?aaeiaeuao — i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/iiio, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio,
?noi?eei-iie?oe/iiio oiui, ye? aeoai?ththoue iaaio eoeueoo?io
?aaeuei?noue.

Aeniiaeii c aeeeaaeaiiai iiaeia aooe oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui nioe?oi
aaoa?iaaiiee ia eeoa a eeaniaiio, ?ae?a?eiiio aai
aea?aeaaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiio ieai?, a ? c oi/ee ci?o aioo??oiuei?
no?oeoo?e: ooo ae?thoue i?eiaeii? aeaa eeane caeiiii??iinoae — caeiie
noni?euenoaa oa caeiie ni?eueiio. O iaoiaeieia?/iiio ?icoi?ii? oaeee
i?aeo?ae icia/a? aeciaiiy niiniao aoooy ethaeae aai ?oiuei? eoeueoo?e
noanoaioe?iiaeueiei /eiieeii oeea?e?caoe?eiiai iinooio ethaenoaa, a
eaoaai??th aoooy eiai aaeaeaaoiith iiynithaaeueiith ia?aaeeaiith.
Na?oiaeyaeii-iaoiaeieia?/ia iiaecia oaeiai i?aeoiaeo — o aeciaii? oiai,
ui «na?o ia? aace?/ oeyo?a», ioaea i?ciaaaoe eiai iiaeia ca aeiiiiiaith
aaaaoueio, iaa?oue aeueoa?iaoeaieo, i?ioa ??aiicia/ieo i?aeoiae?a.
Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia — oea iai?i/oae ieanoe/ia e caeaoia aei iane?i/aiieo
aa??aoe?e ii?aeiaiiy ia»?eoeaiiai oa noa»?eoeaiiai, yea iiaeia c?icoi?oe
o?eueee o eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo. I?ioa iienaoe eiai yeeenue
??ciiaeae — icia/a? iaoe iaia?aae iaaia oyaeaiiy i?i caaaeueio
noeoii?noue, aei yei? a?i iaeaaeeoue aai yeo a?i ?ai?acaioo? a
ii?aeiaii? c ?ioeie aeaiaioaie. Oiio iaa?oue ca?aeii c iaeeane/iith
iioieia??th, caniiaaiith ia oai??? iiiaeei, inoaii? iiaeooue aooe
aeoeoia/ai? o?eueee ye iaai? «aano?aeoi? nooiino?». Oiae aaaeei ia
aaeaaaoenue aei caaaeueiiai oyaeaiiy i?i aoiin oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia —
iaa?oue eiee ie iiaiaeeiinue ?c aaaeeea?noth e oi?eaeuei?noth eiaeiiai
?o aeyao.

?icoi?iiy oe??? ianoaaeie aeaoa?i?io? c?inoaiiy a aoiieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo cia/ouino? iaeeane/ieo oaiaeaioe?e oa a/aiue
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? o?einio??. Caa?iaiiy aei eaoaai??e «aeeooy»
(Ae?eueoae), «aeeoo?aiai na?oo» (Aonna?eue), «aie? aei aeeooy»
(Oiiaiaaoa? ? I?oeoa) oa ?i., ?acii ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a
o?einionueei? aa?iaiaaoeee aeicaiey? iioe?eoe i?eioeeie iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy ? ia na?o ethaenueei? eoeueoo?e, oai?aoe/ii «acyoe» ? oie
ia?aoe?iiae?ciaaiee «caeeoie», yeee aeieea? caaaeaee a ?aieao
ea?oac?ainueeiai ?ai?acaioaoe?ae?cio. Oi/eith a?aee?eo oaeiai oeio
?aoe?iiaeueiino? ? caeo/aiiy aen?ieia?/ieo oaiiiai?a aei neeaaeo
iiynithth/eo iieiaeaiue. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ii/eia? cae?enithaaoeny
nai???aeia ii?aeiaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo aeey iaoee aioo??oi?o oe?ii?nieo
onoaiiaie (onoaiiaea ia iiooe i?aaeiaoiiai ? ia»?eoeaii ?noeiiiai
ciaiiy, oe?ii?noue iiaecie) c oe?iiinoyie aoiai?noe/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

sse aeniiaie iiaeia neacaoe, ui eoeueoo?ieia?/ia iiaeaeue aoiiaaiaco
a?oioo?oueny ia?aaeon?i ia a?aenooiino? noa»?eo-ia»?eoiiai iieeaaeaiiy a
i?ioean? eiai inyaiaiiy. O oae?e iiaeae? iaaio «?aaa?e?oaoe?th»
iaea?aeo? oiiniiaeyaeaiiy. Naia «?icoiia aa/aiiy» aea? iiaeeea?noue
ni?eeiaoe ?aaeuei?noue, yea «aea?oueny», «a?aee?eaa?oueny» ? i?ciaiiy
yei? cae?enith?oueny ia o?eueee /a?ac aeoeai?noue iiaeyaeo noa»?eoa
i?ciaiiy, a /a?ac aeoeai?noue «ni?yiiaaii?» ia iueiai ?aaeueiino?.
?aaeuei?noue — ye «aiein», «iieeee», «caa?oaiiy». Aaaeeeai oaeiae ? oa,
ui a i?ioean inyaiaiiy aoooy oa noaiiaeaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
ni?eueiinoae ? iaeii/anii ? ii?iaeaeaiiyi, ? canoinoaaiiyi iaaieo
niene?a. Oea icia/a?, ui aeey eiaeiiai aoiino ia? ?nioaaoe naiy iiaeaeue
eiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai iiina?aaeeoaaiiy. Ia iiaeia c?icoi?oe iaeio
eoeueoo?a a nieneiaiio eiae? ?ioi?.

O ?icae?e? 2 «Aoiiaaiac: ci?no ? oi?iioai?aiiy» aeine?aeaeaii noaae??,
/eiieee oa iaoai?cie o?ainoi?iaoe?? aoooy ethaenoaa, i?iaiae?ciaaii
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i? oi?ie ?nioaaiiy aoiin?a. Iieacaii, ui nueiaiaei?oi?
aaaaoi/enaeuei? oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? ni?iae ae??oeoe ?ac ? iacaaaeaee
i?iaeaie aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iathoue nai?th iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith ?o ae?yeuei?nia «ciyooy» ca ?aooiie ?icaeoeo oa oi?o?eaoe??
inoaiiuei?. I?ioa aeoiaey/e o?eueee c ae?yeueiino?, aaaeei iiynieoe an?
eie?c?? noni?eueii-aeiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, a iniaeeai o?, ye? noinothoueny
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a, iine?eueee ?o oe?iea aa??aaaeuei?noue,
?iaeoue iaeaea iaiiaeeeaei aeyaeaiiy yeeoinue iniiaiiieiaeieo,
aeaoa?i?iaioieo caeiiii??iinoae. Oiio aac e?eoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy ?ie?
oa i?noey ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino? a iinooi? ethaenoaa, ni?aa?aeianaiiy
?? c eaoaai???th aoooy, ia iiaeeeai noai?eoe a?eueo-iaio aaeaeaaoio
?aae?yi ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy eiioeaioe?th aoiiaaiaco. Ana oa, c /ei
ethaeeia neeaaea? aeeao ?aei?noue, a cia/eoue ? oa a nai?e ethaeei?, ui
iaa?aeae?eueia a?ae ia?, ia caaaeaee iiaea noaoe i?aaeiaoii
ae?yeuei?niiai a?aeiioaiiy. «Ia iiaea» ia a o?ce/iiio niene?, a a oiio,
— ui ae?yeuei?nia a?aeiioaiiy ?ic?ooo? ye?ac oeth aaciina?aaeith
naiioioiaei?noue ?iaeea?aea, caiaey/e ?? eeoa aei iaaii? ae?yeuei?nii?
ooieoe??, ui iaeaea caaaeaee ia? nai?th ia?niaeoeaith o?aa?/i? nthaeaoe
a eiai aeeoo? aai ?nioaaii? iaaiiai ia?iaeo, oi/ ?ieiee oea ? aaaeeeaei
/eiieeii aoiiaaiaco.

Oiio eiioeaioe?y aoiiaaiaco ye iaaiiai niiniao aoooy (eoeueoo?a) iiaeiia
ia iao iiaeyae aeoiaeeoe c aecenoaioe?eiiai ?icoi?iiy ethaeeie. Aeey
inoaiiueiai oa?aeoa?ia e?eoe/ia iiaeieaiiy ?aaeoeoe?? ethaeeie aei
noa»?eoa ae?yeueiino? ? — a iiceoeaiiio ieai? — inieneaiiy ethaeeie a
yeino? aeeoo?aiai na?oo. Oaea ?icoi?iiy ethaeeie caaea? nooi?nii ?ioo
iioieia?th noni?eueiiai aoooy, i?ae oa, yea iaea i?noea a ?aieao
ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo. A i?e, eeth/iaei ?eaiaioii ? iaeaaaeeea?oith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith ethaenueeiai aoooy noa? ia ae?y (ae?yeuei?niee aeo), a
ni?aaoooy. I?noea naiaiaee ?aoeaen?? caeia? ?noi?e/i?noue (eoeueoo?ia
ni?aa?aeianai?noue), ?icoi?iiy.

Aeoiaey/e c aeaoa?i?iaoe?? aooo?aeo ?aae?e i?iaiae?ciaaii
aeiae?yeuei?niee, i?aaeiaoii-ae?yeuei?niee oa
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiioi?eaoeaiee aoaie aoiiaaiaco. Aioo??oi?i ci?noii
aeiae?yeuei?niiai aoaio aoiiaaiaco ? eiinoeoothaaiiy aaee/acii?
??ciiiai?oiino? aooo?aeo oi?i ia iniia? a?aenooiino? ?aeeii?
(noa»?eo-ia»?eoii?) ia?aaeeaie na?oia?aeiioaiiy. Ia oeueiio aoai?
??ciiiai?ooy aoi?/ieo oi?i ? aene?aeii ia?ic?eaiiai ca»yceo c
iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai, yea aaaaea?oueny ?iaeeiei. Oiaoi
nioe?ieoeueoo?ia iiaeaeue noaiiaeaiiy ethaeeie oeueiai ia??iaeo ia
aeoiaeeea ca iaae? aaiethoe?eii-aaeaioeaiiai oeio ? iaea nai?th iniiaith
aaciina?aaei? aeeoo?a? nienee, ni?yiiaai? ia aa?iii?caoe?th i?e?iaee ?
nioe?aeueiino? ye oiiae aoooy ethaeeie o na?o?, oa ui a?eueo aaaeeeai —
caoaa?aeaiiy iaea?eueo aeeoo?caeaoieo aoiin?a. A aeiae?yeuei?ni?e
iiaeae? na?oia?aeiioaiiy a?aenooiy oa niaoe?ae?caoe?y ciaeiaeo nenoai,
oie nueiaiaei?oi?e iiae?e ia na?o ciae?a ? na?o ?a/ae, yeee noaa ye
oiiaith i?ia?ano ethaenoaa, oae ? iniiaiei /eiieeii caoaeaiiy aa??aio?a
?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe?? — aeaeeaaee o?eueee o? aoiine, ye? iiaee iaee?aua
i?anoinoaaoe iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua aei nai?o iio?aa.

?aaeeeaeueiee ia?aai?io a aoiiaaiac? aaciina?aaeiuei iia»ycaiee c
i?ia?anii cia?yaeue i?aoe?, ca?iaeaeaiiyi i?iieneiaino?, aeeeth/aiiyi
aaeeeeo ian ethaeae c caiea?ianueeiai i?e?ieinio, oi?ioaaiiyi
«aei?yieaiiai», o?iae?nonueeiai na?oini?eeiaiiy (yea ciaoiaeeoue nai?
aecia/aiiy o iiiyoo? i?ia?ano) ? ye iane?aeie — ia?ao?ae a?ae einiieia??
aei ?noi??? «i?aeei?aiiy» ethaeeiith i?e?iaee. I?e?iaei?i iane?aeeii
oeueiai aoaio noaei «aeieaaiiy» aoi?/ii? niaoeeo?ee c ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, aeo?niaiiy ?? a noa?o, ia?o ca ana, neiaie?/ieo
oi?i. A?aeaoaa?oueny ianaiia?aae i?ioaiaoe?y ni?eeiyooy iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, caie? (aeieea? i?iaeaia Aaouee?aueie, ia?o?ioecio).
Ao?aoeaoe na?e nae?aeueiee ci?no, aiia noa? i?inoi oa?eoi???th,
aaia?ao?/iei eaiaeoaooii, oi?aa?naeueiei i?aaeiaoii i?aoe?, yeee a
iniaeeaeo oi?iao ae?yeueiino? ao?a/a? nai? anacaaaeuei?, einiieia?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Anacaaaeueiei noa? ?aeeia — noaaeaiiy ethaeeie aei
i?e?iaee ia iniia? iaiao?aeiino?, iio?aae. A iioiineoieia?/iiio ieai?
oaia? oaea ia ?aei?noue ethaeeie ? i?e?iaee, a i?aeei?aiiy ethaeeiith
i?e?iaee aenooia? ye ci?noiaia aeeoo?aa iiae?y. O i?e na?o iiaa?oa?oueny
aei ethaeeie eeoa nai?ie ooee?oa?ii cia/eieie noi?iiaie, noa? i?enooiiei
aeey ?? noa»?eoeaieo aieea?a.

Caeaaaeiny a ia?aae ethaenoaii a?aee?eaathoueny iaiaiaaeai? iiaeeeaino?
aeey noai?aiiy iiaiai, iicaaaeaiiai i?e?iaeii? iaaeineiiaeino? na?oo, a
yeiio a?oaeuei?, a?ieia?/ii coiiaeai? iio?aae noaiiaeyoue ieae/ee,
iacia/iee ?o i?ioa?ie. Aieiaia ae — caaacia/eoe ?eooaeueii-i?anoeaeia
niiaeeaaiiy, a yeiio ia a?aei?io a?ae a?oaeueiiai i?iaeoeoe ciioothoueny
ia o?ce/ii, a ii?aeueii ? c?inoaiiy yeiai i?aeoe/ii ia ia? iaae. Ia oeth
noa?o ca iiaeo /an?a i?eiaaea? a?eueoa /anoeia aeo?ao ?a/iaeie oa
aia?a?? — oeo naieo aeo?ao, no??iea c?inoaiiy yeeo ? noaei iaei??th c
aaciina?aaei?o i?e/ei e?eciaeo yaeu o i?e?iaeiiio aeiae?ee?, a oaeiae
i?aeaea?aeaaieo ? i?aeaoe/ieo eiioe?eo?a, eieii?aeueieo caaaithaaiue,
na?oiaeo a?ei ca ia?aae?e noa? aieeao. Aeiaeaii aei oeueiai ? ?icea?o
oaeeo yaeu ye ?aneci oa ian?iia?noai (ae?yeuei?nia ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?y
ethaenoaa) — i?eeo/aiiy «iaiiaiioe?iieo» oa «aa?aa?nueeeo» ia?iae?a aei
«aeaa» oeea?eiaaiiai niiniao aoooy.

Ua iaeio nooo?ao o?ainoi?iaoe?th niiniao naiai aoooy ia?aaeeaa?
ethaenoai ? a oiiaao ?oi?iaoe?eiiai noni?euenoai, iaaeeaeaiiy yeiai
i?iaiicothoue an? ne?eueee-iaaoaeue cia/i? cao?aei? oai?aoeee. Noiniaii
i?iaiic?a oeo ci?i, ye? ?ioi?iaoe?eia noni?euenoai caii/aoeiao? a
aoiiaaiac?, oi ?o iiaeia oiiaii ?icae?eeoe ia iioei?noe/i? oa
ianei?noe/i?. «Iioei?noe/ia» iiaeaeue iaeaooueiai ethaenoaa —
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ae?iaie/eo nee,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?, iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?eae ? i?ei??oao?a,
oi?i iie?oe/iiai oi?aae?iiy, ?oo?eieo nee nioe?aeueieo ci?i,
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai — ?icaeyaea? ye iniiao aaaaonoaa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
eoeueoo?.

I?ioa ao?eaiiy ?ioi??iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a on? noa?e ethaenueeiai
aeeooy iiaea iaoe nai?i iane?aeeii ? noai?aiiy noaiaea?oeciaaiiai oa
?iaioeciaaiiai nioe?oio aeey yeiai ??ciiiai?oi?noue eoeueoo?ieo
aecia/aiue ? aaeueiii ?icaeoeo. Oiaoi ?nio? ?aaeueia ia?niaeoeaa
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai noni?euenoaa oioae?oa?iiai oeio, aeey yeiai
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueia niaoeeo?ea ia ia? i?yeiai cia/aiiy.

Aooo?aa aeie?aieaiiy aoai?a aoiiaaiaco aea? iiaeeea?noue ?icaeyiooe
iaaiee aoiin ia o?eueee ye o?ce/io iano ianaeaiiy yei?nue e?a?ie, a ye
niaaeei?ii?noue ? ianooii?noue nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ni?eueiio
?aeeiiiioiaeaeainueei? i?ea?iaeueiino? ? aoiioa?eoi??aeueiiai
iiiaoeaiiy: ?iaeo, ieaiai?, ia?iaeiino?, iaoe??. A ca»yceo c oeei
aeieea? i?iaeaia ye oai?aoe/iiai iiina?aaeeoaaiiy oeeo oaiiiai?a, oae ?
?o ni?aa?aeianaiiy i?ae niaith, a iniaeeai, iiiyoue ?iaeo, ieaiai?,
ia?iaeiino?, iaoe?? c iaeiiai aieo, c iiiyooyi aoiino — c ?ioiai. Iaaii?
yniino? a oeueiio ieoaii? iiee ui iaia? i? na?aae aeine?aeiee?a, i?
na?aae iie?oee?a.

Oe? oa ?io? o?oaeiiu? eaoaai??aeueiiai aecia/aiiy, ia iao iiaeyae,
iia»ycai? c oei, ui a ?yaeyinueeiio noni?euenoaiciaanoa? iiiyooy «aoiin»
aoei i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?, a an? eiai nooo?a? iciaee i?eienoaaeenue
iaoe?? ye ?noi?e/i?e ni?eueiino? ethaeae, ui aeieeea ia iniia?
oi?ioaaiiy ?aeiino? aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, ni?eueiino? oa?eoi???, iiae oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai neeaaeo.

sse oaiiiai eiaeiee aoiin — oea niaoeeo?/ia oi?ia ?nioaaiiy ethaenueeiai
?iaeo, nioe?ieoeueoo?iee i?aai?ci ia iaai?e noaae?? oeea?e?caoe?eii?
c??eino?: iaoe??, ia?iaeiino?, ieaiai?, ?iaeo. Oiio eiai iiaeia
aecia/eoe ye no?eeo noeoii?noue ethaeae, ui ?noi?e/ii neeaeanue ia
iaai?e oa?eoi???, aieiae?? ni?eueieie ?enaie /a oiio /ene? e ?aniaeie/,
noaa?eueieie iniaeeainoyie eoeueoo?e /aeeth/ath/e ? iiao/ oa
ineoieia?/iiai neeaaeo, na?aeiia nai?? ?aeiino? oa a?aei?iiino? a?ae
?ioeo iiae?aieo ooai?aiue /aieiae?? naiina?aeii?noth/. Ioaea aei ?en,
ye? neeaaeathoue ye?ni? iciaee aoiino, a?aeiinyony: iiaa, ia?iaeia
ienoaoeoai,cae/a?, ia?yaee, o?aaeeoe??, ii?ie iiaaae?iee, cae/ee oa ?i.
Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui aeiaeia ?c ia?ae?/aieo ?en ia ? aeaoa?i?iaioii
aoiiciaeiaith. Naia a noeoiiino? aiie neeaaeathoue iaaio aoi?/io
eoeueoo?o. Noaiiaeaiiy aoiino a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia? ?aeiino? niiniao
aoooy iaaieo ni?eueiio. Oiio a eia?/ii ei?aeoiiio a?aeiioaii? iiiyooy
«aoiin» ? caaaeueiicia/eiei ii a?aeiioaiith aei an?o /ioe?ueio noaae?e
eiai c??eino? a inoaii? -(noaae??) — ? /anoeiaei cao/aiiyi, i?iyaii
oeueiai «caaaeueiiai», «oe?eiai». sseui i?eeiyoe oea oaa?aeaeaiiy noa?
yniith iaei?aeoi?noue oaeeo ae?ac?a ye «i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie»,
«iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia aaoiiii?y», «iaoe?iiaeueia iaioeia»,
«iaoe?iiaeueia aea?aeaaa». A oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?eueo i?e?iaeiuei aoei a
aiai?eoe, i?i «i?aeaoi?/i? a?aeiineie», «aoiieoeueoo?io aaoiiii?th»,
«iie?aoi?/io aea?aeaao» oiui.

?noi?e/ii ia?oeie ni?eueiinoyie ethaeae, ye? oaea ianee a nia? iaai?
?aeiino? oa a?aei?iiino? nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae??, aoee i?e?iaei? e?iai?
?iaeeii? ia»?aeiaiiy — ??ae, eeai. Ia i?ioeaaao a?ieia?/i?e ni?eueiino?
?an, ?o ?icia?ooy ? ?acoeueoaoii a?aei?iiino? ni?eueieo oyaeaiue,
a??oaaiue, ?eooae?a, cae/a?a oiui. Aiie ia o?eueee ia»?aeioaaee, aea e
iaaeaaaee no?eeino? ?iaeo, eeaio, aenooiaee iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy
eieaeoeaii? na?aeiiino?. Ii i??? oiai, ye a?aeaoaaeinue ci?oaiiy ?iae?a,
eeai?a, iniiaieie /eiieeaie noaa?eueiino? noaaaee ni?euei?noue
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, cae/a?a. A i?ioean? aca?iiae?? ?iae?a, eeai?a,
ye? ia»?aeioaaeenue a ieaiaia, neeaaeaeenue iia? cae/a?, a??oaaiiy,
cae/ee, ii?ie, oe?iiino?, caeeaaeeeenue iniiae ni?eueii? iiae. Ieaiaia
aoee oaea a?eueo /?oei iia»ycai? c iaaiith oa?eoi???th, caoeuaee ??,
iaee aioo??oith oi?iaeueio i?aai?caoe?th. C ia?aoiaeii aei neioa?noaa ?
caiea?ianoaa c»yaey?oueny ? iaaiee ainiiaea?nueeee ono??e. Ana oea
ia»?aeioaaei, noeioethaaei ?icaeoie aoi?/ieo ?en aeaii? ni?eueiino?,
oi?ioaaiiy ?? ie?ai?oiino? a?aeiinii non?ae?a. Oae oi?ioaaeanue
iniaeeaa, oa?aeoa?ia aeey aeaii? ni?eueiino? eoeueoo?a ye niin?a ??
aoooy. Oea icia/a?, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ane aoi?/i?noue ? aa??aoeaiith
?aaeuei?noth, ai aoi?/i? ni?eueiino? ca»ycai? c ?icaeoeii eoeueoo?e ?
neiaie?cothoue iaai? ?? aoaie.

Ci?oaiiy ieaiai i?eaiaeeei aei iiyae iiai? ni?eueiino? — ia?iaeiino?,
yea neiaie?co? a?eueo aenieo eoeueoo?o noni?euenoaa. Oea a?aeiineoueny ?
aei iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e (cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, aeeoei, iaeya), ?
aeooiaii? (cae/a?, ii?ie, oe?iiino?, i?oe, a??oaaiiy, ia?iaeia
oai?/?noue), oae caaii? oieueeei?ii? eoeueoo?e. Oi?ioaaiith ia?iaeiino?
ni?ey? a?eueo o?niee ca»ycie c oa?eoi???th, a?eueo /?oea i?aai?caoe?eia
no?oeoo?a noni?euenoaa, ?icaeioo? iie?oe/i? oi?ie, ye? aeoea?cothoue ?
no?oeoo?othoue ni?eeoaaiiy ethaeae. A i?ioean? eiinie?aeaoe??
ia?iaeiinoae ia aac? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo oa ?ioeo ca»yce?a
i?ae ieie neeaaeathoueny iaoe??. Aiie ia»?aeiothoue aaeee? iane ethaeae,
i?aaenoaaeythoue iiaee aoai a ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e noni?euenoaa. Iaea?eueo
aaaeeeaei /eiieeii ?o ?icaeoeo /anoi noa? noai?aiiy naiino?eii? neeueii?
aea?aeaae. Oi?ie, oaii, ianooaa oa ?ioaineai?noue eiinie?aeaoe??
aoi?/ieo a?oi a ?aeeio iaoe?th aecia/a? iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa, yea iiaea
aooe o?aaeeoe?iiae?nonueea, iiaea?i?nonueea, a?ae?iaeaeoaaeueia, — aai
ae ii?aeiaiiy e?eueeio ae?o /e iine?aeiaia ci?ia ?o.

I?ioa ia an? ia?iaeiino? iaia»yceiai o?ainoi?iothoueny a iaoe??. C
a?eueoa /ei 4 oen. aoiin?a, ye? ?niothoue a na?o?, eeoa aeecueei 800
«aeinyaee» ca aeaieie THIANEI, noaae?? iaoe??. ?aooa ia?aaoaa? ia
aeiiaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? ?icaeoeo — o oi?i? ia?iaeiinoae ? ieaiai. E??i
oiai aoaeue-yea ni?iaa noai?eoe «iiao» iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeaioe/i?noue —
oea ua e iie?oe/ia aeoe?y c iio?aaith ia?ae?i?oe aaiiie?oe/io ea?oo aai
ci?ieoe no?oeoo?o iie?oe/ieo ?aaeei?a ? aea?aeaa.

Oaeei /eiii aoi?/i?noue oea ia yeeenue ie?aiee aoai ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ieo
ni?eueiinoae, aai iaaiee ?noi?e/iee ?o ??ciiaeae, a ye?nia
nai???aei?noue eoeueoo?e, yea a a?eueo?e aai iaio?e i??? i?eoaiaiiy an?i
?noi?e/iei ni?eueiinoyi ethaeae: ?iaeai, eeaiai, ieaiaiai, ia?iaeiinoyi,
iaoe?yi ? yea ye aeeoo?aee aeina?ae ia?iaeo ia?aaea?oueny ?c iieie?iiy a
iieie?iiy.

O ?icae?e? 3 «Aeia?ae ethaenueeiai aoooy ye eoeueoo?ieia?/ia
?aaeuei?noue» aeine?aeaeo?oueny aoi?/ia aecia/ai?noue aeina?aeo
ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, aiae?co?oueny eiai ci?no, /eiieee oa
iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy, iiiyo?eii-eaoaai??aeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee, i?iaeaie
ae?aaeaiiy ye aoiiciaeo, aooo?aa eiioaenoi?noue aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ethaeeie.

A ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui iieeaaeaiiy aeina?aeo ethaenueeiai aoooy a
iniiao iiyniaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a aea? iiaeeea?noue «acyoe»
aoi?/i?noue o anueiio ?? ??ciiia?oo?, aaaaoia?aiiino? oa iaiiaoi?iino?.

O ?aaeyineiio noni?euenoaiciaanoa? ethaenueeee aeina?ae ?icaeyaeaany
ia?aaaaeii o aiinaieia?/iiio ieai? ye eiiiiiaio i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai caaacia/o?oueny aaciina?aaei?e
ca»ycie nenoaie ciaiiy c ia»?eoii i?ciaiiy. Aiaeii/an iaaecae/aeii
ciaiooaaeanue aeenoaioe?y i?ae aeina?aeii ? i?aeoeeith, ui ni?e/eithaaei
/anii ?o ioioiaeiaiiy, «iaeeaaeaiiy» iaeia ia iaeia. C»?aeioaaeueiei
«i?noeii» i?ae ieie aaaaeaeanue «?iaioa», «ae?yeuei?noue».

A ?noi??? o?einio?? oeth i?iaeaio ?icaeyaeaee oaae ia?aaaaeii a
eiai?oeaiiio ieai? — aeina?ae oeoia/eee ye i?ciaaaeueiee aenia?aiaio,
yeee aai i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, aai caia?a/o? oo /e ?ioo a?iioaco. Eeoa ie?ai?
aeine?aeieee ?icoi?ee i?ae iei iaaio ineoieoeueoo?io ?aaeuei?noue, yea
aeaoa?i?io? ? i?ciaaaeueio ? i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie oa niin?a
?? aoooy.

Oei /anii, ye iieacaea any noni?eueii-?noi?e/ia i?aeoeea, aeina?ae
ethaeeie ia? yne?aai ae?aaeai? ?ene nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? oa ineoieia?/ii?
?aaeueiino? ? ye oaea iiaea aooe nooo?aith oa?aeoa?enoeeith nioe?oio.
Nueaiaei? ana a?eueoiai aeciaiiy iaaoaa? aeoiea, ui ui no?eaeiaaei
ia/aeii anacaaaeueii? ?noi??? e?a?i ? aea?aeaa ? «ethaeeia eoeueoo?ia».

C iiaeyaeo neacaiiai aeyaey?oueny iiaeeeaei aeyaeoe iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? aeey
eiaeiiai noni?euenoaa iioieia?/i? oeie aoi?/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
ethaeeie, caniiaai? ia ?o niaoeeo?/iiio aeina?ae? aoooy. Aei ia?oiai
oeio iaeaaeaoue ethaee, ye? ao?aoeee naith aoi?/io ?aeaioe/i?noue
aiane?aeie ?ic?eao ca»yce?a c eoeueoo?ith naiai ia?iaeo ye iaaiei
niiniaii aoooy. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith oeueiai yaeua nueiaiaei? ?
o?aai?caoe?y na?aaeiaeua ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy, cae?eniaia iica
eoeueoo?ieie nieneaie iaaiiai ia?iaeo; aiia i?aaeth? niaoeeo?eo aoooy
iaaiiai aoiino (ui aai ia ona?aeiieth?oueny, aai, iaaiaee, na?aeiii
noeioeth?oueny, ye oea aoei a N?N?, ?ioeo nioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao —
ca?aaee ?aae?caoe?? ?aea? ceeooy iaoe?e /e ca?aaee ?aae?caoe?? ?aea?
«ieaaeeueiiai eacaia» — a NOA). Iaaiee ??ciiaeae
nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo noai?th? oae caaiee aoiiia?a?iaeueiee
oei ?aeaioe/iino? — i?ii?aeia no?oeoo?a aoi?/ieo i???ioaoe?e iniae, yea
noaea iioe?aia aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a oa iiooaeii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii? ia?aae? no/aniino?; aiia ia? nai?th iniiaith ao?aoo
aoaeue-yeiai a?ae/oooy nii??aeiaiino? c iaaiith eoeueoo?ith.
Nai???aei?noue o?aoueiai oeio iieyaa? a oiio, ui iio?aaa naia a aoi?/i?e
aaeaioe/iino? iaiiaae cieea? acaaae?, a iaoii?noue iai?oanoo?oueny ?ioa,
iicaaoi?/ia ni?eueiioa ye iiiceoe?y ia?o?e. Oea einiiiie?oe/iee oei, ui
i???ioo?oueny ia oae caai? caaaeueiiethaenuee? aa?oino?, aaaaeath/e
aoi?/i?noue iciaeith na?oiaeyaeii? i?ia?ioe?eiino?. sse aeniiaie ne?ae
eiinoaooaaoe, ui aeciaiiy aoiiciaeiai? ooieoe?? aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo
icia/a? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oiai oaeoo, ui ethaeeia ? ?nioaaiiy, yea
ia?aaeo? nooiino? (Na?o?).

Aeina?ae ethaenueeiai aeeooy oi?io?oueny aiane?aeie i?aeoe/iiai
a?aeiioaiiy ethaeeie aei na?oo ? eiinoeooth?oueny ye oi?iiy, o?oaeia?
iaae/ee oa i?aena?aeii? ianoaiiaee. A?i ioiieth? ? ii?aeuei? ianoaiiae,
? ii?ie cae/a?aiai i?aaa, ye? ia»?eoeaothoueny a ciai?oi?e ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie. Oea ca?aa?oueny c ?? aoi?/iith iiaaae?ieith, ?aaeaiaioiaaiith
iaaeaie eiie?aoii? ni?eueiioe oa iio?aaaie iianyeaeaiiiai ?nioaaiiy.

Ciaiiy, ye? iia»ycai? c oeei a?aeiioaiiyi, ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi ne?i/aiiiai
oa iniaeeaiai a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noa»?eo?a iaaieo
eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nueeeo oei?a, a oaeiae i?e?iaeieo oa noni?eueieo
oiia, niinia?a nai?? ?aae?caoe??. Eia?/ia no?oeoo?a aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo
ye ooieoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? aae?a? a naaa ianaiia?aae iaoai?cie
aeii?aaeeeaoeaieo, ia?aoeaeniaaieo ??ai?a ethaenueei?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, oiaoi o? ??ai? aoi?/iiai aoooy, ia yeeo
cae?enith?oueny nieneiaa ioe?ithaaiiy ?nioaaiiy. Ca nai?th oi?iith oeae
aeina?ae aenooia? ye iayaia ?iie?oeeoia ciaiiy, yea ia iiaea aooe
i?aaeiaoii e?eoeee. Iiaeia neacaoe, ui aeina?ae aeeooy — oea ?icoi?iiy
i?e?iaeieo oa nioe?aeueieo oiia, niinia?a a?aeoai?aiiy noni?eueiiai
aoooy ethaeae, yea ? ?aaeueiei i?ioeanii ?oiueiai aeeooy. ?nioth/a
nioe?iaoi?/ia aecia/ai?noue aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo ooai?th? cia/ii aaaaooo
iae?o?o ioe?ithaaiue ae?enieo iaooaa?a oa cia/aiiy aeey eiie?aoii?
ethaeeie o??? aai ?ioi? iiae??, yaeua, oaeoo i?ae eiai?oeaia,
oai?aoeei-i?ciaaaeueia e?eoa??aeuei?noue. Aeey ie?aiiai ?iaeea?aea ?o
cia/ou?noue iieyaa? a ni?aa?aeianaii? ia c o??th aai ?ioith nenoaiith
ciaiue, aeiaiaoaie ?aeaieia?/ii? eiioeaioe??, a c ?aaeueieie iio?aaaie,
a oiio /ene? ? nai?? ni?eueiioe. Oey aecia/ai?noue noai?th? iniaeeaee
ieano ineoi-eoeueoo?ii? aii???? c oaeeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ye
«aeia?i—cei», «iiaeeea?noue—iaiiaeeea?noue», «aaciaea—iaaaciaea»,
«aaaeeea?noue—iaaaaeeea?noue» ? o.ae. Aieiaia iciaea oe??? aii???? —
caeaoi?noue aenooiaoe iioieia??th ethaenueei? noa»?eoeaiino?, yea caaea?
ai?eciio aeaniiai inieneaiiai ?nioaaiiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ii?i aoooy
oiai /e ?ioiai ia?iaeo. Ioaea, noa?a aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo — oea noa?a
oi?ioaaiiy oa iieeaaeaiiy niene?a no?oeoothth/eo aoi?/ia aoooy, yea
iino?eii ci?ith?oueny.

Nooi?noue ? no?oeoo?a aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo aecia/athoueny oei niiniaii,
yeei oiiae aeeooy ia?aoai?ththoueny a eiai oi?ie ? iaaoaathoue aeey
ethaeeie yeino? aaciina?aaeiuei? ?aaeueiino?. Oaeei oaiiiaiii ?
ia?aaeeaaiiy. O ia?aaeeaaii? aaneoueny naia i?ioeeaaei?noue i?ae
noa»?eoii ? ia»?eoii, yea noaiiaeoue eiinoeoo?oeaio iciaeo oai?aoe/iiai
i?ciaiiy. Aiii ? ia no?eueee ciaiiy i?i ia»?eo, ne?eueee oioiaei?noue c
iei, ia?aaeeaaiiy oe?e?nii? noa»?eoeaii-ia»?eoeaii? ?noeie aeeooy.
Iaea?aeii?oei ??ciiaeaeii ethaenueeiai ia?aaeeaaiiy ? ethaia. Oeae
ca»ycie oi?aa?naeueiee ? ioiieth? aeoaea oe?iea eiei aeeoo?aeo ?aae?e:
a?ae naiai «iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiio» (nai?? e?a?ie, aaouee?aueie) aei
eiie?aoieo in?a ? ?a/ae. I?e/iio ethaia — oea oaeee niin?a ?nioaaiiy
ethaenueei? noa»?eoeaiino?, ca yeiai ?iaeea?ae «ua» /e «aaea» ia iiaea
aai ia oi/a ?icaeyaeaoe iaaeieeoi?e na?o ye ia»?eo naiai aieeao ca
noaiith «iaoa—can?a—?acoeueoao». Ethaia o?nii iia»ycaia c ethaenueeith
o?eani?noth. O?eani?noue caaacia/o? aaciina?aaeiuei-/ooo?aee niin?a
?nioaaiiy ethaenueei? noa»?eoeaiino? ia iniia? ia»?eoeaii? i?enooiino?
ethaeeie a na?o? ii?yae c ?ioeie o?eaie. Aei oiai ae oea — ?noi?e/ii
ia?oee niin?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ethaeeie ye noa»?eoa. Naia o?ei oi?io?
«oaiiiaiaeueiee» na?o ethaenueei? ineo?ee oa ? aeaea?aeii iaaoooy
iaae/ie, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue o ??cieo neooaoe?yo.

Aoiiciaeiaa ooieoe?y aeina?aeo ethaenueeiai aeeooy iiaea inienethaaoenue
? ye aoi?/ia ?aeaioe/i?noue ie?aii? ethaeeie (aaea eoeiny), ? ye
iioieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?nioaaiiy oa iinooio iaaiiai aoiino. Ia?oa
i?iaeaia ?? ae?aaeaiiy oa inyaiaiiy aeaoa?i?io?oueny oei, ui oea —
inieneaiiy aooo?aeo ?aae?e (I?ui ca Aaaaeai), ye? naith iayai?noue
(iayaia aoooy) iaaoaathoue eeoa a oi?i? aeina?aeo ?nioaaiiy, ui ye
ciaiiy ia? iayaia ?iie?oeeoia ooieoe?iioaaiiy (I.Iieai?).

Oiio-oi iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoia ae?aaeaiiy i?iaeaia inyaiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai
aoooy ia?iaeo ye aoiiciaeo ii?ooo?oueny (? ae??oo?oueny) ia a iaoeiaeo
eiioeaioe?yo, o?einionueeeo o?aeoaoao oa ?i., a a oai?/ino? iiao?a,
ooaeiaeiee?a, eiiiiceoi??a, ioceeaio?a. ? oeei, iaaooue, iiynith?oueny e
oa, ui i?ia?aeieeaie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue noathoue
caeaa?eueoiai ia ciai? iie?oeee-?aoe?iiae?noe, a oaae ethaee «oai?/eo
i?ioan?e». C oeueiai iiaeyaeo ci?o cia/iee ?ioa?an yaey? ?oiy
oai?/?noue, eiee aiia ? ia no?eueee iienaiiyi aeaniiai «y»,
naiicia?aaeaiiyi, ne?eueee inyaiaiiyi aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo naiai ia?iaeo
ye noni?eueii-?noi?e/ii? ?aaeueiino?.

?ioa i?iaeaia aeaoa?i?io?oueny oei, ui o ni?eeiyoo? oa ae?aaeaii?
aoiiciaeiai? ooieoe?? aeina?aeo aeeooy ye oe?eiai ia?iaeo oae ? ie?aii?
ethaeeie a iniiao cacae/ae iieeaaea?oueny iaeia aai aeae?eueea yeeoinue
?aaeueieo aai oyaieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Oae, ia aeoieo /anueeeo aaoi??a,
?oi?e ia?iae ? iinoii i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii, oiio ui /aoe ?aeei? c?
neia»yi «ca?aaeai?» i?iaoeueeei aea?aeaaieoeueei-i?aai?caoi?nueeei
aieueiaei ia/aeii. Iieuenueea aooaioe/i?noue a?oioo?oueny ia aeciaii?
iniaeeaiai aeooiaiiai noaio iieye?a ye «eaoeiyi na?aae neia»yi ? neia»yi
na?aae eaoeiyi» oa iniaeeaiai noaoono ?o ye noa»?eo?a oi?iinoo
o?enoeyinoaa (eaoieeoeecio) ia Noiae?. ?in?enuee? neia»yiio?ee
aeiaiaeeee aeiyoeiao ?ieue ?in?? a iiiceoe?? «No?ae -Cao?ae». Aoiiciaeii
Oe?a?ie aaaaoueia no/anieie iie?oeeaie oa ioae?oeenoaie aecia?oueny ??
?ieue ye ?aeiaeueii? eaiee i?ae aa?iiaenueeith oa no?aeiith eoeueoo?aie.

sse aa/eii, ooo oei aoi?/iiai iinooio inieneth?oueny a iaaeao iaaii?
aeii?iaoii? ?ene ?? noa»?eoa — aoiina, noi?iiaaiith eiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith aaiacith. Iaaeaiiy oe?e ?en? i?inoi-oaee
«eini?/ieo» aeanoeainoae, c iaeiiai aieo, i?aeaeeaeth? ? caaaa/o?
aioo??oi? ?ioaioe?? ia?iaeo, ?iaeoue eiai caeaoiei aea?aoe na?e aeaniee
oeyo ?icaeoeo ia iniia? canai?ieo caeiaooe?a naiiaooiuei? eoeueoo?e, c
?ioiai — caiaeeoue nieneiaa iiea eiai ni?eeiyooy, a /anoi ?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aei yei?nue no?iai aecia/aii? ia?aaeeaie. Inoaiiy ?
iaaiei ??ciiaeaeii nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy (aai iai?ioethaaiiy),
aeeoe ca iaae? yeiai aaea?oueny iaa?oue ia an?i iie?oeeai, ia eaaeo/e
oaea i?i oe?ie? aa?noae ianaeaiiy iaaii? e?a?ie.

I?ioa aeoiaey/e ?c canaaeie/i? ?ie? a aoiiaaiac? aeina?aeo
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ia iiaeia iica/aniai aeae?eyoe oa?aeoa?i? ?ene oiai
/e ?ioiai ia?iaeo (?.I??/oe, Ae.*eaeaanueeee), na?oiaeyaei? yeino?
iaoe?? (I.TH?eaae/), iaioaeuei?noue oa ii?aeueii-aoe/i? iniaeeaino?
aoiin?a (I.Eoeue/eoeueeee, I.Eoe?o) , ye ia iiaeia aecia/aoe oie aai
?ioee ia?iae /e ye oe?ai?ianueeee, /e oi ye ?iaeono??aeueiee, /e ye
oi?aae?inueeee, ui iaiaaaany ?iaeoe, iai?eeeaae, A.Eeieinueeee. A on?o
oeeo aeiaaeeao ie ia?ii ni?aao c ?aoe?iiae?noe/iith ?aaeoeoe??th
aoi?/ii? eoeueoo?e aei yeiainue iaeiiai ?? neeaaeieea, iaoae iaa?oue aei
iaeaaaeeea?oiai, aeciaiiy eiai canaaeie/i? ?ie? a aooo? oa noaiiaeaii?
o??? aai ?ioi? ni?eueiioe.

O ?icae?e? 4 «Nioe?ieoeueoo?ia ?aoeaen?y aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai aoooy
Oe?a?ie» aeine?aeaeaii ci?no, /eiieee, iaoai?cie oa iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy aeina?aeo aoooy oe?a?inueeiai aoiino, ie?aneaii
eoeueoo?ieia?/i? canaaee ainiiaea?nueeiai aeai?o oe?a?inueei? iaoe??.

I?eioeei aoooy aea? iiaeeea?noue ye aaeaeaaoii aei ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e
aeoeoia/eoe aeoiee aoiiaaiaco oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, oae ? iai?oeoe
ia?niaeoeae eiai eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nueeiai iaeaoooy. Oea cia/eoue, ui
i?e iiaoaeia? eiioeaioe?? iinooio oe?a?inueeiai aoiino o?aaa, ii-ia?oa,
a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae iiooeo ia?nioaaaoeo i?aoe?a?ioe?a, a ii-ae?oaa, acyoe
aei oaaae an? ianoaaeie eiai ?nioaaiiy, a?aeeeaeath/e anoaoieia?/i?noue
oa cai?ia?aiiaai?noue aiae?co iaaiei «aecia/aeueiei» i?eioeeiii,
?icai?oaiiy yeiai o?eueee ? aea? iiaeeea?noue oai?aoe/ii ?aeiino?othaaoe
?noi?e/iee iinooi.

Oe?a?ioe? ye naiino?eiee aoiin — oea ?acoeueoao neeaaeiiai ?
iaiaeiicia/iiai ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo: ?nioaaiiy ?aeeiiai aeey aaaaoueio
no/anieo ia?iae?a aoi?/iiai noano?aoo — neia»yinoaa, ca?iaeaeaiiy,
?icea?oo oa caiaiaaeo Ee?anueei? ?on?, iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai caaithaaiiy
?? caiaeue, ?iciiae?eo cao?aeieo, i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieo ?
i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?onueeeo eiyc?anoa i?ae Eeoaith, Iieueuath ?
iiiaiei-oaoa?aie. Oiio ooeaoe iciaee oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeiino? o?aaa ia
?ai?oa na?aaeeie OIV — na?aaeeie XV noie?ooy, /ano oi?ioaaiiy iaeaea
an?o aa?iiaenueeeo iaoe?e. Ee?anueea ?onue aoea eeaioeeiaith ?
iaoeaio?ae?ciaaiith aea?aeaaith, aea ia iiaei aooe ?aeeii?
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?, yea a oeaiaiooaaea ??ci? caie?. Aaeaea
naia ia?iaei?noue aeiea? i?aeieai?ii? a?aei?iiino?, oi?io? ?aeeio iiao,
cae/a?, oaaeeoe??, ia?yaee, ?eooaee, iiaoo, ona?aeiieaia a?aeiioaiiy aei
iaaiiai aoiii?io oiaoi a?eueo-iaio caaaeueiee aeey an?o niin?a aoooy.
Iaoii?noue ia?ii ooo aeae?eueea oeaio??a iie?oe/ii? eiinie?aeaoe??, ye?
ca ni?eyoeeaeo oiia caeaoi? aoee noaoe iniiaith aeey ooai?aiiy ie?aieo
aoiieoeueoo?ieo a?oi. Ia?oueny ia oaac? Iiaai?iaenueea ? Ineianueea
caie?, Aieiaeeie?i-Nocaeaeuenueea ?onue, cao?aeii?onueea Iieioeueea
eiyc?anoai, na?aaei? Iiaei?i?ia»y c Ee?aii ? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeo
?onue. Iiaeaeueoa ?o eiinie?aeaoe?y ia iniia? ?icaeoeo
eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nueei? ?aeiino? iiaea a o iaeaooiueiio, i?eaanoe aei
ooai?aiiy ie?aieo ia?iaeiinoae ?, iiaeeeai, iaoe?e ye oea ? a?aeaoeiny c
aeayeeie ieai?iieie nithcaie neia»yi o I?aaeaii?e oa Oeaio?aeuei?e
?a?ii?. Ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii aoiiaaiaco nithc?a ieaiai No?aeii? ?a?iie
aoea iiiaiei-oaoa?nueea iaaaea ? o? aaee/aci? iie?oe/i?,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa eoeueoo?i? ci?ie ye? aiia i?eianea.
Iiaeaeueoee iiae?e oa?eoi??? Aeaaiuei? ?on? i?ae iiiaiei-oaoa?aie,
eeoiaoeyie oa iieyeaie, aecia/ea ianaeaiith ?on? ei?aeiie ?
oa?eoi??aeueiiai a?aeie?aieaiiy, ? iaae? aeiiii?/ieo, aoiieoeueoo?ieo oa
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a. Naia aiane?aeie oeeo iiae?e
no?aeiineia»yinueea ni?euei?noue ? aea?aeaaa ?onue caii/aoeoaaea
oi?ioaaiiy ?in?yi, oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a. I?e/iio eiinie?aeaoe?y
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino a?aeaoeanue naia ia iniia? iaaiiai niiniao aoooy, a
«/oae?e» aea?aeaa?, anoia?a/ iieii?caoe?? oa anei?eyoe?eiei coneeeyi
iieuenueei? aeaaee.

Ca niiniaii aoooy oe?a?inueeee aoiin iiaeia a?aeianoe aei aeaiioe/ii?
ni?eueiioe (a /iio A.Eeieinueeee, iai?eeeaae, aaa/aa aieiaio ia?aoeiaeo
eiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiy), yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
«i?ecaieaiiyi» ?ioa?an?a oa iio?aa aiane?aeie ae?? oe?eiai ?yaeo
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo /eiiee?a: ia?aaaaeaiiy «caiea?ianueei? eoeueoo?e»,
a?aenooi?no? naiiaeinoaoiuei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe, i?aeeiioan?eiiai
?ica?aoo, ?aa?iiaeueii? nai???aei?noue eoeueoo?ii-iie?oe/ieo
i??aioaoe?e, iecueeiai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ia?iaeo oiui. Oe?a?inueea
iaioaeueiinoue, «aeooa», «aeiey» oiui ? ?noi?e/iee ?acoeueoao aeina?aeo
aoooy ia?iaeo, yeee a oe?eiio iiaeia eaae?o?eoaaoe ye aeina?ae o?ce/iiai
?nioaaiiy aai aeaeeaaiiy.

Oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai aeaeeei ii?aeueii ? o?ce/ii naia caaaeyee
iie?oe/i?e, nioe?aeuei?e, ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?e oa a?enueeia?e
eiinie?aeaoe?? «a?iiaaee» aeey aoaeoeaiiai i?ioenoiyiiy noa?ei ? iiaei
caaieiaieeai — a?ae ei/iaeo ieaiai aei oeyoaonueei? Iieueu? ?
noeoainueei? Oo?a//eie. Ae?iaie/a oa nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaa ae?yeuei?noue
oaae ?icai?oaeanue o ?aieao «/oaeeo» aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei — i?eioniai?
?iaioe i?e o?eueaa?eao (ca Iieueu?) oa e??iinii? i?aoe? ia iaia (ca
?in??). Ia iaee aeanieo aeiiii?/ieo oi?iiooai?aiue oaeiae i? a?aonoaa,
i? eicaoeoai oi/ i? ieciaa (Caii??cueea N?/), i? (c na?aaeeie OVII no. —
ai?iaeiaa) ia aoei iaeii??aeiei o nioe?aeueii-iaeiiaiio oa i?aaiaiio
a?aeiioaii? ? iiae?eyeiny ia iacia/io /anoeio iai?aii? noa?oeie ?
?yaeiao iano — caeaa?eueoiai aeo?aeoe?a ?c naeyi. I?ioeane iieii?caoe??,
a iio?i ?oneoeeaoe?? i?ecaiaeeee aei oiai, ui oe?a?ioe? ooo/ii
aeo?niyeeny ?c oeo noa? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, ye? cina?aaeaeoaaeeny o
i?noao. Oiio — oi aaeee? i?iieneia? i?noa aeieeaee ? ?icaeaaeenue, a
iniiaiiio, iica oe?a?inueeith aoi?/iith eoeueoo?ith, noa»?eoii yeith
aeiooaiee aoa aooe naeyiei-oe?ai?ia. Naia c oe??? i?e/eie o na?oiaeyae?
oe?a?inoaa «niaee ie?iiai oe?ai?iaa i?aeiineeenue aei neiaie?a
iaoe?iiaeueiiai» (Ae.Aeiioeia), a ia oiio, ui oea canaaeie/i iaoe?y
oe?ai?ia?a, ui ? iaaiith i?oieiaaiith ni?eeiyooy oe?a?inueeiai aoiino.

Oe?a?inueeee iai, ia iath/e ciaoiiai iioiaeaeaiiy /e aea?iaaii? a?aiioe
ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy nai?? oeyoaoiino? ii/eia? ooeaoe ?? ia a
iaei?onuee?e, a ianaiia?aae o iieuenuee?e, eeoianuee?e /e ?in?enuee?e
ii?iae? (yaeua aeeneo/a ciaeueiaaia a nai?o ae?aiaoe/ieo oai?ao
?.Ea?iaiei-Ea?ei). Oiio aoi?/ia niaaeei?ii?noue — oea, aieiaiei /eiii,
iaaeaaiiy «i?inoiai» ia?iaeo.

Aeii?iaioa eieaeoeao a ?noi?e/iiio iinooi? Oe?a?ie e??i iiceoeaieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a, iaea ? iaai? iaaaoeai? — iano?i?
ianeaiino? oa oo?eiainoaa, iao??a?oaeueiiai eieaeoea?cio ? caieiooino?,
i?ei?oeaieo oyaeaiue i?i c??aiyeueio ni?aaaaeeea?noue, iani?eeiyooy
iaeiiai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa eiieo?aioe??, iaiaaenoue aei aaaaoeo,
iniaeeai a nai?io na?aaeiaeu?. Oa ye?ac o? noa?aioeie ianiai?
na?aeiiino? oa ineoieia??, ye? ye iieacothoue o?oaeiiu? nueiaiaei?oi?o
?eieiaeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e noni?euenoaa — ia iiaeieai? ? aein?.

Oaeei /eiii ia?aaaaeaiiy «ia?iaeieo» iciae a eoeueoo?? oe?a?inueeiai
aoiino aeaoa?i?ioaaeinue ae??th oae caaieo «ia?a?iaeueieo» /e iaaeiaeo
/eiiee?a, ui ?o aeoai?eee aaiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y Oe?a?ie (oae?, ye
«caa?ica cieuaiiy», «a?aiue nia?o?», «aeiaaeeia?noue», «?noi?e/iee
oain», «iacaoeuai?noue» oa ?io?). ?c iaeiie/aiiy aaaaoueio oaeeo
neooaoe?e noi?ioaaeeny aeaa iniiaieo oeie ?aaeoe?? oe?a?ioey /e, ?ioeie
neiaaie, oe?a?inueeiai na?oia?ae/oooy (ca I.Eoeue/eoeueeei): 1).
«eicaoeueeee» oei aiooc?anoa-aaaioth?enoa, oa 2). i?eoa?iee noeeue
?nioaaiiy, «aiaa?ioe/ia» iiaaae?iea ca i?eiioeeiii «iiy oaoa ne?ath…»

Nooo?aith ia?aoeiaeith oi?ioaaiiy (oa «i?aeianaiiy») ?aeeii? nenoaie
iio?aa oa ?ioa?an?a aoiin?a Oe?a?ie, ? nueiaiaei? ?nioaaiiy ?o
?aa?iiaeueii? nai???aeiino? oa ??ciini?yiiaaiino?. Iaei??th c oi?i naiai
aeyaeaiiy aiia ia? noia?a/iino? i?ae oeaio?aeueiith oa ?aa?iiaeueieie
ae?oaie ca i?aai naiei eiio?iethaaoe iie?oe/io oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io
neooaoe?th a oiio /e ?ioiio ?aa?ii? oa «aeaeaaoaaoe» nai?o
i?aaenoaaiee?a aei aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ui iaea?aeaei iacao
a aea-yeeo caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ye eeaiiaee i?eioeei ?o
oi?ioaaiiy. O ae?oaiio — iathoueny ia oaac? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa
aoii-ineoieia?/i? a?aei?iiino? i?ae cao?aeiei, oeaio?aeueiei oa
i?aaeaiii-no?aeiei ?aa?iiaie ?icnaeaiiy aoiin?a Oe?a?ie, oi/i?oa i?ae
aaeeeeie a?oiaie ethaeae, ineoieia?/ii ia’?aeiaieie iaaeiei oa?aeoa?ieo
aeey oeeo ?aa?ii?a onoaiiaie niiniao aeeooy, iie?oe/ieo,
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa ?ae?a?eieo i??i?eoao?a. Oe? ?noi?e/i? a?aei?iiino?,
ye iieacothoue no/ani? nioe?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaea?eueo ?aeue?oii
i?iyaeythoueny a aaiiie?oe/ieo, aoii-eoeueoo?ieo oa ?ae?a?eieo
i???ioaoe?yo.

Oiio ea?aeeiaeueia ieoaiiy, yea aeieea? — ia iniia? yeeo oe?iiinoae
aoaea a?aeaoaaoeny o?ainoi?iaoe?y noni?eueiiai aoooy Oe?a?ie ? ye aoaea
a?aoiaoaaoenue aeina?ae aeeoo?oai?/ino? aoiin?a, ye? ?? ianaeythoue, a
i?ioean? oaei? o?ainoi?iaoe??. C iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, iooue Oe?a?ie a
na?oiao ni?aae?oaei?noue, ye ? anyei? e?a?ie, eaaeeoue ia /a?ac c?a/aiiy
nai?? eoeueoo?e, a caae?yiiy aeanieo oi?eaeueieo, i?ea?iaeueieo
iaoai?ci?a aeeoo?oai?aiiy oa noni?eueiiai iinooio, aeey yeeo /oaeee
aeina?ae iiaea iaoe eeoa cia/aiiy o?ie?a ?noi???.

Oea ia cia/eoue, ui ia»?eoii caiice/aiiy ia iiaeooue aooe aeinyaiaiiy a
ie?aieo noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (ia eoeueoo?a a oe?eiio!): iaooe?,
oaoi?oe?, oaoiieia?yo oiui. O?eueee a oae?e nai?e yeino? aca?iiae?y
«naiai e /oaeiai» ?ic?eaa? ?aiee caiice/oaaiiy e nyaa? ??aiy noaieinny,
ae?aeiao eoeueoo?, i?e oai?aii? aeanii? ?noi???.

O ca»yceo c oeei no?aoaa?/iiai cia/aiiy aeey Oe?a?ie iaaoaathoue, c
iaeiiai aieo, iiaea?i?caoe?y ?nioth/i? oa noai?aiiy iaeiia?oi?oi?
iaoei?iii?, aenieioaoiieia?/ii? iaoa??aeueii-ae?iaie/i? ? na?a?nii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, a c ?ioiai aieo, — anaa?/iee ? iineeaiee ?icaeoie an?o
oi?i iaoee, ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e. I?e oeueiio «oi?eaeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeiai oeyoo» iia»ycaii c iaiao?aei?noth aeoeaiooaaiiy oaaae ?
coneeue noni?euenoaa aea?aeaae, ?ioeo iie?oe/ieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e ia inoaiiueiio — iineeaiiio ? niaoe?ae?ciaaiiio ?icaeoeia?
iaoee, ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e.

??/ a o?i, ui aeieeea ? no??iei caaino?th?oueny noia?a/i?noue i?ae
aeacaiith ia»?eoeaii coiiaeaiith iio?aaith noni?euenoaa o ia?aianaii?
cao?aeieo oaoiieia?e ia oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie ? aaniethoiith a?aenooi?noth
aaeaeaaoieo oe?eani?yiiaaieo caoiae?a uiaei ?? caaeiaieaiiy a ieai?
oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai aaaioa cae?eniaiiy oaei? ?iaioe. Oey
noia?a/i?noue — iaeiaaacia/i?oa aeey Oe?a?ie i?iaeaia. Na?ae/aiiyi ??
iaaieiiiai iiaeeaeaiiy ? caaino?aiiy ? oae? oaeoi?e: 1) aeo?e c Oe?a?ie
aenieieaae?o?eiaaii? ?iai/i? neee, niaoe?ae?no?a, ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ?
oai?/eo i?aoe?aiee?a; 2) ?oeiaoe?y ?io?ano?oeoo?e
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo, i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/ieo ? i?iaeoii-oaoi?/ieo
?ia?o, niaae ianya?a ? ??aiy, a ?iiae? ? iiaiee caiaiaae a?aeiia?aeieo
aeae?a ae?yeueiino?; 3) ia?eaioee?caoe?y ci?noo ? oi?i ina?oe,
iaoooaaiiy eeane/iith aoiai?oa?iith ina?oith, ui ? iaei??th ?c i?aeaaeei
no/anii? ?a?iiaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??; 4) aanoa?i?caoe?y eoeueoo?e; 5)
oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaea??oeo c?ace?a ianiai? eoeueoo?e; 6) iaaaciaea
cieaeaiiy /a?ac 3-5 ?ie?a ina?oiueiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy.

Ne?ae oaeiae i?aee?aneeoe, ui a?eueo?noue ?c nueiaiaei?oi?o ?iiiaaoe?e
ia oa?ai? Oe?a?ie: i??i?eoao ?iaeea?aeoae?nonueeeo oe?iiinoae,
i???ioaoe?y ia i?eaaoiiai aeanieea, aaaaeaiiy ?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee, ?inoeoooo i?aceaeainoaa oiui — ?iiiaaoe?? ?icaeoeo,
iine?eueee aiie ia noeioeththoueny aeinoaoiuei ye o?aaeeoe?yie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, yea ?nioaaea, oae ? a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao
eoeueoo?iei niaaeeii. Oiio iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiith aeey iaioae?oaoo
ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie aoea a oaea iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa
(iacaeaaeii i?eaaoiiai /e aea?aeaaiiai) yea caniiaoaaeany a ia
a?oiiai-eiiia?aoeaieo oe?iiinoyo iniiao yeeo neeaaea? eii?ii?aoeaia
iioeaaoe?eia no?oeoo?a.

Oiio oi ? aeey Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo, iaaooue, oa?aeoa?i? iciaee
o?aaeeoe?eiiai noni?euenoaa. ? a i?iaiicoaaii? ??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai iinooio iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii aoei a eoe ia
oeyoii ?aaeeeaeueii? ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?
aiane?aeie i?eioniai? i?eaaoecaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee, a
oaeiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy inoaiiueiai, i?e yeiio ei?ii?aoeaiee eiai oa?aeoa?
ia o?eueee ia aoa ae cieuaiee, a e noaa ae aaaeeeaith i?aeieiith aeoiaeo
aeiiii?ee c e?eciaiai noaio, aeaea?aeii iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?ia?ano
iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Ca?aene,i/aaeaeii, ? ne?ae aiai?eoe i?i oaea ainiiaea?noai ia ye i?i
«o?ao?e oeyo» i?ae eai?oae?ciii ? nioe?ae?ciii, a nei??oa ye i?i
?noi?e/iee eiii?ii?n i?ae oai???th ? i?aeoeeith a?eueiiai ?eieo ia??iaeo
eeane/iiai e?aa?ae?cio, c iaeiiai aieo, ? no/aniei aea?aeaaiei
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee oa noni?eueiiai aeeooy eaein?ainueeiai ? iaa?oue
ia?enenonueeiai iai?yie?a — c ?ioiai. A iie?oeei-aeiiii?/iiio ieai?
iiaeaeeth ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie iiaei a aooe nioe?aeueia ?eieiaa
ainiiaea?noai, yea ii?aeio? a nia? ?eieia? iaoai?cie ?aaoethaaiiy
iae?iaeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a c ?ica»ycaiiyi nioe?aeueieo caaaeaiue ia
i?ioeeaaei?noue aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei?e aeiiii?oe?.

Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ia? nai?i aeo?aeiei
ioieoii naia iine?aeiaia i?ioenoaaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
oeaio?aeueii-ea?iaaiiio, i?eioniaiio ainiiaea?noao ia o?eueee ia ??ai?
eii?aeeioth/eo iaoai?ci?a, i?eioeei?a aeiiii?/ii? naiaiaee, a e o
ieoaiiyo aeinyaiaiiy nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? oa aeia?iaooo /a?ac
«nioe?aeueia ae??aithaaiiy». I?ae inoaii?i ?icoi??oueny ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oaeiai iaoai?cio ?iciiae?eo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo, yeee aeeeth/aa ae
iaaei??ia caaaa/aiiy ia iaeiiio iiethn? oa iacaaacia/ai?noue, ceeaei? —
ia ?ioiio ye oea a?aeaoaa?oueny nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i?.

?nio? o?niee ca»ycie i?ae iaoa??aeueiei aeia?iaooii ianaeaiiy ?
aeiiii?/iith aoaeoai?noth oa noni?eueiith ni?yiiaai?noth ooieoe??
i?eaaoii? aeaniino?. I?eaaoia aeani?noue ii/eia? «ni?aoeueiaoaaoe»,
aeaaaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo (ae?iaieoeoai, ?iaanooaaiiy oiui) a oiio
noni?euenoa?, a yeiio aeinyaiooi a?eueo-iaio i?eeiyoii «ni?aaaaeeeaa» c
oi/ee ci?o a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy caaeiaieaiiy iniiaieo ethaenueeeo
iio?aa. Aei aeinyaiaiiy oeueiai ??aiy ni?yiiaai?noue ooieoe?? i?eaaoii?
aeaniino? ia? niiaeeaaoeueeee oa?aeoa?: aeey iniiaii? iane ethaeae,
caeiyoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth ?? iioeaii ? caaeiaieaiiy
oaeiai ??aiy nai? iio?aa (n?i»?, aeecueeeo), yeee oa?aeoa?iee aeey
iaea?eueo ?icaeiooeo e?a?i. O?eueee oiae?, eiee noni?euenoaii ?oa?eii
caaeiaieaiiy iniiaieo iio?aa ethaeae ia?aeaeaii c»yaeythoueny ni?aaaei?
aiooc?anoe, ieooe? a?ciano, i?ae?e?iieoeoaa, aeey yeeo ia? a?eueoa
cia/aiiy nai i?ioean ae?yeueiino?, i?ae eiai ?acoeueoaoe. Cae/aeii aac
inoaiiueiai ia iiaea aooe ia?oiai, i?ioa aeoeaioe ooo naia oae?. Aei oeo
i??, iiee noni?euenoai ?icae?eaia ia oeo, ooi «?noue» ? ia oeo ooi
aeeaeoueny ye ?aeyoue — ia iiaea aooe aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaii? i?eaaoii?
aeaniino?.

AENIIAEE

O?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy oa aoooy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiino (eaoa?aeueieo /e aeaiioe/ieo) ia?aaeaa/a?
ye aeine?aeaeaiiy iaea?eueo caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae aoiiaaiaco, oae ?
aiae?c aa?enoe/ieo iiaeeeainoae iniiaieo eiioeaioe?e, ye? iiyniththoue
iinoaiiy oa ?icaeoie aoiin?a, aeie?aieaiiy noeoiiino? iaoiae?a,
?ino?oiaioa??th, ia?aaeeai inyaiaiiy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a. A
no/ani?e aoiieia?? eiioeaioe??, ye? ?icaeyaeathoue iinoaiiy aoiin?a ye
i?ioean, iiaeii oiiaii iiae?eeoe ia i?e?iaeiciaa/ee oa aoiai?oa?iee
iaoeia? i?aeoiaee.

A i?e?iaeiciaa/iio i?aeoiae? eiino?oeoeaiei ? aa/aiiy aoiiaaiaco ye
i?ioeano, aeeth/ath/e aeieeiaiiy, ?icaeoie, caiaiaae oa cieeiaiiy
aoiin?a. I?ioa oey eiioeaioe?y ia ?icaeyaea? oie /e ?ioee aoiin ye
naiiaeinoaoith, aioo??oiuei aeaoa?i?iiaaio, naii?aai?ciaaio nenoaio. Aei
oiai ae i?e?iaeii-oa?eoi??aeueiee /eiiee iiaea aooe ni?eueiei aeey
aaaaoueio non?aei?o aoiin?a, ye? ia?aaoaathoue ia ??cieo noaae?yo
?icaeoeo.

Aoiai?oa?iee i?aeo?ae icia/a? aea/aiiy nooiino? aoi?/ieo yaeu ?
i?ioean?a aeoiaey/e ?c oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae noni?eueieo
? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe. Eiai iniiaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith iiaeia aaaaeaoe
iiyniaiiy iinooio aoiin?a ye i?ioean, ui a?oioo?oueny ia
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo canaaeao (iiyaa, ?icaeoie ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoi?/ieo
ni?eueiio iia»yco?oueny c /eiieeaie noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, o ia?oo /a?ao
ae?iaieoeoaa, ni?eeoaaiiy (iiae), aeooiaiiai aeeooy, cae/a?a, iiaooo,
oieueeei?o oiui. Iaeaeuei aoaiii aoiiaaiaco aoiai?oa?ia aoiieia?y
aaaaea? iiyao iaoe?e, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaea?eueoith
iiina?aaeeiaai?noth ca»yce?a i?ae ethaeueie. On? eiioeaioe?? oeueiai
i?aeoiaeo ia»?aeio? i?aaiaiiy ciaeoe oo canaaeie/o ?aaeuei?noue, yea a
ae??oaeueiei /eiii ? aeaoa?i?ioaaea aii??e/iee aeeoo?aee i?ioean, ?
aenooiaea a iniiaith a?aeoai?aiiy naiiaooiino? oiai /e ?ioiai aoiino a
?noi?e/i?e ia?niaeoea?.

I?ioa ye iieaco? noni?eueii-?noi?e/ia i?aeoeea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy
inoaii?o ?ie?a, aoiiaaiac ? ?acoeueoaoii oaioe/iiai iaeeaaeaiiy
??ciini?yiiaaieo nee ? oaiaeaioe?e ye? ia ia?oee iiaeyae ia iathoue
nooo?aiai cia/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo. Iaaeinoaoai?e a no/ani?e aoiieia??
iaaeiaeieia?/iee oa iiiyo?eii-eaoaai??aeueiee aeey iiyniaiiy oeueiai
oaiiiaio niiioeaa aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a caa?iooe oaaao ia
oai?aoeei-i?ciaaaeueio cia/ou?noue neia?aaoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo, a yeiio
iaeiaeiao «aaao» iathoue ye oaiaeaioe?y no?oeoo?ioai?aiiy, oae ?
oaiaeaioe?y oaino (ana iiaeeeaa).

Iaeiae ? o?einio?y iiaea iaoe naith iaoiaeieia?th ?icoi?iiy neeaaeieo
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueieo nenoai ?, ianaiia?aae, aoiinioe?aeueieo. Ia?oueny
ia oaac? ?o ?icoi?iiy ye aooo?aeo ?aaeueiinoae. Oai?aoeei-i?ciaaaeueia
oe?ii?noue oaeiai i?aeoiaeo iieyaa? o aeciaii? ?noi??? oi?iith
iiae??aino?, aeeooy aoii?noe/iei oa iie?oeaio?e/iei, a ae?eniino?, ye
ienaa E.Oanoia, — «aacia/aeueiith». Ca?aeii oaei? ia?aaeeaie
iiaiooai?aiiy a aoiiaaiac? c»yaeythoueny ye ?acoeueoao neeaaeiiai,
oaioe/iiai iaeeaaeaiiy aneiao?e/ieo oaiaeaioe?e, ui aeieeathoue o ??cieo
oeaio?ao na?oiaoooy.

A aio?iiiaeaiioe/iiio ieai? aooo?a? ?aae?? noanoaioeaothoueny a
aeina?ae? eueaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, yeee ii?aeioth a nia? ye
i?e?iaeii-oa?eoi??aeuei? oae ? nioe?ieoeueoo?i? /eiieee. AEeoo?aee
aeina?ae ia?iaeo — oea cae??ieai? a na?aeiiino?, o?aaeeoe?yo, cae/eao,
noa?aioeiao iiaaae?iee oa ae?yeueiino?, aoin?, ii?iao ii?ae?,
onoaiiaeao, a??oaaiiyo (a oiio /ene? ? ?ae?a?eieo), a?oaoeiao — niiniae
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ethaenueeiai aoooy, ye? ca aeiiiiiaith iaa?thaaiiy,
iane?aeoaaiiy oa iin??a ae?ao?iiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia?aaeathoueny c
iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy a iaaeao eoeueoo?iiai a?aaeo aeaiiai aoiino.

C oe??? oi/ee ci?o aoi?/io eoeueoo?o iiaeia aecia/eoe ye niaoeeo?/io
ia?aaeeaio aeeoo?oai?aiiy, yea aeoioethth/e a iaoa??aeueieo oa aeooiaieo
oe?iiinoyo, ciaeiaeo nenoaiao iaai? ciaiiy, cia/aiiy, oai?/? cae?aiino?
? oi?iiy ia?iaeo aenooia? iniaeeaei, ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?ioeo, niiniaii
aoooy iaaiiai aoiino. A iaoiaeieia?/iiio ieai? oea icia/a? aeciaiiy
niiniao aoooy ia?iaeo, noanoaioe?iiaeueiith ?aaeuei?noth a?aeiinii
oa?aeoa?enoee nioe?oio. Oiio eoeueoo?a ye niin?a aoi?/iiai aoooy ia?
iiae??aee, oaeoieia?/iee ci?no ? eiai aioo??oith oi?io — aeeoo?aee
aeina?ae ia?iaeo, yeee iiaea aeey ianooiiino? iieie?iue ? ie?aii?
ethaeeie iaaoaaoe ?en ye ia»?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino? — cae/a?, ia?yaee,
noa?aioeie oiui oae ? noa»?eoeaii? — iaaiiai a?aeiioaiiy aei ieo c aieo
/eai?a aeaiith ni?eueiioe. I?e/iio naia inoaii? a?eueoa cia/eoue aeey
aoi?/ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??, i?ae noaa?eueia oa iacaeaaeia ?nioaaiiy
aoaeue-yeeo ?ioeo aoi?/ieo e?eoa???a .

Aoiieia?/ia cia/ou?noue eiioeaioe?? aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aiia ? iaaiith aeueoa?iaoeaith ?aoe?iiae?noe/iiio oyaeaiith i?i
caaa?oaiiy aoiiaaiaco, aeoiaey/e c eia?ee ?icai?oaiiy iei?nue
iniiaiiieiaeii? canaaee. Oae oi/ E.Ia?en ? aaaaeaa, ui c iiaoaeiaith
eiioi?cio caaa?oo?oueny ia?aae?noi??y ethaenoaa ? ?icii/eia?oueny eiai
ae?enia ?noi??y, noni?euenoai a yeiio ae??oai? an? aeeoo?a? i?iaeaie
ethaeeie ao?a/a? ye?noue ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiino? (eiioi?ci ? «ae??oaiiyi
caaaaeee ?noi???).

Aoiiaaiac — oea aoyaoaaiiy a eiei aca?iiae?? ana a?eueoi? e?eueeino?
aoiin?a. Oea eiai » aaia?aeueia e?i?y». ? yeui oea aoei oa?aeoa?ii aeey
ieaiai?, ia?iaei?no? oa iaoe??, oi iiaeia i?iaiicoaaoe aeieeiaiiy ?
oaeeo ni?eueiio, ye? «ci?iooue» iciaee iaoe??. Iathoueny ia oaac?
«iaiiaoe?iiae?cie». ?o iiaeia aecia/eoe ye ?ooe ca ia»?aeiaiiy a ?aeei?e
eoeueoo?ii-iie?oe/i?e ni?eueiio? e?eueeio, caeaa?eueoiai noi?aeieo,
aea?aeaa ia iniia? ni?eueieo eoeueoo?ieo ?en aai «ni??aeiaiino?
eoeueoo?».

sse oaiiiai aeeoo?aee aeina?ae ? naii?aaoeueiaaiei oi?aa?naeueiei
nioe?ieoeueoo?iei eiiieaenii, yeee aeeiio? ooieoe?th ?ioaa?aoe??
?iaeea?ae?a a ni?eueiino? ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?o a?ae ?ioeo ni?eueiinoae
ia iniia? noaaano?? (aeeoo?aee aeina?ae ia iiynith?, a iaa?th?). ?io?
nioe?ieoeueoo?i? eiiieaene: iaoea, ienoaoeoai, ii?aeue, iie?oeea ? i?aai
— nai? iio?aaothoue i?aai?caoe?? ? ?aaoeyoe??. Oiaoi aeeoo?aee aeina?ae
? o??th ?aaeuei?noth, yea caaacia/o? aooaioe/ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoiino
ia an?o aoaiao aoiiaaiaco. A oaa?eiiiio na?o? aeina?ae ?iaeiaiai
?nioaaiiy iane?aeo?oueny eiaeiith iniaith aaiaoe/ii. Aeey ethaeeie — oea
i?ioean nioe?ae?caoe?? ye noaiiaeaiiy. I?e/iio ooo aeayey?oueny oaea
caeiiii??i?noue — /ei a?eueo ?icaeiooa noni?euenoai oei a?eueo
iiaeiaaeaiei ? oeae ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy, iine?eueee a?eueo cia/io noio
aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo iio??aii canai?oe ?iaeea?aeo. Ca?aene an? i?iaeaie
nioe?ae?caoe??, iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy, ye? ii noo? nai?e ? i?iaeaiaie
ii?aaeiaoiaiiy oa ?ici?aaeiaoiaiiy anueiai aaaaonoaa aeina?aeo aeeooy ye
naiai ia?iaeo oae ? ethaenoaa acaaae?.

Cai?iiiiiaai? o aeena?oaoe?? i?aeoiaee aei ?ica»ycaiiy aoiiaaiaoe/ieo
i?iaeai ? ia?niaeoeaieie c iaoeiai? oi/ee ci?o, ine?eueee ?icaeioo? o
eiioaeno? iaeeane/ieo oaiaeaioe?e oa a/aiue o cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee?e
o?einio??. Caa?iaiiy aei eaoaai??e «aeeooy» (Ae?eueoae), «aeeoo?aiai
na?oo» (Aonna?eue), «aie? aei aeeooy» (Oiiaiaaoa? ? I?oeoa) oa ?i., ye?
iin?aeathoue i?noea naiina?aeiiino?, ieneaiiy, ?icoio, i?ciaiiy, ?acii
?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a o?einionueei? aa?iaiaaoeee cai?noue
o?aaeeoe?eii? i???ioaoe?? ia ii?ie oa ?aeaaee i?e?iaeie/iiaoeiaiai
iiyniaiiy na?oo noaiiaeoue caaaeii caeiiii??iee
o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/iee oeyo aei iaeeane/iiai ia?aco noni?euenoaa
ye noa?e ni?aaoooy ethaeae, a ia o?eueee ae?yeueiino?. Iniiaiiieiaeiith
canaaeith oaei? ia?niaeoeae ? iiaeieaiiy iiaieeaino? i?aaenoaaeaiiy
ethaenueeiai aeeooy o?eueee a iiaeaeueiino? «ss ae?th», no/aniei
iane?aeeii yei? ? iiyaa «iiaeoeueii? ethaeeie» (A.Aaeia?). Iiaeeeaa
i?eiaeii? aeaioieoni?noue ethaenueeiai oaiiiaia: «ss ae?th» ? «ss ?». A
oeueiio aeiaaeeo oai?/a ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie, iineeaia iiaeeeainoyie
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii»thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e, iiaea noaoe iniiaith aeai?o
??cieo ?noi?e/ieo i?iaeo?a ?icaeoeo oeea?e?caoe??. Aea ca oiiae, ui oeae
aea?? aoaea o?nii iia»ycaiee c oai?/ith aeoeai?noth eiaeiiai ia?iaeo —
ae?eniiai noa»?eoa ?noi???.

O eiioaeno? cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? o aeena?oaoe?? aoei i?eae?eaii oaaao
i?iaeai? iinoaiiy oa ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Iieacaii, ui
?noi??inio?y oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, oea ia no?eueee ia?ae?e iiae?e ia
iaai?e i?e?iaeii-oa?eoi??aeuei?e (aaiiie?oe/i?e) ?aaeueiino?, ne?eueee
?o aieea oa cia/aiiy aeey ?nioaaiiy ? iinooio oe?e?nieo ethaenueeeo
ni?eueiio, ui ?nioaaee a Oe?a?i?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae ? iaaiith
aeueoa?iaoeaith aeia?euei?e eiia?iaoe?? (o eiaeiiai aaoi?a nai?e)
/eiiee?a aoiiaaiaco, ui iaee i?noea a ?noi?? oe?a?inueeiai aoiino. E
oe?e eiia?iaoe?? ie, ye i?aaeei, ia?ii c ?aoe?iiae?noe/iith ?aaeoeoe??th
aoi?/ii? eoeueoo?e aei yeiainue iaeiiai ?? neeaaeieea, iaoae iaa?oue aei
iaeaaaeeea?oiai, aeciaiiy eiai canaaeie/i? ?ie? a aooo? oa noaiiaeaii?
o??? aai ?ioi? ni?eueiioe. Aeoiaey/e ?c cai?iiiiiaaii? a aeena?oaoe??
eiioeaioe??, ia iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe iica/aniai ?ene oiai /e ?ioiai
ia?iaeo (?.I??/oe, Ae.*eaeaanueeee), na?oiaeyaei? yeino? iaoe??
(I.TH?eaae/), iaioaeuei?noue oa ii?aeueii-aoe/i? iniaeeaino? aoiin?a
(I.Eoeue/eoeueeee, I.Eoe?o), ye ia iiaeia aecia/aoe oie /e ?ioee ia?iae
aai ye oe?ai?ianueeee, aai ye ?iaeono??aeueiee, aai ye oi?aae?inueeee,
ui iaiaaaany ?iaeoe, iai?eeeaae, A.Eeieinueeee.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? AeINE?AeAEAIIss

1. Noaieei I.O. Aoooy aoiino: aeoiee, no/ani?noue, ia?niaeoeae
(o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c). – E.: “Ciaiiy”, EII. – 1998.
– 251 n.

2. Noaieei I.O. Eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nuee? i??i?eoaoe Oe?a?ie //
Oaiiiai oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e: iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee inieneaiiy. –
E.: Oai?en. – 1997. – N. 357 – 374.

3. Noaieei I.O. Eoeueoo?ieia?/iee eiioaeno aoiiaaiaco // AEeooy aoiino:
nioe?ieoeueoo?i? ia?ene (iaa/.iin?aiee). – E.: Eea?aeue. – 1997. – N.
35 – 54.

4. Noaieei I.O. Eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nuee? ia?niaeoeae iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aoooy Oe?a?ie // AEeooy aoiino: nioe?ieoeueoo?i? ia?ene (iaa/.iin?aiee).
– E.: Eea?aeue.– 1997. – N. 185 – 206.

5. Noaieei I.O. Eoeueoo?iee eiioaeno ainiiaea?nueeeo ?iiiaaoe?e Oe?a?ie
// Oaiiiai iaoe??: iniiae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. – E.: «Ciaiiy», EII. –
1998 –. N. 149 – 178.

6. Noaieei I.O. AEeoo?aee aeina?ae a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo aoiin?a
// Iioieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu eoeueoo?u. – E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea. – 1994.
– N. 82 – 92.

7. Noaieei I.O. I?e?iaeia ? nioe?aeueia a aoiiaaiac? // I?e?iaea ?
aoiin. – E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea . – 1994. – N. 65 – 80.

8. Noaieei I.O. Aoi?/i? ooieoe?? ae?yeueiino? oa ?o aieea ia
nioe?aeueia na?aaeiaeua ethaeeie // Aoiin ? nioe?oi. – E.: Iaoeiaa
aeoiea. – 1993. – N. 21 – 33.

9. Noaieei I.O. Iioieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu iinoeaeaiey niunea eoeueoo?u //
Niuneu eoeueoo?u. – Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. – 1996. – I,5 i.e.

10. Noaieei I.O. Aeeiai?ea i?aeaoi?/ieo aca?iei a Oe?a?i? // Aea??.
– 1997. ? 1 – 2. – N. 69 – 79.

11. Noaieei I.O. Ia?iae – ainiiaea? e?a?ie /e “?iai/a neea”? // A?niee
IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1998. ? 9 – 10. – N. 17 – 25.

12. Noaieei I.O. Aeieia?/iee eiioaeno aoiiaaiaco // Ieeoiaia. – 1993.
? 1.

– N. 43 – 48.

13. Noaieei I.O. Ii? /e iaoa…? // A?/a. – 1993. ? 5. – N. 49 –
54.

14. Noaieei I.O. AEeoo?aee aeina?ae ia?iaeo ye ia’?eo aoiiiie?oeee //
Iie?oieia?/iee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 3 aeione. – E.:
Iaoe. oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. – 1994. – N. 124 – 127.

15. Noaieei I.O. Eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nuee? i??i?eoaoe iaoe?iiaeueiiai
i?ia?ano Oe?a?ie // Iaoe?iiaeueiee i?ia?an Oe?a?ie: nooi?noue, aei??e,
ia?niaeoeae. – E.: Oe?. aeaae. iaoe iaoe. i?ia?ano. – 1993. – N. 83 –
93.

16. Noaieei I.O. Na?oiaeyaei? aniaeoe aeieia?? ethaeeie // Aeieia?y
ethaeeie. – Ee?a – Eooeuee.: ?inoeooo o?einio. IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1993. –
N. 139 – 143.

17. Noaieei I.O. Aio?iiiii?o?ci a iaoiaeieia?? a?iaoeee // Aoiai?oa?ia
ina?oa: oaeoi? na?oiai? ?ioaa?aoe??. *.1. – *a?i?aoe?.: ?inoeooo
o?einio. IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1997. – N. 269 – 273..

18. Noaieei I.O. Nioe?ieoeueoo?ia coiiaeai?noue ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i?
// Iaoe?iiaeueiee i?ia?an Oe?a?ie: aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?ieoeueoo?i?
ia?aaeoiiae ? i??i?eoaoe. – Ee?a-Ieeiea?a.: Oe?. aeaaeai. iaoe
iaoe. i?ia?ano. – 1996. – 0,5 ae.a.

19. Noaieei I.O. Yoie/aneia a eiioaenoa o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe //
Aoiia?ao?/ia niaaeueia ? iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. – E.: ?inoeooo
aoiia?ao. IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1992. – N. 84 – 86. .

20. Noaieei I.O. Noaiiaeaiiy oa aoooy aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiinoae:
i?iaeaie aiae?co // No/ania aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa. Noai oa ia?niaeoeae. *.
I. – *a?i?aoe?.: ?inoeooo o?einio. IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1996. – N. 47 – 50.

21. Noaieei I.O. Iaoeeiiaeueiue i?ia?an e iauanoaaiiia auoea /aeiaaea //
*aeiaae e yoiin: enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue. – Eeaa – Naaanoiiieue.:
?inoeooo o?einio. IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1994. – N. 34 – 37.

22. Noaieei I.O. AEeoo?aee aeina?ae ethaeeie ye /eiiee
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/-iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie
ae?aaiinoeee ? i?iaiicoaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo neooaoe?e. – E.:
Oe?. aeaaeai. iaoe. iaoe. i?ia?ano. – 1992. – N. 21 – 24.

23. Noaieei I.O. ?aneci // Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie. Oa?i?ie,
aecia/aiiy, ia?niiae??. – E.: ?inoeoo aea?ae. ? i?aaa IAI Oe?a?ie. –
1993. – N. 481.

24. Noaieei I.O., Iieeea?iia I.I. Yeieiaey: aeeaaiic noaaeo ianaeaiea //
Iiae ciaiaiai eaieiecia. – 1990. – ? 16. – N. 64 – 67.

25. Noaieei I.O., Noaieei A.I. Iieeoeea e yeiiiieea: i?iaeaiu
acaeiiaeaenoaey // Iie?oeea ? /an. – 1991. ? 17. – N. 46 – 51.

26. Noaieei I.O. ?aoeaic?y ia eieao ?.I?aaeai?nueei? “I?ieea?noue,
nioe?oi, ethaeeia” // O?einionueea ? nioe?ieia?/ia aeoiea. – 1996. – ?
7 – 8. – C. 251 – 253.

27. Noaieei I.O., Aieiaaothe A.I. I?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
eeeiaoa a Oe?aeia (a ni?aaaoi?noa?) // Aeiiii?/iee /aniien. – 1997. ?
4. – N. 29 – 33.

28. Noaieei I.O. ?aaeee yoiiiieeoe/aneie aeecie Oe?aeiu:
nioeeieoeueoo?iue ?aeo?n // Aeaiei?. – 1997. ? 8. – N. 8 – 9.

29. Noaieei I.O. AEeoo?aee aeina?ae oa naiina?aeii?noue a iaioaeueiino?
ia?iae?a Oe?a?ie // Iaea aioeeeeiiaae?y aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa. – E.:
Aaiaca, Aeia??a. – 1996. – N. 79 – 80.

30. Noaieei I.O. Enaiioia?y // Iaea aioeeeeiiaae?y
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa. – E.: Aaiaca, Aeia??a. – 1996. – N. 705.

31. Noaieei I.O. AEeoo?aee aeina?ae ethaeeie ye eoeueoo?ieia?/ia
?aaeuei?noue // O?einio?y. ?ae?a?y. Eoeueoo?a. – Ee?a – Naaanoiiieue.:
?inoeooo o?einio. IAI Oe?a?ie. – 1994. – N. 100 – 102.

32. Noaieei I.O. I?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua ye oaeoi? aoiiaaiaco //
I?e?iaea. Ethaeeia. Aoiin. – Eooeuee. *. II.: ?inoeooo o?einio. IAI
Oe?a?ie. – 1992.

 N. 65 – 7

33. Noaieei I.O. Nioe?aeueia ? iaoe?iiaeueia a aoiiaaiac? //
Ioeueoeaa?noi. O?einionueeee aeueiaiao. — E; Oe?.oeaio? aeoo.eoeueo. —
1999. — N.3-27.

AIIOAOe??

Noaieei I.O. O?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy oa aoooy
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.03 – nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y ?noi???.
– ?inoeooo o?einio?? ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a, 1998.

Aaoi? ?ic?iaea iia? eiioeaiooaeuei? ia?aaeeaie inieneaiiy neeaaeieo oa
noia?a/eeaeo aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aca?iei, aeoiaey/e c o?aeooaaiiy
oaiiiaio aoiino ye eoeueoo?ii? ni?eueiioe ethaeae, aeaoa?i?iiaaii?
niiniaii ?o aoooy. Ia?aaeeaiaeueia noanoaioeaaoe?y eaoaai??? aoooy,
“ci?ia?” iaeiinoi?iii?noue o?aeoiaee aoiino ye a?ieia?/iiai aai
nioe?aeueiiai yaeua oa eia?/ii iiynith? aca?iica’ycie oeeo aeaio noi??i
i?e?iaee ethaeeie a ?noi?e/iiio iinooi? oeea?e?caoe??. Iaa?oioiaaii
aeaoa?i?iaioio “aaaeeea?noue” aoooy iaaiiai ia?iaeo a aoiiaaiac?, ui
aeaei ciiao iieacaoe ?noi??th iinooio ethaenoaa ye ?acoeueoao oaioe/iiai
iaeeaaeaiiy aneiao?e/ieo oaiaeaioe?e ia i?ioeaaao ?icoi?iith ?noi??? ye
e?i?eiiai i?ia?ano. Aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaaii ye aoiiaaiaoe/io
?aaeuei?noue, aeina?ae ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, yeee ?acii c
iaoe?iiaeueiith ?aea?th, aoi?/iith iaioaeuei?noth oiui, ?
aeaoa?i?iaioith noaiiaeaiiy oa aoooy an?o iaoe?e.

Aeine?aeaeaii nai???aei?noue oeea?e?caoe?eiiai iinooio Oe?a?ie a
ieioeiio oa nueiaiaeaii?, ie?aneaii ia?niaeoeae ??
eoeueoo?ii-ainiiaea?nueeiai iaeaoooy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoiiaaiac, aeina?ae aeeooy, iinooi, neai?o?eaoeaia
?aei?noue, niin?a aoooy, ni?eueiioa, aoi?/ia ?aeaioe/i?noue, no?oeoo?a
nioe?oio, nioe?ieoeueoo?ia ?aaeuei?noue, aoiieia?/ia ia?aaeeaia.

Noaieei I.O. Oeeinionei-iaoiaeieiae/aneee aiaeec noaiiaeaiey e auoey
yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo iauiinoae. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeinioneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.03 – nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey e oeeinioey enoi?ee. –
Einoeooo oeeinioee eiaie A.N.Neiai?iaeu IAI Oe?aeiu. – Eeaa, 1998.

Aaoi? ?ac?aaioae iiaua eiioeaiooaeueiua ia?aaeeaiu iniuneaiey neiaeiuo e
i?ioeai?a/eauo yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee, enoiaey ec o?aeoiaee
oaiiiaia yoiina eae eoeueoo?iie iauiinoe ethaeae, aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiie
niiniaii eo auoey. Ia?aaeeaiaeueiay noanoaioeaaoeey eaoaai?ee auoey
“nieiaao” iaeiinoi?iiiinoue o?aeoiaee yoiina eae aeieiae/aneiai eee
nioeeaeueiiai yaeaiey e eiae/ii iauyniyao acaeiinaycue yoeo aeaoo noi?ii
i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea a enoi?e/aneii iinooiaoaeueiii aeaeaeaiee
oeeaeeecaoeee. Iainiiaaia aeaoa?ieiaioiay “aaaeiinoue” niiniaa auoey a
yoiiaaiacena ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?iaea, /oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue iieacaoue
enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa eae ?acoeueoao oaioe/aneiai iaeiaeaiey
anneiao?e/aneeo oaiaeaioeee a i?ioeaiaan iiieiaieth eno?ee eae
eeiaeiiai i?ia?anna. Aeaoaeueii i?iaiaeece?iaaia eae yoiiaaiaoe/aneay
?aaeueiinoue, iiuo /aeiaa/aneie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue aianoa n
iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeaae, yoie/aneie iaioaeueiinoueth e o.ae., yaeyaony
aeaoa?ieiaioie noaiiaeaiey e auoey anao iaoeee.

Yoiieiae/aneay cia/eiinoue eiioeaioeee aeeciaiiiai iiuoa caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi iia yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiie aeueoa?iaoeaie ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneiio
i?aaenoaaeaieth i ?acaa?ouaaiee yoiiaaiaca e, anoanoaaiii, aai
caaa?oaiee, enoiaey eo eiaeee ?acai?a/eaaiey eaeiai-eeai
iniiaiiieaaathuaai iniiaaiey. Yoiiaaiac — yoi aoyaeaaiea a iaeanoue
acaeiiaeaenoaey ana aieueoaai eiee/anoaa ia?iaeia. E anee yoi auei
oa?aeoa?ii aeey ieaiaie, ia?iaeiinoe e iaoeee, oi iiaeia i?iaiice?iaaoue
aicieeiiaaiea e oaeeo iauiinoae, eioi?ua «nieiatho» i?eciaee iaoeee.
Eiathony a aeaeo «iaiiaoeeiiaeeciu». Eo iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae
aeaeaeaiey ca iauaaeeiaiea a aaeeiie eoeueoo?ii-iieeoe/aneie iauiinoe
ianeieueeeo, aieueoae /anoueth, niaaeiuo ainoaea?noa ia iniiaa iauaai
niiniaa auoey eee «?iaenoaaiiinoe eoeueoo?».

Eae oaiiiai aeeciaiiue iiuo yaeyaony naii?aaoee?oaiui oieaa?naeueiei
nioeeieoeueoo?iei eiiieaenii, eioi?ue aeiieiyao ooieoeethth eioaa?aoeee
eiaeeaeaeia a iauiinoe e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee io ae?oaeo iauiinoae ia
iniiaa noaaanoee (aeeciaiiue iiuo ia iauyniyao, a aiooaao). Ae?oaea
nioeeieoeueoo?iua eiiieaenu: iaoea, eneonnoai, ii?aeue, iieeoeea e i?aai
— naie ioaeaeathony a i?aaiecaoeee e ?aaoee?iaaiee. Oi anoue aeeciaiiue
iiuo yaeyaony oie ?aaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao aooaioe/iia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aoiina ia anao aoaiao aoiiaaiaca iin?aaenoaii
ia?aaea/e iniaaiiinoae niiniaa auoey a ?yaeo i?eoiaeyueo iieieaiee.

?ac?aaioaiiua a aeenna?oaoeee iiaeoiaeu e ?ac?aoaieth yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo
i?iaeai yaeythony yoiieiae/anee ia?niaeoeaiuie, iineieueeo ?acaeou a
eiioaenoa iaeeane/aneeo oaiaeaioeee e o/aiee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie
oeeinioee. Ia?auaiea e eaoaai?eyi «aeecie» (Aeeeueoae), «aeeciaiiiai
ie?a» (Aonna?eue), «aiee e aeecie» (Oiiaiaaoy? e Ieoeoa) e ae?., eioi?ua
i/a?/uaatho a?aieoeu naiiniciaiey, iuoeaiey, ?acoia, iiciaiey — aianoa n
i?eiaiaieai iaoiaeia oeeinioneie aa?iaiaaoeee aianoi o?aaeeoeeiiiie
i?eaioaoeee ia ii?iu e eaeaaeu anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai iauyniaiey ie?a —
ninoaaeyao a oeaeii caeiiiia?iue oeeinionei-iaoiaeieiae/aneee iooue e
iaeeanne/aneiio ia?aco iauanoaa eae noa?u ni-auoey ethaeae, a ia oieueei
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniiaiiieiaeiui iniiaaieai oaeie ia?niaeoeau yaeyaony
i?aiaeieaiea eethci?iinoe i?aaenoaaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie aeecie oieueei a
iiaeaeueiinoe «ss aeaenoaoth», nia?aiaiiui iineaaenoaeai eioi?ie,
yaeyaony iiaeaiea «iiaeoeueiiai /aeiaaea» (Y.Aaeeia?). Aiciiaeia, ii
iaioae ia?a, aeaooieoniinoue /aeiaa/aeiai oaiiiaia: «ss aeaenoaoth» e
«ss anoue».

A eiioaenoa ?ac?aaioaiie iiaeaee i?iaiaeeciaaii i?ioean ?acaeoey
oe?aeineiai aoiina. Iieacaii, /oi enoi?einioey oe?aeineiai ia?iaea yoi
ia noieueei ia?a/eneaiea niauoee ia ii?aaeaeaiiie
i?e?iaeii-oa??eoi?eaeueiie (aaiiieeoe/aneie) ?aaeueiinoe, neieueei eo
aeeyiea e cia/aiea aeey eiinoeooe?iaaiey naiaia?acey e oeaeanoiinoe
/aeiaa/aneeo niiauanoa, eioi?ua nouanoaiaaee ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu.
Oaeie iiaeoiae yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiie aeueoa?iaoeaie i?iecaieueiie
eiiaeiaoeee (o eaaeaeiai aaoi?a naiae) oaeoi?ia yoiiaaiaca, eioi?ua
ii?aaeaeyee ?acaeoea oe?aeineiai yoiina. A oaeeo eiiaeiaoeeyo iu eiaai
aeaei n ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie ?aaeoeoeeae yoie/aneie eoeueoo?u e iaeiie ec
aa neaaaaiuo, ii?aaeaeaiea aai aeaoa?ieiaioiie ?iee a auoee e
noaiiaeaiee oie eee eiie iauiinoe. Enoiaey ec i?aaeeiaeaiie a
aeenna?oaoeee ia?aaeeaiu i?aaenoaaeyaony iaei??aeoiui aano?aeoiia
ii?aaeaeaiea oa?aeoa?enoee ia?iaeia, ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo ea/anoa iaoeee,
iaioaeueiinoe e i?aanoaaiii-yoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae yoiinia eo
ii?aaeaeaiea eee eae noaoai oeaai?ianeeo, eee eiaeono?eaeueiuo, eee
oi?aaeai/aneeo.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca iniaaiinoae oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai iinooia Oe?aeiu,
ii?aaeaeaiu ia?niaeoeau aa eoeueoo?ii-oicyenoaaiiiai aoaeouaai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yoiiaaiacen, iiuo aeecie, iinooi, neaieoeeaoeaiia
aaeeinoai, niinia auoey, iauiinoue, yoie/aneay eaeaioe/iinoue, no?oeoo?a
nioeeoia, nioeeieoeueoo?iay ?aaeueiinoue, yoiieiae/aneay ia?aaeeaia.

Stepiko M.T. Philosophical-methodological analysis of the
ethnonational communities’ being and growing. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 09.00.03 — social philosophy
and philosophy of history. — Skovoroda Institute of philosophy of
National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The author elaborated the new conceptual paradigms for comprehension of
the complicated and contradictual ethnonational relations, starting from
treatment of the ethnos phenomenon as cultural human community,
determinated by the manner of their being. Paradigmal substantiation of
the being category, makes possible to overcome the one-sided ethnos
treatment as biological or social event and to explain logically the
mutual crossing two sides of human nature according to the civilization
historical movemen. It is proved the determinative importance of all
being mannck of the certlin peoples for ethnogenesis, what demonstrated
mankind’s historical movement as the result of chaos-similar
application of the athimetrical tendencies in contrast to comrehension
of the civilization growing as the linear process. It was thoroughly
analised the experience of the human activity as the ethnogenetical
reality, which along with national idea, ethnical mentality etc. is the
determinant of all nations’ growing and being.

Author investigated the peculiarity of the Ukraine’s civilizative
movement in the past and in the determined the possible perspectives its
cultural and economical future.

Key words: being, ehnogenesis, life experience, movement, signicative
unity, manner of being, community, ethnical identity, socium structure,
sociocultural reality, ethnological paradigm.

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