Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee

OAeE 18.7.01

OE?I*AIEI NA?OEAIA TH???AIA

O?EINIONUeEEE EIIOAENO A?O?OAEOO?E

IINOIIAeA?I?CIO

niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.08 anoaoeea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe OAIE AeINE?AeAEAIIss. Iacaaaeath/e ia oie oaeo, ui oaio
iinoiiaea?i?cio, ?, cie?aia, — o?einionueeiai, /anoeiai ?ic?iaeaii o
a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo??, — ia ci?ia?oueny ieoaiiy uiaei ioe?iee e
inieneaiiy ye naieo i?iaeai, ui ian ia?aae ieie noaaeoue neooaoe?y
iinoiiaea?i?cio, oae ? aeo?aeieo i?eioeei?a aeey iinoaiiaee oeeo naieo
i?iaeai. A?ae oiai, ui ca?ac ie niinoa??aa?ii iaaio aoiio a?ae oa?i?io
“iinoiiaea?i?ci” (iiae?aia, ai/aaeaeue, noinoaaoeiaoueny
“aeaeiino?oeoe??”), neooaoe?y ye oaea ia cieea? c iiey ci?o o?einio?a ?
oai?aoee?a a?o?oaeoo?e. Iaeiae, aieiaiith iiceoe??th aeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? noaoe ia iiooe i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o — ?aeay oa ??
eiie?aoia ao?eaiiy a oiio /e ?ioiio a?o?oaeoo?iiio ia’?eo?, aea aiae?c
aeeneo?neaieo aoaeo?a, ui noai?eee iaai? oiiae — aeeniiceoe?th ?aeae —
aeey noai?aiiy oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? a?o?oaeoo?e. Aaaeeeaei aeaeyaea? ?
ia?ainieneaiiy “iaea?/iiai eiio?aeoo i?ae o?einio??th ? a?o?oaeoo?ith”
(AE.Aea???aea) naia c iiceoe?e iiae?aiino? no?oeoo?ecoth/i? aeanoeaino?
iaio — a?o?oaeoo?e ye noai?aiiy iaaiiai ?iaeo ‘aeiio’ o ae?th/?e
?ai?acaioaoeai?e nenoai?, oa o?einio?? ye ?ai?acaioaoe?? ‘ii?yaeeo’ ?
ciaiiy. Iiae?aia oi/ea ci?o aeieeaaoeia ? ?c niaoeeo?/iino? a?o?oaeoo?e,
yea iieyaa? a ?? nai???aei?e anacaaaeueiino? ? anai?enooiino?.
Ieoeaoeaio?eci, iieeaaeaiee a iniiao ?a?iiaenueeeo eoeueoo?ieo iiaoaeia,
ciooo? ian ?iaeoe iaaiein ia naiaioe/iiio aniaeo? a?o?oaeoo?e, yeee
i?iyaey?oueny naia /a?ac ?ai?acaioaoeaio aeanoea?noue inoaiiuei?.
Iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie a oaeiio eeth/? — o?einio?y ? a?o?oaeoo?a
iinoiiaea?i?cio — ia? ia iao? ia o?eueee ? ia no?eueee ciaoiaeaeaiiy
iaaieo ni?eueieo oaiaeaioe?e ? ?en iaio, ne?eueee aeoeaiooaaiiy naii?
iiaeeeaino? aeae?eyoe oe? ni?euei? ?ene: eaeaoueny ia i?inoi i?i
‘iice/aiiy’ aai ‘ao?eaiiy’ a a?o?oaeoo?? iniiaieo oai iinoiiaea?i?cio, a
i?i ni?eueiee i?ino?? oiai, ui ie iaceaa?ii a?o?oaeoo?ith, ? oiai, ui ie
iaceaa?ii iinoiiaea?i?ciii. ?ioeie neiaaie, eaeaoueny i?i ?icoe?aiiy
noa?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? a?aeiioaiue i?ae ‘a?oeeoeueiaaiei’ ? ‘a?coaeueiei’
aai aeeneo?naie ? o?ce/ieie ia’?eoaie — a?o?oaeoo?ieie no?oeoo?aie ?
nii?oaeaie.

NOOI?IUe ?IC?IAEE I?IAEAIE. Iacaaaeath/e ia aeineoue iiaaaeiee ei?ion
i?aoeue c ieoaiue iinoiiaea?i?cio o?einionueeiai ? iinoiiaea?i?cio
a?o?oaeoo?iiai, iayaiith ? iio?aaa o aeine?aeaeaiiyo iane??cieo
iaoai?ci?a ? aeeneo?neaieo oiia ooai?aiiy, eiioi?eaoe?? ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy cia/aiue a a?o?oaeoo?? ye ooo/ii ooai?aiiio na?o? ?
a?o?oaeoo?? iinoiiaea?i?cio, cie?aia. Iaeiae, o iiae?aiiio eeth/? aeaia
i?iaeaia o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? iaeaea ia ?ic?iaeyeany. (A iaaeao
icia/aii? oaie o?aaa a?aecia/eoe aeeneo/ee anae N.E?einueeiai ?
A.Ai?nueeiai a ca??oe? “Ioa/anoaaiiay oeeinioneay iuneue XI-XVII a.a. e
a?a/aneay eoeueoo?a”, E., 1991. I?ioa, ooo ii?oooaaeanue niaoeeo?ea
a?o?oaeoo?iiai nieneiooai?aiiy /an?a Na?aaeiueia?//y ia i?eeeaae?
no?oeoo?e o?enoeyinueeiai o?aio — Nio?? Ee?anueei?.)

O oie /e ?ioee niin?a ie?ai? iiiaioe ?ic?iaeyeeny ?in?enueeeie
aeine?aeieeaie E.Aa?oiaiii, A.?eiii?eiaei, A.Ia?eociiii, A.Oniainueeei,
A.Ao?aae/ai, I.A?oai’?aith, A.?aac?iei oa ?i.. I?ioa, cacia/eii, ui a
oeeo i?aoeyo ia ii?oooaaeenue i?iaeaie iinoiiaea?ii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??.
Iiina?aaeeiaaiee aieea ia ?ic?iaeo oeo /e ?ioeo aniaeo?a oe??? oaie iaee
TH.Eioiai, N.Aaa??ioeaa, I.Aaoo?i, I.Aaoiiiiiaa, A.Ein?eia, ?.?eue?i,
A.Aa?aaeaea, I.Aaeaeaiei, A.Ae/eia, I.Oeo?aaiiaa.

Aiaeii/an, nai? ooiaeaiaioaeueia ii?aoethaaiiy iaeaeaa ‘e?eea’ —
iinoiiaea?i?ci o?einionueeee ? a?o?oaeoo?iee — ae?noaee a ?iaioao
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo cao?aeieo oe?e ? iai?yie?a — a?ae E.Eaa?-No?inna,
O.aea Ninnth?a, ?.sseianiia, C.O?aeaea, AE.Eaeaia, A.Iaiione?,
A.Aiia??oa, I.Aaeaea??a?a, A.-A.Aaaeaia?a, I.??ea?a, E.Aeueoonna?a,
A.Eaoaa?a, O.?aeoiia, O.Aeaeaeiniia ? aei I.Ooei, ?.Aa?oa, TH.E??noaai?,
AE.Aea???aea, AE.-O.Eueioa?a, AE.Aeaeaca oa O.Yaaooa??, ? o.ae ? o.ae..
Ooo iaiiaeeeai iieiooe e?eoee?a oai?i?noe/iiai iai?yieo — E.Ioaina,
A.N?eno, N.Eiooiai, E.????a?ae, E.Iaeaae, A.Y?in oa
e?eoee?a-eoeueoo?ieia?a I.aea Na?oi, I.?ioc, Ae.Aieue??a, A.Oinoa?a,
I.A???e?i, A.Nioaeae?, A.Oeueia?a, I.Eae?ianeo, A.Naeaea, A.Aannaia,
AE.Aiae??ey?a, I.IaeEuethaaia, I.Oeonna?a, E.O?aeea?a, Ae.Ea??ieea,
?.E?aonn, I.Nae?oia, E.Ii???na oa ?i.. Ie?aii ne?ae iacaaoe AE.Aaoaey,
yeiai aaaaeathoue ‘i?aaeoa/ath’ ienoaoeueeiai iinoiiaea?i?cio.

C aieo a?o?oaeoo?iiai, oaia ae?noaea ?ic?iaeo a i?aoeyo A.A?aeea?a,
I.A??e?, A.Eaeoaoia, A.Ia?ana-Yiiana, E.O?aiioiia, Aeae.??eaa?oa,
Ae.Aanaeiai, I.Oaoo??, O.Oiae oa ?i.. Ie?aii iacaaii ?.A?ooeiaa?a,
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy yeiai aoea aeiaa Aoiai?cio. A oie /an, ye
I.A??e? ?icaeyaeaa eeoa a?o?oaeoo?o ? o?einio?th aeaeiino?oeoe??, i?aoe?
A.A?aeea?a, neaae?ii, ? aeeneo/eie, aea o?a?iaioa?ieie ca??eaie
e?eoe/ieo noaoae, ui iathoue iane??cio oaio, i?ioa ia yaeythoue niaith
aeania nenoaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie. Ae.Aanaeee i?aaenoaaey? oe?eo
na??th aeine?aeaeaiue yaeua a?o?oaeoo?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe??, i?ioa a?i
iaiaaeo? nai? caaaeaiiy eiinoaoaoe??th iayaiino? oaia??oiuei? e?ece, ia
‘i?aia?oth/e’ ?? ? aiae?coth/e eeoa ‘?noi?e/iee oeyo’, ui i?eca?a aei
ia?.

A?o?oaeoi?e I.Aecaiiai oa A.Oothi? a?aeii? oaeiae nai?ie oai?aoe/ieie
oaenoaie, iaeiae naia ooo ie noeea?iinue c i?iaeaiith ‘ia?aianaiiy’
?aeae ye oaeiai: i?yiee oeyo a?ae i?ia?aie aei a?o?oaeoo?e, yeo ie ia?ii
ni?eeiaoe, /eoaoe, ?ioa?i?aooaaoe naia ca?aeii ?c iaienaiei
a?o?oaeoi?aie noi?ia?aeiei oaenoii.

C iaeiiai aieo, neooaoe?y oaeiai ‘??ciiaieinny’ ? oe?iiei yaeuai naia ii
nia?, ? aeaeyaea? oae, ui noai?aiiy iaii?aiii? ea?oeie iana a nia?
iaaaciaeo oai?aoe/ii? iiiiiie?caoe??. C ?ioiai aieo, eiaeia ni?iaa
aeaoaeiaoaaiiy oaei? iaii?aie ? ei?eniith c oi/ee ci?o aeai?o iaoiaeo,
ia?niaeoeae aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ici?uaiiy aeoeaio?a.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaiiiai a?o?oaeoo?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe??
(nieneiooai?aiiy).

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue noeoii?noue iaaieo i?eioeei?a
a?o?oaeoo?iiai nieneiooai?aiiy (? a?aeiia?aeii — ?ioa?i?aoaoe??)
ana?aaeei? ??cieo oei?a o?einionueeiai aeeneo?no, ia?aaeian?i
iinoiiaea?iiai.

IAOA ? CAAAeAIIss AeENA?OAOe??. Iaoith ?iaioe ? aiae?c oaiiiaia
a?o?oaeoo?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe?? (ia i?eeeaaeao eiie?aoieo ?ai?acaioaoeaieo
nenoai), anoaiiaeaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe?y iiaeaeae ? i?eioeei?a eiai
ca’yce?a c o?einionueeei aeeneo?nii.

?aae?caoe?y oe??? iaoe iio?aao? oi?ioethaaiiy oa ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo
caaaeaiue:

iaeyaeo ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeaiaoeee iinoiiaea?i?cio oa aeae?eaiiy
i?aaaethth/eo oai, ui ? ni?eueieie ye aeey a?o?oaeoo?e, oae ? aeey
o?einio?? iinoiiaea?i?cio: /a?ac eiie?aoecaoe?th ? ciaoiaeaeaiiy
ia?aeaeae ?c oei, ui ia ia?oee iiaeyae aeaeyaea? aeaeaeei aai
i?ioeeaaeiei.

c’ynoaaiiy iaoai?ci?a ? aeeneo?neaieo oiia ooai?aiiy, eiioi?eaoe?? ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy cia/aiue a a?o?oaeoo??. Oea aeiaaaoeia:

— iinoaiiaee ieoaiiy uiaei i?e?iaee ca’yceo a?o?oaeoo?e ? o?einio??;

— c’ynoaaiiy noo? yaeua a?o?oaeoo?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe??;

— c’ynoaaiiy i?e?iaee ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ai?acaioaoeaiiai iaoai?cio; ooo
aea noaaeoueny i?iaeaia aaeaeaaoiino? a?o?oaeoo?iiai oi?iiaeyaeaiiy ?
noa?e neiaie?/iiai, a oaeiae ?ioa?i?aoaoe??;

— iinoaiiaee ieoaiiy uiaei iiaeeeaino? eiie?aoecaoe?? ? o?enaoe??
aeeneo?neaieo oiia — aeeniiceoe?? iaaieo ?aeae.

OAI?AOEEI-IAOIAeIEIA?*IITH INIIAITH ?IAIOE ?:

aeaiaioe nai?ioe/iiai aiae?co

aeaiaioe eiiia?aoeaiiai aiae?co

aeaiaioe iinono?oeoo?ae?cio:

i?eioeei iioieia?caoe?? iiiyooy “oaenoo” (cie?aia ’aeeneo?neaiino?
a?coaeueiiai’)

i?eioeei “iinono?oeoo?ae?nonueeiai ?noi?ecio”

i?eioeei “iaoiaeieia?/ieo noii?a?a” aai aeaoeaio?aoe??

iiceoe?? “e?eoe/ii? iioieia??”

i?eioeei “a?eueiinyaath/i?” ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oa “iinoiiaea?i?nonueei?
/ooo?aino?” aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e a?o?oaeoo?e oa aiae?co ?ai?acaioaoeaieo
nenoai, ui ooai?ththoue i?ino??

i?eioeei “o?eaniino? na?aeiiino?”

IAOEIAA IIAECIA AeENA?OAOe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui o ?iaio? aia?oa o
a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci ? i?e?iaeo yaeua
a?o?oaeoo?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe?? oa i?iaaaeaii iiooe i?eioeei?a eiai
ca’yce?a c o?einionueeei aeeneo?nii, cie?aia, iinoiiaea?i?ciii. Ia oe?e
iniia? iine?aeiaii i?iaiaeeoueny ni?iaa aeyaeoe oo yaio ? iayaio
iia’ycai?noue, ui ?nioth? i?ae o?einio??th ye ?ai?acaioaoe??th
‘ii?yaeeo’ ? ciaiiy (aeeneo?neaieie oiiaaie) oa a?o?oaeoo?ith ye
i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ? iai?oanoaoe??th oeeo aeeneo?neaieo oiia, ye? ?
ooai?ththoue ae?th/o nenoaio a?aeia?aaeaiiy oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. Oaeee
iai?? aeiaaa? ye iiia?aaeiueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo oiia, oae ? aiae?co
iaoai?cio ?o i?iyaeaiiy a a?o?oaeoo??. Oea coiiaeth? cina?aaeaeai?noue
ia ‘ia?aiao?ao aoooy’ — /an? ? i?inoi??, a oaeiae oaiiiai? ooai?aiiy ?
niiniaao ?nioaaiiy eieaeoeaii? iai’yo?. ?ioei aaaeeeaei iiiaioii
aeaeyaea? ia o?eueee eiinoaoaoe?y oaeoo ?nioaaiiy “aeenoeeie?ia?ieo
oaoiieia?e”, aea ia??oiooaaiiy oace i?i oa, ui a?o?oaeoo?a ? ?
iiaeeea?noth, ? oiiaith — i?noeai — ?oiueiai ?nioaaiiy oa a?aeoai?aiiy
acaaae?.

A?aeiia?aeii, ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee:

1) A ?acoeueoao? iaeyaeo ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei aiae?co iinoiiaea?i?cio,
?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui inoaii?e o?ao?o? a eoeueoo?ieo i?aeoeeao ye:
iinoiiaea?i?ci ni?ioeao (oiaoi aeoe?y ii aeaeiino?oeoe?? iiaea?i?cio oa
?ioeo oe?ii?nieo nenoai); oa iinoiiaea?i?ci ye ?aaeoe?y (aenieoaoaoe?y
aeinooiieo eoeueoo?ieo eiae?a). Aeae?eai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? i’youe oai,
i?enooi? a a?o?oaeoo?? ? o?einio?? iinoiiaea?i?cio. Oea, aeania,
i?ioenoaaeaiiy: i?enooiino? aai ?ai?acaioaoe?? aiae?co ? e?eoeoe?
?ai?acaioaoeaieo nenoai, oe?e?niino? — aaoa?iaaiiino?, iiiaeeiiino?,
ieth?ae?cio, aeaea?ae aai iioiaeaeaiiy — naiioe?iiino? aai aeia?eueiino?
‘iiooeo aeaea?aea’, o?ainoeaiaeaioiino? ii?i — ?oi?e ?iaiaioiino?. sse
‘no?aoa(?y’ a eiaeiiio c aeiaaee?a i?iiiio?oueny aiae?c yaeu iaoiaeii
aeyaeaiiy ?iaeoino? ye ?oiuei? neeaaeiai?, a a?aeiia?aeii ? oiiae ?o
?nioaaiiy acaaae?.

2) Aaaaea?ii, ui no?oeoo?ecoth/a iiae?ai?noue a?o?oaeoo?e ? o?einio??
i?iyaey?oueny o ?o ni?euei?e oaeaieia?/i?e ooieoe??: iiaoaeia? ‘aeiio’
oai?aoe/iiai ? aeooaeueiiai; ia??oioiaaii ?iciaaeoaaiiy iiiyoue
«aoaeeiie» ? «ae?i», o oeueiio na?oe? «aoaeeiie» iinoa? ye i?eioeei
no?oeoo?e, naiai ?iaeo o?ce/ia oi?ia, a «ae?i» — ye oyaia eiino?oeoe?y,
i?o?/ia eiio??o?aoe?y. O oe?e ia?niaeoea? ae?i ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
aeo?aeiee i?eioeei aeey aecia/aiiy ‘aioo??oiueino?’, ii eiio?anoo aei
‘ciai?oiueino?’, oiaoi ye i?iaaaeaiiy aeao?i?oe?eii? e?i?? aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy on?o ianooiieo iiaeeeaeo iiiceoe?e; ca?aene ‘aoaeeiie’
iinoa? ye nai???aeia ia?aaee?ia aecia/aiiy i?inoi?o.

3) ?ai?acaioaoe?th aecia/aii ye niin?a, o yeee a?o?oaeoo?a yaey? naaa,
noa? i?enooiueith o iaoiio na?o?; iieacaii, ui ‘iaaeaeeia’
?aaeuei?noue/noa?a neiaie?/iiai/ i?iyaey?oueny a i?ioean? ?ai?acaioaoe??
— aeo? nieneiooai?aiiy, ui aea? i?aenoaae aiai?eoe i?i i?eioeeie
ooai?aiiy ?ai?acaioaoeaii? nenoaie (a oaeiae ? i?i oa, ui i?aeeyaa?
cia?aaeaiith, aeoeaioo?oueny aai caiia/o?oueny — oiaoi i?i ae?th/o
nenoaio a?aeia?aaeaiiy); aeoiaey/e ?c oeueiai, aecia/a?ii a?o?oaeoo?o
aeaeiino?oeoe?? ye aeae niaoeeo?/iiai aiae?co ?ai?acaioaoeaieo ?
oe?ii?nieo nenoai, ui ooai?ththoue i?ino??.

A?o?oaeoo?i? ia’?eoe ?icaeyaeathoueny ye aeneiaethaaiiy iaaiiai ?iaeo,
oiio (e??i i?aaee a?aeia?aaeaiiy) noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue
?nioaaiiy iaoa-iiae a?o?oaeoo?e (a?aeiia?aeue — ia?aoeaia).

A?o?oaeoo?a ia ? iicaaeeneo?neaiei ooai?aiiyi, oiio, ?icaeyaeath/e ??
ia’?eoe ye “aeneiaethaaiiy” (nieneia? eiino?oeoe??), ?iaeii aeniiaie
uiaei niiniao ? iaiaaeaiue, aai iiaeeeaino?, ?o ?nioaaiiy o iaai?e
aeeneo?neai?e oi?iaoe??, oiaoi aaaaea?ii, ui oe? ia’?eoe i?aeeyaathoue
/eiiei i?aaeeai ‘aeaieioaiiy aeneiaethaaiiy’ oe??? oi?iaoe??; iiiyooy
«aeeneo?neaii? oi?iaoe??» aea? iai ea??oeii?noue aeey iiooeo
‘i??ai?coth/eo i?eioeei?a’ — aeeneo?neaieo aoaeo?a; aaaaea?ii, ui ??ci?
aeeneo?neai? oi?iaoe?? iathoue ‘na?e’ aeinooi aei iaaieo iane??cieo oai
(eoeueoo?ii? ?aea? iai’yoieea, iiiceoe?e ana?aaeei?-?cciai?,
?aoe?iiaeueiiai-???aoe?iiaeueiiai, i?e?ieinio-iae?ieinio), oiaoi oe?
oaie iathoue ?icaeyaeaoeny c aeaio ia?niaeoea — eiioeiooio ?
aeene?aoiino?, ca?aene — i?eioeeie ?nioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeeo oai
o iaaiiio /aniaiio i?inoi??, ?noi?e/i?noue.

Ia aaeeeiio eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio iaoa??ae? ?ice?eoi ? i?iaiae?ciaaii
iaoai?ci ?iaioe eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?inoi?o a?o?oaeoo?e. A?aeooiaooth/enue
a?ae oeueiai, aaiaeeii iiiyooy ?inoeoooe?eiiai ea?eano, neeaaeiaeie
yeiai aecia/eii aoaeo i?ciaaaiiy (aa/aiiy+i?enooi?noue=?icoi?iiy) ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, aeieo/aiiy aei ei?iono ‘iioe/iiai ciaiiy’ — ae?iaeaiiy
oi?iiy aiiioiaoaaoe naaa o iio??aio/iaaio nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?io
oe?e?ni?noue. A?aoiaioiaaii aeniiaie i?i a?o?oaeoo?o ye iaeei c
?ino?oiaio?a ?aeaiei(??.

7) Aena?oeaii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii ?ieue a?o?oaeoo?e ye iaeiiai c iniiaieo
aeaiaio?a oi?ioaaiiy eieaeoeaii? iai’yo? — “Ie ? iaoiai nioe?aeueiiai
?ia(i”; a ?acoeueoao? /iai iaea?aeo?ii iiaeeea?noue ?icaeyaeaoe o?aai?ci
ye ?ino?oiaioaeueio oai??th oa i?aeoeeo eiino?othaaiiy i?noa ye
nai???aeiiai iai’yoieea naiiio nia?.

8) ?ice?eaa?oueny ? a?aoiaioo?oueny iiceoe?y i?i a?o?oaeoo?o ia ye eeoa
oi?iiooai?aiiy, a ia?aaeian?i ye i?i eiioi?eaoeaiee, ?inoeoooe?eii
iicia/aiee i?ino??,- oiaoi i?noea ? oiiao aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?
a?aeoai?aiiy /eneaiieo «aeenoeeie?ia?ieo oaoiieia?e»; oiio noai?aiiy
‘oeiiai? ee?oeiee i?inoi?o’ iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye aaaeeeaee iiiaio o
i?ioean? noaiaea?oecaoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?;

Aaiaeeoueny iiiyooy oyaiino? ye eiiieaeno, ui ioiieth? oaanue niaeo?
a?ae iniaenoeo oyaeaiue ? oaioac?e aei «cai?ia?aiiaaieo» iniaenoeo ?
eieaeoeaieo «eiino?oeoe?e», oa ?inoeoooe?eii? oyaiino?. Ie?aneth?oueny ?
aecia/a?oueny ?ieue ?inoeoooe?eii? oyaiino? noni?euenoaa, yea aoaeo/e
iai?oanoiaaiith a a?o?oaeoo?? ? a?aeia?aaeath/enue a a?o?oaeoo?iiio
aeeneo?n?, ?iaeoue inoaii?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ca ?inoeoooe?eia
oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaee(iaoe/ii? eiino?oeoe?? i?inoi?o aeey ?ioeo aeeneo?n?a.

IAOEIAI-I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss AeINE?AeAEAIIss iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiai
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oa iaea?aeai? oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?iaeaie nieneiooai?aiiy a
a?o?oaeoo??, ii/eiath/e a?ae na?eicii? iinoaiiaee naii? i?iaeaie ye
oaei?. I/aaeaeii c iniaeeaith aino?ioith oea ieoaiiy iinoa? ca?ac, a
neooaoe?? o?a(iaioiaaiiai na?oo ?, a?aeoae, e?ece ?ai?acaioaoe?? — ia
iaeiiio ??ai?, oa aiaeii/an neooaoe?? ao?aoe a?o?oaeoi?aie (?
a?o?oaeoo?ith) iiceoe?e o noni?euei?e ???a?o?? — ia ?ioiio. A?eueo oiai,
ia?ainieneaiiy i?noey ? ?ie? a?o?oaeoo?e a noai?aii? “eieaeoeaii?
iai’yo?” (aeaoaeiae nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? iniae —
i?eiaeaaeiino? ?? aei iaaii? ni?eueiioe, i?noa, iaoe??, e?a?ie) ?
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei a oiiaao e?a?ie c aeiaaith o?aaeeoe??th
?iia?nueei? caeaaeiino?, ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ia?icaeiaiei iaoai?ciii oaei?
iai’yo?, ui aeeeaa?oueny ? o iaaei?icaeiai?noue “nioe?aeueiiai
i?inoi?o”. Aeeeaaeai? iieiaeaiiy ? cai?iiiiiaai? i?aeoiaee iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo eo?n?a c oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e,
niaoeeo?n?a c anoaoeee, nai?ioeee ia?acioai?/eo ienoaoeoa oa oai???
a?o?oaeoo?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y iieiaeaiue ?iaioe a?aeaoeany ia oai?aoe/ieo nai?ia?ao
oaeoeueoaoo oai??? oa o?einio?? ienoaoeoaa Oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeiai
Oi?aa?neoaoo (I?aaa, 1993-4); i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “AE?iea: /an
naiii?ciaiiy” (Ee?a, o?aaaiue, 1996); i?ae /an /eoaiiy aaoi?ii eo?n?a c
?noi??? oa oai??? eoeueoo?e ? oai??? a?o?oaeoo?e a Oe?a?inuee?e
Aeaaeai?? Ienoaoeoa (1995-1996).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe coiiaeaia caaaeaiiyi ? iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa aiaiaeeeno.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ANOOI? ia(?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?icaeyaea?oueny nooi?iue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneththoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?iaioe
oa oi?ioeththoueny iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O IA?O?E *ANOEI? A?O?OAEOO?A ? AeAEIINO?OEOe?ss ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy
i?e?iaee ca’yceo a?o?oaeoo?e ? o?einio??; aecia/aiino? ? aecia/aiiy
a?o?oaeoo?e ye inai?iiai ? ‘iaeiiaoiaiiai’, ?inoeoooe?eii iicia/aiiai
i?inoi?o.

aeaaa 1.1. Ia?aianaiiy /e ni?a-?nioaaiiy? ii/eia?oueny ni?iaith
aecia/eoe, yeei /eiii o?einio?y aeaeiino?oeoe?? ? i?enooiueith a
a?o?oaeoo??, ui, aeania, aeiaaa? iinoaiiaee ieoaiiy ye i?i i?e?iaeo
iiae?aiino? iaio, oae ? i?i i?e?iaeo ‘ia?aianaiiy’(ia?aaaaeaiiy) ?aeae c
iaeiiai aeeneo?no aei ?ioiai. I?enooi?noue a?o?oaeoo?e (aai niin?a ??
?nioaaiiy) ia?o ca ana aeaiaeeii ?c eiioeaioe?? ‘?nioaaiiy’ (iaae?eaiiy
nieneii ? ia(?oiooaaiiy), yea, ye aaaaea? AE.Aea???aea, oaea aeeth/a? a
naaa aeayeee aeaiaio ianeeuenoaa. A iaae?eaiiy nieneii aai noai?aiiy
i?inoi??a ye iniiaia ? iniaeeaa ae?yeuei?noue a?o?oaeoo?e aoaea naiai
?iaeo ianeeueieoeueeei no?oeoo?oaaiiyi. I?ioa, oea no?oeoo?oaaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia o aaeooi?, a o aeeoioii?/iiio ?aaeei?. C iaeiiai aieo,
a?o?oaeoo?a ia?aaoaa? o nai?io aeaniiio i?inoi?? ‘aeanii?o/’ noai?aii?
o?aaeeoe??. C ?ioiai ae aieo, a?o?oaeoo?iee aeeneo?n ia?aie?oa?oueny,
eiioai?io?oueny, ? o.ae. ?ioeie aeeneo?naie. Ia eeoa o AE.Aea???aea ie
aa/eii caeaaei?noue ? ‘ia/aoue’ ieneaiiy a oa?i?iao a?o?oaeoo?e, ui
i?iaeyaea?, aeania, ? a naiiio neia? ‘aeaeiino?oeoe?y’, oeae niin?a
ieneaiiy aeaaii i?enooi?e o o?einionueeiio aeeneo?n?. Iiae?aiee o?ae —
oea ia i?inoa i?iaaaeaiiy aiaei??e, oaea ‘iiae?ai?noue’ aecia/a?oueny
naia i?e?iaeith iaio: a?o?oaeoo?e ye ‘noai?aiiy’, aoae?aieoeoaa na?oo o
ae?th/?e ?ai?acaioaoeai?e nenoai?, ? o?einio?? ye ?ai?acaioaoe??
‘ii?yaeeo’ ? ciaiiy. Oaia ‘a?o?oaeoo?iino? na?oo’ neeueii cao/eoue o
I.Aaeaea((a?a. ? oa?i?iii ‘aeaeiino?oeoe?y’ ie caaaey/o?ii naia eiio.

Aiae?coth/e aeaeiino?oeoe?th (? ?? a?o?oaeoo?iee aa??aio) c oi/ee ci?o
‘i?aaeiaoo ? iaoiaeo’, i?eoiaeeii aei oaeeo aeniiae?a:

— iacaaaeath/e ia ciai?oi?noue, ‘aeaeiino?oeoe?y’ ia ? a?o?oaeoo?iith
iaoaoi?ith;

— aiia iicia/a? iaaiee niin?a inieneaiiy ? i?aeoiaeo aei (n) oai?aiiy; a
oaeiae eiaeiiai ?aco ? iiae??th (?aeeiith a nai?io ?iae?);

— aiia ‘aeaeiino?oth?’ — ?icae?a? ia neeaaeia? c oei, uia iio?i
neiino?othaaoe ‘iaeii?aciao’ o?einionueeo eiino?oeoe?th eiioeaioe??,
?eoi?eee, no?oeoo?iiai iioeao, nenoaie; i?e /iio iiaa eiino?oeoe?y aoaea
nai???aeiei i?iaoe/iei a?aeoai?aiiyi aai simulacrum’ii ia’?eoa
aeaeiino?oeoe??. (Caaaeyee oeueiio ? iiaeeea?noue iiaeeaeoenue, ui
niaith yaeythoue ? ye anoaiiaeththoueny oiiae ?nioaaiiy ‘o?aaeeoe?eii?
a?o?oaeoo?e’).

aeaaa 1.2 A?o?oaeoo?a ii/eia?oueny oai, aea… aeine?aeaeo? ??ciiiai?oi?
i?aeoiaee aei a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy, yeei /eiii a?aeaoaa?oueny iaoa
ia?aaeeaaiiy / ?icoi?iiy a?o?oaeoo?e. ? i?aenoaae oaa?aeeoe, ui ? aein?
a?o?oaeoo?o ie ia?o ca ana ‘i?cia?i’ ? ni?eeia?ii ye aeania a?o?oaeoo?o
/a?ac ae?th aai aieea, yeee aiia ia ian ia?, aai a?aaeaiiy, yea aiia ia
ian ni?aaey?. Oeae i?eioeei naiai /ano oai?aoe/ii ia(?oiooaaa
A.-E.Aoeea: a?o?oaeoo?ia oi?ia ia? aaia?oaaoe iio??aiee/caaeaiee
oa?aeoa? aieeao, /a?ac yeee iiaeiiee aeinyaaoeny aoaeo: ‘i?ciaaaiiy’,
aeieo/aiiy aei ei?iono iioe/iiai ciaiiy aai caeaoi?noue aaia?oaaoe
?ioa??aoe?th ?iaeea?aea o iio??aio nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?io oe?e?ni?noue.
Iaoa i?i/eoaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy a?o?oaeoo?e ? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaeian?i
naia /a?ac ‘?inoeoooe?ei?noue’ inoaiiuei?. *a?ac oeae ‘?inoeoooe?eiee
ea?ean’ aeaoaeiao?oueny eiioi?eaoeaiee i?ino?? a?o?oaeoo?e. Oiaoi
a?o?oaeoo?o ie ia?aaeian?i ?icaeyaea?ii ye “nioe?ieoeueoo?io
?inoeoooe?th i?ae iacaith ‘a?o?oaeoo?a’”. I?enooi?noue a a?o?oaeoo??
aeaio ‘noi??i’ ?? ?nioaaiiy — o?ce/iiai (?aaeueiiai) ? neiaie?/iiai —
ciooo? ian ieeuei?oa iiaeeaeoenue ia ?ieue a?o?oaeoo?e o ‘iiae?e?’
na?oo: o?ce/iee iiae?e ia ciai?oi?e ? iaaeeoee/aioo??oi?e/caoaeiaaiee
na?o, yeee ? aiaeii/an neiaie?/iei.

Aeae? aiae?cothoueny o?e oa?e a?o?oaeoo?iiai ‘aeni?an?ii?cio’ —
oi?iaeueiee, eiioeaioe?eiee (aano?aeoe?y aai ?aeay oi?iaeueiiai), ?
oaenooaeueiee — a oaeiae aniaeoe ?o o?aaeeoe?eiiai ?
‘aeaeiino?oeoea?nonueeiai’ ni?a?nioaaiiy. Iniaeeaa neiioeaio?iaai?noue
ia oaenooaeueiiio (aai aeeneo?neaiiio) aei??? ia? ?acoeueoaoii iiaee
noaoon a?o?oaeoo?ii? e?eoeee — aiia noa? naiioe?iiith ? ii/anoe
naiiaeinoaoiueith. Oiae? ie ia?ii i?aai eiinoaooaaoe iiyao oaeiai
oaiiiaia ye ia?a-a?o?oaeoo?a (yeee aaiaeeoueny ca aiaei???th aei oa?i?ia
‘ia?a-anoaoeea’ ? ‘ia?a-e?eoeea’, cai?iaaaeaeaiiai Ae. Ea??ieeii,
ia?aeaeueii ?c ‘ia?ae?oa?aoo?ith’ ?.E?aonn). Iiaa?oath/enue aei ‘oi?ie’
i?enooiino? a?o?oaeoo?e a?aecia/eii, ui a?o?oaeoo?a — oea caaaeaee uinue
a?eueoa, i?ae aoaeeiee oa oi?ie ae?yeueiino?, ye? i??ai?ciaothoue oe?
aoaeeiee — ‘o?ce/ia i?enooi?noue’ aai ?ai?acaioaoe?y. Iaeiae, ‘aoaeeiie
ye oaeee’ ? i?/ei ?ioei ye iaoai?ciii ?ai?acaioaoe??. A?i ia ?nio?
‘iica’ /eneaiieie ?ai?acaioaoe?eieie iaoai?ciaie. ? oi/a aoaeeiie
eiino?oth?oueny oeeie ?ai?acaioaoeaieie nenoaiaie — iaai?ii ?eooae?a aai
aeenoeeie?ia?ieo oaoiiei??e, aiie ye?ac ? ? oei, ui eiino?oth? aoaeeiie
ye uinue, ui ia?aaeo? ?i. Ca?aene ie aeoiaeeii ia i?eoiaai?
oneeaaeiaiiy, ui iinoaee naia o ‘i?ioean? noai?aiiy aeiio’. Aea
eaeaoueny ia i?i iiooe “aoaeeie?a” o oaenoao, a i?i iiooe aeeneo?neaieo
aoaeo?a a?ae ?aeae i?i ‘noai?aiiy aeiio’. Iiae?aiee eoo ci?o aeanoue iai
i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe a?o?oaeoo?iee aeeneo?n a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ca
?inoeoooe?eia oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaee?iaoe/ii? eiino?oeoe?? i?inoi?o aeey
?ioeo aeeneo?n?a.

O aeaa? 1.3 Ae?i aeey a?o?oaeoo?e ? ae?i aeey na?oo ?icaeyaea?oueny
i?iaeaia ’no?oeoo?ecoth/i? iiae?aiino?’ a?o?oaeoo?e ? o?einio??.
Aeo?aeiee i?eioeei — ia??oiooaaiiy I.Aaeaea??a?ii oace i?i
“aoae?aieoeoai-iaoeaiiy-ieneaiiy”. Ooo aaaeeeaei ? iioea ‘iiaoaeiae’ —
aei??iaii? no?oeoo?e, ui ?icaeaa?oueny o oaio ‘aeiio’. I?inoi?iaa
iaoaoi?a, ca neiaaie AE. Aea???aea, i?eoaiaiia a?ae ia?iaeaeaiiy
o?einionueeiio aeeneo?no. ?ioeie neiaaie, iaaia ‘ia?aeiia’
i?inoi?ia?noue — anoaiiaeaiiy iiiceoe?? i?ae ‘aioo??oi?i’ ? ‘ciai?oi?i’
— ? iao?eoeath aeey an?o ianooiieo iiaeeeaeo iiiceoe?e. A?eueo oiai, a
oeueiio nain? iaaia i?inoi?ia?noue aoaea iaa?ae’?iia a?ae naii? ?aea?
nenoaie, ? a?aeoae aoaea aaee/eiith iaiiae?eueiith.Ia?ac ‘aoaeeieo’
oiae? ae?? naia ye ia?aaee?ia ‘aioo??oiueino?’ ? anoaiiaeth? ??cieoeth
i?ae ‘aioo??oi?noth’ i?enooiino? ? ‘ciai?oi?noth’ ?ai?acaioaoe??.
‘Aoaeeiie’ ie caaaeaee ia?aaeian?i anioe?th?ii ?c i?iaaaeaiiyi oaei?
aeao?i?oe?eii? e?i?? — ooai?aiiyi ‘aioo??oiueiai’ i?ioenoaaeaiiyi
‘ciai?oiueiio’; oiaoi i?iaaaeaiiy oe??? e?i?? aoaea ae?yoe ye
nai???aeiee iaoai?ci ii ‘iaeiiaoiaiith.’ Ioaea, i?inoi?ia?noue
‘iiaoaeiae na?oo’ iaa?oa?oueny aeiaeiea iiiyooy ‘aoaeeiie’ aai e?aua
neacaoe — aeiaeiea oeo iai?inoeo a?aeiioaiue ? iai?oae, ui aeieea? i?ae
iiiyooyie aoaeeiie (ae?i); aea ia?oee — oea ‘i?eioeei no?oeoo?e’, a
ae?oaee — aaaeaia, ii??yia ‘i?oiei??/ia eiio??o?aoe?y’.

sseui i?eeiyoe aoaeeiie ye ia?aaee?io aecia/aiiy i?inoi?o, oi ae?noaiaii
o?aaeeoe?eia — ‘a?o?oaeoo?a iaaea? i?eooeie’ aai ‘noai?th? ae?i.’
Ca?aene iinooeao i?i oa, ui ‘a?o?oaeoo?a iiaeiia iaoe niene’. Aiia
?ai?acaioo? oeae niene, iaaiei /eiii ae?aaeath/e eiai. Oey neiaie?/ia
aa?o?noue aecia/aea cacaeaeaa?aeue no?oeoo?iee oa neioaeoe/iee aei??e
a?o?oaeoo?e aai ?? oi?io oa ooieoe?th. A ?aei?noue iiiyoue a?o?oaeoo?a ?
ae?i — ?icaeyaeaeany /? i/aaeaeii aoaea ?icaeyaeaoeny/ ye oaeaiei??y.
Iaaeaiiy i?eooeeo aai noai?aiiy aeiio, iiiaoeaiiy, oe?eooy
caaacia/othoue oaein aeey a?o?oaeoo?e. A?o?oaeoo?a aei iaaii? i??e ?
yaey? niaith oa, ui aiia a?oeeoeth?, aiia ? caaacia/o? na?e oaein. Oiae?
? ?? nooi?noue ye a?o?oaeoo?e ie iiynith?ii a oa?i?iao oeueiai oaeino. O
iao?e ia?aaee?iaoe/i?e eiino?oeoe?? — aeii? — i?i?iiciaai?noue aoaeoo
/aai eoeueoo?ieo i/?eoaaiue/ aeeeaa?oueny o iiaoi?aiiy. A iiaoi?aiiy
iethn cae??ieaiiy neeaaeathoue o?aaeeoe?th: iiiioiiia a?aeoai?aiiy
ooieoe??. Ia?ainieneaiiy ‘a?o?oaeoo?ii? oaeaiei???’ noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i
ia?ainieneaiiy iiaoi?aiiy aai ‘iino?eiiai a?aeoai?aiiy,’ oiaoi ?oo a?ae
aeii?ioaaiiy Iaea?/iiai, naieoe?iio? aeiaeaoeia? /ania? ? iioiei??/i?
ia?aiao?e, aeo?ae a?o?oaeoo?e ca aeani? a?aieoe?, iaeeaaeai? ??
i?ecia/aiiyi, a oea aeaaaea ian ia ?io? i?iaeaie: ?noi???,
ia??iaeecaoe??, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ? o.ae. A a?aeoae ? ‘iiaa’ iinoaiiaea
ieoaiiy — ui yaey? niaith a?o?oaeoo?a? — noino?oueny ona?aeiieaiiy oiai,
ui oey a?aeiia?aeue oaea aecia/aia iaia?aae, i?e/iio aei oiai, ye
ieoaiiy aoei iinoaaeaii. Naia oeth ‘aecia/ai?noue iaia?aae’ ?
iaceaathoue o?aaeeoe??th. A?o?oaeoo?o iaiiaeeeai iiai?noth iicaaaeoe
iaoe, yeo ie ?e i?eieno?ii, ?? oe?iiino? ye ‘iiiaoeaiiy’; i?ioa
oaia??oi? caoe?eaaeaiiy aaiaaei???th “a?/iiai eiio?aeoo i?ae
a?o?oaeoo?ith ? iiiaoeaiiyi” (AE.Aea???aea) icia/aoeia aii?yaeeoaaiiy ?
inieneaiiy ‘niiniao iaoeaiiy.’

O aeaa? 1.4 I?i “iiao a?o?oaeoo?e iinoiiaea?i?cio”aeine?aeaeothoueny
aiaeia?? i?ae e?i?a?noe/ieie oai??yie ? eiino?oeoe?yie oa a?aeiia?aeiei
?o aaeeaaiiyi aeey noai?aiiy a?o?oaeoo?e. Ie?aneththoueny iaai?
iaiaaeaiiy, ui noinothoueny aeania ‘iiae a?o?oaeoo?e’, ?
aeneiaeththoueny canoa?aaeaiiy uiaei oi?aa?naeueiino? aaeeaaiiy
e?i?a?noe/ieo eiino?oeoe?e aai oa?i?iiei??/ieo aiaei??e, aiaeii/an
i?aee?aneth?oueny ‘aocuee?noue’ ?icoi?iiy iiae i?inoi ye nenoaie
eiioi?eaoe??. Ieoaiiy i?i iaoa-iiao a?o?oaeoo?e ?icaeyaea?oueny c
e?eueeio iiceoe?e. Aeniiaie: ai? aaiiao??y, ai? ooieoe?iiaeueiee aiae?c,
ai? oeie aoae?aaeue, ai? oi?iaeuei? ?ene (neiao??y, ??aiiaaaa, ianooaa
oiui), ai? caaaeuei? iiiyooy oeio ai?eciioaeueia-aa?oeeaeueia, /e
a?aiae-ooai?aiiy ana?aaeei?-?cciai? ia ooai?ththoue a?o?oaeoo?ieo
oi?aa?nae?e. Aeae? noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy
a?o?oaeoi?ii aioiaeo ?noi?e/ieo oi?i ? «aoeaaeueiiai» a?aeoai?aiiy
na?oo, aea nii?oaea ?nioaaea a i??ai?/ii, a oaeiae ? ieoaiiy uiaei
‘eiinoeoothth/iai aniaeoo’- a?aei?iiino? — i?e ?anoaa?aoe??-a?aeoai?aii?
a?o?oaeoo?ieo iai’yoie. I?aenoiiaoth/e aeeeaaeaia, i?eoiaeeii aei
aeniiaeo, ui nii?oaee o aeai?? a?o?oaeoo?ii? aeaeiino?oeoe??
iio?aaothoue eiio?anoo ?c ‘caaaeueiii?eeiyoei’, iiey iio?aaothoue
oaenoo. A?o?oaeoo?a aeaeiino?oeoe?? iiaea i?iaeaiiino?oaaoe iaiaaeaiiy
iaoeo ?ai?acaioaoeaieo nenoai ? niinia?a, o ye? oe? nenoaie ?ioa??iaai?
o oe?o? nenoaie eoeueoo?ieo eiae?a.

*ANOEIA Ae?OAA I.OOEI ? A?O?OAEOO?A yaey? niaith i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?
?icaeoie i?iaeai, i?aeiyoeo o iiia?aaei?e /anoei?. Ie iaiaaa?iiny aeaoe
a?aeiia?aeue ia aeaa ieoaiiy: *iio Ooei ? a?o?oaeoo?a? oa Iane?eueee
aaeaeaaoiith ? a?o?oaeoo?a, iiaa/aia ‘i/eia Ooei’? Aeoiaeeii c oiai, ui
a?o?oaeoo?ia aeaeiino?oeoe?y nai?i i?eioeeiii ia? aiae?c ? e?eoeeo
?ai?acaioaoeaieo nenoai, ui ooai?ththoue i?ino??. O oe?e iiceoe?? ie
eiinoaoo?ii iiae?ai?noue ? aei iaaii? i??e ni?aiaae?iiy eiioeaioe??
aeaeiino?oeoe?? o AE.Aea???aea ? I.Ooei. Aaeaea aiae?oeea iiaeyaeo
inoaiiueiai ? aeaeiino?oeoe??th o nai?e noo?, aiia oaae iaae?a? oi?ie
e?eoe/ii? iioiei??? — iino?oeoo?ia ci?iaiiy oa??a c aoaeoii
“aeaianeoaaiiy aoaeoo ianeoaaiiy”, oiaoi oea iiaeyae, yeee ?ic/eaiiao?
naiiai naaa ia neeaaeia?, aiaeii/an aiae?coth/e eiaeio oaeo iia?aoe?th.
Ooo ian i?eaaaethaaoeia naia eiioeaiooaeueiee ?ino?oiaio, ui aeiiiiaaa?
iiaa/eoe, ye ooai?thaaeenue (ooai?ththoueny) cia/aiiy, ui (ia)aeaeeii
i?enooi? a a?o?oaeoo?ieo ia’?eoao; oiio ? iiaeeea?noue ?icaeeaeoenue ?
‘i?eeiyoe aei a?aeiia’ ia?aieao?iiy iaoa- ? i?i? aeeneo?neaieo i?aeoee,
ui e aein? aecia/athoue iaoa i?i/eoaiiy, ia?aaeeaaiiy, ?icoi?iiy
a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oae.

O aeaa? 2.1 Aeeneo?ne a a?o?oaeoo?? ia??oioiao?oueny i?aeo?ae aei
a?aeiioaiue i?ae a?oeeoeueiaaiei oa a?coaeueiei c iiceoe?? ciyooy
aa?’???a i?ae ‘neiaaie’ ? ‘?a/aie’. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui ?aea?, aeeeaaeai?
I.Ooei a “A?oaiei??? ciaiiy”, aeathoue iai iaaio ea??oeii?noue aeey
oeueiai.Ooo I.Ooei ii?ooo? i?iaeaio ciyooy aa?’???a i?ae eaoa?i???th
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo ii?i ?nioaaiiy ia’?eo?a oa caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo ii?i
?nioaaiiy aeeneo?no — ne?a, iiyniaiue, i?i??ai, ye? ie aaeeaa?ii
noiniaii oeeo ia’?eo?a, ? ye? iienothoue aeey ian ?o ?nioaaiiy oa
aeeniiceoe?th. Naia ooo aeieea? iaaiee ?ic?ea i?ae o?ce/iith
a?o?oaeoo?ith oa aeania a?o?oaeoo?iei aeeneo?nii. I?ioa iiiyooy
‘aeeneo?neaii? oi?iaoe??(ooai?aiiy)’, cai?iiiiiaaia Ooei, aea?
iiaeeea?noue ia?aaanoe iaoa??aeueiee aniaeo o ieiueio niene?a oa
cia/aiue. ?icaeyaeath/e ‘aeneiaethaaiiy’ ia i?inoi ye /enoee i?iaeoeo
ieneaiiy, a ye “iiaa?oi?, ia yeeo i?inooia? iaaiee ii?yaeie”, oiaoi
iaai? ?inoeoooe?ei? oiiae i?ciaiiy, iiaeia oaa?aeeoe, ui
‘aeneiaethaaiiy’ ia ? i?iaeoeoii ethaenueeeo noa’?eo?a acaaae?, a ?
nei??oa ‘i?iaeoeoaie,’ ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey iaaii? aeeneo?neaii?
oi?iaoe??, ye? aeieeathoue c? niinia?a aeaieioaiiy aeneiaethaaiiy, oiaoi
? nai???aeieie iai?oanoaoe?yie nioe?aeueiiai /eoeueoo?iiai /iie?oe/iiai
aacna?aeiiiai, a ‘noa’?eoe’ aenooiathoue ye iin??-a?aioe oeeo
neiino?oeiaaieo niinia?a aeneiaethaaiiy. I?ioa iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe,
ui ?nioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai/eoeueoo?iiai /iie?oe/iiai aacna?aeiiiai ia
icia/a?, aeania, “nia?o? noa’?eoa”. Oiio ie ai?aa? aiai?eoe i?i iaai?
??aaeaoe??-?icoa?oaaiiy: ?iaeea?aeoaeueio /eieaeoeaio/ ?inoeoooe?eio
oyai?noue.O oae?e ia?niaeoea? niin?a aeaieioaiiy aeneiaethaaiiy aoaea
?ua e iaeeaaeaoe iaai? ?aiee a oiio niene?, ui ia eeoa iaai? noa’?eoe
iaoeiooue i?aai aiai?eoe iaaiei /eiii, aea e oa, ui ia ‘eiaeiee’ iaoeia
i?aai ? iiaeeea?noue aiai?eoe. Iia’ycoth/e aeeneo?n c /eiinue
iica-aeeneo?neaiei, Ooei oei naiei iaaea? ? iiaiai cao/aiiy oa?i?io
‘aeneiaethaaiiy.’ Oeae iiiaio ian ? oe?eaaeoue c oi/ee ci?o a?o?oaeoo?e:
ie iaea?aeo?ii iiaeeea?noue ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeneiaethaaiiy aai ye /anoeie
aeeneo?no oae? ?a/?, ui ? ai? aeaieioaieie, ai? iaienaieie. ? oiae?
neiino?oeiaai? ia’?eoe yaeyoeiooue niaith i?aai?/i? /anoeie
aeeneo?neaiiai ooai?aiiy, a aoae?aaeuei? (a?o?oaeoo?i?) i?aeoeee
aoaeooue ni?aa?aeianai? ?c i?aaeeaie aeaii? aeeneo?neaii? oi?iaoe??.

A aeaa? 2.2. “Oaao? aeeooy, aai Aeca?eaei na?oo” eaeaoueny i?i oiiae
ni?a?nioaaiiy iaiieaoii?cio oa a?o?oaeoo?e ?aianaino. O ?aianain?
i??ai?coth/? i?eioeeie — neiiao?y, iiae?ai?noue ? aiaei??y. Ooo
neiaie?/i? a?aeiioaiiy aoaeooue ? cia/aii?aeie, ? ?aaeueieie,
iia’ycaieie ?c na?oii. Oiaoi i?iaeaia aaeaeaaoiino? na?oo ? ?aea? aai
?aea? ? ciaeo ia noaaeoueny iaiieaoii?/iith oai???th ?aianaino.
Oeaio?aeueia i?iaeaia — ye iieacaoe ne?aee aa?iii?? oa eini?/iiai
ii?yaeeo; ia no?eueee ?ai?acaiooaaoe, ne?eueee c?iaeoe ?o iiiaioaeueii
i?enooi?ie aeey ethaeeie-noa’?eoa. Ae?thoue aeaa ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
i?iii?oe?eieo a?aeiioaiiy, aeinooiieo ethaenueeiio aeina?aeo —
i?iii?oe?? ethaenueeiai o?ea ? aa?iii?/iiai ?yaeo. A?o?oaeoo?a aeey
a?o?oaeoi?a-iaiieaoii?ea aenooia? o ?ie? iina?aaeieea aeey aeinooio aei
eini?/iiai ii?yaeeo. Oiio a?o?oaeoo?i? nii?oaee ae?aaeathoue cia/aiiy ?
iathoue i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ui ? a?eueoei, i?ae i?inoi oi?ia — aiie ?
i?noeai, aea eini?/iee ii?yaeie i?iyaey? naaa, aea a?i ?nio? ? ?
i?enooi?e. Aa/aiiy+i?enooi?noue aea?aaeaioi? ?icoi?iith. Iaeiae,
iiaeeea? ? cai?ioi? i?i/eoaiiy oe??? ??aiino?, ?, cie?aia, oae?, aea
e?ioeaaei i?iaeoeoii aoaea i?enooi?noue. Ooo ie aaciina?aaeiuei
oi?ea?iinue ieoaiiy ‘?aianainii? ?ioo?oe??’, ui nai?i ei??iiyi nyaa? aae
aei i?oaai??eoe?a; ? oea yaii /eoa?oueny o i?aoeyo Aeueaa?o? ? O?/?ii.
Ai?e?enueeee aeine?aeiee ?.A?ooeiaa?, aeeeaaeath/e a?o?oaeoo?iee ?
o?einionueeee aniaeoe ?noi??? ?aeae, aecia/a? iaiieaoii?ci ye na??th
oai, ui aieeaaee ye ia o?aeoaoe, oae ? ia a?o?oaeoo?io i?aeoeeo oeueiai
ia??iaeo. O oaeiio i?aeoiae? ? ? a?aceea? iiiaioe. Ia?oa, Na?aaei? a?ee
iaee na?e aeinooi ? aei eiioeaioe?e i?iii?oe?iioaaiiy, ? aei aioe/iino?;
? ae?oaa, ?aianain ia ? aeeeth/ii iaiieaoii?/iei aeeneo?nii. Aei ia?oi?
iiceoe?? caoaaaeeii, ui i?ae ?aianainiith ? na?aaeiueia?/iith
eiioeaioe?yie i?iii?oe?iioaaiiy ?nio? nooo?aa ??cieoey, ye ? i?ae
ao?eaiiyie oeeo aeaio i?aeoiae?a — ‘i?aeai?ii’ (i?iaeooaaiiy
iiia?aaeiuei anoaiiaeaii? aaiiao?e/ii? ii?ie a naith oyai?noue
ethaeeiith Na?aaeiueia?//y) oa ‘?icoeo?oaaiiyi’ (ieoaoeue ?aianaino
iaiaaa?oueny aeae?eeoe iao?e/io ii?io c i?e?iaeieo oaiiiai?a).

I?aenoiiaoth/e aeeeaaeaia, neaaeaii, ui ciai?oiuei iiae?ai?
aeneiaethaaiiy-oaie iiaeooue ?aaeeeaeueii a?ae??ciyoeny o ??cieo
aeeneo?neaieo oi?iaoe?yo — nenoaiao ?iciianthaeaeaiiy aeneiaethaaiue,
aea i?ae ia’?eoaie (oeiaie aeneiaethaaiue) iiaeia aeae?eeoe
?a?oey?i?noue. Oiae?, yeui ?icaeyaeaoe iaiieaoii?ci ye aeeneo?neaio
oi?iaoe?th aeii?ioth/i? ai?noaie, oi c onueiai eiiieaeno oee?eoethth/eo
o ?aianain? aeeneo?n?a ? i?aeoee aeae?eeii aeaa i?eioeeie ?o
i??ai?caoe??: 1) i?eioeei iiae?aiino? ? 2) caa?iai?noue aei aioe/iino?
ye aaoaioe/iiai aeaea?aea.

O aeaa? 2.3 “?iia??? iiaeyaeo” ?icaeyaea?oueny eiioeaioe?y a?aeiioaiue
i?ae iiaeie oi?iaie aeaaee oa iiaei eiiieaenii niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
no?oeoo?, ui aeieeee o 18 no., a oaeiae iiiyooy ?inoeoooe?eii? oyaiino?,
?? i?ea’ycaiino? aei a?o?oaeoo?e. A?a?eaeio oi?io aeaaea-i?ciaiiy Ooei
?icaeyaea? ? ye iane?aeie, ? ye oiiao aeieeiaiiy oi?i aeenoeeie?ia?ii?
aeaaee. Oeaio?aeueia i?noea a?aeaiaeeoueny naia aa/aiith ye oi?i?
aeaaee, iieaco oiai, ye ??ciiiai?oi? ‘oaao?e aeaaee’ aecia/athoue
oa?aeoa? aa/aiiy. O oeeo ‘oaao?ao’ ethaeeia noa? ? noa’?eoii, ? ia’?eoii
aa/aiiy-i?ciaiiy, ooo ?? ‘oi?iothoue’ ? ooo aiia i?cia? aeani?
iiaeeeaino?-iaiaaeaiiy. sseui ie a?aeoiaeeii a?ae eiioeaioe??
i?ioenoaaeaiiy ?noeie ? aeaaee — th?eaee/ii-aeeneo?neaii? eiioeaioe??, —
oi i?iaeoeoeaiee eiiiiiaio oaei? ci?ie — iiaa oi?ia — aeenoeeie?ia?ia
aeaaea (i?enooi?noue yei? caaacia/o?oueny ?inoeoooe?yie, aea ? ae?thoue
aeenoeeie?ia?i? i?aeoeee). Aeaaea ao?a/a? iaee//y ? noa? aaciniaiaith ?
anai?enooiueith naia /a?ac iino?eia, iaeaea i?aena?aeiia,
‘naii’-a?aeoai?aiiy aeenoeeie?ia?ieo iaoai?ci?a. Eiioeaioe?y
surveillance Ooei aaco?oueny ia aaiaoe/ii canai?i?e ?a?iiaenueeith
eoeueoo?ith ?aeae-yeinoae — aa/aii?. Oiio iai/i?noue eoeueoo?ieo
iiaoaeia ia ?acoeueoao, a niin?a ieneaiiy — ieoeaoeaio?eci. Ooo aa?oi
a?aecia/eoe ? iaaio aeeoioii?th i?ae ?aeaiei??yie oa i?ioeaaeo?aie —
i?noea, ui ?ai?oa iaeaaeaei ?aoi?i?nonueeei i?iaeoai, iin?aeathoue oaia?
aeenoeeie?ia?i? i?ioeaaeo?e, ye? e i??ai?ciaothoue nioe?aeueiee i?ino??.
Oiae? iiaeaii neacaoe, ui ?inoeoooe?? — oea iaaii? oi?ie iaa??
aeenoeeie?ia?ieo i?aeoee-i?ioeaaeo?, i?e/iio a?o?oaeoo?i? oi?ie ia eeoa
noai?ththoue i?noea aeey ieo, a e caaacia/othoue iaeaaeia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy e ‘aoaeo’. Aeenoeeie?ia?i? oaoi?ee, ao?a/ath/e nai?
‘aeaeei?’ ca’ycee c ?aeaiei??yie, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ca aeiiiiiaith
oeiiai? ee?oeiee i?inoi?o noai?thaaoe iio??aio i?inoi?iao n?oeo, ?, yeui
nthaee aeiaeaoe iai/i?noue — oeiea, e?ea?iy, a’ycieoey, iiiaoeaiiy oiui,
oi iaea?aeeii nai???aeiee ?ino?oiaio aai iaoai?cie aeey noaiaea?oecaoe??
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? — ia’?eoe o?ainoi?iaoe?? ‘eiino?oththoueny’ iaaiei
/eiii, uia noaaaoe ? ‘aeaea?aeii’, ? ‘ia’?eoii’ aeaaeieo a?aeiinei,
oiaoi caaacia/oaaoe iino?eia a?aeoai?aiiy aeaaee. Eiioeaioe?y
aeenoeeie?ia?iiai, cai?iiiiiaaia Ooei, aea? iiaeeea?noue iiaa/eoe
aaaeeea? a?aei?iiino? o iaaiiio eean? no?oeoo?.

A oeueiio i?noe? aeieea? ? ieoaiiy ianooiiino? oa?i?iieia?? o I.Ooei:
sseei /eiii iia’ycai? i?ae niaith “a?o?a” ? “aeaaea”? *e ia?ii ie i?aai
aiai?eoe i?i “ianooii?noue oa?i?iieia??” a oeueiio aeiaaeeo? Aai,
ia?aoo?, /e ?icae?eyoe “a?o?a” ? “aeaaeo”? Ia iiaeia ia caaaeaoe ia oa,
ui i?iaeaia “aeaaee” ? iaei??th ?c oeaio?aeueieo o
aeaeiino?oeoea?nonueeiio oa iinono?oeoo?ae?nonueeiio aeeneo?nao.
Aiaeii/an, neaae?ii, I.Na?oi, A.Eae/, Ae.Ea??iee, AE.Aiae??ey?, I.aea
Na?oi aai I.Aeaeae nie?aea?ecothoueny o i?aeoiae? aei “aeaaee” (o Ooei)
ye aei oaenooaeueiiai oaiiiaia, yeee ?, iiae?aii aei aaaeaiiy,
aacno?oeoo?iei, iaoe?eani?yiiaaiei, anai?enooi?i, a oaeiae ? o e?eoeoe?
oaoaeueii? iaa?aeai?ioiino?, yeith i?inyeiooa ooeieueae?ainueea iiiyooy
“aeaaee”. C iaeiiai aieo, iiaeia iiaiaeeoenue ?c Ae.Eae/ai, ? i?eeiyoe
?aeath “ni?aiaae?iiy” (a, cia/eoue, ianooiiino? a oa?i?iieia?? I.Ooei)
“a?o?ao” ye “eoeueoo?iiai aacna?aeiiiai” ? “aeaaee” ye neee ae?? oeueiai
a?o?ao ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueio na?aeii?noue. C ?ioiai aieo, “aeaaea”
aeecueea ca nai?ie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aei ae?? e?a?aei a o?e niaoeeo?/i?e
oi?i?, yeo a iinono?oeoo?ae?ci? iaea?aeaea eiioeaioe?y “aaaeaiiy”
(neaae?ii, “iaoeie aaaeaiiy” oa “nioe?aeuei? iaoeie” c “oecio?ai?/iiai”
aiae?co Aeaeaca ? Yaaooa??).

Ia aeeoioii?th i?ae oai??yie ? i?ioeaaeo?aie oe?eaai iiaeeaeoenue ? c
oi/ee ci?o ni?a?nioaaiiy o?aai?noe/ieo i?aeoee ? oai??e, a ca?aene ie
i?eeoee a aei o?ueioaei??iiai aai o??aeaeoe/iiai/A.Nioaeaea/ a?aeiioaiiy
— caaeoiaiee-cai?iaeoiaaiee-oai?aoe/iee i?ino?? — a?ae/ooiee i?ino??
ia?aaeeaaiiy — i?iaeeoee-iaaeeoee-aio?iiieia?/iee i?ino??. Oiae?
neaaeaii, ui no?aoa??? ae?thoue o noa?? aeaeeiiai — aaiiao?e/iiai,
oi?aieaeueiiai, oai?aoe/iiai i?inoi?o, i?inoi?o iaiiioe/ieo iiaoaeia;
oaeoeee ae ae?yoeiooue o iaaeaeeiiio — aecenoaioe?eiiio, aaoa?iaaiiiio,
i?o?/iiio i?inoi??. Ia?oee oae naii aoaea aeaeeiei, nieaiiaaiei ?
/eoaaaeueiei i?noii, oiae? ye ae?oaee i?ino?? ? iaoaoi?e/iei,
o?a?iaioa?iei, iae?iinanoii. Aeania, iiae?e ia aaiiao?e/iee oa
aio?iiieia?/iee i?inoi?e ie ciaoiaeeii ? o I.Ia?ei-Iiio?.

O(a)-oii?/i?noue ‘iioe/iiai ieneaiiy’ i?iyaey?oueny o oi?i?
ia?niaeoeaiiai aa/aiiy: ie noai?th?ii i?iaeoe?th ooiaiiiai ieioeiai oa
iaiaaiiai iaeaooiueiai ia yeonue aeinooiio iiaa?oith, noai?thth/e oei
naiei aeaeeia i?noi — iio??aia ocaaaeueiaiiy, i?iaeoe?th aai
eiioeaioe?th, c yeith c?o/ii iaoe ni?aao. I?ioa i?ea’ycoaaiiy i?noa aei
eiioeaioe?? i?noa i?eiee ia ?iaeei ?o ?aeaioe/ieie, oi/a ni?iae c?iaeoe
oea ie aa/eii ? nueiaiaei?.

I?aenoiiaoth/e, neaaeaii, ui, i/aaeaeii, caoiieaiiy Ooei iieacii
?inoeooae?caoe?? aeaaee o oa?i?iao i?inoi?o ? aeaui ia?aa?eueoaiei.
Iaiao?aeia ?ic??ciaiiy i?ae ‘ieii’ ? ‘iiaeyaeii’ ia ia? aooe
cae??ieaiiyi i???ae i?ae ieie, aea, iai?ioe, i?aeooiaooaaoe aei
?icoi?iiy ?o aca?iicaeaaeiino?. Oa, ui aa/eoue ?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaiee
iiaeyae nei??oa iaaaaeoaaoeia ‘ai?noaiiei??/ia iiea’, neiino?oeiaaia a
iaeiaeia?e i??? ? e?i?a?noe/ii, ? a?coaeueii. Iaaeia??a aei
‘a?coaeueiiai’ oiio oea ia eeoa caaaeaiiy a?coaeueiiai aei
aeeneo?neaiiai, oea ? ona?aeiieaiiy iaaii? i??e iaaacia/iino? iiceoe??
i?i ‘aio?iiioeaio?e/iee oe?e?niee noa’?eo, ui aeeaeoueny ia na?o’, oiaoi
oeae noa’?eo aoaea nei??oa iio?aeiith a?ae niaoeeo?/iiai a?coaeueiiai
?aaeeio, ai?ae ia?aaeoiiaith niaoeeo?/iino? aa/aiiy ye oaeiai. Aiaeii/an
oaeee i?aeo?ae aeiiiiaaa? iai ona?aeiiethaaoe i?noea oa cia/aiiy
a?coaeueiiai aiae?co o iaoeo oai?aoe/ieo (a, cia/eoue, e?i?a?noe/ieo)
iiaoaeiaao.

*ANOEIA O?AOss. NIIN?A ?NIOAAIIss ? O?AINOI?IAOe?? ?AI?ACAIOAOEAII?
IIAeAE? A A?O?OAEOO?? i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith iaoai?ci?a ?
aeeneo?neaieo oiia ooai?aiiy, eiioi?eaoe?? ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy cia/aiue a
a?o?oaeoo??. Iiaeaeueoee aiae?c nieneiaiai oa oi?iaeueiiai aniaeo?a
a?o?oaeoo?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe?? aaciaaiee ia o?e iiceoe??, ui a?o?oaeoo?ia
?ai?acaioaoe?y ? ? oei niiniaii , o yeee a?o?oaeoo?a noa? i?enooiueith.
?ioeie neiaaie, ?ai?acaioaoeaia aeanoea?noue a?o?oaeoo?e aeicaiey?
?icaeyaeaoe inoaiith ye «a?coaeueii i?aai?ciaaio iioieia?th»/A.Eaa?ian/.

Aeaaa 3.1 ?ai?acaioaoe?y ye aiia ? aea? aniaeoe no/aniiai ?icoi?iiy
a?o?oaeoo?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe??, yea oaea ?ie?a aea?no? iinoa? ye
oi?iaeueia i?iaeaia. Ie aa/eii, ui iaia? /?oeiai ona?aeiieaiiy, ui naia
ia? a?o?oaeoo?a ?ai?acaiooaaoe ca?ac, aai ae /e ia? aiia ?ai?acaiooaaoe
uinue, e??i naii? naaa, acaaae?. Iaeiae, ia caiaeeoueny aiia ? aei
‘?iiaiaioiiai ?nioaaiiy’ aai aei ‘aaniethoii? i?enooiino?.‘ Aiaeii/an
a?aecia/a?ii ? ia/aaoi ia?aaeienaeueiee oaeo — a?o?oaeoi?e, aeath/e
iienaiiy i?iaeo?a, caa?oathoueny ia?aaeian?i aei ciai?oi?o ?aoa?aioe?e:
?noi?e/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieo niene?a, neiaie?a, noee?a oiui.

Aeae? ei?ioei iaeyaea?oueny iiiyooy ‘oi?ie‘, yea aoei ?ioaa?iaaia a
a?o?oaeoo?io oai??th a e?ioe? 19no., eiioeaioe?? ‘/enoi? oi?ie’ (ye
ciai?oiuei? ii a?aeiioaiith aei eaoaai??? noeeth), a oaeiae iiiyooy
‘oei’ oa ‘iiaeaeue.’ Aeania, on? oe? oa?i?ie iaaiei /eiii caae?yi? a
iaoiio oi?iioai?aii?, aiie ? aecia/athoue neeo oi?ii-yaeaiiy ‘iaaeaeeii?
?aaeueiino?.’ ‘Iaaeaeeio ?aaeuei?noue,’ yea noi?oue ca a?o?oaeoo?iei
ia’?eoii, ie iacaaii no?oeoo?iei aai ii?oieia?/iei aniaeoii, yeee ? noa?
oaeei, oiaoi aeaeeiei — i?ciaaaiei ? iaae?eaiei iaaiei nieneii — naia a
i?ioean? ?ai?acaioaoe??. O?aaiaioaoe?y ?aaeueiino? aai e?iaoeue
o?aaeeoe?eiiai na?oo, iiaeai?iiy ?ai?acaioaoe?? /ia i?aai?/ii-neiaie?/io
? ?ino?oiaioaeueio/, aai aeinooii?noue iaoai?cio ?ai?acaioaoe??
i?iyaeyoueny naia o eeane/io aiioo.

A?o?oaeoo?ia oai??y caaaeaee aeei?enoiaoaaea ?noi??th ye iaa?? a?/ieo
o?ainoeaiaeaioieo oe?iiinoae aai ii?i, ui ca iioiaeaeaiiyi ? aai
?acoeueoaoii i?e?iaeieo caeii?a, aai eoeueoo?ii? eiiaaioe??. Eeane/i?
oiaee ia?aaeaa/athoue caeo/aiy i?oo i?i iioiaeaeaiiy oa cieioee a?e. C
?ioiai aieo, ?noi??y, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aaiethoe?eiee i?ioean,
aecia/a? ? ia?aaaaeio i???ioaoe?th ia ooii?/ia iaeaooi?. Oaeee
o?ainoi?iaoeaiee i?aeo?ae aei ?noi??? ia iicaaaeaiee iaaieo ?ioaioe?e, a
aei?noe?oa — ?ioa?ano, ca?aene e oe?eee niaeo? ?aeaieia?/ieo
?iie?eaoe?e.

Aeaaa 3.2 Ao?a/ath/e a?oio i?ae iiaaie aiae?co? a?o?oaeoo?io
neooaoe?th iinoiiaea?i?cio o na?oe? caaaeueiieoeueoo?ii? neooaoe??
‘e?ioey ?noi???,’ ‘e?ioey o?einio??,’ ‘e?ioey /ano’ ? o.ae.. Ia ia?oee
ieai aeoiaeeoue aiae?c aia?aoo a?coaeueii? ?ai?acaioaoe?? — ??
?aoeaioeaieo aeanoeainoae oa ‘o?ao? caiia/oaaiiy.’ Aea-eaa?oei?caoe?y
iai?aii? ?ai?acaioaoeaii? nenoaie iaaieioo? ia aaoa?iaaiiino?,
?ic?eaiino? oa oe?ai?? icia/ieea (A.E?iea? iaceaa? oea «cei/eiaie i?ioe
ciaeo») ? o.ae. ye /eiieeao e?ece noa’?eoa ? ia’?eoa ?ai?acaioaoe??. Ia
aeiaea/o, ie eiinoaoo?ii ao?aoo noaoono oai?ii ienoaoeoaa, ia a?aei?io
a?ae /an?a iiaea?i?cio. ?ioeie neiaaie, iinoiiaea?iee oa?? ia aeiaaa?
eiioi?eaoe?? iaaieo ‘ii/ooo?a’ ia oi?aa?naeueieo canaaeao, a?eueo oiai,
nai noaoon ‘ienoaoeueeiai oai?o’ noa? ia’?eoii aeaeiino?oeoea?nonueei?
e?eoeee. Iaeiae, ne?ae aooe na?aeiieie oiai, ui no?aoaa?? ?nioaaiiy a
i?inoi??, iaianaiiy eiainue /e /iainue ia ‘ea?oo i?inoi?o’ aai no?aoaa??
noaaeaiiy, — iani?aaae? ? ?ino?oiaioaie ?inoeoooe?eiiai/nioe?aeueiiai
oa, iaa?oue, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai eiio?ieth.

O aeaa? 3.3 O?ea ie coieiy?iiny ia iaeiiio c aniaeo?a a?aeiioaiiy
«noa’?eo-ia’?eo» — oai? a?o?oaeoo?e ? o?ea, aea ia ‘i?eoiaaiiio’ aai
caiia/oaaiiio o?aaeeoe?eiith ?ai?acaioaoe??th eiai aioe?.. C iaei???
noi?iie iaoa ’i?ea’ycai?noue’/ca I.Ia?ei-Iiio?/, a c ?ioi? —
«iaiaaeai?noue ?noi?e/ieie oi?iaie naiai o?ea»/ca I.Ooei/, aeathoue iai
iiaeeea?noue iiaeyiooe ia oiiae aeieeiaiiy, ?nioaaiiy ? o?ainoi?iaoe?e
oaeeo iiiyoue, ye nioe?aeueia noaoue/ noaoaaa eeaneo?eaoe?y/ gender oa
(naii-)?aeaioeo?eaoe?y iniae. Eiino?othaaiiy ‘nioe?aeueii? noao?’
?icaeyaea?oueny ia i?eeeaae? o?aeoaoo Enaiioiioa Oeconomicus ? eiai
iiaeaeueoi? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? o Aeueaa?o? — ae?aeiaa Della Famiglia.

O aeaa? 3.4 O?ea iaaaiie?no ?icaeyaeathoueny o?aai?noe/i? i?iaeoe?? o?ea
ye i?iaeiaaeaiiy ? iaaiiai ?iaeo iai?oanoaoe?? eiio?ao?aoe??
«o?ei-i?noi», «o?ei-aea?aeaaa» /aai «nioe?aeueiiai o?ea»/. Oey onoaeaia
i?oieiaaia o aeaeyae? aio?iiiii?oieo iaoaoi? c aeaui aeoeaiooeiaaiei
a?ieia?/ii-o?c?ieia?/iei a?aeo?ieii aeoeaii aeei?enoiao?oueny
iino-no?oeoo?ae?nonueeei ? noiooi?ie aeeneo?naie.

Aeaaa 3.5 Feedback /i?aeaeeaeaiiy aai cai?ioi?e ca’ycie/ aiae?co?
yaeua ?ai?acaioaoe?? c oi/ee ci?o a?o?oaeoo?iiai o?aai?cio. Iaeaea aei
e?ioey 19no. i?noi ?icaeyaeaee ye aeoa?? ienoaoeoaa, yeee ?ai?acaioo?
iaaiee a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iee ? ii?aeueiee ono??e a nai?o ‘anoaoe/ieo
oi?iao’, ? yeee aeeeeea? c ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa eieaeoeaii? iai’yo?
ia?ace aa?iii?/iiai noni?euenoaa, oiaoi o?aai?noe/iee i?ino?? aenooia?
ye aeoeaiee nenoaiaoecaoi? oaei? iai’yo? («?aeaaeueiee ia?ac» nyaa?
ei??iiyi a Ao?ie 5no. aei i.a. — oiiia?ao?/ii oa ?aeaieia?/ii icia/aia
i?noi.) A aeania o?aai?ci — oea naiai ?iaeo ?ino?oiaioaeueia oai??y oa
i?aeoeea eiino?othaaiiy i?noa ye iai’yoieea naiiio nia?. I?e /iio
eoeueoo?ia ?aeay «iai’yoieea» ? ia??aeiei eaiaiai oe???
eiino?oeoe??/i?aeoeee. Aeaeiino?oeoe?y o?aaeeoe?eiiai iiiyooy
«iai’yoieea» aeaeyaeaoeia, oaeei /eiii, oe?eeii eiino?oeoeaiei oiaeii:
oea aoaea aienoaaiiy iai’yo? o oeaieio i?noa ia ye o?aaeeoe?eii?
i?enooiino? iiae??/iniae, a ye i?enooiino? eiiieaeno ??ciiiai?oieo
a?aeiioaiue.

A?o?oaeoo?iee o?aai?ci iinoa? ye iaoa??ae?ciaaia eieaeoeaia iai’youe, ye
i?aeoeea noai?aiiy naiai ?iaeo oaao??a iai’yo? — aiaeia?/ii aei
a?aoeueeiai ienoaoeoaa iiaiioaoi?ee — iaaaaeoaaiiy, iieac oiai, ui
noi?oue ca ia’?eoii ?ai?acaioaoe??. Ie aa/eii, ui caeaoi?noue i?inoi?iai
i?aai?ciaoaaoe ciaiiy (c «i?noeyie» cae??ieaieie ca eiaeiei oeiii
?eoi?e/ii?, ? ia o?eueee, o?ao?e aai ooieoe??) ?icaeaa?oueny ? ae?? ia
canaaeao naia oaeiai ienoaoeoaa. Aeania, oeei a?aecia/athoueny e
ooii?/i? iiaoaeiae, aeaye? iiceoe?? ie i?cia?i iaa?oue o Aaioaiiaiio
Iaiiioeeii?. Oi?ia-eiino?oeoe?y caeeoa?oueny noaeith, iacaaaeath/e ia
aa??aoe?? ci?noo — ieioea, iaeaooi?, oaia??oi?; aai i?iaeo?a —
a?ae-oai?aiiy /e n-oai?aiiy, ci?iththoueny eeoa iaaieine a ‘noaoon?’
ciaiiy. *a?ac oaeo eieaeoeaio iai’youe ian ? aeieo/athoue aei ei?iono
«iioe/iiai ciaiiy» — iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue (aai ciooothoue — ia aea??)
?aeaioeo?eoaaoe naaa c iaaiith nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iith oe?e?ni?noth.
Oiio AE.Aaoae ? iaceaaa a?o?oaeoo?o canaaeie/ith noaae??th a i?ioean?
«aii?i?caoe??» — oiaoi «oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? ethaeeie o oi?i?
ethaeeie.»

O AENIIAEAO aeena?oaoe?? oi?ioeththoueny ?? iniiai? ?acthioth/?
iieiaeaiiy, a oaeiae caaaeueia caeeth/aiiy uiaei nai???aeiino? oaiiiaia
a?o?oaeoo?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe??. A?o?oaeoo?a aeey oiai, uia i?iaeiaaeoaaoe
nai? aoooy ye a?o?oaeoo?a ia? i?aoethaaoe naia a iai?yieo “noai?aiiy
aeiio”. Ia?aeaeueii a?aeaoaa?oueny e ?ioa?’??ecaoe?y na?oo /a?ac
oai?aoe/i? iiaoaeiae, iino?eiee iiae?e eiai ia «ciai?oi?e»
/iano?oeoo?iaaiee, /oaeee/ oa «aioo??oi?e» /iaeiiaoiaiee, c?icoi?eee/.O
neooaoe??, eiee ia?aieno?oueny «oiiia?ao?y aoooy» ? eoeueoo?a ao?a/a?
ianooaa aeey noaeaeaiiy, ?icieaathoueny eiioo?e ? a?aieoe? cae/ieo
iiiyoue. Iaeiae i?e oeueiio a?o?oaeoo?o ia o?aaa ci?ooaaoe c ?? ae
iiaith, i?enooiueith ye a?o?oaeoo?i? ia?ace aai iaoaoi?e o o?einionueeeo
oaenoao; aiaeii/an aiia ia? iaae?aoe oe?eeii iaoa??aeueii? oi?ie. Ioiae,
ie ia?ii i?eeiyoe oeth iaiao?aei?noue, yea ? iaa?aeai?ioiei noiooieeii ?
aiaeii/an oe?eeii a?ae/ooiei iaiaaeaiiyi.A oie aea /an, oi?ia ?
iina?aaeieeii aeey niaoeeo?/iino? ooieoe??. Aea i? ooieoe?y, i?
“noai?aiiy aeiio”ia iiaeii? ?icaeyaeaoeny oae, ia/a aiie ?niothoue nai?
ii nia?, nai? o nia?, ? nai? aeey naaa. ?ai?acaioaoe?y ooieoe??, aai
noai?aiiy aeey ia? iaaiiai ?iaeo “aeiio”, caaaeaee aienaia o iaaeaeeio
ia?aaeo ??ciiiai?oieo a?aeiioaiue, na?aae yeeo “aeaaea” aai nenoaia
oe?iiinoae a?athoue aae i?ye ia inoaiith ?ieue. Oey ia?aaea, a naith
/a?ao, ia? nai?, iaaiei /eiii iiina?aaeeiaaia, a?aeiioaiiy aei oi?ie.
Oea a?aeiioaiiy aeeeaa?oueny o iia’ycai?noue ?c oi?iith — niin?a ??
a?oeeoeyoe??, c iaeiiai aieo; ? naith a?oeeoeueiaai?noue o oe?e oi?i?, c
?ioiai. Oe?eee eiiieaen a?aeiioaiue ? aca?iia?aeiioaiue i?aoeth? a
a?o?oaeoo?? aeey oiai, uia caa?aaoe ?? naia ye a?o?oaeoo?o — caaacia/eoe
?? iiaoi?aiiy, iino?eia iaa?oaiiy aeiaeiea naiai oaeino, ? aiaeii/an
oi?io ?? “i?enooiino?”. Ca?aene iaoa??aeuei?noue a?o?oaeoo?e ? ?? niin?a
“aooe i?enooiueith” ciooothoue ian ciia ? ciia i?aei?iaoe ieoaiiy i?i
a?aeiioaiiy i?ae a?oeeoeueiaaiei ? a?coaeueiei aai i?i aeeneo?ne a
a?o?oaeoo??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaeoi o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Oe?i/aiei N. O?ioe niioey a oieiaei?e aiae? // A?aee?eoee Na?o,
n?/aiue-ethoee, 1999.- c.n.10-15.

Oe?i/aiei N. I?i oaenoe, o?ea ? a?o?oaeoo?o // Neiai ? *an, 9, 1997.-
n.n.74-81.

Oe?i/aiei N., Ieeeoaiei TH. Exegi monumentum a?o?oaeoi?a Eiaea Iea/i?ea:
ni?iaa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? // No/ani?noue 2/3, 1996.- n.n.35-49.

Oe?i/aiei N. Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a: iiiieia /e ae?aeia?(e?oaeee no?e a
Iiaeeyinuee?e Aeaaeai??) //O?einionueea ? nioe?ieia?/ia aeoiea 3, 1993.-
n.n.89-101.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oe?i/aiei N.TH. O?einionueeee eiioaeno a?o?oaeoo?e iinoiiaea?i?cio.- Ia
i?aaao ?oeiieno. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?einionueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.08-anoaoeea.- ?inoeooo
o?einio?? IAIO?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee, Ee?a, 1999.

I?iiiiiaaia ?iaioa yaey? niaith aeine?aeaeaiiy iane??cieo iaoai?ci?a
aca?iiae?? a?o?oaeoo?e ? o?einio?? aai aeeneo?neaieo oiia eiioi?eaoe??
oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy cia/aiue a a?o?oaeoo??, ? a?o?oaeoo?? iinoiiaea?i?cio
cie?aia. I?iaeaia ?ai?acaioaoeaiino? iiaea?oueny ye oeaio?aeueia aeey
a?o?oaeoo?e ? ?icaeyaea?oueny c oi/ee ci?o i?e?iaee ca’yceo a?o?oaeoo?e
? o?einio??, ?ice?eaa?oueny i?eioeei ae?? ?ai?acaioaoeaiiai iaoai?cio, a
oaeiae aeine?aeaeothoueny nioe?i-eoeueoo?i? aniaeoe ieoaiiy, iiceoe??
uiaei «iinoiiaea?ii? ?noi?e/iino?» oa aaeaeaaoiino? a?o?oaeoo?iiai
oi?iiaeyaeaiiy , ?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iinoiiaea?i?ci, aeaeiino?oeoe?y, a?o?oaeoo?ia
?ai?acaioaoe?y, eieaeoeaia iai’youe.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oeei/aiei N.TH. Oeeinioneee eiioaeno a?oeoaeoo?u iinoiiaea?iecia.- Ia
i?aaao ?oeiiene. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeeinioneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.08- ynoaoeea.- Einoeooo
oeeinioee IAIO ei.A.N. Neiai?iaeu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia enneaaeiaaiey neaiciuo iaoaieciia
acaeiiaeaenoaey a?oeoaeoo?u e oeeinioee — aeeneo?neaiuo oneiaee
eiiioieeaoeee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey cia/aiee a a?oeoaeoo?a, e a?oeoaeoo?a
iinoiiaea?iecia a /anoiinoe. I?iaeaia ?ai?acaioaoeaiinoe i?aaenoaaeyaony
eae oeaio?aeueiay aeey a?oeoaeoo?u e ?anniao?eaaaony n oi/ee c?aiey
i?e?iaeu nayce a?oeoaeoo?u e oeeinioee, ?ane?uaaaony i?eioeei aeaenoaey
?ai?acaioaoeaiiai iaoaiecia, a oaeaea enneaaeothony nioeei-eoeueoo?iua
aniaeou aii?ina, iiceoeee, eanathueany «aeeneo?neaiinoe aecoaeueiiai»,
«oaeaniinoe niciaiey», «iinoiiaea?iie enoi?e/iinoe» e aaeaeaaoiinoe
a?oeoaeoo?iiai oi?iii?iyaeaiey, iieeoeee eioa?i?aoaoeee. Aeaoaeueii
?anniao?eaathony acaeiiiaoneaaeeaathuaa aeeyiea oeeinioee
aeaeiino?oeoeee, a?oeoaeoo?iuo i?iaeoia e a?oeoaeoo?iie e?eoeee. Iniaue
?acaeae iinayuai eco/aieth i?iaeaiu «aeeneo?neaiinoe aecoaeueiiai» e
iaeioi?uo oai?aoe/aneeo iiceoeee I.Ooei, eo aiciiaeiinoae aeey
eioa?i?aoaoeee a?oeoaeoo?u. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony enneaaeiaaieth
nianoaaiii iaoaieee a?oeoaeoo?iie ?ai?acaioaoeee: ?anniao?eaathony
ioaeaeueiua aa «iai?aaeaiey» — aa iai?aaeaiiinoue (i?ioeia, aoaeouaa,
ianoiyuaa) e neooaoeey iuiaoiaai e?ecena noauaeoa e iauaeoa
?ai?acaioaoeee, aa «ioiioaiey» n i?iaeaiaie eiino?oe?iaaiey a eoeueoo?a
nioeeaeueiiai iiea /aaiaea?a/, i?eioeeiii o.i. «oaeaniinoe niciaiey» e
nioeei-aio?iiiii?oiuie eiino?oeoeeyie, i?eioeeiaie nicaeaiey e
nouanoaiaaiey eiioeaioeee o?aaiecia /a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa, nayce
a?oeoaeoo?u n ieoaie e eaeaieiaeyie, aniaeou nouanoaiaaiey o?aaiecia eae
oi?iu eoeueoo?iie eaeae «iaiyoieea» eee oaao?a «eieaeoeaiie iaiyoe» —
auno?aeaaiea nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie eaeaioeoeeaoeee ee/iinoe eae
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aa e eiie?aoiiio niiauanoao, ai?iaeo, iaoeee, no?aia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iinoiiaea?ieci, aeaeiino?oeoeey, a?oeoaeoo?iay
?ai?acaioaoeey, eieeaeoeaiay iaiyoue.

SUMMARY

Schlipchenko S.Yu. Philosophy and Architecture in the Age of
Postmodernism. A Ph.D/Kandidat in Philosophy/ thesis
09.00.08-Aesthetics. H.Skovoroda Institute for Philosophy AS Ukraine,
Kyiv,1999.

The author explores different aspects and conceptual links between
philosophical discourse and architecture, a seminal position in the
intellectual culture of the postmodern age — when what would
conventionally be called ‘philosophy’ is thinking its problems through
architecture rather than the other way around. A problem of
representation is regarded as central to architecture since the very
nature of the process of signification opens up more radical
possibilities, offering a way of rethinking the institution of
architecture, questions about the logic of space, structure, materiality
or presence, history, media, gender, power and politics of
interpretation.

Key words: postmodernism, deconstruction, architectural representation,
collective memory.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a ?inoeooo? o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?EEE Ieaa Aaneeueiae/

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i.A.Neiai?iaee IAIO

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: 1. Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

EAA*OE Ea?ena Oeiio??aia

Iaoe?iiaeueiee Oi?aa?neoao ?i.
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith aoeee,
anoaoeee oa eoeueoo?ieia??

2. Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

EAAEOeUeEEE Ieaa A?eoi?iae/

Iaoe?iiaeueia Ioce/ia Aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith noni?eueieo iaoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Oi?aa?neoao «Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y», eaoaae?a
eoeueoo?ieia?? oa a?oaieia??

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «___» _____________ 1999 ?. i 14
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.161.01 aeey
caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
(eaiaeeaeaoa) iaoe a ?inoeooo? o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie
ca aae?anith:

252001 Ee?a — 1, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

252001 Ee?a — 1, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «____» ____________ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Aiae?in ?.?.

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