EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? ?AAIA O?AIEA

OO?EAEI AIEIAeEIE? ?NAEIAE*

OAeE 316.48

O?EINIONUeEEE AIAE?C I?IAEAIE IANEEUeNOAA ? IAIANEEUeNOAA

A NONI?EUeIIIO ?ICAEOEO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.03 — nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y ?noi???

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Euea?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?einio??

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee- aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe Noa?/aiei Oaia?a
ss?ai?aia, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?einio?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe Ne/eaeoey Ieaa Ieoaeeiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
o?einio?? Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe Iao?ooaiei Ienaia Iao??aia, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i Euea?anueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa- Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a o?einio??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” n?/iy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.02 i?e Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290602, i.Euea?a,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290005,
i.Euea?a, aoe.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “22” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.I.Aeaienaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?iaeaia ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa iin?aea?
cia/ia i?noea a noni?euei?e oai??? ? i?aeoeoe? O?O-OO no. Iniaeeai
aeooaeueiith aiia ? aeey noni?euenoa, ye? i?iaiaeyoue aeiiii?/i?,
iie?oe/i?, eoeueoo?i? ?aoi?ie ? iaiaaathoueny i?aeiyoeny ia ye?nii iiaee
??aaiue. Ia nueiaiaei? oae? i?ioeane a?aeaoaathoueny ? a oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?, yea cae?enith? ?oo a iai?yieo a?ae ieaiiai? aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, a?ae oioae?oa?ii? aei aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie.

?aoi?ie ca/?iathoue ?ioa?ane ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi, o eiaei?e c yeeo
? ye ?o i?eoeeueieee, oae ? ?o noi?ioeaieee. Ioaea, oe? i?ioeane
a?aeaoaathoueny ia aacaie?nii ? ia aaceiioe?eoii. O noni?euenoa?
c’yaeythoueny iia? ?aeaieia??, iia? ia?o??, ye? i?aaiooue ae??oeoe
iayai? nioe?aeuei? noia?a/iino? ii-??ciiio. Caoenieee noa?i? nenoaie ia
a?aeeeaeathoue ianeeueieoeueeiai oeyoo i?e iiaa?iaii? aei oioae?oa?ecio.
Oaea noaiiaeua i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?iceieo a noni?euenoa? ? aaeueio?
?aoi?ie. Ana oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy
ianeeueieoeueeeo /e iaianeeueieoeueeeo ia?aoiae?a a?ae oioae?oa?ii? aei
aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie.

I?iaeaia ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa iia’ycaia c aeiiii?eith,
iie?oeeith, i?aaii, ii?aeeth, ?ae?a??th. I?ioa aiia ia? caaaeueio
aeanoea?noue ? iio?aao? niaoe?aeueiiai o?einionueeiai aiae?co, aei oiai
ae ?e ua iaaeinoaoiuei i?eae?ey?oueny oaaaa naia a oe?a?inuee?e
o?einio??. Iniaeeai iaiao?aeiei ? aiae?c eiioeaioe?e ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa, o?ainoi?iaoe?? ianeeuenoaa a iaianeeuenoai.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e
o?einio?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,
cie?aia, iaoeiai? i?ia?aie eaoaae?e “O?einionuee? ? eoeueoo?ieia?/i?
/eiieee noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?”, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ia?aoiaeo a?ae oioae?oa?ieo
noni?euenoa aei aeaiie?aoe/ieo ? i?noey a oeeo i?ioeanao ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. Ieoaiiy ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa ia?aaoaa? a oeaio?? oaaae ??ciiiai?oieo iaoe –
nioe?ieia??, aoieia??, aoeee, ineoiaiae?co, iie?oieia?? oa ?i. I?ioa
iaeaea a?aenooi? ?iaioe, a yeeo i?iaiaeeany a o?einionueeee aiae?c
aeacaii? i?iaeaie. Ianeeuenoai ? iaianeeuenoai ua ia noaee i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o/eciyii? o?einio??.

O ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae i?ioyaii aeiaaiai /ano oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a aoea
cina?aaeaeaia ia ?aaiethoe?eiiio ianeeuenoa?, a iaianeeuenoai acaaae? ia
?icaeyaeaeiny aai oeoia/eeiny ye aano?aeoia ii?ae?caoi?noai, ooii?y.
I?ae /an ?icaeyaeo ianeeuenoaa ?aaeyinuee? aeine?aeieee aoee ?aeei? a
oiio, ui aiii ia? nioe?aeueii-eeaniao i?e?iaeo. Oea a?aeia?aaeaii a
?iaioao A.Aeaieniaa, a oaeiae o aeia?aeieeia?e e?oa?aoo??.

C 1990 ?ieo ?aaeyinuee? o?einioe caa?oathoueny aei iaianeeuenoaa, a a
ieoaii? i?i ianeeuenoai i?iaeiaaeo? aeii?ioaaoe ia?enenonueea oi/ea
ci?o. Ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aoeea iaianeeuenoaa” (Iineaa, 1990)
?icaeyaeaeeny oae? i?iaeaie: ianeeuenoai ? iaianeeuenoai, oeyoe
iiaoaeiae iaianeeueieoeueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Ieoaiiy iaianeeueieoeueeeo ae??oaiue nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a i?ae /an
aeaiiino?aoe?e iaaiai?thaaeeny ia ?aaeyinueei-aia?eeainueeiio nai?ia??
1991 ?ieo. Aoe/iee aniaeo iaianeeuenoaa aena?oeaii o noaooyo
A.Aonaeiiaa.

Iaaiee aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy ianeeueieoeueei? iiaaae?iee ethaeeie aoei
c?iaeaii ?aaeyinueeeie aaiaoeeaie. O ?iaioao A.Ao?i?iniia, I.Aeoa?i?ia
oa ?i. c’yniaoaaeeny ieoaiiy ca’yceo i?ae niaaeeia?noth ? ianeeuenoaii,
nioe?aeueii? ? a?ieia?/ii? coiiaeaiino? ianeeuenoaa. Aiae?c ianeeuenoaa
c iiceoe?e aoieia?? aoei i?iaaaeaii o noaooyo A.Aeieueieea.

Na?aae a?iiaaenueeeo ? aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ?in??, ye?
caeiathoueny aea/aiiyi iaianeeuenoaa, iiaeia iacaaoe Oienoianueeee
oiiae, oiiae “Aaooa ie?o”, iaoeiai-i?ina?oieoeueeee oeaio? “Aoeea
iaianeeuenoaa”.

Cia/iee aeina?ae o aea/aii? ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa iathoue cao?aei?
a/ai?. Aea/aiiyi ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa ia Caoiae? caeia?oueny
?inoeooo iaianeeuenoaa ?i. I.E.E?iaa (Iueth-Ei?e), ?inoeooo A.Aeiooaeia
(Eaia??aeae), Aeine?aeieoeueeee oeaio? c iaianeeuenoaa (Naioa-E?oc).

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ianeeuenoaa o oaa?eiiiio na?o? ? ethaenueeiio
noni?euenoa?, a?ieia?/i? ? nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe ianeeuenoaa, oiiae
ia?aoiaeo a?ae ianeeuenoaa aei iaianeeuenoaa ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy o
?iaioao E.Ei?aioea. C’ynoaaiiy aaiaoe/ieo i?e/ei ianeeuenoaa
i?iaiaeeoueny A.Iiooeuenuee? ? O.Oiaaeai.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei ianeeuenoaa, aeae?eaiiy oi?i ianeeuenoaa c oi/ee
ci?o ineoiaiae?co c?iaeaii C.O?aeaeii ? A.O?iiiii.

Aiae?c ianeeuenoaa c iiceoe?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? i?iaiaeeany A.Aaeea?ii.
Iaoiaee iaianeeueieoeueeeo ae?e a aeiiii?/i?e, iie?oe/i?e aaeocyo
?ic?iaeai? Aeae.Oa?iii. Iniaeeaino? i?iya?a ianeeuenoaa a ??cieo
noni?euenoaao aeine?aeaeoaaeeny E.Iiiia?ii oa O.Oae?eii. Aoe/i? noi?iie
iaianeeuenoaa ?icaeyaeathoueny a ?iaioao ?.Eaca??-Iaaeianueei?,
AE.Aaiue?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e c ie?aieo aniaeo?a aeaii?
i?iaeaie, i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? o?einionuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? a aeaaaee
ciiao c’ynoaaoe ci?no ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa, o?ainoi?iaoe?th
ianeeuenoaa a iaianeeuenoai.

Iiaeeaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaathoue iniaeeaino? i?iya?a ianeeuenoaa
a Oe?a?i?, oeyoe ia?aoiaeo a?ae ianeeueieoeueeeo aei iaianeeueieoeueeeo
ae??oaiue aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo ? aeooiaieo i?iaeai.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iaa?oiooaaiiy o?einionueeiai iiiyooy ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a
noni?eueiiio ?icaeoeo, ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa oiiae ooaa?aeaeaiiy
iaianeeueieoeueeeo oi?i noni?eueiiai i?ia?ano.

Caaaeath/e ia aeooaeuei?noue oa iaaeinoaoi? ?ic?iaeaiiy i?iaeaie
iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy:

ea?oth/enue ?noi?e/iei i?aeoiaeii, i?iaiae?coaaoe ?icoi?iiy ci?noo e
?ie? ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a noni?eueiiio ?icaeoeo a oe?a?inuee?e
oa ca?oa?aei?e o?einionuee?e ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?, ?ice?eoe
?o i?noea o ?icaeoeo oe??? i?iaeaie;

oeyoii ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeaie ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa a no/ani?e i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeia?e, noni?euei?e oa
o?einionuee?e e?oa?aoo?? c’ynoaaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?ieia?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai, ciai?oiueiai ? aioo??oiueiai a aeaoa?i?iaoe?? i?iya?a
ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a iiaaae?ioe? ?iaeea?aea;

aeoiaey/e c nenoaiiiai aiae?co oa ae?yeuei?noiiai i?aeoiaeo ia??oiooaaoe
o?einionueea iiiyooy ianeeuenoaa oa iaianeeuenoaa, ?ice?eoe ?o
ia’?eoeaio ? noa’?eoeaio aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue, ci?no oa oi?ie;

c’ynoaaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a noni?eueiiio
?icaeoeo, o?ainoi?iaoe?th ianeeuenoaa a iaianeeueieoeuee? oi?ie ?icaeoeo
oa ?ieue eoeueoo?e, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, aeaiie?aoecaoe??,
i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa;

ia??oiooaaoe ?ieue iiaiai aoiai?cio oa aeaiie?ao?? a iiaeieaii?
ianeeuenoaa oa ooaa?aeaeaii? iaianeeueieoeueeeo oi?i ?icaeoeo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ianeeuenoai ?
iaianeeuenoai ia ??ai? ?iaeea?aea ? noni?euenoaa o ??cieo oeiao
noni?euenoa.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? c’ynoaaiiy ci?noo ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa oa ?o aeaoa?i?ioth/eo /eiiee?a, a oaeiae ieoaiiy
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ianeeueieoeueeeo noni?euenoa o iaianeeueieoeuee?.

Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. A aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii
caaaeueiieia?/i? iaoiaee (aiae?co, neioaco, ?iaeoeoe??, aeaaeoeoe??),
iaoiaee ia’?eoeaiiai, ?noi?e/iiai ? eia?/iiai, nenoaiiiai aiae?co,
i?eioeei aeaoa?i?i?cio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui c?iaeaii:

1. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a oe?a?inuee?e
o?einio?? oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? XIX-XX noie?oue, ?ie?
ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? ?
ia?niaeoea iiaeaeueoiai eiai ?icaeoeo c o?aooaaiiyi oeeo oaeoi??a.

2. Aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e o?einio??, aeoiaey/e ?c aca?iica’yceo
?noi?e/iiai ? eia?/iiai, eiioeaiooaeueiee aiae?c oai??e ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa oa ?o ?ie? o noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ?ooao XIX-XX noie?oue;
aiae?c no/anieo eiioeaioe?e ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa.

3. C’ynoaaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a o
cae?eniaii? ianeeueieoeueeeo ae?e, yea iieyaa? o iayaiino? niaaeeiaeo
iaoee?a aei ianeeuenoaa, ?aae?caoe?y aai ia ?aae?caoe?y yeeo caeaaeeoue
a?ae oiia nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue oeae i?ioean, oa
a?ae oa?aeoa?o naiiona?aeiieaiiy ?o ethaeeiith.

4. Ia??oiooaaiiy o?einionueeiai iiiyooy nioe?aeueiiai ianeeuenoaa ye
aieueiai? ae?yeueiino? eiai noa’?eoa, — aea?aeaae, ia?o??, ?iaeea?aea, —
ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia’?eoa, — iaoe??, nioe?aeueii? a?oie, ?iaeea?ae?a,
— cae?enithaaia c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy nai?o ?ioa?an?a. Ianeeuenoai
iaiao?aeia ? i?aaii??ia oiae?, eiee ?ioa?ane noa’?eoa ae?yeueiino?
ae?aaeathoue ia’?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, a ?ioa?ane
? ae?yeuei?noue ia’?eoa iiai?noth aai /anoeiai noia?a/aoue ?e.
Canoinoaaiiy noa’?eoii ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia’?eoa ianeeuenoaa
cae?enith?oueny a oaeiio aeiaaeeo oeyoii iaiaaeaiiy eiai ?ioa?an?a,
iaoiaeii i?aaiai? ae?yeueiino?. Ianeeuenoai ?aa?aneaia, eiee ?ioa?ane
noa’?eoa ae?yeueiino? iiai?noth noia?a/aoue ia’?eoeai?e iaiao?aeiino? ?
?ioa?anai ia’?eoa, ? oiae? aiii cae?enith?oueny ye aiethioa?enoe/ia
aeooiaia iiaeaaeaiiy aai ye o?ce/ia cieuaiiy noa’?eoii ia’?eoa oeyoii
?aaiethoe?e, ?ai?an?e, ai?i.

Iaianeeueieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue ?? noa’?eoa, – aea?aeaae, ?? i?aai?a,
?iaeea?ae?a, — cae?enith?oueny c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy eiai ?ioa?an?a, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue ia’?eoeai?e iaiao?aeiino? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ?
ni?aiaaeathoue a iniiaiiio c ?ioa?anaie ia’?eoa, — iaoe??, nioe?aeueii?
a?oie, ?iaeea?aea.

5. ?ice?eooy noni?eueii? oaiaeaioe?? aei o?ainoi?iaoe?? ianeeuenoaa a
iaianeeuenoai, aeaoa?i?iiaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii,
aeaiie?aoecaoe??th noni?euenoaa, ?icaeoeii i?aeia?iaeiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ? eoeueoo?e. Oey oaiaeaioe?y iieyaa? o ci?i? noa’?eoa
ae?yeueiino?, ooaa?aeaeaiith ?? i?aaiaeo ii?i, a oaeiae o ci?i? ia’?eoa
ae?yeueiino?, a c?inoaii? eiai iie?oe/ii? ? i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e, aeoeaii?
o/ano? a i?ioeanao aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

6. Aiae?c noni?eueieo /eiiee?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? ianeeuenoaa a
iaianeeuenoai, ui iia’ycai? ?c aoiai?caoe??th noni?eueiiai aeeooy oa
neoaeaoue ?ioa?anai ?icaeoeo naiaiaee oa aeaiie?ao??.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeeaeththoue ?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueiiai ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa, ?o
oei?a, iaoiae?a, oi?i, aeaoa?i?ioth/eo /eiiee?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa
aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeaie
ianeeuenoaa oa iaianeeueoaa a nioe?aeuei?e o?einio??, i?e /eoaii? eo?no
“Nioe?aeueia o?einio?y”, aiae?c? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa a aeaiie?aoe/ia.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o o?einionueeiio aiae?c? ianeeuenoaa
? iaianeeuenoaa, ?icaeyae? ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a a
aeaoa?i?iaoe?? ianeeuenoaa oa iaianeeuenoaa, aiae?c? ianeeuenoaa oa
iaianeeuenoaa a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?. O ni?aaaoi?noa? c Oo?eaei
A.N. aoei i?aeaioiaeaii noaooth “Aiae?c eiioeaioe?e ianeeueieoeueeiai ?
iaianeeueieoeueeiai ?icaeoeo o o?einio?? aia?o?cio oa e?aa?ae?cio”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeey i?aeaioiaee iaoeiaeo noaoae, iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
iaoiaeieia?/ieo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e o?einio?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, aeei?enoai? ia anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Noni?euei? iaoee a nenoai? oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a” (Oiaiue, aeiaoaiue 1997
?ieo).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
ui ia’?aeiothoue 5 ia?aa?ao?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 158 noi??iie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 117 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie ?iaioe, aecia/a?oueny
iaoa, ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia,
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “I?iaeaia ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a o?einionuee?e
oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? O?O ? OO noie?oue” aeine?aeaeo?oueny
?icoi?iiy ?ie?, i?iya?a ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a noni?eueiiio
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeie oa ca?oa?aeieie o?einioaie.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “Oe?a?inueea noni?eueia na?aeii?noue oa o?einio?y
i?i ?ieue ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a noni?eueiiio ?icaeoeo”
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?icoi?iiy oe??? i?iaeaie a oai?/ino? O.Oaa/aiea,
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ?.O?aiea, Ae.Aeiioeiaa, A.Eeieinueeiai.

Caeeeee aei ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ca nai? i?aaa iathoue i?noea
o a?eueoino? oai??a O.Oaa/aiea. Aea O.Oaa/aiei ia aoa iiaoii iaiaaeno? ?
ia aaniethoecoaaa ianeeueieoeuee? caniae ca?eueiaiiy ia?iaeo. Ia eiai
aeoieo, aoi?/ia ?aei?noue, iaeaaei?noue aei iaei??? ?ae?a?? iiaeii?
noaoe iniiaith aeey iaianeeueieoeueeeo a?aeiinei i?ae oe?a?ioeyie,
iieyeaie ? ?in?yiaie.

?in?enueeiio ? iieuenueeiio iaineaa?cio, O. Oaa/aiei i?ioenoaaeya
oe?a?inueeee iaineaa?ci, a iniiao yeiai aoea iieeaaeaia ??ai?noue, a ia
aeu?noue iaeiiai ia?iaeo iaae ?ioei.

Ieoaiiy ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa iin?aeaei aaaeeeaa i?noea ? o
i?aoeyo I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. I.Ae?aaiiaiia iaiaaaany aeei?enoaoe ia oie /an
ia?aaeia? aa?iiaenuee? ?aea? aeey ca?eueiaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a?ae
ianeeuenoaa aeaio ?iia??e — ?in?enueei? oa Aano?i-Oai?nueei?. Aeey oiai,
uia cao?ooaaoe oe?a?inueeee ia?iae aeey ai?ioueae, iaiao?aeii aoei
i?aeiyoe eiai iaoe?iiaeueio na?aeii?noue, i?ioenoiyoe
aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe??. ? oea o?aaa aoei ?iaeoe, ye aaaaeaa I.Ae?aaiiaiia,
/a?ac iioe?aiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae, /a?ac aeiiii?/iee, iie?oe/iee,
eoeueoo?iee iinooi. I.Ae?aaiiaiia i?aee?anethaaa, ui aeey onoiaiiy
ianeeuenoaa i?ae ia?iaeaie iaiao?aeii aeoiaoaaoe ii/oooy aoiaiiino?,
naiaiaee nia?no?, oa?ieiino? aei /oaeiai.

Ae??oaiiy iayaieo i?iaeai a noni?euenoa?, ?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a iiaeii? a?aeaoaaoeny ia /a?ac ?aaiethoe?th, ianeeuenoai, a
/a?ac aaiethoe?th. Oea aeniiaie, aei yeiai i?eeoia I.Ae?aaiiaiia,
niinoa??aath/e ianeeueieoeuee? ni?iae ia?aaoaeiae noni?euenoaa a O?Ono.
Ci?ieoe aeeooy noni?euenoaa cai?e ia iiaeia, ia iiaeia ianeeueieoeueee
iiaa?oaoe aeoieo, cae/a? oeny/ ethaeae ye caaaiaeii. Iiaoaeiaa
noni?euenoaa aac ianeeuenoaa iiaeiia ?icii/aoeny ?c noai?aiiy a?eueieo
a?iiaae, oiaa?enoa. ? oae? ia’?aeiaiiy a?eueieo in?a iiaeii? ?ooaoeny
aei “aacia/aeuenoaa”.

?.O?aiei o nai?o i?aoeyo i?aeaeaa e?eoeoe? iniiai? oaa?aeaeaiiy oai???
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiai nioe?ae?cio, cie?aia, o? ioieoe, ye? noinothoueny
ianeeuenoaa. Eiioeaioe?y eeaniai? ai?ioueae, ca ?.O?aieii, ia a?aoiao?
?ioa?ane aeeai? eiie?aoii? ethaeeie ? oiio ia iiaea ae??oeoe noni?euei?
i?iaeaie. Ioaea, iai?aaeeueii iia’ycoaaoe eeaniao ai?ioueao c i?ia?anii,
oeea?e?caoe??th. ?aae?caoe?y oai??? nioe?ae?cio aaaea aei iiaoaeiae
aeaniioe/ii? aea?aeaae ? ?icoiaeeoueny c aeaiie?ao??th, naiaiaeith. Oaea
aea?aeaaa aoaea ii?iaeaeoaaoe ana iia? ? iia? ?aaiethoe??. Nioe?ae?ci ia
ae??oo? i?iaeaie ianeeuenoaa, a eeoa ianeo? ??, i?aee?anethaaa ?.O?aiei.
Ia?enenonueea oai??y eeaniai? ai?ioueae aaaea aei ai?iaeia/? a
noni?euenoa? ? iaaeiioe?iee iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, ui, ia aeoieo
?.O?aiea, ia i?enei?th? ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ianeeuenoaa o noni?euenoa?.
Oe?a?ioe?, ye i?aee?anethaaa ?.O?aiei, ia iiaeii? cae?enithaaoe na?e
?icaeoie, ea?oth/enue i?ia?aiith, a iniia? yei? eaaeaoue i?eioeeie
ianeeuenoaa, eeaniai? ai?ioueae.

O OO noie?oo? i?iaeaia ianeeuenoaa inienethaaeanue o ?iaioao A.
Eeieinueeiai. Ianeeuenoai a?i ?icaeyaeaa o eiioaeno? iaiaaaiue
iiaoaeoaaoe oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao. Ianeeuenoai, ienaa A.Eeieinueeee,
iiaea aooe ye eiino?oeoeaiei, oae ? aeano?oeoeaiei. Aaniethoecaoe?y
neee, iieeaaeaiiy eeoa o?eueee ia iao?iie ? noeo?th ia iineoue oai?/iai
oa?aeoa?o. Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao iiaeia iiaoaeoaaoe ca oiiae, eiee ?
?aeay, /ani? ? aeenoeeie?iiaai? i?aai?caoi?e, ia a?ae/oaeai? a?ae
oe?ai?ianueeiai eeano. A?eueoiaeci ia iiaea aooe i???ioe?ii a
oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaioai?aii?, iine?eueee eiai iicie ciaoiaeeoueny ca
iaaeaie Oe?a?ie.

A 20-30 ?iee OO noie?ooy ae?acieeii naiino?eieoeueeeo i?aaiaiue
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aoa Ae. Aeiioeia. A ?iaioao Ae.Aeiioeiaa cia/ia
i?noea iaaea?oueny aie? aei aeeooy, aie? aei aeaaee, neeuei?e ethaeei?,
ianeeuenoao. O?, ooi aenooia? i?ioeaieeii oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aea?, ye aiai?ea Ae.Aeiioeia, ? i?ea?/ieeaie oa?i?o ? ianeeuenoaa. A
naia oaeeie ? nioe?ae?noe, ye? iaaeathoue ia?aaaao ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaae iaoe?iiaeueiei.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? “Aiae?c eiioeaioe?e ianeeueieoeueeiai ?
iaianeeueieoeueeiai ?icaeoeo a o?einio?? O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy”
i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoeiaee aei?iaie ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a c
aeuaiacaaii? i?iaeaie.

A o?einio?? E.Ia?ena ? O.Aiaaeuena ianeeuenoai ?icaeyaea?oueny a
eiioaeno? oai??? eeaniai? ai?ioueae, nioe?aeueii? ?aaiethoe??,
aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa??aoo. Nioe?aeueia ?aaiethoe?y, ia aeoieo E.Ia?ena ?
O.Aiaaeuena, iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia ianeeuenoa?, a?ei? a?aeieo i?ioe
aaaaoeo. Ianeeueieoeueea ?aaiethoe?y ? iaiao?aeiei iiiaioii o ?icaeoeo
eai?oae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa ? niiniaii ia?aoiaeo aei ?ioiai oeio
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Ianeeuenoai iaiao?aeia aeey cieuaiiy ao?aeoac??
ye eeano ? ceaio noa?eo nioe?aeueieo ii?yaee?a. Ianeeuenoai — iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiee niin?a ae??oaiiy oeo caaaeaiue, ye? noi?ioeueiaaii E.Ia?enii
oa O.Aiaaeuenii o “Iai?oano? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??”. O.Aiaaeuen
?aeiiaiaeoaaa ?ia?oie/iio eeano ia a?aeiiaeyoeny a?ae ianeeuenoaa, ia
aeeaey/enue ia o? ia?aiiae, ye? a?i io?eiaa iaianeeueieoeueeei oeyoii
i?ae e?iaoeue O?O noie?ooy.

Ia aeoieo aano??enueeiai o?einioa, aeiiii?noa O.Oae?ea, ethaee ?
ca?o/ieeaie ?aeae, ye? aiie nai? ? ii?iaeeee. ?aea? nioe?ae?cio,
iaoe?iiae-nioe?ae?cio aaaeooue aei iaiaaeaiiy naiaiaee ? noaa?aeaeaiiy
ianeeuenoaa. O.Oae?e ieoa, ui na?aeiia ea??aieoeoai noni?euenoaii iinoa?
i?e nioe?ae?ci? ye ieaiia?noue. Ieaioaaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei aeeeoaoo?e,
ine?eueee aeeeoaoo?a — ?aeaaeueiee ?ino?oiaio ianeeuenoaa ? i?eioniai?
?aeaieia?caoe??. A ieaiiaiio noni?euenoa? ethaeeia aenooia? eeoa ye
can?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?e?. Anoaiiaeaiiy oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio
caeaaeeoue a?ae ii?aeueiiai oa ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ??aiy ethaeae oiai /e
?ioiai noni?euenoaa. Iiaeieaiiy nioe?ae?cio, iaoe?iiae?cio iiaeeeaa a
oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ethaee i???ioothoueny ia e?aa?aeuei? oe?iiino?:
naiaiaeo, iacaeaaei?noue, ?ioaeaeooaeueio /ani?noue, iiaaao aei
ethaeeie, eiieo?aioe?th.

E.Iiiia? i?aee?anethaaa a nai?o ?iaioao, ui nioe?aeueia ianeeuenoai
ia?aoeiaeaea? ?icaeoeo aeaiie?ao??, a oea a naith /a?ao aaaea aei
anoaiiaeaiiy oioae?oa?ieo nioe?aeueieo nenoai. Oioae?oa?i? noni?euenoaa
?icaeyaeathoueny oaeiae ye ?acoeueoaoe ?ioaeaeooaeueii? o?aaeeoe??,
caii/aoeiaaii? ua Ieaoiiii. Oioae?oa?i? nenoaie ? “cae?eoeie” oeiaie
noni?euenoaa. Aeueoa?iaoeaith “cae?eoiai noni?euenoaa” ? “a?aee?eoa
noni?euenoai”, aea ?aae?cothoueny i?eioeeie naiaiaee, aoiai?cio.

Oai?aoeee ?in?enueeiai aia?o?cio I.Aaeoi?i ? I.E?iiioe?i aaaaeathoue
iaiao?aeiei aeei?enoaiiy ianeeuenoaa aeey ceaio aea?aeaae. Aoaeue-yea
aea?aeaaa ocaeiith? ianeeuenoai ? oiio iaiao?aeii e?ea?aeoaaoe ?? ye
oi?io i?aai?caoe?? aeeooy. Ia i?noe? aea?aeaae iiaeii? aooe oaaea?aoe??
“naiaiaeieo” in?a oa anioe?aoe?e. I?ioa I.Aaeoi?i ia iieacaa, ye
cae?enieoe oaeee ia?ao?ae. Ca I.E?iiioe?iei, noni?euenoai iiaeiii
i?aai?coaaoeny ia canaaeao aia?o?/iiai eiioi?cio. Aia?o?/iee eiioi?ci
aeeeth/a? aea?aeaao ? i?iaieioo? aeiiii?/io ? iie?oe/io naiaiaeo.

I.Aa?aey?a, ioe?ithth/e ?aaiethoe?? ? a?eie c iiceoe?e o?enoeyinoaa,
o?aeoo? ?o ye a??o. ?noi??y ethaenoaa — ?noi??y a??oa, e?iaii?ieeooy,
ianeeuenoaa. A?eia ? ?aaiethoe?y a ?in?? i?eaaee aei iiyae iiai?
ethaeeie — ethaeeie, yea i?aaia aei aeaaee ? aeeeoaoo?e, aei
ianeeueieoeueeiai ae??oaiiy noni?eueieo i?iaeai. A oea, a naith /a?ao, ?
na?ae/aiiyi aeaaoiai?caoe?? ethaeeie. I?n?y o?enoeyinoaa iieyaa? a oiio,
uia coieieoe i?ioean aeaaoiai?caoe??. Ca I.Aa?aey?aei ?noi??y
ethaenueeiai ?icaeoeo iineoue o?aa?/iee oa?aeoa?, yeee aa?a ii/aoie o
naiaiae?. Naiaiaea i?eaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui ?noi??y iaaoaa? no?aoieo,
e?eaaaeo, no?aaeaeaeueieo a?aeo?ie?a.

Aoiai?ci, yeee noaaeoue nai?th iaoith naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy ethaeeie aac
aeciaiiy Aiaa, aaaea aei ao?aoe ethaeeie. A naia oaeee aoiai?ci, aiai?ea
I.Aa?aey?a, oa?aeoa?iee aeey o?einio?? O.I?oeoa ? E.Ia?ena.

O o?einio?? A.Nieiaeiaa ianeeuenoai ioioiaeith?oueny ?c ceith aieath.
Iin?yie cei? aie? ? ye ie?ai? iniaenoino?, oae ? ia?iaee a oe?eiio.
Noaaeaiiy A.Nieiaeiaa aei ianeeuenoaa ciaoiaeeoue ae?aaeaiiy a
“aeieo?ei? iiinoe” ? a “aeieo?ei? neiaaniiai ia?aeiiaiiy”. Aeey
iaiaaeaiiy ianeeuenoaa, ia aeoieo A.Nieiaeiaa, iaaeinoaoiuei
iinooethaaoe ii?aeuei? i?eioeeie, a iaiao?aeii ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe caeiie.
Caeiie iiaeii? aa?aiooaaoe eiaeiiio naiaiaeo ? noai?thaaoe oiiae aaciaee
aeey iniaenoi? naiaiaee, oi/a ooo aaea ia iaoiaeeoueny aac aeei?enoaiiy
neee, i?eiono. Iaeiae neea, ianeeuenoai ia iiaea cioneoe ethaeeio aooe
aeia?ith.

A.?.Eai?i ? I.Aooa??i, i?iaeiaaeoth/e o?aaeeoe?? ia?enecio, ?icaeyaeaee
?noi??th ye ai?ioueao eean?a. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?iei ? aaniethoecaoe?y
ianeeuenoaa. Oe?ii?noue ianeeuenoaa aiie aaa/aee a oiio, ui aiii ?
aaaeaeai aeey i?aai?caoe?? aoae?aieoeoaa iiaiai noni?euenoueaa, oaeoi?ii
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?. Aaniethoecaoe?y ianeeuenoaa a oai???
? ia i?aeoeoe? i?ecaaee aei /eneaiieo aea?oa. Nioe?ae?ci ia ci?a
?aae?coaaoe i?iaieioai? aoiai?noe/i? i?eioeeie, ine?eueee ia a?aeiiaeany
a?ae ianeeuenoaa.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? “Aiae?c i?iaeai ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a
eiioaeno? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa” aaoi? ?icaeyaea?
iniaeeaino? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai oioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa a
aeaiie?aoe/ia ? ?ieue a oeueiio i?ioean? ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa.

Aeey cia/ii? e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy ? aeanoeaei i/?eoaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
aeaooo. A ia?aa?ao? i?iaiae?ciaai? ia’?eoeai? ? noa’?eoeai? oaeoi?e
oaei? oaiaeaioe??. Onoiaiiy nioe?aeueiiai aeaooo iiaeeeaa i?e oiia?
aoaeoeaieo ?aoi?i a noa?ao aeiiii?ee, iie?oeee, eoeueoo?e. A
noni?euenoa? ?niothoue ia’?eoeai? oiiae aeey iaianeeueieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? a oie aea /an niinoa??aa?oueny iaaeinoaoiy aeoeai?noue c?
noi?iie noa’?eo?a ae?yeueiino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue oa ci?no i?eioeei?a ianeeuenoaa
? iaianeeuenoaa” i?iaiae?ciaai? oaeoi?e aeaoa?i?iaoe?? ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa ia ??ai? ?iaeea?aea ? noni?euenoaa. Oae, o ia?oiio
ia?aa?ao? “Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei c’ynoaaiiy i?eioeei?a ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa” aeae?eaii o?einionueeee aniaeo oeeo i?eioeei?a c
aaiaoeee, aoieia??, ineoiaiae?co, aeiiii?ee. I?e oeueiio a?aoiaaii
a?inioe?aeueio i?e?iaeo ethaeeie, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aioo??oiueiai ?
ciai?oiueiai, naiaiaee ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

I?e c’ynoaaii? ?ie? a?ieia?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai o ianeeuenoa? ?
iaianeeuenoa? a?aoiaaii ?aeath “o?iiiniiiiai aaeaoe?”. Iiaeia aiai?eoe
i?i oa, ui noeeuei?noue ethaeeie aei ianeeuenoaa coiiaeaia aaiaoe/ii,
aea ?aae?caoe?y oe??? noeeueiino? caeaaeeoue a?ae nioe?aeueieo oiia ?
iiaea noaaethaaoeny aai aeciaaaoeny nioe?aeueii iaaacia/iith. Ca iaaieo
nioe?aeueieo oiia ethaeeia caeaoia ?aae?coaaoe nai? ianeeueieoeuee?
iioyae, a i?e ?ioeo oiiaao aiie aoaeooue caaaeueiiaai?.

Aoieia?/iee aiae?c i?iya?a ianeeueieoeueei? iiaaae?iee ethaeeie
i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i ?inoeieoeaiee oa?aeoa? ianeeuenoaa.
Ianeeuenoai, ca E.Ei?aioeii, i?eoaiaiia ethaeei? ? eiai ia iiaeia
iiai?noth onoiooe c aeeooy. Ianeeuenoai ciaoiaeeoue aeya o caoiieaii?.
Ia?aaoaath/e a noai? caoiieaiiy, ethaeeia ia i?eneooa?oueny aei ?icoio,
ia ni?eeia? iiceoe?? i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie ? aioiaa iiia?oe ca o?
oe?iiino? oa ?aeaaee, ye? aiia caoeua?. E.Ei?aioe aaaaea?, ui ?inoeieo
caoiieaiiy aecia/a? cia/iith i??ith nioe?aeueio no?oeoo?o noni?euenoaa.
?aeay i?i oa, ui noeeuei?noue ethaeeie aei ianeeuenoaa iineoue
?inoeieoeaiee oa?aeoa?, aeanoeaa ? oai??? ineoiaiae?co C.O?aeaea.

O ineoiaiae?c? A.O?iiia aeae?ey?oueny ianeeuenoai, yea neoaeeoue aeeooth
oa i???ioaoe??, ui noiyoue ia caaaae? aeeooy. Ca A.O?iiiii, ethaeeia
ii?aeio? a nia? aiaaea ? ca??a, aeooo ? o?ei. Ethaeeia — oea
noia?a/i?noue, noia?a/i?noue i?ae aeaiia eiioe?eoieie na?oaie.
?ica`ycaiiy eiioe?eoo noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?ia?aneaiei /e ?aa?aneaiei
?icaeoeii.

C aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ianeeuenoai iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye iacaeiiia
ae?yeuei?noue, ui i?eiineoue cia/ii a?eueoee i?eaooie, i?ae ocaeiiai?
aeaee ae?yeueiino? a o?e /e ?io?e noa??.

?noi??y na?ae/eoue, ui iiaeeeaa na?aeiia aeei?enoaiiy a?ieia?/iiai
(?inoeieo?a) a ethaeei? aeey ?iciaethaaiiy ? iioe?aiiy ianeeuenoaa. Eiee
ia caaeiaieueiythoueny ia?aeii? a?ieia?/i? iio?aae ethaeeie ca iaaieo
aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo oiia, oi oea aaaea aei ianiaiai ianeeuenoaa a
noni?euenoa?. Ethaeeia ye ?icoiia ?noioa, ona?aeiiethth/e na?e
aioo??oi?e na?o, aeae?a? ianeeueieoeueeee /e iaianeeueieoeueeee
ciai?oi?e oeyo ?aae?caoe?? aioo??oiueiai. Aioo??oi?e na?o ethaeeie
cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa. Iacaaeiaieaiiy
iio?aa ii?iaeaeo? eiioe?eo i?ae ?iaeea?aeaie, i?ae ?iaeea?aeaie ?
aea?aeaaith, i?ae nioe?aeueieie a?oiaie ? aea?aeaaith. Ia?aae?ciaai?
iio?aae aaaeooue aei ianeeuenoaa o noni?euenoa?, ? nai oeyo cae?eniaiiy
iio?aa iiaea aooe ianeeueieoeueeei. Ethaeeia iiaea aeae?aoe oiae?, eiee
aiia ? a?eueiith. Cae?enieaoe aea??, ethaeeia iana a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ye ii?aeueio, oae ? i?aaiao. A?aeiia?aeaeueieie ia iiaeooue aooe
nioe?aeuei? a?oie, nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe, a eeoa ethaee, eiie?aoi?
iniae. Aea?? ethaeeiith ianeeuenoaa aai iaianeeuenoaa coiiaeth?oueny
ona?aeiieaiiyi ?inoeieo?a, iioea?a ? ae?e, ia?aaeaa/aiiyi iane?aee?a,
a?aooaaiiyi /oaeiai ? aeaniiai aeina?aeo uiaei aeacaieo niinia?a
a?aeiinei i?ae ethaeueie.

Ianooaai?noue ianeeuenoaa a noni?euenoa? c?inoa? o ca’yceo c ?icaeoeii ?
aaeineiiaeaiiyi cia?yaeue aeey ianeeuenoaa.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? “Ia’?eoeaia ? noa’?eoeaia aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue
ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa oa ?o o?einionueea iiiyooy” aaoi? aiae?co?
ci?no, oi?ie, iaoiaee, oeie, aeaoa?i?ioth/? oaeoi?e ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa.

Aei ia’?eoeaieo aeaoa?i?iaio ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa ia ??ai?
?iaeea?aea a?aeiinyoueny ye?ni? ci?ie a noni?euenoa?, noni?euei?
iio?aae, nioe?aeuei? oiiae i?e?ina?aaeiaeua, a?ieia?/i? oaeoi?e,
aeiaaeeiaino?. Aei noa’?eoeaieo aeaoa?i?iaio ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa
ia ??ai? ?iaeea?aea a?aeiinyoueny ?aeaieia?y, ii?aeue,
aiioe?eii-ineoieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Ia ??ai? noni?euenoaa ia’?eoeaieie i?e/eiaie ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa
? aeiiii?/i? oiiae, iaoiaee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, nioe?aeueia
?ioi?iaoe?y, i?e?iaei? oaeoi?e. Aei noa’?eoeaieo oiia ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa ia ??ai? noni?euenoaa iaeaaeaoue nioe?aeuei? ii/oooy ?
iano?i?, nioe?aeuei? noa?aioeie, nioe?aeueia ?aeaieia?y.

Ia’?eoeai? ? noa’?eoeai? oaeoi?e ia ae?thoue ?cieueiaaii, a
ia?aaoaathoue o aca?iica’yceo.

Ia’?eoii ianeeuenoaa iiaea aooe aeeooy, o?ei, iaeii, ia?aeiiaiiy,
a?eueia ia?anoaaiiy, naiaiaea neiaa, naiaiaea nia?no?, nioe?aeuei?
?inoeoooe, nioe?aeuei? a?oie. Aei iaoiae?a ianeeuenoaa iaeaaeaoue
oaea?e, iia?ice, iai?ioeyoe?y na?aeii?noth, nia?oue, eae?oeoai,
oa’yciaiiy, ?oeioaaiiy, eiio?neaoe?y iaeia, iaiaaeaiiy ia?anoaaiiy,
ini?iieaiiy, oaioaae, eiii?iiaioaoe?y a caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aei
oei?a ianeeuenoaa a?aeiinyoueny oieiaeia a?eia, ineoieia?/ia a?eia,
a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia, ?aaiethoe?y, ca?ieia iianoaiiy, iie?oe/ie?
?ai?an??, aeiiii?/ia aeieaaea.

Ianeeuenoai ? iaianeeuenoai ?aae?cothoueny a ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo,
i?aea?oiiaeo, aioo??oiueia?oiiaeo, i?aeaea?aeaaieo oi?iao.

Ianeeuenoai – oea aieueiaa ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eoa, — aea?aeaae, ia?o??,
?iaeea?aea, — ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia’?eoa, — iaoe??, nioe?aeueii? a?oie,
?iaeea?ae?a, — yea cae?enith?oueny c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy nai?o ?ioa?an?a.
Iaianeeuenoai — oea ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eoa, cae?enithaaia c iaoith
?aae?caoe?? eiai ?ioa?an?a, ye? a iniiaiiio a?aeiia?aeathoue ia’?eoeai?e
iaiao?aeiino? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ? ca?aathoueny c ?ioa?anaie ia’?eoa.

?noi?e/iee aeina?ae aeyaey? oae? oi?ie ae?yeueiino?, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue noaiiaeaiith ethaeeie ? noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio c oi/ie
ci?o aoiai?cio oa oe?iiino? ethaenueeiai aeeooy. Oaeith oi?iith
ae?yeueiino? ? iaianeeuenoai. Iaianeeuenoai i???ioiaaia ia caoeno aeeooy
? caia?a/o? aeei?enoaiiy ethaeeie ye cia?yaeaey ianeeuenoaa.

Ia’?eoeaieie oiiaaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? ianeeueieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a
iaianeeueieoeueeo ? ?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?euenoaa, ?iciaae iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie ? aeiei??iia ci?ia noa’?eoa ?noi?e/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Aei oei?a iaianeeuenoaa iaeaaeaoue eiinainon, eiii?ii?n,
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai.

Ia?ao?ae a?ae ianeeuenoaa aei iaianeeuenoaa iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe,
aeei?enoaoth/e aoiai?noe/i? aniaeoe eoeueoo?e, iiaeeeaino?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa,
ai?iaaaeaeoth/e iiaee aoiai?ci, iioe?thth/e aeaiie?aoe/i? iaoiaee
oi?aae?iiy, noai?thth/e aeaoeaio?ae?ciaai? i?aai?caoe??.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeeeaaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?icaeoeo
i?iaeaiaoeee ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a Oe?a?i?.

AENIIAEE

Noeeuei?noue ethaeae aei ianeeueieoeueeeo ae?e coiiaeaia niaaeeia?noth.
Aoaeooue /e ia aoaeooue ?aae?ciaai? i?aaiaiiy ethaeeie aei ianeeuenoaa —
oea caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ia’?eoeaieie /eiieeaie ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa ia ??ai? ?iaeea?aea ?
ye?ni? ci?ie a noni?euenoa?, noni?euei? iio?aae, nioe?aeuei? oiiae
i?e?ina?aaeiaeua, a?ieia?/i? oaeoi?e, aeiaaeeiaino?. Ia’?eoeai? oaeoi?e
ia ae?thoue nai? niaith, a eeoa o aca?iica’yceo ?c noa’?eoeaieie.
Noa’?eoeaieie aeaoa?i?iaioaie ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa ia ??ai?
?iaeea?aea ? aiey ? oe?e?, ye? noaaeoue ethaeeia, ona?aeiieaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iio?aa, ia?aeiiaiiy, cae?aiino?, iioeae oa ?i. Ia
??ai? noni?euenoaa ia’?eoeaieie i?e/eiaie ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa
aenooiathoue aeiiii?/i? oiiae, iaoiaee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
nioe?aeueia ?ioi?iaoe?y, i?e?iaei? oaeoi?e. Noa’?eoeaieie /eiieeaie ia
??ai? noni?euenoaa ? nioe?aeuei? ii/oooy ? iano?i?, nioe?aeuei?
noa?aioeie, nioe?aeueia ?aeaieia?y.

Ianeeuenoai ? iaianeeuenoai ?aae?cothoueny a ??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao
-?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e, i?aea?oiia?e, aioo??oiueia?oiia?e, i?aeaea?aeaai?e
oi?i?. Ia’?eoii ianeeuenoaa iiaea aooe aeeooy, o?ei, iaeii, ia?aeiiaiiy,
naiaiaea nia?no?, nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe, nioe?aeuei? a?oie.

Cai?iiiiiaaia oeiieia?y ianeeuenoaa aeeth/a? oieiaeio a?eio,
ineoieia?/io a?eio, a?iiaaeyinueeo a?eio, ?aaiethoe?th, ca?ieia
iianoaiiy, iie?oe/i? ?ai?an??, aeiiii?/io aeieaaeo. Aei iaoiae?a
ianeeuenoaa iaeaaeaoue oaea?e, iia?ice, iai?ioeyoe?y na?aeii?noth,
nia?oue, eae?oeoai, oa’yciaiiy, ?oeioaaiiy ? eiio?neaoe?y iaeia,
iaiaaeaiiy ia?anoaaiiy, ini?iieaiiy, oaioaae, eiii?iiaioaoe?y.

O o?ainoi?iaoe?? ianeeuenoaa a iaianeeuenoai aaaeeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue
aoiai?noe/iei c?aceai iiaaae?iee, eoeueoo?e; ni?a?ia?oieoeoao,
iniaeno?niei cono??/ai, aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiei i?aai?caoe?yi,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio i?ia?ano, i?aeia?iaeiiio ni?a?ia?oieoeoao.

Ia?niaeoeaieie iai?yieaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

c’ynoaaiiy noia?a/iinoae aoi?/iiai, i?aeeiioan?eiiai, ?noi?e/iiai
oa?aeoa?o, a?aooaaiiy aoiiaeaiia?ao?/ieo i?e/ei, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei
ianeeuenoaa;

aiae?c i?aeeiioan?eieo noia?a/iinoae ia Oe?a?i? oa niinia?a —
ianeeueieoeueeeo /e iaianeeueieoeueeeo — ?o ae??oaiiy;

?ic?iaea iaoiae?a iaianeeueieoeueeeo ae?e ? iaa/aiiy iaae/eai
iaianeeueieoeueei? iiaaae?iee, ae?e.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Oo?eaei A.?., Oo?eaei A.N. Aiae?c eiioeaioe?e ianeeueieoeueeiai ?
iaianeeueieoeueeiai ?icaeoeo o o?einio?? aia?o?cio oa e?aa?ae?cio. //
I?iaeaia ianeeuenoaa oa iaianeeuenoaa o o?einio??. — Ee?a: I?aeia?iaeia
o?iainiaa aaaioe?y, 1998. — N. 3-13.

2. Oo?eaei A.?. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?ieia?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai a eiioaeno?
i?iaeaie ianeeuenoaa oa iaianeeuenoaa. // I?iaeaia ianeeuenoaa oa
iaianeeuenoaa o o?einio??. — Ee?a: I?aeia?iaeia o?iainiaa aaaioe?y,
1998. — N. 13-27.

3. Oo?eaei A.?. Ci?no i?eioeei?a ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa oa ?o
i?noea a no/aniiio noni?eueiiio ?icaeoeo. // I?iaeaia ianeeuenoaa oa
iaianeeuenoaa o o?einio??. — Ee?a: I?aeia?iaeia o?iainiaa aaaioe?y,
1998. — N.28-40.

4. Oo?eaei A.?. I?eioeei iaianeeuenoaa ye oaeoi?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. // I?iaeaie aea?aeaaiino? oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. A?niee Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.O?aiea. Na?. noni. iaoe. Aei. 31. — Euea?a: Na?o,
1993. — N. 32-34.

5. Oo?eaei A.?. Aiae?c a?ae/oaeaiiy, ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a
oai?/ino? O.Oaa/aiea. // Aoiai?oa?i? iaoee: i?iaeaie, iiooee,
ia?niaeoeae. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aeione ???. *anoeia ?. — Oiaiue,
1994. — N. 43-47.

6. Oo?eaei A.?. I?iaeaia ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a nioe?aeuei?e
o?einio?? aia?o?cio. // Aoiai?oa?i? iaoee: i?iaeaie, iiooee,
ia?niaeoeae. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. *anoeia V. — Ee?a-E??iaia?aae:
O?aeaen, 1998. — N. 109-113.

7. Oo?eaei A.?. I?eioeeie ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a na?oiaeyaei?e
i???ioaoe?? iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey. // Aoiai?oa?i? iaoee: i?iaeaie,
iiooee, ia?niaeoeae. (Iaoa??aee anaoe?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. “Noni?euei?
iaoee a nenoai? oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? nooaeaio?a”).
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. *anoeia V. — Ee?a-E??iaia?aae: O?aeaen, 1998.
— N. 174-176.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oo?eaei A.?. O?einionueeee aiae?c i?iaeaie ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa a
noni?eueiiio ?icaeoeo. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.03 — nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y
?noi???.-Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.
Euea?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii o?einionueeiio aeine?aeaeaiith ianeeuenoaa ?
iaianeeuenoaa. ?icaeyaeathoueny ianeeuenoai ? iaianeeuenoai a ??ci?
?noi?e/i? ia??iaee, aiae?cothoueny aeaoa?i?ioth/? /eiieee, oi?ie, oeie,
iaoiaee, ooieoe??, ci?no ianeeuenoaa ? iaianeeuenoaa. C?iaeaiee aiae?c
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ianeeuenoaa a iaianeeuenoai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ianeeuenoai, iaianeeuenoai, aeaoa?i?iaoe?y ianeeuenoaa,
aeaoa?i?iaoe?y iaianeeuenoaa, eoeueoo?a, aoiai?ci, aeaiie?ao?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oo?eaei A.E. Oeeinioneee aiaeec i?iaeaiu ianeeey e iaianeeey a
iauanoaaiiii ?acaeoee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe — 09.00.03 — nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey e oeeinioey
enoi?ee. Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiea.
Eueaia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oeeinioneiio enneaaeiaaieth ianeeey e iaianeeey.
A ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu nenoaiiue e aeayoaeueiinoiue iiaeoiae, a oaeaea
iaoiaeu eiaeoeoeee e aeaaeoeoeee, aiaeeca e neioaca, i?eioeei
aeaoa?ieiecia, enoi?e/aneiai e eiae/aneiai.

Naeaeai aiaeec i?e/ei ianeeey e iaianeeey ia o?iaia eiaeeaeaea e
iauanoaa. A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey onoaiiaeaii, /oi iauaeoeaiuie i?e/eiaie
ianeeey e iaianeeey ia o?iaia eiaeeaeaea aunooiatho iauanoaaiiua
iio?aaiinoe, ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey a iauanoaa, oneiaey iee?in?aaeu,
aeieiae/aneea oaeoi?u, neo/aeiinoe. Noauaeoeaiuie oaeoi?aie ianeeey e
iaianeeey ia o?iaia eiaeeaeaea anoue aieaaua ea/anoaa, ee/iinoiua oeaee,
nianoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe, oaaaeaeaiey, niiniaiinoe. Ia o?iaia iauanoaa
iauaeoeaiuie aeaoa?ieiaioaie ianeeey e iaianeeey aoaeoo yeiiiie/aneea
oneiaey, iaoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, nioeeaeueiay eioi?iaoeey,
i?e?iaeiua oaeoi?u. Noauaeoeaiuie i?e/eiaie ianeeey e iaianeeey ia
o?iaia iauanoaa aunooiatho nioeeaeueiua /oanoaa e iano?iaiey,
nioeeaeueiua noa?aioeiu, nioeeaeueiay eaeaieiaey.

Ianeeea ii?aaeaeyaony eae aieaaay aeayoaeueiinoue noauaeoa, —
ainoaea?noaa, ia?oee, eiaeeaeaea, — iai?aaeaiiay ia ?aaeecaoeeth
eioa?ania, eioi?ua ia niaiaaeatho n eioa?anaie iauaeoa, — iaoeee,
nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu, eiaeeaeaea e i?ioeai?a/ao ei. Ia?aie/aiea eioa?ania
iauaeoa i?ienoiaeeo i?e eniieueciaaiee ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia ianeeey.

Aiaeece?oy niioiioaiea aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai, aioo?aiiaai e
aiaoiaai a aeaoa?ieiaoeee ianeeey, o/eouaay aeaiiua aaiaoeee, yoieiaee,
ineoiaiaeeca, naeaeai auaiae i oii, /oi ianeeea iineo a?iaeaeaiiue
oa?aeoa?, ii naia ?aaeecaoeey ianeeey caaeneo io nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee.

Iaianeeea — yoi aeayoaeueiinoue noauaeoa, eioi?ay a iniiaiii niaeanoaony
n eioa?anaie iauaeoa. Iaianeeea ioaa/aao eioa?anai /aeiaaea e iauanoaa a
oeaeii, n oi/ee c?aiey naiaiaeu e oeaiiinoe /aeiaa/aneie aeecie.

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea /aeiaa/anoaa aiciiaeii i?e oneiaee ia?aoiaea io
ianeeuenoaaiiiai e iaianeeuenoaaiiiio oeio ?acaeoey, o?ainoi?iaoeee
ianeeuenoaaiiuo iauanoa a iaianeeuenoaaiiua.

Iauaeoeaiuie oneiaeyie o?ainoi?iaoeee ianeeuenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
anoue caiaia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu, eioi?ay
iiaeaea?aeeaaao ianeeea, e iiyaeaiea noauaeoa aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?aneaaeothuaai oeaeue ia?aoiaea io oioaeeoa?ecia e aeaiie?aoee.
Noauaeoeaiui oneiaeyi yoiai i?ioeanna aunooiaao iniciaiea noauaeoaie —
eiaeeaeaeaie, nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie, ia?oeyie, ainoaea?noaaie —
niaea?aeaiey e iai?aaeaiiinoe aeaiie?aoecaoeee e aoiaiecaoeee
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. O?ainoi?iaoeey ianeeey a iaianeeea
aeaoa?ieie?iaaia iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii, aeaiie?aoecaoeeae
iauanoaa, iaaeaeoia?iaeiui nio?oaeie/anoaii, eoeueoo?ie.

Nia?aiaiiia oe?aeineia iauanoai iaoiaeeony a i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea io
oioaeeoa?iie e aeaiie?aoe/aneie nenoaia, io ianeeey e iaianeeeth.
Aiaeece?oy iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u o?ainoi?iaoeee oe?aeineiai
iauanoaa, naeaeai auaiae i iaee/ee iauaeoeaiuo oneiaee aeey iauanoaaiiuo
iaianeeuenoaaiiuo niiniaia aeayoaeueiinoe e a oi aea a?aiy iaaethaeaaony
neaaay aeoeaiinoue ni noi?iiu noauaeoia aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ianeeea, iaianeeea, aeaoa?ieiaoeey ianeeey,
aeaoa?ieiaoeey iaianeeey, eoeueoo?a, aoiaieci, aeaiie?aoey.

ANNOTATION

Furcalo V.J. Philosophical analysis of the problem of violence and
nonviolence in the social development.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a degree of a Candidate of Philosophy by speciality 09.00.03-
social philosophy and philosophy of history. Ivan Franco Lviv State
University, Lviv, 1998.

The thesis is dedicated to the investigation of violence and
nonviolence. Violence and nonviolence are considered in different
historical periods. The determining factors, forms, types, methods,
functions, content of violence and nonviolence are analysed. The
analysis of the transformation of violence into nonviolence is made.

Key words: violence, nonviolence, determination of violence,
determination of nonviolence, culture, humanism, democracy.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 16.12.98 ?.

Oi?iao 60*80/6, iai?? — ionaoiee

Oiiaieo ae?oea?nueeeo a?eoo?a 1,25

Oe?aae 100. Cai. ? 1997

Ae?oe AEI “AIN” oae. 421041

AEI o??ia “AIN”

aoe. Eeiiaa Aeay, 9

i.Euea?a, 290035

Oe?a?ia

oae. (0322) 42-10-41, 42-10-46

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