IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO E?OA?AOO?E ?i. O.A. OAA*AIEA

I??IOIE*AIEI E?e?y ss?ineaa?aia

OAeE 820.09-31

O?EINIONUeE? AeII?IAIOE OOAeIAEIUeIAI NA?OO

A?EUessIA YIEAe?IYA O ?IIAIAO

II?NUeEI? O?EEIA?? “AeI E?ATH CAIE?”

10.01.04 – e?oa?aoo?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AEeoeoaiei Iaoae?y TH???aia,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeaieniaa Oaia?a Iaoi?aia,

?inoeooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A. Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

A?eee Iaoae?y Aeieo??aia,

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo

oaao?aeueiiai ienoaoeoaa ?i. ?.E. Ea?iaiea-Ea?iai,

noa?oee aeeeaaea/ eaoaae?e o?eieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a oai??? oa ?noi??? na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 27 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.178.02 i?e ?inoeooo? e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A. Oaa/aiea

IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, i. Ee?a, aoe. I. A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e

?i. O.A. Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “24” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.?. Aaei?/a?o

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O ?a?iiaenuee?e e?oa?aoo?? OO noie?ooy
i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ?? ?ioaeaeooae?caoe?? oa iaaeeaeaiiy aei
i?iaeai no/anii? o?einio??. I?aaiaiiy ieooe?a inieneeoe na?o, aecia/eoe
i?noea ethaeeie a noni?eueieo i?ioeanao oa ?? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
iiae?? ieioeiai ? yaeua no/aniino? aenooia? iaei??th c oeiieia?/ieo
iciae iiiaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano, ni?ey? iiya? iiaeo oi?i o
e?oa?aoo??. A aiae?enuee?e i?ic? oey oaiaeaioe?y cayaey? i?i naaa o
50–60-o ?ieao ?ioaineaiei ?icaeoeii ?ioaeaeooae?ciaaieo oi?i iiia?ae?,
cie?aia o?einionueeiai ?iiaio. Aei aeai?iaiai ??ciiaeaeo ?iiaio, eio?ee
ii?aeio? e?oa?aoo?o c o?einio??th, caa?oathoueny o nai?o oai?ao A?eueyi
Yieae?i?, Ae??n Ia?aeie, Aeaeii Oaoec oa ?i.

Yieae?i? aeyne?aaea aiae?enueeee ?iiai o?einionueeei ci?noii ?
iniaeeaith oi?iith – no?iaith, aeaaaeaiith, a oaeiae a?ae/ooiith
aaoi?nueeith noee?noeeith. C ?iaiai ienueiaiieea iia’ycai? iaeaeu?
aeinyaiaiiy a aeai?? o?einionueei? aeaai??? – i?eo/?, a yeiio iaienaia
a?eueo?noue eiai oai??a.

?iiaiiee aei?iaie A?eueyia Yieae?i?a, eao?aaoa Iiaae?anueei? i?ai?? 1983
?ieo a aaeoc? e?oa?aoo?e, caneoaiao? ia oaaao a onueiio nai?io ianyc? e
iniaeeai o o?e eiai /anoei?, aea ienueiaiiee ocaaaeueith? na?e
ooaeiaeiuei-o?einionueeee aeina?ae, – o ii?nuee?e o?eeia?? “Aei e?ath
caie?”. O aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny ni?iaa aecia/aiiy
o?einionueei-ooaeiaei?o aeii?iaio i?ci?o ?iiai?a aaoi?a, ai a ieo
yne?aai aeyaeythoueny caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ?ioaeaeooae?caoe?? i?ice
a no/aniiio aiae?enueeiio ?iiai? e iniaeeaino? ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo
ienueiaiieea.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie i?aai?caoe??, aea
aeeiioaaeany aeena?oaoe?y. Oea aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii a ?aieao
eiiieaenii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? oaie “Caeiiii??iino? e?oa?aoo?iiai
i?ioeano OO noie?ooy: i?aenoiee ? i?iaeaie” ia eaoaae?? ca?oa?aeii?
e?oa?aoo?e Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oai??a, oai?aoe/ieo
i?aoeue oa ?ioa?a’th, ui ?o aeaaaa Yieae?i?, aecia/eoe o?einionuee?
aeii?iaioe i?aenoieiaiai oai?o aaoi?a – ii?nueei? o?eeia?? “Aei e?ath
caie?”. A?aeiia?aeii o ?iaio? ae??oothoueny oae? caaaeaiiy: 1. Aecia/eoe
iniiai? o?einionuee? aeii?iaioe ?iiai?a, ui ia?aaeoaaee o?eeia??,
aeoeaiooth/e oaaao ia oeo ?c ieo, aei yeeo aaoi? caa?oa?oueny o 80-o
?ieao; 2. Aecia/eoe o?einionuee? aeii?iaioe ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo ?iiai?a
ii?nueei? o?eeia?? “Aei e?ath caie?” oa c’ynoaaoe ?oi?e ca’ycie c
iiia?aaei?ie ?iiaiaie; 3. Aecia/eoe aeai?ia? iniaeeaino? ?iiaio-i?eo/?
A?eueyia Yieae?i?a ia i?eeeaae? ii?nueei? o?eeia?? oa c’ynoaaoe ??
a?aei?ii?noue a?ae ?iiai?a-i?eo/ 50–70-o ?ie?a; 4. Aeine?aeeoe i?e?iaeo
oa ooaeiaei? iniaeeaino? aeai?iaiai neie?aoecio ?iiai?a ii?nueei?
o?eeia??; 5. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ooaeiaei? i?eeiie aaoi?a (??ii?y,
o?aaano?y, eie??aeaeaanuee? aethc??, ii?aeaiiy o?aa?/iiai oa eii?/iiai
ia/ae, oaenoia? i?iionee oiui), ye? iathoue ci?noiooai?thth/a cia/aiiy;
6. C’ynoaaoe aieea a?aoeueei? iaoo?o?einio?? ia nenoaio neiaie?a ?iiai?a
o?eeia??; 7. C?iaeoe ia?oo ni?iao aiae?co o?einionueei-anoaoe/iiai
ci?noo oa iiaoeee inoaiiueiai ?iiaio Yieae?i?a – “Iiaea?eiee ycee”.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui o i?e
c?iaeaii ia?oo o a?o/eciyiiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? ni?iao aeine?aeaeaiiy
?iiai?a ii?nueei? o?eeia?? A?eueyia Yieae?i?a “Aei e?ath cie?” [“Rites
of Passage” (1980), “Close Quarters” (1986), “Fire Down Below” (1989)]
ye iaeiiai oe?e?niiai oai?o oa aiae?co ?o o?einionueeeo aeii?iaio c
o?aooaaiiyi iniiaieo eiiiiiio?a ?aeaeii-o?einionueei? no?oeoo?e ?iiai?a
aaoi?a 50–70-o ?ie?a. Aiae?co iinia?oii iioae?eiaaiiai ?iiaio
ienueiaiieea – “Iiaea?eiee ycee”, yeee aei oeueiai /ano caeeoaany iica
oaaaith, i?enay/aiee inoaii?e ?icae?e ?iaioe.

A Oe?a?i? i?ciy oai?/?noue Yieae?i?a ? iaeiaea/aiith. Iaea?eueo
??oioiaii ?iiaie ienueiaiieea ?icaeyaeaea N. Iaaee/ei a iiiia?ao??
“Eaa??eioe ieneaiiy” (1993), o ?icae?eao iin?aiee?a “Eeoa?aoo?a Aiaeee.
OO aae” (1987, 1993), o noaooyo oa i?neyiia? aei oe?a?inueeeo
ia?aeeaae?a Yieae?i?a. E??i oiai, ne?ae caaaeaoe aeen?oaoe?eio ?iaioo I.
Oianoaiei “?aeaeii-ooaeiaei? iniaeeaino? no/anii? i?eo/?” (1989), a ye?e
aaoi?ea aiae?co? ?icaeoie aeai?o i?eo/?, cie?aia ia i?eeeaae? ?aii?o
?iiai?a Yieae?i?a, oa ?? ?ica?aeeo “O?einionuee? i?eo/? A. Yieae?i?a”
(1992). Iinoaoue ienueiaiieea iaiaeii?aciai i?eaa?oaea oaaao a?o/eciyieo
aiae?no?a, iaeiae aeaye? c ieo no?eiaii i?aeoiaeeee aei anueiai
eiiieaeno i?iaeaiaoeee eiai oai??a. Noaeo oaaao e?eoeee caaithaaee
ia?aaaaeii eeoa ia?o? ?iiaie ienueiaiieea (A. ?eeno?aoiaa, A.A. ?aaoiaa,
A.A. Ai?e?i, I.I. Ieoaeuenueea, A. Aiaeaeaia?eaeca, A. Nei?iaeaiei, I.
Noiyiianueea, I. I?aeeeinueea, I. *aia?a oa ?i.).

Ca?oa?aeia ?ieae?i??aia ?, i?e?iaeii, aaaaooith: aiae?co oai?/ino?
Yieae?i?a i?enay/ai? iiiia?ao?? Ia?? E?ie?ae-A?en ? ssia Y?a?i?a,
No?aaia Aieaea, Aeiia E?iiioiia, A??aeaeei?? Oae?a?, A?eueyia ?aaeiaoa,
iaoeia? ?ica?aeee O?aiea Ea?iioaea, Yaa??aea Aeaein?iia?/?, Aeaea?aea
Eiaeaea, No?aaia Iaaeeaoa oa ?i. Aei aiae?co ii?nueei? o?eeia??
caa?oaeeny, cie?aia, O?aaea??e ?i?a?ae, Aeaeii Noaei, Eaa?i Iaeea?ii. Ia
nueiaiaei? iae??oioiai?oei cao?aeiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?ciuei?
ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice A?eueyia Yieae?i?a ? iiiia?ao?y No?aaia Aieaea,
aeaeaia aea?/? – o 1990 oa 1995 ?ieao. Iaeiae ?? aaoi? ia ?icaeyaea?
?iiaie ii?nueei? o?eeia?? o eiioaeno? an??? oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? aeniiaee
a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai, caeaa?eueoiai cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai,
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa, cie?aia i?aoe? c ?noi??? aiae?enueeiai
o?einionueeiai ?iiaio, oai??? i?eo/?, a oaeiae ?iaioe, aaciina?aaeiuei
i?enay/ai? aiae?co oai?/iai iaoiaeo A?eueyia Yieae?i?a. Aenoioo?
caaaeaiiy iaoiiaeee ii?aeiaiiy ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiai ?
ii??aiyeueii-oeiieia?/iiai iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoiaeeee “close reading” oa aeaiaio?a nai?ioeee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui i?aaeiao
? i?iaeaiaoeea aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoe?ththoue a oe?a?inueeiio
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? eiei oai ? aniaeo?a aea/aiiy aiae?enueei? ?iiaiii?
i?ice. ?acoeueoaoe ?ica?aeee iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey aecia/aiiy
ieoaiue ?icaeoeo aiae?enueei? ?iiaiii? i?ice ae?oai? iieiaeie OO
noie?ooy, iniaeeainoae no/anii? o?einionueei? i?ice, aeai?iai?
nai???aeiino? ?iiaio-i?eo/?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? o aoc?anueeeo eo?nao no/anii? aiae?enueei? oa ?a?iiaenueei?
e?oa?aoo?e, o iaa/aeuei?e i?aeoeoe?, i?iaaaeaii? i?aeoe/ieo oa
nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue, o iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo oai?/ino? A?eueyia
Yieae?i?a e o?einionueei? i?ice e?oa?aoo?e Aiae?? iia?oiueiai /ano.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoeany i?ae /an aenooi?a ?c
aeiiia?aeyie, ye? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ca?oa?aeii?
e?oa?aoo?e Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeee oaio aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo iieiaeeo o/aieo
oiai ae oi?aa?neoaoo o 1994, 1995 ?ieao. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??
iioae?eiaaii i’youe noaoae (nienie aeiaea?oueny).

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a (ianya 165 noi??iie iaoeiiieno).
Aeiaea?oueny nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (129 iiceoe?e).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/athoueny iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aecia/a?oueny eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia ?
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue.

?icae?e 1. O?einionuee? aeii?iaioe ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo ?iiai?a A?eueyia
Yieae?i?a 50-o – 70-o ?ie?a. Oai?/?noue Yieae?i?a 50–70-o ?ie?a aaaaoi a
/iio aecia/eea o?einionueeo ni?yiiaai?noue eiai i?ciueiai aei?iaeo. O
oeueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaioea caa?oa?oueny aei aiae?co ?iiai?a, ye?
ia?aaeoaaee ii?nuee?e o?eeia??, ia aeey c’ynoaaiiy oeo o?einionueeeo oai
? eiioe?eo?a, eio?? eaeoiioeaii i?ioiaeyoue e??cue onth eiai oai?/?noue,
a aeey aecia/aiiy ca’yce?a i?aenoieiaiai oai?o Yieae?i?a c iiia?aaei?ie
?iiaiaie. Aiae?c oaeno?a aeicaieea aeae?eeoe oae? iniiai? aeii?iaioe
?iiai?a 50–70-o, ye? aaoi? i?iaeiaaeea o ii?nuee?e o?eeia??: (1)
Ethaenueea aaea/a ia ? aeia?ith, a iai??e ethaeeie – ia?aaaaeii ce?, ?
eeoa ii?aeueiee ?iia?aoea iiaea no?eioaaoe i?iyae oe??? aaea/? /e
iaaa?oaoe ia i?aaaeeaee oeyo (“Aieiaea? ioo”, “Niaaeei?ioe?”, “Oieeue”,
“A?eueia iaae?iiy”, “Aeaeeia oai?yaa”). (2) Cei – eaoaai??y iaoao?ce/ia
(“Aieiaea? ioo”, “Niaaeei?ioe?”) oa nioe?aeueia aiaeii/an (“Oieeue”,
“Iaia?ia? ethaee”). (3) Oeaiei ? oeyo ethaeeie /e noni?euenoaa acaaae?,
yeee ??oioo?oueny aeiyoeiai ia canaaeao ?aoe?ioeaio?ecio (“Aieiaea?
ioo”, “Ceiaethaeea Ia?o?i”). Ca Yieae?i?ii, naia ?aoe?iiae?noe/iee oeyo
(? caei?iaee aeocae ye eiai neeaaeiaa) ai?iieoue ethaeeio, ui nei?ea
cei/ei, a?ae ioioiaeiaiiy naaa c “eaoii” ? caiaeii noa? ia caaaae?
ona?aeiieaiith nai?? i?iaeie, a a?aeoae a?aeiaeaeaiiy aeaniiai nian?iiy.
(4) ?aoe?iiae?ci aecia/a? ii?aeue ye ??oaiiy a?eueoino?. Iaae?iiy
ethaeeie a oiio, ui aiia i?eeia? oeth iacaia?a/i?noue (“A?eueia
iaae?iiy”). (5) Iinooi – iniaeno?niee oa noni?eueiee – iiaeeeaee, aea
a?i caaaeaee ii?aeio?oueny c aeooiaiei ?aa?anii (“Aieiaea? ioo”,
“Niaaeei?ioe?”, “Iaaecae/aeiee iinie”). (6) Iiiyooy oeea?e?caoe??, eio?a
aa?i? Yieae?i?a ioioiaeiththoue ?c iiyaith na?aeiiino? (“Niaaeei?ioe?”),
noni?eueiei aeiaiai?ii (“Aieiaea? ioo”), caaaeaee oneeaaeiaia
ii?aeueiith aeeeaiith. (7) sse iaiiaeeeaee aaniethoiee i?ia?an, oae ?
iaiiaeeeaa ao?eaiiy ia?oaeoe?ii?nonueeiai ?aeaaeo noni?euenoaa
(“Aieiaea? ioo”). C?aooith, Yieae?i? canoaeaeo? aoaeue-yeee ?aeaae?ci
(“Iaaecae/aeiee iinie”), ? cie?aia oaiaoeci ye ie?aiee eiai i?iya
(“Oieeue”). Ia a?aei?io a?ae nai?o aa?i?a (“Aieiaea? ioo”,
“Niaaeei?ioe?”, “Iaaecae/aeiee iinie”), a?i ia a??eoue a ooii?th ?
caia?a/o? ?aeath caei?iaiai aeocaeo ye caii?oeo ni?aaaaeeeaiai
noni?euenoaa, iaeiae a?yaee-aiaee iieeoa? iaae?th ia e?aua o
iaeaooiueiio. (8) Oyaeaiiy ethaeeie i?i naaa ? i?i na?o – ye i?aaeei,
oeai?, ia ? aeiyoeii iaa?oue ieoaoeue (“Iaia?ia? ethaee”). Ethaeeia
iiaeiia i?ciaoe naith iioa?iio nooi?noue, ?inoeieoe, ?iaeoa aiie
i?aaeoeiooue ca aeaea?aei cea.

Iiaeaethth/e a ?iiai? oo /e ?ioo caaaeaio i?iaeaio ethaenueeiai aoooy,
aaoi? ia aea? aioiaiai oa ?aeeii a??iiai ??oaiiy. Ia?ao?aciaoth/e naiiai
Yieae?i?a, oe?ii?noue ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o aecia/a?oueny, aeania,
iiiaeeii?noth eiai oeoia/aiue. Iiaeeea?noth aaaaoiaieinny ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e
a?i ? aecia/a? nai? a?aeiineie c /eoa/ai, a iie?naiaioe/i?noue iinoa?
iaei??th c eeth/iaeo ?en ?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?ice aaoi?a. Aei oiai ae, oey
iie?naiaioe/i?noue caeeaaeaia o i?aeoaeno ?iiaio, aiia ? ae?oai?yaeiith
ii a?aeiioaiith aei nthaeaoo ? ia?aeiiith uiaei nieneo. Eiaeai
?iiai-i?eo/a aaoi?a ia? aeaa /?oei ae?aaeai? ??ai? – iiae??aee, /e
oaaoeueiee, oa aeaai?e/iee, ui noai?th?oueny ?aoaeueii aeaoaeiaaiith
nenoaiith oai oa ia?ac?a. AEai?iaa i?e?iaea eiai oai??a ia?aaeaa/a?
aeania aaoi?nueea iioeaoaaiiy ae?e aa?i?a: neooaoe?y, a ye?e ia?aaoaa?
aa?ie, – ineoieia?/ia, nioe?aeueia /e aoaeue-yea ?ioa – ? iaia?aae
caaeaiith ? aiaeii/an oaeith, yea ia?aaea? oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa? yaeu
ae?eniino?.

?icae?e 2. Ii?nueea o?eeia?y A?eueyia Yieae?i?a “Aei e?ath caie?”. O
oeueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaioea caa?ioeany aei aiae?co ?iiai?a ii?nueei?
o?eeia?? ? aecia/eea o?einionuee? aeii?iaioe ?o ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo.

“?eooaee ieaaaiiy” (1980). Ia?oee ?iiai “?eooaee ieaaaiiy”, ca yeee
aaoi? io?eiaa i?anoeaeio Aoea??anueeo i?ai?th, yaey? niaith o?ii?eo
ii?nueei? iiaei?iae?. Yieae?i??anuee? ia?niiaae? cae?eniththoue ia
ei?aae? o?eaaeo iaiae??aeo c Aiae?? aei iaei??? c ?? eieii?e –
Aioeiiae?a (oaeith aoea iacaa Aano?ae?? ia ?oaaae? XVIII-XIX noie?oue).
Aieiaiee aa?ie – aiae?enueeee a?enoie?ao Aaeioiae Oaeaio – aaaea
uiaeaiiee o?eaaei? ieaaae, aeaoaeueii, oi/ ? aea??eiai, o?enoth/e
ia?eiao?? aeeooy “aea?aa’yiiai na?oo”, ? cie?aia oa, ui iaeei ?c
ianaaee??a – nayuaiee Eiee? – neith? naiiaoanoai.

A?aei?aaiith oi/eith “?eooae?a ieaaaiiy” aoei aaaeaiiy ienueiaiieea
oyaeoe ? ciiaeaethaaoe ianoaaeie, ca yeeo ethaeeia aei?i/o? nia? a?eo.
Iioeaaoe?th oeueiai o?aa?/iiai a/eieo aaoi? a?aeiaoiaeeoue o iaaieo
nioe?aeueieo eie?c?yo. Oi/ ? ?ai?oa a iiea aaoi?nueeiai ci?o iio?aieya
nioe?aeueiee aniaeo, oo?i a?i ia iaa naiino?eiiai cia/aiiy (o?aa ui ca
aeiyoeii ?iiaio “I??ai?aea”) ? ia oi?ioaaa o?einionueei-?aeaeia
iaaaioaaeaiiy oai?o iano?eueee, iane?eueee aecia/ea i?e?iaeo eiioe?eoo a
?iiaiao 80-o. Iiiyooy i?eo/aaiai oa nioe?aeueiiai o ?iiaiao o?eeia??
c?iuai?; o?einionuee? aniaeoe ?iiai?a aoiaeyoue o aeina?ae /eoa/a,
iaa?aaoe iaaii? nioe?aeueii? eiie?aoiino?, ? oeueiai ?aco iaea?eueo
oi?ciaaaii?. C iaeyaeo ia i?iaoe/io i?ici??noue eie?c?e oai?o
iai?aeaioiaeaiiio /eoa/aa? iiia?aeue ia aeaeanoueny o?einionueeith, ?
a?i ia ooeaoeia oeo i?aeoaeno?a, ye? i/aaeaei? aeey /eoa/a, na?aeiiiai
?aeaeii-o?einionueeeo aeii?iaio ?ioaeaeooae?ciaaiiai ia?aoeao. Yieae?i?a
80-o caoe?eaaeea eeaniaa i?iaeaia, ?? a?i aeine?aeea ?cna?aaeeie, o
iaea?eueo “aeiiiiiee” niin?a, caiaey/e i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo eean?a c
oei, uia iio?i ciiaeaethaaoe a?eueo cae/io aeey eiai aa?i?a iia?aie/io
neooaoe?th – aeeooy oa nia?o?.

I?ino?? ei?aaey iiae?aii aei ino?iaa o “Aieiaea?? ioo” i?aaeoue ca
“i?e?inoni?euenoai”, a yeiio aaoi? a?aeoai?th? caaaeai? noni?euei?
a?aeiineie. Ei?aaaeue iaaaaeo? aiae?enueea noni?euenoai a oe?eiio.
Eiaeiiio eeano ? i?ioa?eo iaeaaeeoue iaaia i?noea ia noaei?: ia a?eueo
eiioi?oaaaeuei?e aa?oi?e iaeoa? ciaoiaeyoueny ianaaee?e ia?oiai eeano,
ieaei? iaeoae ia?aiiaiai? a?aeiyeaie, ai???aioaie, eio?? iieeioee
aaouee?aueio o niiae?aaii? ia e?aua, ooo ?icoaooaaeany ? eiiaiaea
ei?aaey. I?i no?ia?noue iiae?eo oa?eoi??e na?ae/aoue aeaia?eaoe?ei?
e?i??, yeeie ?iciaeueiaaia iaeoaa. Ca?aeii c ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi eai?oaia –
i?aaenoaaieea aeaaee ia ei?aae? – oe? e?i?? ia ia? i?aaa ia?aoeiaoe
iaaia eaoaai??y ianaaee??a. Ianaaee?e ei?aaey aeeaooue a?aeiia?aeii aei
cae/ieo aeey ieo noni?eueieo ii?i, a iniia? yeeo – aaoi?eoao eeano. Naia
o oeueiio Yieae?i? ?icaeaae?a o?aaaae?th iieiaeiai nayuaieea
naeyinueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy Aeaeaeina Eiee? – oie ia?aaoaa? iica /?oeith
no?oeoo?ith eean?a: a?i i?inoioany ca eeaniaith oeaeith, aea cae??ieoe
nai? “aeinyaiaiiy” ia coi?a.

O nenoai? ia?ac?a ?iiaio «?eooaee ieaaaiiy» aeiaeueiao?oueny iaeia c
?iaiaioieo aeey ?ieae?i??anueeiai oai?/iai iaoiaeo noai – “aea?oaa–eao”.
Eiee?, iacaaaeath/e ia caai?iio eai?oaia ? i?aeaeath/enue ia?aeiiaiiyi
aeaeaioeueiaia Oaeaioa, ?iaeoue ni?iao a?aei?aaeoe aiaineoae?iiy ia
ei?aae?. Oei a?i ii?ooo? “nioe?aeueiee aeiaia??” ? ?iceth/o? eai?oaia.
Eiee? aeyaey?oueny aacneeei ia?aaith, ia’?eoii aeoio, ?, a?aoo?-?aoo,
eiee i?ae /an ii?nueeiai ?eooaeo ia?aoeio aeaaoi?a iaieaa?oueny ?
aaea?oueny aei aac/anoy – iinoa? aeey eiiaiaee ? ianaaee??a
iini?oiaenueeii, eiceii a?aeiouaiiy, oiaoi aac aeie aeioaaoei.
Caoeueeiaaiee on?ia, ia ni?aaeaoenue ?c ni?iiii, Eiee? iaeeaaea? ia naaa
?oee. Eaaeiaaaeiee Oaeaio oa naaa?eueiee eai?oai Aiaea?nii iiiiaiththoue
?yaee “eao?a” Yieae?i?a, a na?aae ieo oaea Aeaeae, Aeaeine?i,
Iaoioaeaeie. Iaeiae, yeui aaoi? iiynith? i?e/aoi?noue Aiaea?niia aei
naiiaoanoaa Eiee?, oi i?iaeia Oaeaioa caeeoa?oueny o i?aeoaeno?
“?eooae?a ieaaaiiy”. C?aooith, aaoi? oiai/ith? i?e/aoi?noue on?o
iaoeaioe?a ei?aaey aei oeueiai cei/eio i?ioe aeeooy, aaeaea Eiee? –
aea?oaa /a?ac a?aeiinio oe?ii?noue ethaeeie ye iane?aeie eeaniaino?.
Ao?i, aaaeeoue ia no?eueee oa, ooi naia ?c ianaaee??a ni?iaieoaaa
naiiaoanoai Eiee?, ne?eueee oa, ui cei/ei neith? ethaenueea aaea/a –
aeaeaea a?ae iacaeiaiino? ? /enoioe, aacaiaeia. Oea ?ao?ai iioeao ao?aoe
iacaeiaiino?, yeee oaeiae aa?a ii/aoie a?ae “Aieiaea?y ioo”.

Eiiiiceoe?eiei oa ?aeaeiei ina?aeyi oeueiai ?iiaio ? iaaiith i??ith
aeaio ianooiieo ? eie?c?y Eiee? oa Oaeaioa. Eiee? i?eeia? Oaeaioa ca
ni?aaaei?n?iueeiai aeaeaioeueiaia – oaea nia? aiae?enueea oiniaeaiiy
a?enoie?aoecio, aaoiiaoe/ii ? ii?yaeiino?. Aea caiaeii ia Eiee?, a ?io?
ia?aeiiothoueny, ui oea ? iiieeeiaei – aeno?aiiethaaoe iiiyooy
ii?yaeiino? ia iaaiee eean. Eeoa i?ae e?iaoeue iaiae??aee ethaenuee?
yeino?, ?aaeoa i?ae nioe?aeuei? aeaoa?i?iaioe, aeyaeyoueny aeey Oaeaioa
i?aaaethth/eie, a iiee aecia/aeueiith aeey iueiai ? aeey ?ioeo
ianaaee??a ia ei?aae? ? noni?eueii-eeaniaa i?eiaeaaei?noue. ?aeeiee, ooi
neiiaoeco? caoeueeiaaiiio an?ia Eiee?, – eaeoaiaio Naiia?c, aaeaea a?i –
eieeoi?e ?yaeiaee iao?in, yeee aeinoioo ye Eiee? naiiooaeee ? iaaiith
i??ith iaia?ae?? nenoai? caeiaoa io?oea?nuee? iiaiie. Aioacith o?aa?cio
neooaoe?? Eiee? ? oa, ui a?i nai aei e?ioey aeeooy iiae?ey? o? iiaeyaee,
ye? noaee i?e/eiith eiai iauanoy: a?i na?aeiiee eeaniaino? ? nai ?
i?eoeeueieeii eeaniaiai iiae?eo, ai ona?aeiieth? naaa e ioe?ith? nai?
a/eiee /a?ac i?ecio oe?iiinoae eeaniaiai noni?euenoaa.

Noni?eueiee i?e?ieini, noai?aiee Yieae?i?ii o ?iiai? “?eooaee ieaaaiiy”,
ia? ie??i ?aae?noe/iiai ? iaoaoi?e/ia i?i/eoaiiy. Aaoi? noai?th? ia eeoa
i?e?iiiaeaeue aiae?enueeiai /e aoaeue-yeiai ?ioiai noni?euenoaa, a, ye
neooii caoaaaeea A. Nei?iaeaiei o ?aoeaic?? ia oa?? (1981), e ia?ac
Eaa?aoaia, aaee/aciiai oa no?ao?oeeaiai. Iaeaooi? ei?aaey ieneeoueny ye
uinue iaa?aeiia, caaaaeeiaa; iaei? cace?athoue o iaeaooi? c iaae??th ia
uanoy, ?io? – caaeiaieueiythoueny ciaa??ith. Yieae?i? i?iaiaeeoue
aiaeia?th i?ae ei?aaeai oa Ii?aei eia/aaii, ai ianoith? aeoieo, ui, ye ?
a /ane Iiy, ethaeeia a no/aniiio na?o? oaea ae ne?ia, a iai?yi ?ooo
noni?euenoaa – oaae caaaaeea.

Iiaei?iae o ii?nueeiio ?iiai? Yieae?i?a – oea ia o?eueee iaiae??aea aei
iacanaeaieo ino?ia?a Oeoiai ieaaio, a e aaaeeee, aieth/ee ia?ao?ae, a
yeiio ienueiaiiee oeio?a a?aee?eaa? i?aaaeo i?i oaiio ethaenueeo aaea/o.
Iiia?aeue ii?nueei? iiaei?iae? c ?? ?eooaeaie ii-eii?aae?anueee
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia cia?aaeaiiy ia?aoiaeo a?ae iacaeiaiino? aei ??
ao?aoe ? aeae? aei aeina?ae/aiino?, aai a?ae iaciaiiy aei
naiiona?aeiieaiiy. A ia?ac? Oaeaioa, a oeo aeooiaieo ?eooaeao ieaaaiiy,
ye? a?i i?ioiaeeoue, aaoi? ?aae?co? iaeio c? nai?o i?oieiaai. On? eiai
?iiaie – oea ?icaeoie i?i cei, a iaei ia an? aa?i? – iin?? cea, eio?a ca
iaaieo ianoaaei ?ice?eaa?oueny a ethaeei?. O “?eooaeao ieaaaiiy”
Yieae?i? oneeaaeith? naith aeoieo: cei, aeyaey?oueny, iiina?aaeeiaaii
?iaiaioia noni?euenoao, a oiio ia’?eoii ooaeiaeiueiai aiae?co noa?
noni?euenoai. Caaaeii o ii?nuee?e o?eeia?? ienueiaiieea a?eueoa
oe?eaaeoue ia i?inoi ethaeeia, a ethaeeia, yeo oi?io? noni?euenoai ? yea
oi?io? eiai. Nenoaia aaeea Eiee?, aiia ae canoaeeea Eiee? ca nei?iee
a/eiie, aea ia canoaeeea oeo, ooi, oi/ ? iiina?aaeeiaaii, caiiae?ya
ethaeei? nia?oue. Ai aeania canoiniaaia oe??th nenoaiith aei Eiee?
aaoa?iiiiia neea, oa naia, yea aieeaa? o iai?yieo, i?ioeeaaeiiio
i?e?iae? ethaeeie, ni?e/eieea a iueiio ia aeoeaiee ii??, a ianeaiee
ni?ii ? aeae? naiiaoanoai. Ua ae?aiaoe/i?oa oa, ui noni?euenoai (o
?iiai? – Oaeaio oa ?io?) ia ? na?aeiiei nai?? i?iaeie (i?i oa, ui
noaeiny iani?aaae? c Eiee? /eoa/ ae?cia?oueny c eiai eenoa, a ia c
iia?aeiieaiiy Oaeaioa, a /iio oea noaeiny – a?ae Oaeaioa aae o o?aoueiio
?iiai? o?eeia??, oiaoi Oaeaioa, yeee ci?ieany).

Ie??i eeaniaiai niia?cio Oaeaioa, aaoi? “?eooae?a ieaaaiiy” ea?a? e ?ioo
a?aiue ethaenueei? ei?ioeici?ino? – aaeaea i?e/eiith caaeaae? Eiee?
noaea ? eiai aaccanoa?aaeia a??a a ?iaiaioi?noue e?ane oa aeia?ioe
ethaeeie (iaia?aaeona Oaeaioa). Ia aeoieo Yieae?i?a, i?aeooiaoiooe
ethaeeio aei nia?o? iiaea ? iai?ciai?noue aeanii? i?e?iaee (Eiee?
ia?aiiaith?oueny iaa?aeiiith aei oiai ?aae?noth aeeooy oa ethaia? aei
anueiai, eiee aeith? aac/anoy). Oae naii aaoi? i?aeii?yaeeiao? oe?e
?aea? ia?ac Oaeaioa, iaeiae ?icaeaa? ?? o a?eueo cae/iiio iai?yieo:
ethaeeia iiaeiia i?ciaoe naith iioa?iio nooi?noue, nai? ?inoeieoe, ai,
aeiiiee iai?ciai?, aiie i?aaeyoue ca aeaea?aei cea, iiae?aii aei oiai,
ye a aeeaeiieo o?thiao noaeia, ui eiai iaeoae iaaeoaa? a?oa? ?
aeieaathoue ooi?ie, eaaeeoue nia?aeth/ee aaeano (oaeo, yeee Oaeaio
a?aecia/a? ia ia?oeo noi??ieao uiaeaiieea). Uieii aiie i?eai?eai?,
ethaeeia aaea ia i?iaeoeo? cei iiae?aii aei oiai, ye aaeaeiea iaae.
I?ney oe??? i?eaiaee, caeiaoaoe iio?aao i?ciaoe oai?yao aeaniiai “y” ?
i?ciath/e ??, ye ?aeueo /e ?ioa o aaaeeeo aei?iaoaaiiyo, aa?ie ia eeoa
?ice?e? aeeaeio aeanii? aeoo?, a e ci?ieoueny. Oaeei /eiii, ?eooaee
ieaaaiiy ia ei?aae? iathoue neiaie?/ia cia/aiiy – oea ?eooaee
ethaenueeiai iiooeo ? noaiiaeaiiy (iaaeiaaeeiai ia?oee ?iiai o?eeia??
“?eooaee ieaaaiiy” caiice/ea naith iacao o eeane/ii? i?aoe? A?iieueaea
Aai Yaiiaia, a ye?e aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? ?eooaee ?i?oe?aoe??). ?eooaee –
ye iiea?aiiy ca a??oe, ye ?o niieoooaaiiy, a?aoo?-?aoo ye aeina?ae –
noaiiaeoeiooue ci?no aeaio ianooiieo ?iiai?a o?eeia??.

Eie?c?y Oaeaioa oa Eiee? oea e c?oeiaiiy ??cieo nenoai ieneaiiy,
eeaneoeenoe/iiai oa ?iiaioe/iiai na?oini?eeiyooy, iiiceoe?y no?eiaiiai
oa aeaiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueii-ci???ioiaaiiai oa i?e?iaeiiai, iai??iiai oa
aeooiaiiai. Oe? iiiceoe?ei? ?yaee, ia yeeo noi?iiaai? ia?ace Oaeaioa oa
Eiee?, iaoeiaoe? ?icaeyaeathoue ye i?acaioaoe?th aeaio iiaeaeae aeeooy –
??/a?aeniia ? Niieeaooa (I. E?ie?ae-A?en oa ss. Y?a?i?) aai ye
i?oeoaainueeo ai?ioueao aiieeiiiaiai oa ae?ii?n?enueeiai ia/ae (N.
Aieae). Aioeoaoe/i?noue ia?niiaae?a, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioee, oea e
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o?iii?anueei? aeeoioii?? “iaoe” ? “aooe”. I?e onoaiiaoe?
Oaeaioa ia aieiae?iiy eiai “uanoy iieyaa? a aeinyaiaii? ia?aaaae iaae
?ioeie, o aeaae? iaae ieie”, a oie /an ye a onoaiiaoe? Eiee? ia “aooe”
“uanoy – oea ethaia, i?eeoaaiiy i?i ?ioeo, naiiiiaea?oaoaaiiy”.

?iiai “Aeecueea non?aenoai” (1987). O ?iiai? “?eooaee ieaaaiiy” aaoi?
cionea iia??eoe a oa, ui ethaeeia iiaea iiia?oe a?ae ni?iio, a oie, ooi
ni?e/eiea oeth nia?oue, iiaea iaa?oue ? ia a?aeaeaaaoe nia? ca?oo a
nei?iiio. O “Aeecueeiio non?aenoa?” oaca ? ?ioith: ca nei?iee a??o
ethaeeia iiaeiia ianoe ? iana a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ea?ath/enue aaea ia
no?eueee iaiii?aaiith iiieeeith, ne?eueee i?ee?eie iane?aeeaie oe???
iiieeee. Aa?i?aa aoooy o ae?oaiio ?iiai? o?eeia?? aeeaaeaia o aa?oeeaeue
i?ae i?ai?//th oa i?aaeiai. Aacia?a/ii, eieae?coaaoe ?ieae?i??anueeee
?iiaiiee i?ino?? iiaieeai – oea ? ia iaeoaa, ? ia caiia eoey, –
ooaeiaei?e i?ino?? ao?a/a? aaia?ao?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, iaoii?noue
iaaoaa? o?einionueei? iaoaoi?e/iino?. ?aeay noai?i? aei?iae, ui
niieooo?, aoea iniiaiith o?einionueeith aeii?iaioith ? no?oeoo?oth/ei
aeaiaioii ?aiiueiai ?iiaio i?ica?ea “Ceiaethaeea Ia?o?i”. Oaeaio
oniaaeeiao? oeth ae neooaoe?th, aea, yeui aei?iaiaoaaiiy Ia?o?ia aoei
oe?eeiaeoei ii?iaeaeaiiyi eiai oyae, oi aeey Oaeaioa /enoeeeua noa?
?aaeuei?noth. Aei oiai ae, aa?ie, aeieath/e neeaaeiiu? aei?iaoaaiiy, ia
ye? nai naaa i?e??e, i?cia? na?o ? “oai?yao ana?aaeei?”.

O ?iiai? aaoi? ciaioo? ooaeiaei?e i?ino??, aaeaea o?eueee ia aeecuee?e
a?aenoai? (in close quarters) i?ae e??cue ca?eueooaaeueio eoio ethaeeia
iiaea aeeaoa i?iieeiooe o nooi?noue yaeu ? a?aeiaeoe aioo??oi? ca’ycee
i?ae ieie, a aieiaia – ia?aiiny/e oaaao c eiioi?oa?ieo a?aeiinei aei
a?eueo ?ioeiieo – aeecueeiai non?aenoaa, aa?ie aaea ia aenooia?
niinoa??aa/ai ? o?enaoi?ii ia?aaeeaaiue ?ioeo, a noa? aaaioii ae??.
Aeania, caaaeyee oeueiio non?aenoao a?i cian?i nei?i ae?eaea iaao?oiiai
aeniiaeo: “No?aoia ??/ ciaoe aaaaoi”.

Oa, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny c Oaeaioii o oeueiio ?iiai?, iia’ycaia ia?aaeian?i
c ia?acii i?n *aie?. Aa?ie caeioo?oueny, ? oea ciooo? eiai ia?aaeyiooe
nai? iauiaeaai? iao?eiii?aeuei? ia?niaeoeae, eiai ?aeaieia?/ia iiceoe?y
oaae cacia? ci?i. Ca?aaee eioaiiy a?i aioiaee c?oeioaaoe naith ea?’??o,
oi/ oei caaiueaeoue /anoue ?iaeeie. “Ana – ca ethaia”, – aeaoeo? a?i,
eeaaeo/e ia aea?oiaiee iiaiai ii/oooy nai? eieeoi? aiii?iaeo? cai??e. A
aieiaia – Oaeaio aioiaee caaooe i?i na?e ?aoe?iiae?noe/iee aeeoo?aee
aeai?eoi. A??a Oaeaioa a iaae?ei?noue iiae o ia?aaea/? ethaenueeiai
aeina?aeo oaae iioeoioeany. A?i ia ciaoiaeeoue ne?a aeey nai?? eioaii?,
ia iiaea aeia?aoe ne?a, aae ia?aaeaoe nai? ii/oooy ia iaia??. Aenooi
Oaeaioa i?ioe aeaniiai “y” ia?aoai?th? eiai ia ethaeeio ii/oooy iiae?aio
aei ?aoaanueeiai Aa?oa?a. Aiaeii/an ia?aioe?iea caei?iaiai aeocaeo oa
neee eia?ee, eiai ia?aia a??a o iiao, naiiaiaaiaia e iaeiiaiea
aia?oi?noue ia?aoiaeyoue o iano?eueee ae aee?eaeaio naioeiaioaeuei?noue.
A?i “naioeiaioaeueii” aa?i?/iee ? a iiiaio iaaaciaee, eiee i?aaia
a?yooaaoe noaeii.

?acii c oei, eioaiiy Oaeaioa ? oaeaeoa neiaie?/iei – aiii ni?e/eith? aei
iaoaii?oic. Oiio ? any oaia eioaiiy, oi/ ? ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo o
“Aeecueeiio non?aenoa?”, eeoa?oueny, ii-ia?oa, ia aei e?ioey
?ic?iaeaiith ?, ii-ae?oaa, Yieae?i?, i?ae?eaa? a??ia?aei?noue “iiaiai
aeeooy” aa?iy, cie?aia eiai o?ce/iei noaiii – niieea?noth,
iai?eoiii?noth, no?onii iiceo, yeee, aeania, ? i?a ni?eyoe a?aee?eooth
Oaeaioii i?aena?aeiiiai. sseui oae, oi eioaiiy ? eoeuei?iaoe??th oiai,
ui a aa?i? aec??aaei ?ai?oa ? oaeaeoa aeciaaiiei i?ioeanii – aeeeeeaiei
ae??th ciai?oi?o i?e/ei, a ia aioo??oi?i aeooiaiei iinooiii. O ?ic?iaoe?
eiioe?eo?a Yieae?i? caeeoa?oueny iine?aeiaii iaiaeiicia/iei, a eiai
?iiai 80-o – iaaiith i??ith ?ioaeaeooaeueiith a?ith c /eoa/ai, aaeaea ca
iiaith ?noi???th eioaiiy aa?iy ? eiai iaaei??iith aiioe?eiith ?aaeoe??th
ia iiae?? oa a/eiee ? oa?aeoa?e ethaeae aaoi? i?eoiao? ?noi??th a?eueo
aeaaith – ?noi??th Oaeaioa ? Eiee?. O eiioaeno? oaeiai i?i/eoaiiy
iniiaii? nthaeaoii? eie?c?? ?iiaio ?noi??y eioaiiy Oaeaioa noa?
ia?ani?aii ?noi??? Eiee? – ia?oee iaiaeith? i?n *aie? iiae?aii aei oiai,
ye naiai /ano Eiee? ia?aoai?ea A?ee? ?iaeaea?na o iai?aaiaa. Aaoi?
aaea?oueny aei ioioiaeiaiiy Oaeaioa c Eiee? – c eiai ni?iiii ? nia?oth –
ye iaiao?aeiiai aoaio oi?ioaaiiy iiai? nooiino? aa?iy, eiee niin?a
i?ciaiiy ??oioo?oueny ia neioac? ?icoio ? ii/ooo?a. Oea ioioiaeiaiiy
(eoeuei?iaoe?eiee iiiaio nthaeaoii? e?i?? Eiee? o ?iiai? “Aeecueea
non?aenoai”) caaa?oo?oueny e ona?aeiieth?oueny i?ioaaii?noii oiae?, eiee
Oaeaio ia?aae?a?oueny o eathoo, aea eieenue iaoeaa ? iiia? Eiee?. C
eiaeiei i?iyaii aiioe?eii? niiioaiiino?, yeo a?i ua iaaeaaii
canoaeaeoaaa o Eiee?, a?i iinooiiai noa? o??th ethaeeiith, iaae yeith
?ai?oa aeoieany.

Iaoaii?oica aa?iy “Aeecueeiai non?aenoaa” – a?ae caei?iaiai aeocaeo aei
ii/oooy – ? ia o?eueee iniaeno?nii, a e ?noi?e/ii aiioeaiaaiith. Iiae??,
i?i ye? eaeaoueny o ?iiai? e o o?eeia?? caaaeii, aaoi? ?icai?oa? ia
?oaaae? XVIII ? XIX noie?oue. Oiio Oaeaio?a ia?ao?ae a?ae aa?onoeinueei?
“aieiae” aei ?iiaioe/iiai “na?oey”, a?ae ?aoe?iiae?cio aei /ooo?aino?,
aa iaa?oue naioeiaioaeueiino?, a?aeaeca?eaeth? ?noi?e/i? ci?ie a
na?oiaeyae? aiioe. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui ?ieae?i??anueeee ?noi?eci ?
aeiaie? nai???aeiei – iii?e ?noi?e/i? ca?ae, iiieeeiaei aoei a
ia?aioe?ithaaoe cia/aiiy ?noi?e/ii? eieae?caoe?? iniiaiiai eiioe?eoo
?iiaio.

?iiaioeci ye eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ia aiioa ? iaei??th c oai (cie?aia
caaaeee i?i Aae?iia, i?yi? iiaoe/i? iineeaiiy ia Eie??aeaea) ? /eiieeii
iecee ooaeiaei?o i?eeii?a ?iiaio (?iiaioe/ia ae??oaiiy ia?aco *aie?, oei
aa?i?caoe??, ??ii?y oiui). E??i oiai, aiaeyoe?y aei ?iiaioe/iiai
na?oiaeyaeo aeicaiey? Yieae?i?o ciiao iiaa?iooeny aei aeaaiuei?
aeeneon?? i?i i?iaeaio caei?iaiai aeocaeo. Iii?e nooi ?iiaioe/i?
aeaiaioe anoaoeee ? iiaoeee ae?oaiai ?iiaio o?eeia??, Yieae?i? cia?aaea?
ia?ao?ae aei iiai? aiioe ? iiaiai ?iiaioe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo, ??ii?coth/e
iaae ieie (i?ei??ii, aaoi? aeaaa?i?co? ia?ac eai?oaia ? a/eiie
Aeaaa?aea, aae?ii?/iee aenooi yeiai i?ioe aaoi?eoa?iiai eai?oaia
caaa?oo?oueny eiai o?ainoi?iaoe??th o cieaeaiiai I?iiaoay, caeooiai a
eaioethae ca e?aae?aeeo nie?oiiai). Aeinoioo ye ?iiaioee N.O. Eie??aeae,
Yieae?i? – caoiiethth/ee aaoi?. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy o ?iiai? ia? eaoaai??y
oaioanoe/iiai, yeo Yieae?i? ni?aa?aeiineoue ?c caaaeueiei caaeoiii.
Oaioanoe/ia a aaoi?a aiioeaiaaia. sseui o ?iiai? “Ceiaethaeea Ia?o?i”
aaoi? a?a? c /eoa/ai, aeaiaey/e iiia?aeue oai?o ia ??aaiue ?icuaieaiino?
na?aeiiino? oa aoooy, oi o “Aeecueeiio non?aenoa?” oea aaea ia a?a, –
oaioanoe/ia e iineoaiao?oueny i?aaaeiiiae?aiei, ? ? i?aaaeiiiae?aiei.
Oaeaio – aeniaaeaiee, aoiieaiee, i?eeia? ciaaiethth/? e?ee, ?,
a?aoo?-?aoo, nai nea?aeeoueny ia oa, ui oea caaaaea? eiio ?ieiee
a?ae??cieoe nii a?ae ae?eniino?. Naia oiae? ?aaeueia ca?aa?oueny c
ia?aaeueiei, eiee aa?ie aeeaa ? ieoa ia iaae? ynii? ? caoueia?aii?
na?aeiiino?. Iiaa/aia iei o eaeaiooi?e aiae? /oaeiaenueei – ia o?ce/ia
?noioa, a i?eia?a, ii?iaeaeaia oai?ith na?aeii?noth aa?iy aai no?aoii
ia?aae iai?eai?eoaaiith noeo??th.

Oaioanoe/ia o “Aeecueeiio non?aenoa?”, oaeei /eiii, nii??aeiaia c
ineoieia?/iith neooaoe??th aa?iy, aea ia caiaeeoueny aei ia?. O a?c?yo
Oaeaioa /e oi ca??a, /e iaa?ae/eea ?iaeaea?na, aa?ie noae?io? o?eaiao ?
aeao ia?aae nia?oth, yeo a?i, i?e?iaeii, anioe?th? c iai?ciaaai?noth
aeeaieiai ii?y, ui c iei aacii?aaeiee ei?aaaeue aaaea ai?ioueao, ?
iaa?aeiieie i?e/eiaie naiiaoanoaa ?iaeaea?na. Oaeei /eiii, oaioanoe/iei
aaoi? iineoaiao?oueny aeey aeno?aiieyoe?? Oaeaioiaiai no?aoo ia?aae
nia?oth. Yieae?i? – aeeneo/ee a?c?iia? o oeo ai?ciaeao, aea ciaeueiao?
neooaoe?th no?aoo ia?aae nia?oth ? no?aoo aeeooy, iioi?ioi?noue
no?aaeaeaiue ia?aae, caeaaaeiny a, iaieio/?noth nia?o?. Iiia?ae?
“Aeecueeiai non?aenoaa” i?eoaiaiia iniaeeaa ineoieia?/ia
neiioeaio?iaai?noue oa ?ioaineai?noue. Aaoi? oi/a ia?aeiiaoe /eoa/a ia a
?aaeueiino? oaioanoe/iiai, a oaeaeoa o oaioanoe/iino? ?aaeueiiai. O
?iiai? a?i ciooo? a?aie/ii c?eii oyaeoe nia? ioee ? no?aaeaeaiiy
ethaeeie /a?ac nei?iee a??o. A ui a??o aaeeeee – oi e iaaecae/aeii
aie?nia niieooa.

Ineoieia?ci “Aeecueeiai non?aenoaa” – oea ineoieia?ci aeno?aiaeueii?
neooaoe?? (aaeaea nooue noia?a/eeai? iaoo?e ethaeeie ?ice?eaa?oueny ia a
cae/i?e /a?aiaino? noiaeeo aei?a, a a aeno?aiaeuei?e neooaoe??),
oneeaaeiaiee o?einionueeith ?aaeuei?noth, ai no?ao, yeiai niiaiai? eiai
ia?niiaae?, ? ia i?inoi ineoio?c?ieia?/iith oa?aeoa?enoeeith. Oea
iaoao?ce/iee no?ao aoooy, aecenoaioe?aeueia aaii?y, a?oaoeiia neooaoe?y
no?aoo ia?aae aaaeeith niieooith. Yieae?i? caaaeaee ?icaeyaea?
iniaeno?noue o ni?aa?aeiioaii? c iaaieie iaci?iieie o?einionueeeie
?aae?yie – i?e?iaeith ? noni?eueiith ii?aeeth, aeia?ii ? ceii, a oeueiai
?aco – aeeooyi oa nia?oth. Ae?aiaoeci neooaoe?? i?aeneeaiee ia?acii
noaeiiaiai eacia/ay – Aeaeiina. A?i c’yaey?oueny oiae?, eiee ioiieai?
no?aoii ethaee /aeathoue nia?o?, c oei, aae iaaanoe eaae o aeayeeo nai?o
ni?aaao – c?a?aoe ai?ae. O oeueiio ai?ciae? ia?niiaae iaaoaa?
i?oieia?/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy, oiiae?aithth/enue Oa?iiia?. Oeae aaiaeey?
iioiea?/iiai na?oo, ia?aaicy/e /a?ac ??eo i?aecaiiiai oea?noaa Aoa?ii
aeoo? aia?eeo, ia caaoaa? i?i naith ?iaioo, aa?o/e iiiaoeo ca iineoae.

“Aeecueea non?aenoai” ia ae/a?io? i? nthaeaoo, i? ?aea? aaoi?a, ?iiai ?
i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ?noi??? “?eooae?a ieaaaiiy”, yeo aaoi? cae?i/ea o
ianooiiiio ?iiai? – “Aiaiiue oai, oieco”. On? o?e oai?e ooai?ththoue
e?oa?aoo?iee o?eioeo. ? oi/ oa?i?i oaeeaa?oueny caeaa?eueoiai a
iaey?noa?, i?eioeei eiai iiaoaeiae aaoi? aeei?enoiao? ? a e?oa?aoo??.
?iiaie ii?nueei? o?eeia?? ia’?aeiai? iaei??th oaiith – aeoiaaiiyi
Oaeaioa. sse nai???aeiee eiioeiooi aeoiaaiiy aa?iy o?e ?iiaie no?oeoo?ii
ooai?aii ca aaaaeueyinueeith oi?ioeith: o “?eooaeao ieaaaiiy” Oaeaio –
ethaeeia ?icoio ? oa, eio?a ia?aeiiaia a i?aaeeueiino? nenoaie, yea
??oioo?oueny oe?eeiaeoi ia ?aoe?iiae?noe/ieo canaaeao; o “Aeecueeiio
non?aenoa?” a?i noa? ethaeeiith ii/oooy, aiaaeath/e o iaaei??io
naioeiaioaeuei?noue; o “Aiai? oai, oieco”, coi?aoe i?eie?eoe ?icoi ?
ii/oooy, a?i a?yoiao?oueny. Oi/ ca’ycee i?ae ?iiaiaie o?eeia?? ? o?ni?,
iaeiae ia?oee ?iiai iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ? ye ia?oo /anoeio o?eeia??, ? ye
ie?aiee oa??, a oie /an ye aeaa ?io? ? o?nii iia’ycaieie nthaeaoii e
?aeaeii.

?iiai “Aiaiiue oai, oieco” (1989). sseui o ia?oiio ?iiai? Oaeaio ii/eia?
i?aeaeaaaoe noii?ao iiaeaeue aoooy, yea aei oeueiai /ano ai?uoaaea eiai
iiai?noth, o ae?oaiio – a?i ua ia a?aeooeaa ?ioi?, a eeoa aeooiaii
cioaei?a, oi o “Aiai? oai, oieco” iiooe aa?i?i iaea?eueo i?eaeaoii?
o?einio?? aeeooy caaa?oo?oueny ii?yooieii – ?aea?th nian?iiy, ye
aeaniiai, oae ? noni?eueiiai.

Neooaoe?y, ui ?? aaoi? iiaeaeth? o ?iiai? “Aiaiiue oai, oieco”, ua
a?eueoa ae?aiaoeco?oueny. Ei?aaaeue noa? i?eaeaeii, a eiai oe?eeiaeoi
aeniaaeai? e ooiieai? ianaaee?e – “eieaeoe??th nia?oieo”, “iano?aoaieo
aei ianoyie”. Aeniea ooaeiaeiy iaenoa?i?noue Yieae?i?a iieyaa? o oiio,
ui a?i o?eia? /eoa/a o iino?ei?e iai?oc? – oea ia /a?aoaaiiy aa?acae?a
oa ceeaei?a, ia iaeiiiai?oi?noue ?nioaaiiy i?ae iaaii ? caieath. ?iiai
i?iaeiaaeo? ?icaeaaoe aeno?aiaeueio neooaoe?th iiooeo ?yooieo o?ce/iiai
? nii??aeiaiiai c iei aeooiaiiai. Aoe/iei aa?iiao?ii o oai?? aenooia?
noeo?y. Aacii?aaeiee ei?aaaeue, iicaoaoenue aeanii? neee ?ooo ?
eiio?ieth, a?aeaeaiee ia iioaeo noeo??. Naiia?c, yeee aeiiaaeaaia o
ai?iouea? c? noeo??th iieeaaeaany ia aeanio ioaei?noue oa noiiaeoo
iaiieaaeea?noue ? no?ee?noue a?enueeiaoey, oaia? ciooaiee c?ciaoeny, ui
eeoa ne?ia noeo?y ciiaea aeii?aaeoe ei?aaaeue aei aa?aaa. Caiaeii o
iaea?eueo aino?iae?aiaoe/iee iiiaio oai?o, a naia, eiee noaeii
c?ooiaoiaoueny c aenaa?aii, Oaeaio oaae noeeeoue aieiao ia?aae
i?e?iaeith, ii??aithth/e ei?aaaeue c ?a?aoeith a ?? ?oeao. Aea i?e?iaea
ia ne?ia, aiia eeoa “iiaea? /ae aei aeieaoe”. Ethaeeia, yea ?ic?aaeeeany
o ni?ia? i?eai?eaoe noeo?th, i?eneooa?oueny aei ia?. Ia?aiiaeieoeath
i?e?iaea aeoiaeeoue ?c aeaiaith o eiaeiiio ?iiai? Yieae?i?a, aea i?i ia?
eaeaoueny (i?ei??ii, o “Ceiaethaeoe? Ia?o?i?”).

Iiooe aeaniiai nian?iiy aa?i?i – a?aeiiaeaiiy aeooaaii? ??aiiaaae –
ca?aa?oueny ?c canai?iiyi i?aena?aeiiiai ciaiiy. O?eueee ca?ac Oaeaio
oia?oa aiioeaiao? nai? ??oaiiy i?i ia?anaeaiiy a eathoo Eiee?, oi/
ia?anaey?oueny cia/ii ?ai?oa. A?i ?icoi??, ui iicaooeny no?aoo ?
a?aeiaeoe naaa a?i iiaea eeoa ii a?ioey ia?aaeeaoe aeooaaio o?aaio, yeo
naiai /ano ni?e/eiea Eiee?. Aea a oo ieoue ?aoe?iiaeueia ia/aei ciiao
i?i?eaa?oueny a iueiio. Aiii naiai /ano ai?iieei eiai a?ae ioioiaeiaiiy
naaa c “eaoii” ? oaia?, oi/ ? ia iaaeiaai, noaei ia caaaae?
ona?aeiieaiith nai?? i?iaeie, a a?aeoae, aeaniiai nian?iiy. Oaeei /eiii,
ii?nueea o?eeia?y, ? aioacith ?aea? Yieae?i?a, yea i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac on?
eiai ?iiaie, i?i iani?iiiaei?noue ?aoe?iiae?noe/ii? iiaeae? ieneaiiy
iiai?noth iiynieoe na?o oa yaeua. Aaeaea iineoaiaoth/enue iath, aa?ie ia
aeeaea c ooieea aeooaaii? e?ece, ? oiio eeoa oa? ni?, a?aeiiaeyth/enue
a?ae aeeeoaoo ?icoio, a?i i?ic??aa?, ioioiaeithth/e naaa ?c aie?ath/ith
ethaeeiith, ? oei a?yoiao?oueny (iiae?aii aei ne?c oa aiioe?eieo
ia?aaeeaaiue o “Aeecueeiio non?aenoa?”, no?oeoo?oth/ei aeaiaioii o
“Aiai? oai, oieco” ? nie ? niiaeae?iiy aa?iy). Oaeaio c a?i?aioiiai
a?enoie?aoa ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ethaeeio, oa?ieio aei an?o oa oaaaeio
aei ii?oo?a aeanii? aeoo?. Eiai aeooiaia iae?nnay caaa?oo?oueny eiai
ioioiaeiaiiyi c? na?oii, eio?iio ia naiiio ii/aoeo ieaaae a?i naaa
i?ioenoaaeya. (Eiee noi?oue ia /aoao, a?i caoiieth?oueny e?anith ii?y ?
iaaan oa caaaeo? i?i oai?oey oe??? e?ane iiae?aii aei Eiee?, eio?ee
caoiiethaaany aeiaa?oaieie ?noioaie, ye? c’yaeeeny o ooiiaeii? aiaee).

Oi?ioaaiiy iiaeae? noni?eueiiai ?ooo ? ua iaeiei caaaeaiiyi Oaeaioa o
“Aiai? oai, oieco”, a eiai iiooee a oea?ei? iie?oeee – aeiaeaoeiaei
?aeaeii-o?einionueeei ina?aeyi ?iiaio. Oeei iiynith?oueny iiaa
nioe?aeueia na?aeii?noue aa?iy oa eiai ?ioa?an aei ciai?oiueiai na?oo; o
“Aiai? oai, oieco”, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai ?iiaio, ae?y
aeii?io? iaae ?aoeaen??th. I?aoo?iai i?aeooiaoo? Oaeaioa aei ?icaeoi?a
i?i noai ethaeeie o noni?euenoa?. A?i cai?ioo? Oaeaioa aeieo/eoeny aei
iiaoaeiae Iiaiai ???onaeeia ? aei oiai ae o oaeee niin?a, yeee iaeth?
eiai aeania oyaa. Oea a aeiaeiiio ?ac? ia aoaea caaa?aaiiyi aaea
noi?iiaaii? aea?aeaae /e oi?aae?iiyi ?nioth/ith eieii??th, iaoii?noue –
noai?aiiyi nioe?aeueiiai na?oo ia iiaeo canaaeao. Oyaiee ia?ac
?aeaaeueii? e?a?ie, ui eiai ciaeueiao? I?aoo?iai, ni?aaey? aaeeeee aieea
ia eiai ni?aaan?aeieea. A ooii?? Oaeaio aaa/a? iiaeeea?noue aeoiaeo ?c
noaio o?eaaei? iaeeiieino? – ye iaoao?ce/ii?, oae ? noni?eueii?. Iaeiae
aeania ooii?? a?i ia ni?eeia?, ai aiia – eaceiaa ? ia nie?a?oueny ia
ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae noni?euenoaa. Iaiieaoii?/i? ?aea?
I?aoo?iaia ia aiaeththoue aei iiaiai na?oia?ae/oooy Oaeaioa; a?i ia oi/a
a?aeiiaeyoeny a?ae aeaaee, iaaiaee – i??? aeei?enoaoe ?? caaeey oiai,
uia iie?aueoe aeeooy o aeani?e e?a?i? ? oaeei /eiii o anueiio na?o?. O
oeeo i??eoaaiiyo Oaeaio iinoa? ia?aae /eoa/ai ye ia?an?/iee a?iiaaeyiei
nai?? aea?aeaae, yeee c aeia??ith noaaeoueny aei caiiiai aeaaiiieo//y ?
noni?eueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?.

Ui Oaeaio a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae ooii??, eiai ia?ac aeeaaea?oueny o ?yae
?ioeo ?ieae?i??anueeeo aa?i?a, eio?? ? oiniaeaiiyi aaoi?iai?
aioeooii?/ii? iiceoe??: “ooii?y – iica/aniaa, iaci?iia ??/” (ca??ea
“?ooiia i?oaiue”, 1982), oea iaea?/ia aaaeaiiy ethaeeie aeeoe o e?auiio
na?o?. Aioeooii?no, ia eiai ia?aeiiaiiy, i?ciaaoe i?e?iaeo ethaeeie,
oi/a, uia eiai aioeooii?/i? aeniiaoaaiiy aoee oeaieie. Iaaooue, ia oea
niiae?aaany aaoi?, cia?aceaoe caee/aa?eo aaoaao oeii/ae?a o nai?io
ia?oiio ?iiai?. ?acii c oei, aoei a iaaeoi eaoaai?e/iei i?iaeiaaeeoe
?yae ?iai o o?aaeeoe?? oooo?enoe/iiai cia?aaeaiiy noni?euenoaa ?iaiai
Yieae?i?a. Aeina?ae no/anii? aiioe ia aeicaiey? aaoi?ia? iia??eoe a
ooii?th, noi?iiaaio eiai aa?iyie, iaeiae, oe?eeii ona?aeiiethth/e oea,
a?i ana iaeii i?aaia oiai a?eueoiai, iaaeiiaiiai, aa?iii?eiiai
?ae?a?eiiai oi?aa?noio, ui eiai ai?uo? ?iiaioe/ia anoaoeea. Ooo Yieae?i?
– a?aeaa?oee ?iiaioee. Oea nai???aeiee iao?eaaeee niaeao iaae?? o
iaia?a?aiiio ?icia/? Yieae?i?a – o?einioa, yeee ?ic?aaeeany o ethaeei? e
a??? o e?aua iaeaooi? (oi/ eiai neiiao?? caaaeaee ia aioe? ne?eaaeaeaieo
aai oeo, ooi i?ia?aee).

Ia caeo/eaoe iieiaeiai iie?oeea aei iiaoaeiae ?aeaaeueii? aea?aeaae,
I?aoo?iai ana ae o?ainoi?io? iiaeyaee aa?iy ia noni?eueiee ?icaeoie.
Aaaeeeao ?ieue o aeai?? aa?iy a?ae?a?a? Naiia?c, a oi/i?oa, eiai
i?aeoe/iee ?icoi. Aeey Naiia?ca – ethaeeie, ca ?ioa?ane yei?, caeaaaeiny
a, ? ai?aoueny I?aoo?iai, ?aea? naiaiaee, ??aiino? ? a?aoa?noaa ia ?
i?eeiyoieie oi/a a oiio, ui “o?aioeoce ?aae?coaaee ?o a?eueeioeiith ?
aei?noie?noth ei?neeaioey”. Naiia?c oaae oi/a ni?aaaaeeeaino?, aea ye
a?enueeiaa ethaeeia a?i aeaeaeee a?ae iiooe?a aeiaie? oeia?ii?
oi?aa?naeueii? i?aaaee – a?i ca aei?aaeaiiy iacaei?iaiai, aea ?nioth/iai
ii?yaeeo. C oe?eeiaeoiai aai?noa, ethaeeie iaaeoi na?aeiii? naiai eeano
Oaeaio ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ia?aeiiaiiai aeueo?o?noa, aioiaiai aei
?anoaa?aoe?? noni?eueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Eiai ??oaiiy aaeaoeny aei neee
a ?i’y aeia?a ? iiceoeaiith ye?niith ci?iith aeey ethaeeie, eio?a
eieenue ?icoe?ithaaea neeo aeeeth/ii ye can?a aeaniiai ooaa?aeaeaiiy.
Nai aaoi? ia i?enoa? ia o? iiceoe??, ui ?o aeey naaa ae?iaey? Oaeaio
iai?ee?ioe? ?iiaio, aiaeii/an iiaeyaee ienueiaiieea oa aa?iy ia ?
aioeoaoe/ieie oi/a a oiio, ui Yieae?i? ia ia? i?/iai, uia cai?iiiioaaoe
iaoii?noue. O iueiai ? eiio?a?aoiaioe – a??e? ciaiiy i?i ethaenueeo
aaea/o, aea nai?? nenoaie ianei?no ia ia? ca aecia/aiiyi. Oo?i Yieae?i?,
aaeath/enue aei oaenoiaiai i?iioneo, ia iiynith?, /iio e oe? ia?aeiiaiiy
Oaeaioa ? ?ethci?ieie, ? ciiao noaaeoue oea caieoaiiy /eoa/aa?. Yieae?i?
aaea?oueny aei no?oeoo?oth/i? neee oaioac?? oa i?oo, aaeaea aeania aiie
a?aeiia?aeathoue iaoyaeeea?e ?aeaieia?/i?e iiceoe?? eiai aa?iy oa
iaiaeiicia/i?e aeani?e. Caaaeyee oaioac?? oa i?oo a?i ?icieaa? iaae?,
ye? a?aeae?eythoue oaioanoe/iee na?o a?ae ?aaeueiiai, ia?ac noni?euenoaa
“aea?aa’yiiai na?oo”, yeei aiii ?, a?ae oiai, yeei aiii ia? aooe. Oaea
?icieo?noue, c ?ioiai aieo, ia caia?a/o? ?iaiaioieo eiai ?iiaiai
niiae?aaiue ia e?aua iaeaooi? o ?ica’ycoe? oai?o.

Oi?iaeiaae iaiae??aee ci?i caciathoue e ?io? ianaaee?e ei?aaey; oaanue
na?o “A?eoai??” c eiai oe?iiinoyie, nioe?aeueieie onoiyie ci?ieany ia
naith i?ioeeaaei?noue. I?ney o?eaaei? ieaaae aei Aioeiiae?a –
i?ioeeaaeii? oi/ee caie?, aioeiiaeaie nai?io ia?aeiiiio “ego” noathoue
nai? aa?i?. ?ica’ycea o?eeia?? na?ae/eoue i?i ye?nio ci?io o na?oiaeyae?
ianaaee??a.

Aaaeeeaee ieano neiaie?/ii? nenoaie “Aiaith oai, oieco” ? aeaio
iiia?aaei?o ?iiai?a o?eeia?? ooai?ththoue ia?ace /ioe?ueio
ia?oiaeaiaio?a. Iaa?oue iia?aeiee aiae?c ?iiai?a aaoi?a na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui aaoi? iino?eii aeoeaioo? oaaao ia caie?, iia?o??, aiae? /e aiai?.
Yieae?i?, yeee iaiaeii?aciai cana?ae/oaaa naith i?eoeeuei?noue aei
aeaaiueia?aoeueei? eoeueoo?e caaaeii ? aei aeaaiueia?aoeueeeo
ae?aiaoo?a?a ? o?einio?a cie?aia, oieeaa a?aeiia?ae? ia caieoaiiy uiaei
aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao a?aoeueei? iaoo?o?einio?? ia eiai oai?/?noue
(cie?aia a ?ioa?a’th Aeaeaea Aaeeca 1971 ?ieo). Ana ae iaoeiaoe?
caa?oaee oaaao ia iaaeiaaeeia?noue aeei?enoaiiy iei /ioe?ueio
ia?oiaeaiaio?a o ?oiueiio aeaaiueia?aoeueeiio aeoeoia/aii?, ?oith
neiaie?/i?noue oa iii?o ieooey aieiaiei /eiii ia Aa?aee?oiaa oyaeaiiy
i?i na?o (AEai Eaiia?, ?iiaeueae Y?aiianueeee, ??a?i? Iae?i). Aa?aee?o
aiai?ea i?i /ioe?e aeaiaioe oa ia?aaaao aiaith: aiaiiue, cai?ath/e,
ia?aoai?th?oueny iine?aeiaii o iia?o?y, aiaeo ? caieth. A?i oaeaae?a o
aiai? “ia?oiia/aei” an?o ?a/ae.

O eiaeiiio c ?iiai?a ? iaaiein ia iaeiiio c aeaiaio?a ye o?ce/iiio
aeaea?ae? /e neiaie?/i?e ?ai?acaioaoe?? ineoieia?/ii? e?ece aa?iy. O
ii?nuee?e o?eeia?? iaeyne?aa?oa i?aaenoaaeai? aiaea oa aiaiiue. Oae naii
ye aeey Ceiaethaeee Ia?o?ia, aiaea aeey Oaeaioa – ai?ia, aeaea?aei
e?ece, neiaie naiioiino?, aaii?? ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy. Ia?ac aiaith,
aeaaaeaiee o iacao ?iiaio, neeaaei?oee ? a?eueo iie?naiaioe/iee. A?i
neiaie?co? iaoeiaee i?ia?an, eeth/iaei ? ai?ciae oe??ieaiiy Aaia
oie-uiaee a aea?aa’yiiio iieic? iaoaeaaei ea?eanii ?c caeo/aiiyi aiaith.
(sse ? o “Iaaecae/aeiiio iine?”, i?iaeaia a?aeiiniino? ?aea? iaoeiaiai
i?ia?ano ni?eeiyoa o ?iiai? e??cue i?ecio aeiaa?oaieo oaoi?/ieo
caeiaooe?a). Aiaiiue – oea e o?einionueeee neiaie. I?aoo?iai aiai?eoue
i?i aiaiiue oai?? oa aiaiiue oieco. Aiaiiue oai?? – oea a?/ia
ia?oiia/aei, aiaiiue oieco – ethaenueea aeooa. Ca Aa?aee?oii, aeooa
ethaeeie aeieea? c “aeeaiai” aiaith ? yaey? niaith iaeei ?c eiai noai?a,
a oiio aeooa – oea ai??iiy aiaith. I?aaiaiiy ii?aeiaoe aiaiiue aieco c
aiaiai oai?? – oea aa?aee?oiaee “oeyo oai?o”, eiee aeooa noa?
aiaiaiiith, “na?oeith”. Oea – nooa n?yiiy, i?i yea Aa?aee?o aiai?eoue
oae: “Nooa n?yiiy – in?oay (aeooa – E.I.) iaeioae??oa ? iaee?aua”
(“O?aaiaiou ?aiieo a?a/aneeo oeeinioia”, 1989). “Oeyo oai?o” i?eoiaeeoue
ia ci?io “oeyoo aiec”. “Oeyo oiec” yaey? niaith ao?aoo aeooath nai??
aiaiaiiino?, oiaoi eiee aiia noa? ana a?eueo aieiaith, ao?a/a? naith
yni?noue aai, ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, ?ioaeaeooaeueio “noo?noue”. Ia “oeyoo
aiec” aeooa ?iciaaea?oueny, aeia ? ia?aoiaeeoue a ?ioee – aieiaee –
noai. “In?oayi nia?oue – noaoe aiaeith, aiae? ae nia?oue – noaoe
caieath; ?c caie? ae aiaea ia?iaeaeo?oueny, a c aiaee – in?oay”. Oaeei
?, ia aeoieo a?aoeueeiai o?einioa, a?aeiioaiiy aeoo? aei na?oiaeo
noeo?e. Oaeaioiaa aeooa c? noaio “aieiaiai” (aeania, ye ? o?ei)
ia?aoiaeeoue o noai “nooee”. Aa?aee?oia?e aeoo? i?eoaiaiia “aicai?aiiy”,
i?aaiaiiy aei oeyoo “aai?o”. ?e, ye aiaiaii?e ? ?icoii?e ca nai?th
i?e?iaeith noeo??, i?eoaiaiiee i?eioeei aioo??oiuei? aeoeaiino?.
?icai?aiiy aeoo? Oaeaioa ia oeyoo nian?iiy, eiai ?icaeoie o
aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?e noa?? ii?aeio?oueny c o?enoeyinueeith ?aea?th
i?ina?oe?iiy. Oae Yieae?i? aeno?aiieth? aeaaiueia?aoeuee? iaioa?noe/i?
oyaeaiiy ia o?enoeyinuee? ?aea?. Aa?ie i?ic??aa?, a eiai i?ic??iiy
eaoae?cothoueny aiaiai, ai “an? ?a/? – oea iai?i aiaith”. Ioaea, aiaiiue
? ? eaoae?caoi?ii ci?i – /e oi ineoieia?/ieo, /e o?einionueeeo. Ie??i
caaaeaieo iniiaieo cia/aiue neiaieo aiaith, ? e oaeoeueoaoeai?. Aiaiiue
ia eeoa ni?e/eith? ci?ie, a e neaiae?co? ?o. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo a?i
aeeiio? ooieoe?th i?ieaineno, ye, i?ei??ii, a ai?ciae? c iiyaith Ia??ii
*aie?: aiaiiue aeeneaaee aeia?aaeaea? o?ainoi?iaoe?th aa?iy a ethaeeio
ii/oooy.

Neiaie aiaith aaoi? caeo/a? ? aei nai?? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? a?e.
Iai?ee?ioe? o?eeia?? noaeii – i?ino??, a yeiio ?icai?oaeeny ia?eiao??
aeeooy ia?niiaae?a ?iiaio, – cai?a?. Aea iiieeeiaei aoei a aiai?eoe i?i
o?einionueea i?ae??oiooy iiaeaae?. Aiaiiue, a yeiio ai?eoue “A?eoai?y”,
– oea iiaieeaa caaa?oai?noue, ?aaeoa ia?iae?y Yieae?i?a ia i?icia? oai?e
XVIII-XIX noie?oue, a yeeo uaneeaa caaa?oaiiy aoei iaa?ae’?iiith
/anoeiith i?eaiae ?oi?o ia?niiaae?a. Nai aaoi? a?eueo noeeueiee aei
eiioeaioe?? iacaaa?oaiino? e?oa?aoo?iiai oai?o, aaeaea ae?aia Oaeaioa ia
oeueiio ia caaa?oo?oueny, oi/ aaaeeea? aeooiai? ia?aoai?aiiy ana ae
noaeeny. Iaeaeo/i?oa aieiaiee o?ie ii?nueeiai ?ainoaa, ui eiai ni?ciaa
Oaeaio, aeneiaea ?ioee ia?niiaae – I?aoo?iai: “Oe ii/aa iaiae??aeo c
ia’?eoeaiino? iaciaiiy, a cae?i/o?o noa’?eoeai?noth ciaiiy, aieth,
iaae??”.

?icae?e 3. AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ii?nueei? o?eeia??. Ni?eeiyooy
?iiai?a Yieae?i?a ye nai???aeiiai “aenaa?aa” iaa?ae’?iia a?ae
ona?aeiieaiiy aeai?iai? niaoeeo?ee oai?o. Noaea o no/aniiio
aiae?enueeiio ?iiai? oaiaeaioe?y aei caaaa/aiiy ? iiiaeaiiy aeyaeea naaa
o ?ieae?i??anuee?e i?eo/? aeai?iaei neie?aoeciii, ?icia?ooyi noeeueiaeo
??oaiue oa ooaeiaei?o i?eeii?a. Aeena?oaioea aaaaea?, ui ?iiaie o?eeia??
? aeai?iaineie?aoe/ieie no?oeoo?aie c? neeaaeiaeie ?iiaio aeoiaaiiy,
ii?nueeiai ?iiaio, ai?noiey?ii-uiaeaiieeiaiai ?iiaio, ?iiaio i?i ieooey
? i?noyoue aeaiaioe “?iiaio i?i ?iiai”, eiee aeania ooaeiaeiy nenoaia
aaoi?a noa? e?oa?aoo?iith oaiaoeeith. Aoei aeae?eaii ?oi? eiinoeoooeai?
aeai?ia? iciaee.

?iiai aeoiaaiiy: o oeaio?? nthaeaoo – iaeei aa?ie, eiai aioo??oi? “y”
aaniethoeciaaia; aa?ie ci?ith? iaeio aeeoo?ao iiaeaeue ia ?ioo; o
eiiiiceoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? iniaeeaa ?ieue iaeaaeeoue oeeee?/iino?, eio?a
aecia/a?oueny aoaiaie ?icaeoeo aa?iy; o eiaeiiio c ?iiai?a o?eeia??
i?enooi?e ui?aco ?ioee ia?niiaae-aeoiaaoaeue, eio?ee aea? Oaeaioo
iaea?eueo oe?iiee o?ie (uii?aaaea, iaae?eyth/e iaioi??a ?enaie eii?/ieo
ia?ac?a, aaoi? ei?eao? ?oith nooi?noue, a a?aeoae, ?oi? cia/aiiy o
i?ioean? aeooiaii? aaiethoe?? aa?iy, noaaey/e oei naiei i?ae noii?a
“na?eici?noue” aaiethoe?? aa?iy aai oaeaeoa iiiaiooth/e o/anoue
ia?niiaae?a-noiooiee?a o o?ainoi?iaoe?? aa?iy aei neee ?iioeueno, a ia
aieeao).

Ii?nueeee ?iiai: iacaa o?eeia?? – “ii?nueea”; no?oeoo?iooai?thth/?
aeai?ia? eiiiiiaioe – ?iiaioeea ii?nueei? iiaei?iae?; oa?aeoa?i? aeey
oe??? i?aaeiaoii? noa?e oeie aa?i?a, o?iiioii ? eoo ci?o; aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy ia?aco ii?y ye i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, yea oi?io? ioaei?e
oa?aeoa?, ? ye iaaacia/iiai noi?ioeaieea o aeaai?iaei?e ai?iouea? c
ethaeeiith. Iaeiae o?aaeeoe?eiee i?eaiaeieoeueeee ii?nueeee ?iiai eeoa
ia iiaa?oi?, i?e a?eueo aeeaieiio i?i/eoaii? o?eeia?y – iieai?ea c iei.
?iiaie o?eeia?? iicaaaeai? nooi aaaioth?iiai ia/aea – aa?i? ae?ooathoue
o iiaei?iae ia o iiooeao i?eaiae, ? o? ieiia?euei? aaaioth?e, ye? c ieie
o?aieythoueny, ? iaaaaeaieie ia?aoeiaeaie ia oeyoo aei ioieoo
i?ecia/aiiy, ai aaaeeeaeie ? aeooiai? ci?ie aa?i?a, a ia ?oiy
no?ee?noue; ooea/ i?eaiae c ii?nueeiai ?iiaio o?ainoi?io?oueny o
ioaeueaoth/iai ia?iao, yeee ia?aaoaa? o iino?eiiio iioooe? ?icaaa, a
a?aeaaaeiee ? ni?aaaaeeeaee eai?oai – o ceinoeaiai oa aiyaoceeaiai
oe?aia Aiaea?niia, ii?nueeee aiae – o iaaaeaoo Aeaa?na, io?oea?ai
Eaiaa?oaio oa Aeaaa?aeo a?aeo? no?eiaiino? oa eo?aaeo aiaeii/an, “ae?oe
Iaiooia”, ye? iiia?aao aeaeaeeny Eiee? aa?oii ioaeiino? oa aeia?ioe,
aeaai?iaeii? i?inoioe oa iaaeiooaiino? (oiaoi oaeeie, yeeie aiie
o?aaeeoe?eii cia?aaeai? o ii?nueeiio ?iiai?), aeyaeythoueny iicaaaeaieie
aoiai?cio; iaea?ee?anueea ?iiaioeea caeeoeeany o ieioeiio, iaoii?noue
caiaioaaea ioaeueaa, a iiea ci?o iiia?aea/a iio?aieythoue aeeoaenuee?
ni?aae; a ii?a – ia no?eueee can?a ooaa?aeaeaiiy aa?i?a, ne?eueee
ii?aeueii-anoaoe/iee ia’?eo, yeee nai?th iiaooi?noth ? aeaaeith ea?a?
ethaeeio ca cei/ei noi?ioe aeeooy.

Ai?noiey?ii-uiaeaiieeiaee ?iiai. ?iiaie o?eeia?? neeaaeathoueny c eeno?a
? caien?a uiaeaiieea Oaeaioa, eeno?a nayuaieea Eiee? aei nano?e ? c, oi/
? ia aaaaeaiiai i?yii o no?oeoo?o oaenoo, “ei?aaaeueiiai aeo?iaeo”
eai?oaia Aiaea?niia. Aeaa aieine o o?eeia?? ??aiicia/ii aaeaioi? – o
ia?oiio ?iiai? i?enooi? aeaa ia??aoi?a, o aeaio ?ioeo – o?eueee Oaeaio.
O nai?io eeno? Eiee? iia?aeiiey? i?i o? i?e/eie naiiaoanoaa, ye? Oaeaioo
ia aoee a?aeii?, o caienao Oaeaioa oe? i?e/eie ?ice?eaathoueny. O
“?eooaeao ieaaaiiy” aa?i? ?iciia?aeathoue i?i iaei? e o? ae iiae??;
iiaoi?thaai?noue Yieae?i? ia no?eueee caiice/ea c “Iae?nna?” Aiia?a,
ne?eueee aei?aaaeaa iath. I?ei?oii, ui eeno Eiee? oi/ ? iiaoi?th? oa, ui
/eoa/aa? aaea a?aeiii ?c caien?a Oaeaioa, ia?aaea? ?ioa aa/aiiy ?noi???
ia noaei?. O iaaeao eia?ee ?icaeoeo oa?aeoa??a oa, ui iiaeyae Eiee? ia
?a/? aeyaey?oueny oe?eeii i?ioeeaaeiei (?, c?aooith, a?eueo
ia?aeiieeaei), ia eeoa i?ae?eaa? iaae?ei?noue Oaeaioa-iiia?aea/a, a e
noa? caa’yceith eiai iaeaooi?o o?ainoi?iaoe?e. O “Aeecueeiio non?aenoa?”
oa “Aiai? oai, oieco” aaoi?-aa?ie i?iaeiaaeo? nai? niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae
ei?aaaeueiei aeeooyi, iaeiae cieea? aae?anao ? eiai uiaeaiieeia? caiene
noathoue ia?oeie ni?iaaie ienueiaiieea. ?ioeie neiaaie, o
aa?iy-iiia?aea/a c’yaey?oueny “anoaoe/ia iaaieni?noue”, a eiai iiia?aeue
?iiai?co?oueny (oa?i?i I. Aaoo?ia). Aaoi? noa? “ae?eniei aaoi?ii aeaiiai
oai?o”, o ?iiai? c’yaeythoueny aeaiaioe “?iiaio i?i ?iiai”.
“I?i?e?oth/e” i?ae aeieoiaioaeueiee aeai? ? aeei?enoiaoth/e oa?aeoa?io
iniaeea?noue no?oeoo?e ? noee?noeee ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice XVIII noie?ooy,
Yieae?i? ana ae iaiieyaaa ia oiio, ui eiai ?iiai ia ? i?aaaeeaith
?noi???th ii?nueei? iaiae??aee. No/aniee /eoa/, yeee a??eoue o
e?oa?aoo?io i?aaaeea?noue “aeaaaeaii? aeieoiaioaeueiino?”, a ia a
?noi?e/io aeinoia??i?noue oaaoee, ni?eeia? ?iiaie aai ye aenia?eiaio
iaae ai?noiey?ii-uiaeaiieeiaith oi?iith, aai ye noia?a/eo c iath, aai
a?o.

?iiai i?i ieooey. Ni?iae Oaeaioa o oea?ei? ooaeiaeiuei? neiaanii?
oai?/ino? ? aaaeeeaeie ia eeoa ia ??ai? no?oeoo?e, a e ia ??ai? ?aea?.
Yieae?i? o oaeee iiina?aaeeiaaiee niin?a caa?oa?oueny aei oaie
ienoaoeoaa ? ieooey – iniaenoino?, yea ia i?inoi ni?eeia? na?o, a e
a?aeoai?th? eiai. Iaei??th c iniiaieo o o?eeia?? ? i?iaeaia
ooaeiaeiueiai inieneaiiy ae?eniino?. Uiaeaiieee ? eenoe Oaeaioa oa Eiee?
iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye ni?iae ieooey, ai ?oi? aaoi?e a?aeoai?ththoue
ea?oeio “o?oae?a ? aei?a” “aea?aa’yiiai na?oo”. Caaaeaiiy ae Yieae?i?a –
iinoaaeoe e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaei?e aenia?eiaio, yeee ae aeyaea, iane?eueee
i?aaaeeai aaoi? uiaeaiieea ? ienueiaiiee acaaae? iiaea a?aeoai?eoe
ae?eni?noue, ? oa, iane?eueee i?aaaeeaei ? e?oa?aoo?iee oa?? ye oaeee;
aei iueiai a?i caeo/a? ? /eoa/a, yeee iiaeiai ?icoeo?oaaoe i?aeoaeno.
*eoa/ o?eeia?? (ye, aei ?a/?, ? “Niaaeei?ioe?a”) ciooaiee oyaeyoe nia?
oieoth/? iiae??, a?aeiiaeyth/enue a?ae “anaciath/iai” aaoi?a (Oaeaioa),
aea oeueiio ia?aaeo? ona?aeiieaiiy /eoa/ai oaei? eiai i?n??, a ua ?ai?oa
/eoa/, aeia??yth/e iiia?aea/aa?, iio?aiey? o neooaoe?th ni?ao/ano?
i?iaeie aa?iy. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo a?aeii? aaoi?o ua aei iaienaiiy
oai?o, inoaii?e eeoa iiaeaeth? caaeaio aaoi?nueeo ?aeath. Aeoaeuei?noue
iiia?ae? o ?iiai? “?eooaee ieaaaiiy” ia?, oaeei /eiii, ci?noiooai?thth/o
ooieoe?th. A?aei?ii?noue oi/ie ci?o ? a?aei?ii?noue ?iceacaiiai a?ae
oiai, ui noaeiny iani?aaae?, iinooeth? aeoieo Yieae?i?a i?i oa, ui
aoaeue-yeee aeieoiaioaeueiee oa?? ? i?iaeoeoii ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
aaoi?nueeiai ia?ainieneaiiy, nai???aeiiai ? iaiiaoi?iiai aa/aiiy a
?aieao aeanii? anoaoeee, ? iaa?oue na?oiaeyaeieoeueei? nenoaie, a ia
eaeueeoaaiiyi, a oaeiae, ai/aaeaeue, ? oa, ui /eoa/ – aeoeaiee ni?aaaoi?
oai?o. Yieae?i? ia?aeiiaiee, ui aoaeue-yea ienoaoeoai ? “aee?eaeaiiyi
?aaeueiino?”. Aeania i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy ie?aieo oaeo?a a ?noi??th
aee?eaeth? “i?aaaeo”. O oeueiio aeina?ae Oaeaioa ca?aa?oueny c
aeina?aeii naiiai Yieae?i?a. E??i oiai, oi/ ? aeiaie? iaoaoe/ii,
Yieae?i? canoa??aa? ieooey uiaei oiai aieeao, yeee a?i ia? ia /eoa/a oa
aeio?a iinooeth? aeoieo i?i oa, ui i?n?y ienoaoeoaa iieyaa? ia o oi/iiio
a?aeoai?aii? ae?eniino?, a a oiio, ui ciaoiaeeoueny iica oeei
a?aeoai?aiiyi – o niene?, ? iaa?oue o iia/aii?. Ieoaoeue, ia eiai
ia?aeiiaiiy, iana a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oie ci?no, ui a?i eiai
aeeaaea? o na?e oa??. Yieae?i?, yeee oaae aa?a o/anoue o aeeneon?yo
uiaei iaeaooiueiai e?oa?aoo?e, iai?ee?ioe? OO noie?ooy aaaaea? ca
iio??aia iaaaaeaoe i?i oeae aniaeo i?n?? ieooey ? ienoaoeoaa.

Iniaeeaiai cao/aiiy iaaoaa? o i?ci?o ?iiaiao ??ii?y, iao?aaeeoe?eii aeey
Yieae?i?a aiia, ie??i nooi ooaeiaeiuei?, aeeiio? e ci?noiooai?thth/o
ooieoe?th. Oe?eaaei, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioee, aoei a iiaeaeueoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy cia/aiiy ??ii??, ye ? ooieoe?e eii?/iiai, eio?? o
Yieae?i?a 80-o i???ioiaai? ia a?o c? ci?noii.

?icae?e 4. O?einionueei-anoaoe/iee ci?no oa iiaoeea inoaiiueiai ?iiaio
Yieae?i?a – “Iiaea?eiee ycee” (1993, iioae. 1995). O oeueiio ?icae?e?
aeena?oaioea caa?oa?oueny aei aiae?co iacaaa?oaiiai ?iiaio A?eueyia
Yieae?i?a – “Iiaea?eiee ycee” c oei, uia aecia/eoe, iane?eueee
o?einionuee? ieoaiiy, ye? aaoi? i?aei?ia? o ?iiai?, ui caaa?oo? eiai
oai?/?noue, i?iaeiaaeothoue o?einionuee? iiooee ?iiai?a 50–80-o ?ie?a, ?
ia?aaeian?i ii?nueei? o?eeia??.

Ia?eiao?? “Iiaea?eiiai yceea” ?icai?oathoueny a Aeaai?e A?aoe?? a
na?aaeei? I no. aei i.a., o ia??iae ?? i?aeei?aiiy ?eiii, ia?aaaaeii o
i?no? Aeaeueoe. I?inoi?iai-/ania? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iiaio, oi/ ?
eieae?ciaai?, ? oi?aa?naeueieie ? ni?yiiaai? ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy
noaieiniino? aecenoaioe?aeueieo neooaoe?e ethaeae, caeaaaeiny a, oe?eeii
??cieo aiio – oeueiai ?aco neooaoe?? noii?ao. O “Iiaea?eiiio yceoe?”, ye
? a ?ioeo ?iiaiao Yieae?i?a, o?einionuee? i?iaeaie i?iyaeythoueny o
naiiio ?icai?oaii? nthaeaoo. ?iiai iaienaii o oi?i? iaioa??a aieiaii?
aa?i?i? – a?aeei? A??aee – i?i ?? aeeoeinoai, thi?noue, c??ea aeeooy.
Aea iiia?aeue ia ? ia?aeacii oeiiaeo iiiaio?a aoaeue-yeiai aeeoo?aiai
oeyoo, iaia? ooo iieno o?oae?a ? ni?aa (/e iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy iiaooiaeo
aeaoaeae, ye o ii?nuee?e o?eeia??). Iaoii?noue ?iiai ?
?iciia?aeaeth-niiaaaeii aei?inei? A??aee, yea aeie?aieth? eeoa o?
ai?ciaee aeeoeinoaa oa thiino?, eio?? iia’ycai? c ia?aaeeaaiiyie oa
?icaeoiaie ?? c??eeo e?o. O oeaio?? oaaae aioo??oi? aeeooy aieiaii?
aa?i?i?, a ?? habitatus ? no?oeoo?oth/ei i?eioeeiii iiaoaeiae ?iiaio.
Ienueiaiiee oia?oa caa?oa?oueny aei ae?ii/iai ia?aoeao, a on?o
iiia?aaei?o ?iiaiao iiia?aea/ai aoa /ieia?e. Ia ci?io caieooaiino?
ia?aoeao o?eeia?? i?eoiaeeoue yni?noue, iine?aeiai?noue ? ianooii?noue
aeeeaaeo.

O ?iiai? 90-o Yieae?i? ia a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae ae?iaeaii? ua o ia?oiio
oai?? noaie eiioe?eoo – o?aaia (ao?aoa iacaeiaiino?, ona?aeiieaiiy cei?
aaea/? ethaeeie /e i?aena?aeiieo ii?oo?a aeoo?), aeooiai? iiooee,
ii?yooiie. “Iiaea?eiee ycee” ? ?iiaiii-?icaeoiii aa?i?i?, o i?ii?aeeo
i?ae oei, ye aiia aoea niiaiaiith iaae?? aeeoeiith, ? oei, ye ae?ciaeany
i?i nooi?noue ?a/ae. Naiii?ciaiiy A??aee oneeaaeiaia ?ae?a?eiei iiooeii.
Yieae?i? iaenoa?ii ciiaeaethaaa a?aie/ii ae?aiaoe/io neooaoe?th, a ye?e
ethaeeia ca iaaieo ianoaaei ia iiaea ia a??eoe a Aiaa (A??aea — i?o?y,
aeaaiueia?aoeueea ae?eoey-i?i?i/eoey a o?ai? Aiieeiia) oa aiaeii/an ia
iiaea ia caienethaaoeny iaae eiai ?nioaaiiyi ? aeaaeith. Ia?aaeien
?nioaaiiy aa?i?i? a oiio, ui aiia ia ieneeoue naaa ia?aiith. Iaiao?aeio
aeey ?? noaoono ia?ai?noue aecia/eee aeaa oaioanoe/i? iaaeoiai? ai?ciaee
?? aeeoeinoaa, ye? i?ae-oi cana?ae/oaaee iniaeea? iiaeeeaino? ae?a/eie.
Aaoi? caeeoa?oueny iine?aeiaiei, iiaeaethth/e a?ae/oooy
aecenoaioe?aeueii? ?cieueiaaiino? aa?i?i? ye iaiao?aeii? oiiae ??
aeooiaiiai iinooio. Noii?a – o nai?e ia?aiino?, a aiaao – ? niiniaii
?nioaaiiy A??aee ai?iaeiaae on?o o?noaeanyoe ?ie?a, ui aiia aeaieioo?
i?i?ioeoaa.

O oie /an ye i?o?y io/eoueny ia?ica’yciei caieoaiiyi, noa?oee ae?aoeue
Aiieeiiiaiai o?aio – ?ii?aean Ia?n?no?ao?aean ca?iaey? a?io? ia ii/oooyo
a??oth/eo. Yieae?i? a inoaiiueiio ?iiai? a ia?ac? ?ii?aeana
iiaa?oa?oueny aei iaei??? c iniiaieo o?einionueeeo i?iaeai
“Niaaeei?ioe?a”, “Oieey” – i?iaeaie ?oei?aii? ethaenueei? aie?. O oaeiio
nain? ?ii?aean iaei /ei a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae Aeaeine?ia /e iaeiiai c
iiaeo ethaeae “Niaaeei?ioe?a”. ?oiy aiey caeiaoea iai?aia cia/aiiy;
a?aei?ii?noue eeoa a oiio, ui oaiaoe/iee Aeaeine?i /a?ia? neeo a
aiaeanoaaiiiio ianoaiiaeaii? e ia ona?aeiieth? naiai a??oa, a oeei?/iee
?ii?aean a?aeaa?oi c??ea?oueny aia?a. Ienueiaiiee ?iaeoue ni?iao
?ici?ciaoe a aeina?ae? ?ii?aeana-aiaiai?oey ? i?eeiaoe /ano, oa?aeoa?i?
aeey ia??iaeo caiaiaaeo a?aoeueei? eoeueoo?e, ? iica/ania? – i?iya
“ii?aeueiiai aaeooio”, a yeiio ia?aaoaa? ethaeeia. Oiio iaa??a ?ii?aeana
a?aeeoith? aae o OO noie?oo?, yea aeaieineei nia?oiee ae?ie aiaai.
?ii?aean – o?ao?e ?ieae?i??anueeee ?ae?a?eiee ia?niiaae i?ney Aeaeine?ia
oa Eiee?. An? o?i? homo religiousus iaei /ei iiae?ai? aei cae/aeieo
nayuaiee?a: iaeei – aecaeueoiaaiee oaiaoee, eio?ee o nai?e a??? /eieoue
aethci??noai, c ?ioiai aaoi? aeoco?, a iiaainueeiai ?ii?aeana iaa?oue
ia?aoai?th? ia aiaiai?oey. Ii/aaoe ciaethaaiiy oeueiai oeio c oaiaoeea,
Yieae?i? caaa?oo? aaca??ieeii. ?ii?aean – caiiacyoeeaee eiia?naio, yeee
cia?oueny ia oiio, ye ca?iaeyoe a?io? ia ethaenuee?e a???. “Iaoaiaoeea”
a?aeo?ith? eiai ii?aeue, ye naiai /ano aecia/eea aeai?eoi aeeooy
Oaeaioa.

sse caoaaaeea ?iaa?o Aaeiaea? a iaei?e c ia?oeo ?aoeaic?e ia oa??, ?iiai
? ia?aaieith i?i oa, ye ia?cioi? ethaee aoiieee aiaeanoaaiio ?ne?o ?
aeei?enoiaothoue ?? o nai?o ieoeeo iai??ao. ?ii?aean – aioaaii?no
A??aee. Iaia?ia iaa?oathoueny eiai iaiaaaiiy caai?aaeoaaoe A??aeo aei
iie?oe/ii? a?e, yea ia? iiaa?iooe Aeaeueoai aeaaith neaao iie?oe/iiai oa
eoeueoo?iiai ina?aaeeo na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai na?oo. A??aea, oi/ ?
e?a?oueny noii?aaie, iaeiae a??eoue o aia?a; ia?aae iath noi?oue ia
aeeeaia a??e, a i?iaeaia aca?ii?icoi?iiy. ? oea iano?eueee ae i/aaeaeii,
ye ? oa, ui ?ii?aean – ii-nai?io aiaiai?aoeue. Iiiceoe?ei?noue ia?ac?a
A??aee e ?ii?aeana aeineoue oa?aeoa?ia iciaea aeey i?eo/?, ?
?ieae?i??anueei? cie?aia; caaaeaoe a aiaeae iiiceoe?? ?aeueoa ? Aeaeaea,
Eiea ? iiaeo ethaeae, Oaeaioa ? Eiee?. Iiiceoe?ei?noue aa?i?a
“Iiaea?eiiai yceea” ia? ?ene a?oaoeiii? iiiceoe??. Aaeaea i?eo/aaa
ia/aei ia?aaeoeaioiao? eiioe?eo ?iiaio – a??e e aiaiai?noaa, ? a oeaio??
oaaae /eoa/?a – ia nai? ia?ace, a iaaia neooaoe?y (i?e/iio a?oaoeiia),
yea ciooo? ?icaeyaeaoe aa?i?a ye ae?aciee?a caaeaieo aaoi?ii a?aei?iieo
nenoai aoe/ieo oe?iiinoae. Naia /a?ac oea eiioe?eo aa?i?a iaaoaa?
oi?aa?naeueiiai oa?aeoa?o i?ioeai?noaa aeaio aeeoo?aeo na?oiaeyae?a.

Oeae iaea?/iee eiioe?eo caeeoa?oueny iaae??oaiei ? a inoaiiueiio oai??
ienueiaiieea. ?noi??y ?ii?aeana e A??aee ia? a?aee?eoo e?ioe?aeo:
iiaeeeai, oiio, ui nai aaoi? o 90-o ?ieao ia aa/eoue a?aeiia?aeae ia
caieoaiiy, iinoaaeai? iei ua ia ii/aoeo 50-o o ia?oiio ?iiai?. ?ii?aean,
noiieaiee ?eieyiaie ca aioe?einueeo ae?yeuei?noue, aeia. A a oie naiee
/an A??aea, ae?ciaaoenue i?i eiai nia?oue, a?ae/eiy? caai?iiai? aeaa??
aei nayoeeeua ? ciaoiaeeoue oai neaeth. Aiia aa/eoue oaiio ii?iaeia/o,
yea ia eyea? ??, a iaaiaee, caoiieth?. Iaeaooi? oaiia ia o?eueee aeey
aa?i?a iiia?aaei?o ?iiai?a – ?aeueoa, Ceiaethaeee Ia?o?ia, Naithaey
Iaoioaeaeiy, a iaa?oue aeey i?o??. Iaaooue, naia oeth ii?iaeia/o iaea ia
oaac? i?i?i/eoey, eio?a aiai?eea A??aoe?, eiee oa aia?oa i?eeoea aei
ne?ii? noa?i?: “?ieiee ? o?eueee iaeia i?o?y, iae/ano?oa aea?, aea /an
a?ae /ano, eiee iaeaooi? ne?ia ? oaiia, ye ii? i/?, ?o o?e”. Aea oey
oai?yaa ia ? oe?eeiaeoith i?oueiith. E?enoioa? Ia?o?i aa/ea iai?ee?ioe?
aeeooy oai?yao aeanii? nia?o?, A??aea ae aa/eoue oai?yao iaeaoooy. ?iiai
niiaiaiee ?icioee, aea oea ia a?ae/ae “Aeaeeii? oai?yae”. Iii?e aeiaie?
ne?oioeueici? “?iceiiee” a i?e?iae? cea oeei?ea ?ii?aeana, aoei a
iiieeeiaei aaaaeaoe oaanue ?iiai oe?eeiaeoi ianei?noe/iei, a ?ica’yceo
nthaeaoii? e?i?? aieiaii? aa?i?i? – ooieeiaith. Aa?i?iy caaa?oo? naith
iiia?aeue aeaoeii a??e a iiaiai Aiaa; ?noi??y aeeooy i?o?? – a?aeoeiie
aeeooy i?ae “iaae??th” oa “ciaiiyi” – cae?i/o?oueny iaae??th. Naia a
oeueiio, aeania, ? iieyaa? iniiaiee o?einionueeee ci?no inoaiiueiai
?iiaio ienueiaiieea. Inoaii?e oa?? A?eueyia Yieae?i?a, ye on?
iiia?aaei?, noaaeoue a?eueoa caieoaiue, i?ae aea? a?aeiia?aeae. Aaoi?
i?iaeiaaeea o?einionuee? iiooee iiia?aaei?o oai??a, aea ye caaaeaee o
Yieae?i?a, aiie ia no?eueee iiaoi?ththoueny, ne?eueee ?icai?oathoueny o
iiaiio ??/eu?.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee. I?iaiae?coaaaoe ?iiaie ii?nueei? o?eeia?? “Aei
e?ath caie?”, aeena?oaioea ae?eoea aeniiaeo, ui o ieo aaoi? caa?oa?oueny
aei oeo iaci?iieo oi?aa?naeueieo aeooiaieo eiioe?eo?a, aei oeo
o?einionueeeo aeii?iaio, ui a?i ?o iinooethaaa o ?iiaiao 50–70-o ?ie?a;
oi?ciaaaiith ? i?iaeaiia ?aei?noue eiea aaoi?a o ?oi?o o?einionueeeo
eiinoaioao. Iii?e oe?e?ni?noue ? caaa?oai?noue ooaeiaeiuei? no?oeoo?e
ii?nueei? o?eeia??, iiaeaeue na?oo a eiai o?einionuee?e nooiino? o
i?ciueiai Yieae?i?a caeeoa?oueny aeiaie? iaiaeii??aeiith, ?icia?oith,
iiaeaeoaee noia?a/eeaith ? eia?/ii a?aeia?aaea? i?ieii?iaai? iiooee
ienueiaiieea, a ia aeniiaoaaiiy o?einioa, aaeaea na?oiaeyae ienueiaiieea
eooaeooaaany eiai aeaniei aeina?aeii, a ia aano?aeoieie oai??yie. Ua o
ia?oiio ?iiai? – “Aieiaea? ioo” – Yieae?i? aeaeea?o? a?aeiiao a?ae
ooiaeaoe?eiiai ?aoe?ioeaio?ecio ?, a?aeiia?aeii, a?ae noai?aiiy nooi
?aoe?iiae?noe/ii? ea?oeie na?oo, yea a iiai?noth i?iynieea na?o o an?o
eiai aei??ao. Iaoii?noue ? ?aii?e, ? i?ci?e Yieae?i? caa?oa?oueny aei
i?iaeai iniaeno?niiai aoooy, i?iaoth/e c?icoi?oe /iio ca oeny/ie?ooy
ethaenoai ae?iaeei nenoaio ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, ?aeaae iie?oe/iiai ?
noni?eueiiai eaaeo, aea ia iiaee nei?enoaoeny iaaooei aeooiaiei
aeina?aeii; o iiooeao i?e/ei oe??? iaa?aeiia?aeiino? a?i ?icaeoio? iaae
i?ecia/aiiyi ethaeeie ? iaae ?? aaea/ath, a a?aeoae, ca neiaaie naiiai
aaoi?a, ?iaeoue ni?iao o ?iiaii?e oai?/ino? “a?aenoaaeeoe aaaee
noni?euenoaa /a?ac aaaee ethaeeie”. Oaeei /eiii, Yieae?i? a on?e nai?e
oai?/ino? caa?oaany aei iinoaiiaee nooi?nieo i?iaeai aoooy ethaeeie, o
iiooeao ?oiueiai ae??oaiiy ia i?enoaaaa aei aeiaeii? c ?ic?iaeaieo
?ioeie o?einio?e. A?i ia noai?ea nai?? na?oiaeyaeii? nenoaie, eiai
aeania aiinaieia?y aoea aeeaeoe/iith ? i?ieeaith. Aea ooaeiaei?e na?o
A?eueyia Yieae?i?a iano?eueee aaaaoee an?eyeeie aeii?ioth/eie i?iaeaiaie
aeooiaiiai aeeooy, ui a?i eeoa?oueny ? iaaeiaai eeoaoeiaoueny
iaae/a?iiei.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaeoi a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Eie??aeaeaanuee? iioeae o ii?nuee?e o?eeia?? A?eueyia Yieae?i?a “Aei
e?ath caie?” // Iiai? ? eiioeaiooaeuei? ea?oeie na?oo: Ca. iaoe. i?. –
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao. – 1998. – N. 202-211. (0,5 ae?.a.).

Uiaeaiieeiaa oi?ia iiia?ae? ii?nueei? o?eeia?? A?eueyia Yieae?i?a “Aei
e?ath caie?”// A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y: ?iicaiia
o?eieia?y. Aeione 27. – 1998. – N. 74-76. (0,4 ae?.a.).

Inoaii?e ?iiai A?eueyia Yieae?i?a // Anana?o. – 1998. – ?8. – N.
146-151. (0,6 ae?.a.).

AEai?iaee neie?aoeci ii?nueei? o?eeia?? O. Yieae?i?a // Iiaa oa ?noi??y:
Ca. iaoe. i?. Aeione 32. – 1997. – N. 11-16. (0,3 ae?.a.).

Neiaie ei?aaey o ii?nuee?e o?eeia?? Yieae?i?a “Aei e?ath caie?” oa eiai
nioe?aeuei? ?iie?eaoe?? // I?iaeaie ina?oe: Iaoe.-iaoiae. ca. Aeione 8.
Ee?a: I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie. – 1997. – N. 123-129. (0,4 ae?.a.).

I??ioie/aiei E.ss. O?einionuee? aeii?iaioe ooaeiaeiueai na?oo A?eueyia
Yieae?i?a o ?iiaiao ii?nueei? o?eeia?? “Aei e?ath caie?”. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.04 – e?oa?aoo?a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i. –
?inoeooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A. Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii oai?/ino? A?eueyia Yieae?i?a 80-o ?ie?a –
ii?nuee?e o?eeia?? “Aei e?ath caie?”. O aeena?oaoe?? aeaoaeueii
?icaeyiooi o?einionuee? aeii?iaioe ?iiai?a “?eooaee ieaaaiiy”, “Aeecueea
non?aenoai” oa “Aiaiiue oai, oieco”. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?iiaie 80-o
i?iaeiaaeothoue ?icaeaaoe o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey oai?/ino? aaoi?a oaie aeia?a
? cea, i?ia?ano oa ?aa?ano, oeaiino? oa i?aaaeeaino? ethaenueeiai ciaiiy
oiui. Iniiaiith o o?eeia?? ? ?aeay i?i cei/ei, niieooo oa nian?iiy
aa?iy. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeoeoia/oaaoe nooi o?enoeyinuee? iiiyooy, yeeie
iia?o? aaoi? o iiaeaethaaii? o?einionueeeo i?iaeai aoooy ethaeeie, o
?oiueiio aca?iica‘yceo ?c aeaaiueia?aoeueeith o?einio??th. Aeoiaey/e c
oiai, ui i?ney o?eeia?? aaoi? noai?ea ua iaeei ?iiai, aoei
i?iaiae?ciaaii inoaii?e oa?? Yieae?i?a – “Iiaea?eiee ycee” ? io?eiaii
a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue aeoeoia/aiiy eiai ye oaeiai, ui i?iaeiaaeo?
i?iaeaiaoeeo iiia?aaei?o oai??a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?einionueea aeii?iaioa, i?eo/a, ii?aeue, neiaie, aeania
oa noni?eueia nian?iiy.

Miroshnychenko L. Philosophical dominants of William Golding’s novels
(sea trilogy). – Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 10.01.04 – literature of
foreign countries. – The Institute of Literature of National Academy of
Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to William Golding’s novels of the 80s, the
sea trilogy “To the End of the Earth.” In the dissertation there are
analysed the philosophical dominants of his novels – “Rites of Passage,”
“Close Qaurters,” and “Fire Down Below.” It is established that in the
novels of 80s the author develops the themes which are traditional for
him – good and evil, progress and regress, right and wrong knowledge,
etc. The main idea is the idea of crime, redemption and salvation, both
individual and that of a society. Christian notions, which the author
uses to shape existential problems, are proposed to be treated in their
conjunction with ancient Greece philosophy. As after the sea trilogy the
author has published one more novel — “Double Tongue,” it is also
analysed in the dissertation.

Key words: philosophical dominant, fable, moral, symbol, personal and
social salvation.

Ie?ioie/aiei E.ss. Oeeinioneea aeiieiaiou ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ie?a
Aeeueyia Aieaeeiaa a ?iiaiao ii?neie o?eeiaee “Aei eiioea caiee”. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.04 – eeoa?aoo?a ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. –
Einoeooo eeoa?aoo?u ei. O.A. Oaa/aiei IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oai?/anoao Aeeueyia Aieaeeiaa 80-o aiaeia –
ii?neie o?eeiaee “Aei eiioea caiee”. A aeenna?oaoeee aeaoaeueii
?anniio?aiu oeeinioneea aeiieiaiou ?iiaiia “?eooaeu ieaaaiuey”, “Aeeceia
ninaaenoai” e “Iaiiue oai, aieco”. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?iiaiu i?iaeieaeatho
?acaeaaoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua aeey oai?/anoaa aaoi?a 50—70-o aiaeia oaiu
aeia?a e cea, i?ia?anna e ?aa?anna, ioeai/iinoe e enoeiiinoe
/aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey, ?aoeeiiaeueiiai e ia?aoeeiiaeueiiai niiniaia
iiciaiey, eaeaaeecia e aai oi?i. Iniiaiie a o?eeiaee yaeyaony eaeay
i?anooieaiey, eneoieaiey e nianaiey aa?iy, eioi?ay a aieueoai ianooaaa,
/ai a i?aaeuaeoueo i?iecaaaeaieyo ienaoaey, ?anniao?eaaao i?iaeaio
ioaaonoaaiiinoe /aeiaaea ca naie iinooiee. I?aaeeiaeaii oieeiaaoue
o?enoeyineea iiiyoey, eioi?uie iia?e?oao aaoi?, iiaeaee?oy oeeinioneea
i?iaeaiu auoey /aeiaaea, a eo acaeiinayce n ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioeae,
a /anoiinoe n eioa?i?aoaoeeae cia/aiey /aou?ao ia?aiaeaiaioia
Aa?aeeeoii. ?aeaeii-oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey Aieaeeiaa ?aaeeciaaia a
oi?ia i?eo/e, i?e/ai inia?aiaiaiiie. A iieneao iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae
auoey Aieaeeia oaeoaeeny a aeeciaiioth noeoeth, a iauanoaaiiua
eiioeeeou, a ia ia?aoeeny e ?annoaei/iiio aiaeeco eiiiiiaioia, eioi?ua
ia?acotho yoi auoea. I?aaeeiaeaii ?anniao?eaaoue ?iiaiu o?eeiaee eae
aeai?iaineie?aoe/aneea no?oeoo?u n ninoaaiuie ?iiaia ainieoaiey,
ii?neiai ?iiaia, yienoiey?ii-aeiaaieeiaiai ?iiaia, ?iiaia i ooaeiaeieea
e n yeaiaioaie “?iiaia i ?iiaia”. Iniaaiiia cao/aiea iieo/aao a iicaeieo
?iiaiao e?iiey, eioi?ay auiieiyao ooaeiaeanoaaiioth e niaea?aeaoaeueioth
ooieoeee. Iieacaii, /oi e?iiey e eiie/iia o Aieaeeiaa 80-o i?eaioe?iaaiu
ia ea?o n niaea?aeaieai. I?e oeaeinoiinoe e caaa?oaiiinoe
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie no?oeoo?u ?iiaiia o?eeiaee, iiaeaeue ie?a a aa
oeeinioneie nooe o Aieaeeiaa 80–90-o inoaaony aeinoaoi/ii
iaiaeii?iaeiie, ii?ie i?ioeai?a/eaie e eiae/ii ioia?aaeaao iienee, a ia
auaiaeu ienaoaey. Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi iinea o?eeiaee aaoi? nicaeae aua
iaeei ?iiai, auei i?iaiaeece?iaaii iineaaeiaa aai i?iecaaaeaiea –
“Aeaieiie ycue” – e iieo/aiu a?aoiaiou a iieueco enoieeiaaiey aai eae
oaeiai, eioi?ia i?iaeieaeaao i?iaeaiaoeeo i?aaeuaeoueo ?iiaiia ienaoaey.
Aaoi? ia?aoeeny e enneaaeiaaieth aa?u. Aa?iyoii, niiiaiea eae niinia
nouanoaiaaiey aai aa?ieie yaeyaony noaeeiaoeeae ninoiyiey aaoi?a.
I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi a ?iiaia 90-o ienaoaeue iooiaeeo io onoiyaoaainy a
aai oai?/anoaa i?eioeeia auai?a i?ioaaiienoa, ia?aoeaoenue e aeaineiio
ia?aco. Iiaaoi?neei aeey Aieaeeiaa aue e aeaineee ia?aoea. Oa?aeoa?ii,
/oi iicaeiee Aieaeeia aieaa neeiiai e iiaanoaiaaieth io ia?aiai eeoea, a
no?oeoo?e?othuei i?eioeeiii iino?iaiey ?iiaia auae?aao aioo?aiithth
aeeciue aa?ieie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeeinioneay aeiieiaioa, i?eo/a, ii?aeue, neiaie, ee/iia
e iauanoaaiiia nianaiea.

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